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Sample records for schottky power diodes

  1. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles Perez, Jose Vicente (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A novel MMIC on-chip power-combined frequency multiplier device and a method of fabricating the same, comprising two or more multiplying structures integrated on a single chip, wherein each of the integrated multiplying structures are electrically identical and each of the multiplying structures include one input antenna (E-probe) for receiving an input signal in the millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave or terahertz frequency range inputted on the chip, a stripline based input matching network electrically connecting the input antennas to two or more Schottky diodes in a balanced configuration, two or more Schottky diodes that are used as nonlinear semiconductor devices to generate harmonics out of the input signal and produce the multiplied output signal, stripline based output matching networks for transmitting the output signal from the Schottky diodes to an output antenna, and an output antenna (E-probe) for transmitting the output signal off the chip into the output waveguide transmission line.

  2. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode-Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Maestrini, Alain E.; Thomas, Bertrand; Jung, Cecile D.

    2013-01-01

    A 1.6-THz power-combined Schottky frequency tripler was designed to handle approximately 30 mW input power. The design of Schottky-based triplers at this frequency range is mainly constrained by the shrinkage of the waveguide dimensions with frequency and the minimum diode mesa sizes, which limits the maximum number of diodes that can be placed on the chip to no more than two. Hence, multiple-chip power-combined schemes become necessary to increase the power-handling capabilities of high-frequency multipliers. The design presented here overcomes difficulties by performing the power-combining directly on-chip. Four E-probes are located at a single input waveguide in order to equally pump four multiplying structures (featuring two diodes each). The produced output power is then recombined at the output using the same concept.

  3. Optimized design of 4H-SiC floating junction power Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbin, Pu; Lin, Cao; Zhiming, Chen; Jie, Ren

    2009-04-01

    SiC floating junction Schottky barrier diodes were simulated with software MEDICI 4.0 and their device structures were optimized based on forward and reverse electrical characteristics. Compared with the conventional power Schottky barrier diode, the device structure is featured by a highly doped drift region and embedded floating junction region, which can ensure high breakdown voltage while keeping lower specific on-state resistance, solved the contradiction between forward voltage drop and breakdown voltage. The simulation results show that with optimized structure parameter, the breakdown voltage can reach 4 kV and the specific on-resistance is 8.3 mΩ·cm2.

  4. A High Frequency (HF) Inductive Power Transfer Circuit for High Temperature Applications Using SiC Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ponchak, George E.; Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    Wireless sensors placed in high temperature environments, such as aircraft engines, are desirable to reduce the mass and complexity of routing wires. While communication with the sensors is straight forward, providing power wirelessly is still a challenge. This paper introduces an inductive wireless power transfer circuit incorporating SiC Schottky diodes and its operation from room temperature (25 C) to 500 C.

  5. Dual-Functional On-Chip AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky Diode for RF Power Detection and Low-Power Rectenna Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Hashim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A Schottky diode has been designed and fabricated on an n-AlGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT structure. Current-voltage (I-V measurements show good device rectification, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.4349 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The differences between the Schottky barrier height and the theoretical value (1.443 eV are due to the fabrication process and smaller contact area. The RF signals up to 1 GHz are rectified well by the fabricated Schottky diode and a stable DC output voltage is obtained. The increment ratio of output voltage vs input power is 0.2 V/dBm for all tested frequencies, which is considered good enough for RF power detection. Power conversion efficiency up to 50% is obtained at frequency of 1 GHz and input power of 20 dBm with series connection between diode and load, which also shows the device’s good potential as a rectenna device with further improvement. The fabricated n-AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode thus provides a conduit for breakthrough designs for RF power detectors, as well as ultra-low power on-chip rectenna device technology to be integrated in nanosystems.

  6. Dual-functional on-chip AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode for RF power detection and low-power rectenna applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Mustafa, Farahiyah; Rahman, Shaharin Fadzli Abd; Rahman, Abdul Rahim Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A Schottky diode has been designed and fabricated on an n-AlGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) structure. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements show good device rectification, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.4349 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The differences between the Schottky barrier height and the theoretical value (1.443 eV) are due to the fabrication process and smaller contact area. The RF signals up to 1 GHz are rectified well by the fabricated Schottky diode and a stable DC output voltage is obtained. The increment ratio of output voltage vs input power is 0.2 V/dBm for all tested frequencies, which is considered good enough for RF power detection. Power conversion efficiency up to 50% is obtained at frequency of 1 GHz and input power of 20 dBm with series connection between diode and load, which also shows the device's good potential as a rectenna device with further improvement. The fabricated n-AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode thus provides a conduit for breakthrough designs for RF power detectors, as well as ultra-low power on-chip rectenna device technology to be integrated in nanosystems.

  7. Estimation of power dissipation of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode with a linearly graded doping profile in the drift region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Talwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the importance of a linearly graded profile in the drift region of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD. The power dissipation of the device is found to be considerably lower at any given current density as compared to its value obtained for a uniformly doped drift region. The corresponding values of breakdown voltages obtained are similar to those obtained with uniformly doped wafers of 4H-SiC.

  8. Limitations in THz Power Generation with Schottky Diode Varactor Frequency Multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Loata, G.; Grajal, J.

    2002-01-01

    , at increasing frequencies the power drops with f-3 instead of the f-2 predicted by theory. In this contribution we provide an overview of state-of-the-art results. A comparison with theoretically achievable multiplier performance reveals that the devices employed at higher frequencies are operating...

  9. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Centre, Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital, 263001 Uttarakhand (India); Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Pestov, Dmitry [Nanomaterials Core Characterization Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); McLeskey, James T., E-mail: JamesMcLeskey@rmc.edu [Department of Physics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  10. Carbon nanotube Schottky diodes using Ti-Schottky and Pt-ohmic contacts for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish M.; Wong, Eric W.; Schlecht, Erich; Hunt, Brian D.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated Schottky diodes using semiconducting single-walled nanotubes (s-SWNTs) with titanium Schottky and platinum Ohmic contacts for high-frequency applications. The diodes are fabricated using angled evaporation of dissimilar metal contacts over an s-SWNT. The devices demonstrate rectifying behavior with large reverse bias breakdown voltages of greater than 15 V. To decrease the series resistance, multiple SWNTs are grown in parallel in a single device, and the metallic tubes are burnt-out selectively. At low biases these diodes showed ideality factors in the range of 1.5 to 1.9. Modeling of these diodes as direct detectors at room temperature at 2.5 terahertz (THz) frequency indicates noise equivalent powers (NEP) potentially comparable to that of the state-of-the-art gallium arsenide solid-state Schottky diodes, in the range of 10-13 W(square root)xHz.

  11. Monte Carlo modelling of Schottky diode for rectenna simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuchon, E.; Aniel, F.; Zerounian, N.; Grimault-Jacquin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Before designing a detector circuit, the electrical parameters extraction of the Schottky diode is a critical step. This article is based on a Monte-Carlo (MC) solver of the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) including different transport mechanisms at the metal-semiconductor contact such as image force effect or tunneling. The weight of tunneling and thermionic current is quantified according to different degrees of tunneling modelling. The I-V characteristic highlights the dependence of the ideality factor and the current saturation with bias. Harmonic Balance (HB) simulation on a rectifier circuit within Advanced Design System (ADS) software shows that considering non-linear ideality factor and saturation current for the electrical model of the Schottky diode does not seem essential. Indeed, bias independent values extracted in forward regime on I-V curve are sufficient. However, the non-linear series resistance extracted from a small signal analysis (SSA) strongly influences the conversion efficiency at low input powers.

  12. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains test results for destructive failures in DC-DC converters. We have shown that Schottky diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects. Future work will be completed to identify parameter that determines diode susceptibility.

  13. Failure Analysis of Heavy-Ion-Irradiated Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we use high- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images to identify and describe the failure locations in heavy-ion-irradiated Schottky diodes.

  14. Effects of sputtering power Schottky metal layers on rectifying performance of Mo-SiC Schottky contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seula; Lee, Jinseon; You, Sslimsearom; Kyoung, Sinsu; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Schottky barrier diodes based on silicon carbide with various levels of Schottky metal layer input power were prepared and characterized. In this structure, molybdenum and aluminum were employed as the Schottky metal and top electrode, respectively. Schottky metal layers were deposited with input power ranging from 30 to 210 W. Schottky metal layers and top electrodes were deposited with a thickness of 3000 Å. The Schottky barrier heights, series resistances, and ideality factor were calculated from current-voltage (I-V) curves obtained using the Cheung-Cheung and Norde methods. All deposition processes were conducted using a facing targets sputtering system. Turn on voltage was minimized when the input power was 90 W, at which point electrical characteristics were observed to have properties superior to those at other levels of input power.

  15. Improved performance of Schottky diodes on pendeoepitaxial gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, T.; Derenge, M.; Ewing, D.; Shah, P.; Jones, K.; Lee, U.; Robins, L.

    2008-09-01

    We designed experiments to investigate the role of dislocation density on the performance of Schottky diodes fabricated on a GaN material grown conventionally and by pendeo-epitaxy. Devices of varying geometries were fabricated on low defect density GaN regions grown selectively via pendeo-epitaxy. In addition, corresponding devices were fabricated on the conventional GaN material with a high density of dislocations. Schottky diodes fabricated on pendeo-material showed nearly two orders of magnitude lower leakage current and displayed improved ideality factor, while diodes built on a conventional material displayed nonideal characteristics.

  16. Silver-Rutile Schottky Diode Fabricated on Oxidized Titanium Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarpour, Saeedeh; Purahmad, Mohsen, E-mail: s.rahbarpour@ee.kntu.ac.ir, E-mail: m.purahmad@ee.kntu.ac.ir [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The fabrication and characterization of a gas sensing Ag-TiO2 Schottky diode are reported. The fabricated Ag-TiO2-Ti structure, formed by sintering silver nanoparticles on the thermally oxidized titanium foil, demonstrated I-V characteristics of a typical Schottky diode at elevated temperatures up to 500 deg. C. The I-V characteristics of these devices strongly depended on the concentration level of the reducing gas contaminants in the surrounding atmosphere. The samples performed like high-barrier Schottky diodes in clean air, while behaved as ohmic contacts in highly reducing atmospheres. Different concentration levels of the examined alcohol vapours could increase the reverse current of the diodes up to 5 orders of magnitude. The measured electronic features of the device were described via an energy band diagram model.

  17. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  18. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States); Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco{sup ®} Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

  19. Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide for Trench Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samihah Khairir, Nur; Rofei Mat Hussin, Mohd; Nasir, Iskhandar Md; Mukhter Uz-Zaman, A. S. M.; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Sabirin Zoolfakar, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the study of reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) for trench Schottky diode by replacing conventional metal layer that forms schottky contact with a nanostructured carbon thin film via Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) technique. The RGO was synthesis by chemical exfoliation in which modified Hummer's method was approached. It was then deposited on the trench schottky pattern substrate by pressurized spray coating. The sample was then characterized by FESEM, Raman Spectroscopy and I-V test. The results of FESEM and Raman showed good characteristics and well deposited nanostructures of RGO flakes. The two-point I-V test showed that the samples have a low turn-on voltage and a higher break-down voltage, which is better than the conventional schottky diode used in the market.

  20. Ultra-low turn-on voltage and on-resistance vertical GaN-on-GaN Schottky power diodes with high mobility double drift layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Houqiang; Huang, Xuanqi; Chen, Hong; Lu, Zhijian; Baranowski, Izak; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    This letter reports the implementation of double-drift-layer (DDL) design into GaN vertical Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) grown on free-standing GaN substrates. This design balances the trade-off between desirable forward turn-on characteristics and high reverse breakdown capability, providing optimal overall device performances for power switching applications. With a well-controlled metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process, the doping concentration of the top drift layer was reduced, which served to suppress the peak electric field at the metal/GaN interface and increase the breakdown voltages of the SBDs. The bottom drift layer was moderately doped to achieve low on-resistance to reduce power losses. At forward bias, the devices exhibited a record low turn-on voltage of 0.59 V, an ultra-low on-resistance of 1.65 mΩ cm2, a near unity ideality factor of 1.04, a high on/off ratio of ˜1010, and a high electron mobility of 1045.2 cm2/(V s). Detailed comparisons with conventional single-drift-layer (SDL) GaN vertical SBDs indicated that DDL design did not degrade the forward characteristics of the SBDs. At reverse bias, breakdown voltages of the DDL GaN SBDs were considerably enhanced compared to those of the conventional SDL devices. These results showed that GaN vertical SBDs with DDL designs are promising candidates for high efficiency, high voltage, high frequency power switching applications.

  1. An Ultra-Wideband Schottky Diode Based Envelope Detector for 2.5 Gbps signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva; Granja, Angel Blanco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband (UWB) Schottky diode based envelope detector is reported. The detector consists of an input matching network, a Schottky diode and wideband output filtering network. The output network is tailored to demodulate ultra-wideband amplitude shift keying (ASK) signals up...... to 2.5 Gbps at 6-9 GHz carrier frequency. The detector uses microstrip and surface-mount device (SMD) components and it is fabricated on a Rogers 6002 substrate. Experimental results show error free transmissions up to 2.5 Gbps at an input power level of -11 dBm. The highest measured conversion gain...

  2. A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Xing; Xu, Guang-Hui; Huang, Ka-Ma

    2015-07-01

    Parameter extraction is an important step for circuit simulation methods that are based on physical models of semiconductor devices. A novel physical parameter extraction approach for Schottky diodes is proposed in this paper. By employing a set of analytical formulas, this approach extracts all of the necessary physical parameters of the diode chip in a unique way. It then extracts the package parasitic parameters with a curve-fitting method. To validate the proposed approach, a model HSMS-282c commercial Schottky diode is taken as an example. Its physical parameters are extracted and used to simulate the diode’s electrical characteristics. The simulated results based on the extracted parameters are compared with the measurements and a good agreement is obtained, which verifies the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach. Project supported by the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1230112).

  3. Physical based Schottky barrier diode modeling for THz applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Krozer, Viktor; Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph

    2013-01-01

    temperature. The effects of barrier height lowering, nonlinear resistance from the EPI layer, and hot electron noise are all included for accurate characterization of the Schottky diode. To verify the diode model, measured I-V and C-V characteristics are compared with the simulation results. Due to the lack......In this work, a physical Schottky barrier diode model is presented. The model is based on physical parameters such as anode area, Ohmic contact area, doping profile from epitaxial (EPI) and substrate (SUB) layers, layer thicknesses, barrier height, specific contact resistance, and device...... of measurement data for noise behaviors, simulated noise temperature is compared with the experimental data found from the open literature....

  4. Fabrication of polymer Schottky diode with Al-PANI/MWCNT-Au structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajibadali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Schottky diode with Al-PANI/MWCNT-Au structure was fabricated using spin coating of composite polymer and physical vapor deposition of metals. For this purpose, a thin layer of gold was coated on glass and then composite of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube was synthesized and spin-coated on gold layer. Finally, a thin layer of aluminum was coated on polymer layer. The current-voltage characteristics of diode were studied and found that I-V curve is nonlinear and nonsymmetrical, showing rectifying behavior. I-V characteristics plotted on a logarithmic scale for Schottky diode showed two distinct power law regions. At lower voltages, the mechanism follows Ohm’s Law and at higher voltages, the mechanism is consistent with space charge limited conduction (SCLC emission. The parameters extracted from I-V characteristics were also calculated.

  5. First results from the LHC Schottky Monitor operated with Direct Diode Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a Schottky diagnostic system based on 4.8 GHz resonant pick-ups. Their signals are processed according to a three-stage down-mixing scheme, working well in most beam conditions. An important exception is the period of energy ramp of proton beams, when the noise floor of the observed beam spectrum increases dramatically and the Schottky sidebands disappear. To study beam spectra in such conditions the signals from the Schottky pick-ups were split and the second half of their power was processed with a copy of the LHC tune measurement electronics, modified for this application. The experimental set-up is based on simple diode detectors followed by signal processing in the kHz range and 24-bit audio ADCs. With such a test system LHC beam spectra were successfully observed. This contribution presents the used hardware and obtained results.

  6. Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Nano-Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruffino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A bottom-up methodology to fabricate a nanostructured material by Au nanoclusters on 6H-SiC surface is illustrated. Furthermore, a methodology to control its structural properties by thermal-induced self-organization of the Au nanoclusters is demonstrated. To this aim, the self-organization kinetic mechanisms of Au nanoclusters on SiC surface were experimentally studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and theoretically modelled by a ripening process. The fabricated nanostructured materials were used to probe, by local conductive atomic force microscopy analyses, the electrical properties of nano-Schottky contact Au nanocluster/SiC. Strong efforts were dedicated to correlate the structural and electrical characteristics: the main observation was the Schottky barrier height dependence of the nano-Schottky contact on the cluster size. Such behavior was interpreted considering the physics of few electron quantum dots merged with the concepts of ballistic transport and thermoionic emission finding a satisfying agreement between the theoretical prediction and the experimental data. The fabricated Au nanocluster/SiC nanocontact is suggested as a prototype of nano-Schottky diode integrable in complex nanoelectronic circuits.

  7. Towards substrate engineering of graphene-silicon Schottky diode photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Hakan; Unsuree, Nawapong; Whittaker, Eric; Halsall, Matthew P; Hill, Ernie W; Thomas, Andrew; Parkinson, Patrick; Echtermeyer, Tim J

    2018-02-01

    Graphene-silicon Schottky diode photodetectors possess beneficial properties such as high responsivities and detectivities, broad spectral wavelength operation and high operating speeds. Various routes and architectures have been employed in the past to fabricate devices. Devices are commonly based on the removal of the silicon-oxide layer on the surface of silicon by wet-etching before deposition of graphene on top of silicon to form the graphene-silicon Schottky junction. In this work, we systematically investigate the influence of the interfacial oxide layer, the fabrication technique employed and the silicon substrate on the light detection capabilities of graphene-silicon Schottky diode photodetectors. The properties of devices are investigated over a broad wavelength range from near-UV to short-/mid-infrared radiation, radiation intensities covering over five orders of magnitude as well as the suitability of devices for high speed operation. Results show that the interfacial layer, depending on the required application, is in fact beneficial to enhance the photodetection properties of such devices. Further, we demonstrate the influence of the silicon substrate on the spectral response and operating speed. Fabricated devices operate over a broad spectral wavelength range from the near-UV to the short-/mid-infrared (thermal) wavelength regime, exhibit high photovoltage responses approaching 106 V W-1 and short rise- and fall-times of tens of nanoseconds.

  8. Diodes Schottky diamant fonctionnant à 200°C

    OpenAIRE

    Monflier, Richard; Isoird, Karine; Cazarre, Alain; Tasselli, Josiane; Servel, Alexandra; ACHARD, Jocelyn; Eon, David; Valdivia Birnbaum, Maria José

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Les caractéristiques courant-tension jusqu'à 200 °C de diodes Schottky diamant verticales et pseudo-verticales réalisées dans le cadre du projet DIAMONIX2 sont présentées dans cet article. Sur les différents échantillons testés le taux de fonctionnalité est supérieur à 75 % et atteint même 100 % pour l'un d'entre eux. Pour les diodes verticales la densité de courant atteint 488 A/cm2 à 200 °C et pour les diodes pseudo-verticales une densité de courant supérieure à 1000...

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of n-AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky Diode for Rectenna Device Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimon, Norfarariyanti; Mustafa, Farahiyah; Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Rahman, Shaharin Fadzli Abd; Rahman, Abdul Rahim Abdul [Material Innovations and Nanoelectronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Osman, Mohd Nizam, E-mail: manaf@fke.utm.my [Telekom Research and Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Schottky diode was designed and fabricated on n-AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure for rectenna device application. Rectenna is one of the most potential devices to form the wireless power supply which is really good at converting microwaves to DC. The processing steps used in the fabrication of Schottky diode were the conventional steps used in standard GaAs processing. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements showed that the device had rectifying properties with a barrier height of 0.5468 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The fabricated Schottky diode detected RF signals and the cut-off frequency up to 20 GHz was estimated in direct injection experiments. These preliminary results will provide a breakthrough for the direct integration with antenna towards realization of rectenna device application.

  10. Modeling of Schottky Barrier Diode Millimeter-Wave Multipliers at Cryogenic Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom K.; Rybalko, Oleksandr; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of Schottky barrier diode GaAs multipliers at cryogenic temperatures. A GaAs Schottky barrier diode model is developed for theoretical estimation of doubler performance. The model is used to predict efficiency of doublers from room to cryogenic temperatures...

  11. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has potential applications such as cataly- sis, sensors, antireflection coating, solar cells and Schottky diodes (Kadoshima et al 2003; Pakma et al 2008, ... conductor (MIS) Schottky diodes have an important role in the integrated device technology (Pakma et al 2008, 2009,. 2011; Kınacı et al 2012; Sönmezo˘glu and Akın ...

  12. Diodes Schottky diamant fonctionnant à 200°C

    OpenAIRE

    Monflier, Richard; Isoird, Karine; Cazarré, Alain; Tasselli, Josiane; Servel, Alexandra; ACHARD, Jocelyn; Eon, David

    2015-01-01

    Les caractéristiques courant-tension jusqu'à 200°C de diodes Schottky diamant verticales et pseudo-verticales réalisées dans le cadre du projet DIAMONIX2 sont présentées dans cet article. Sur les différents échantillons testés le taux de fonctionnalité est supérieur à 75%. Pour les diodes verticales la densité de courant atteint 488 A/cm 2 à 200°C, et un courant de fuite < 10-7 A/cm 2 à 50 V. Toutefois, la hauteur de barrière de 1,96 eV et le coefficient d'idéalité de 1,77 sont certainement c...

  13. Admittance of a-Si:H/c-Si Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, S.; Hirschauer, R.; Braeunig, D. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Dept. AT; Kolter, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Heterojunction devices, based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and single crystalline silicon (c-Si), are likely candidates for high efficiency solar cells. The authors have measured the admittance (conductance and capacitance) of a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure Schottky diodes as a function of frequency, temperature and voltage in the dark and under spectral illumination (in the wavelength range between {lambda} = 500nm and {lambda} = 1,200nm). Thus, it is possible to observe the activation/deactivation of trapping-detrapping effects within the a-Si:H layer (near the a-SiH/c-Si interface). They have determined the conduction band offset of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure. The spectral behavior of the admittance is dominated by the absorption of light in the c-Si and the valence band offset of the heterojunction. The authors have also developed an equivalent circuit of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure Schottky diode in the dark, which is capable of describing the measured behavior.

  14. Graphene-Based Reversible Nano-Switch/Sensor Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Michael A.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Mueller, Carl H.; Santos-Perez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This proof-of-concept device consists of a thin film of graphene deposited on an electrodized doped silicon wafer. The graphene film acts as a conductive path between a gold electrode deposited on top of a silicon dioxide layer and the reversible side of the silicon wafer, so as to form a Schottky diode. By virtue of the two-dimensional nature of graphene, this device has extreme sensitivity to different gaseous species, thereby serving as a building block for a volatile species sensor, with the attribute of having reversibility properties. That is, the sensor cycles between active and passive sensing states in response to the presence or absence of the gaseous species.

  15. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The – curves in the reverse direction are taken and interpreted via both Schottky and Poole–Frenkel effects. Schottky effect was found to be dominant in the reverse direction. In addition, the capacitance–voltage (–) and conductance–voltage (/–) characteristics of diode were investigated at different frequencies ...

  16. Deep-level transient spectroscopy on an amorphous InGaZnO4 Schottky diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chasin, A.; Simoen, E.; Bhoolokam, A.; Nag, M.; Genoe, J.; Gielen, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The first direct measurement is reported of the bulk density of deep states in amorphous IGZO (indium-gallium-zinc oxide) semiconductor by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The device under test is a Schottky diode of amorphous IGZO semiconductor on a palladium (Pd) Schottky-barrier

  17. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  18. Improved designs of Si-based quantum wells and Schottky diodes for IR detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeen, M., E-mail: moeen@kth.se [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 16640, Kista (Sweden); Kolahdouz, M. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salemi, A.; Abedin, A.; Östling, M. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 16640, Kista (Sweden); Radamson, H.H., E-mail: rad@kth.se [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 16640, Kista (Sweden)

    2016-08-31

    Novel structures of intrinsic or carbon-doped multi quantum wells (MQWs) and intrinsic or carbon-doped Si Schottky diodes (SD), individually or in combination, have been manufactured to detect the infrared (IR) radiation. The carbon concentration in the structures was 5 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and the MQWs are located in the active part of the IR detector. A Schottky diode was designed and formed as one of the contacts (based on NiSi(C)/TiW) to MQWs where on the other side the structure had an Ohmic contact. The thermal response of the detectors is expressed in terms of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the quality of the electrical signal is quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The noise measurements provide the K{sub 1/f} parameter which is obtained from the power spectrum density. An excellent value of TCR = − 6%/K and K{sub 1/f} = 4.7 × 10{sup −14} was measured for the detectors which consist of the MQWs in series with the SD. These outstanding electrical results indicate a good opportunity to manufacture low cost Si-based IR detectors in the near future. - Highlights: • SiGe (C)/Si(C) multi quantum wells (MQWs) are evaluated to detect IR radiation. • Schottky diodes (SDs), individually or in series with MQWs are also fabricated. • Detectors consisted of MQWs in series with SD show excellent thermal sensing. • The noise values are also extremely low for MQWs in series with SD.

  19. Effect of mechanical stress on current-voltage characteristics of thin film polycrystalline diamond Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G.; Charlson, E.M.; Charlson, E.J.; Stacy, T.; Meese, J.M. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)); Popovici, G.; Prelas, M. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States))

    1993-02-15

    Schottky diodes utilized for mechanical stress effect studies were fabricated using aluminum contacts to polycrystalline diamond thin films grown by a hot-filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased current-voltage characteristics of the diode, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. This stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects that dominated the diode current-voltage characteristics in the small and large bias regions, respectively. At a large constant forward bias current, a good linear relationship between output voltage and applied force was observed for force of less than 10 N, as predicted by the piezoresistance effect. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. Compared to either silicon or germanium junction diodes and tunnel diodes, polycrystalline diamond Schottky diodes not only are very stress sensitive but also have good linearity. This study shows polycrystalline diamond Schottky diodes have potential as mechanical sensors.

  20. Transport mechanisms and interface properties of W/ p-InP Schottky diode at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Silpa, D.; Sreehith, P.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.; Janardhanam, V.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the electrical properties and current transport mechanisms of W/ p-InP Schottky diode using current-voltage ( I- V), capacitance-voltage-frequency ( C- V- f) and conductance-frequency ( G- f) techniques at room temperature. The W/ p-InP Schottky diode exhibits a good rectifying behavior. Measurements show that the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor of the W/ p-InP Schottky diode are 0.84 eV ( I- V)/0.98 eV ( C- V) and 1.24, respectively. Also, the SBH and series resistance R s of the diode are extracted by Cheung's functions and the values are in good agreement with each other. Ohmic and space charge-limited conduction mechanisms are found to govern the current flow in the W/ p-InP Schottky diode at low and high forward bias conditions, respectively. Experimental results reveal that the Poole-Frenkel mechanism is found to be dominant in the reverse bias region of W/ p-InP Schottky diode. Further, the interface state density N ss and their relaxation times τ of the W/ p-InP Schottky diode are estimated from the forward bias C- f and G- f characteristics and the values are in the range from 1.95 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 and 3.38 × 10-5 s at (0.81- E V ) eV to 1.78 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 and 2.78 × 10-6 s at (0.30- E V ) eV, respectively. Both the N ss and τ show an exponential rise with bias from the top of the valance band toward the mid gap.

  1. Metal contacts in nanocrystalline n-type GaN: Schottky diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S N; Sarangi, S; Sahu, S N; Pal, A K

    2009-04-01

    Contact properties in nanocrystalline n-GaN in thin film form were studied by depositing nanocrystalline films onto aluminium coated fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering of Si (1 at%) doped GaN target. Schottky diodes were realized with Au, Ni and Pd as top contacts on the nanocrystalline n-GaN films to examine the contact properties of the diodes thus formed. Variation of current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the Schottky diodes were recorded at different temperatures and analyzed in the light of the existing theories.

  2. Revised diode equation for Ideal Graphene-Semiconductor Schottky Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shi-Jun; Ang, Lay Kee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we carry out a theoretical and experimental study of the nature of graphene/semiconductor Schottky contact. We present a simple and parameter-free carrier transport model of graphene/semiconductor Schottky contact derived from quantum statistical theory, which is validated by the quantum Landauer theory and first-principle calculations. The proposed model can well explain experimental results for samples of different types of graphene/semiconductor Schottky contact.

  3. The Effect of Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbon Geometry on Schottky-Barrier Diode Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer graphene nanoribbon is a promising material with outstanding physical and electrical properties that offers a wide range of opportunities for advanced applications in future nanoelectronics. In this study, the application of bilayer graphene nanoribbon in schottky-barrier diode is explored due to its different stacking arrangements. In other words, bilayer graphene nanoribbon schottky-barrier diode is proposed as a result of contact between a semiconductor (AB stacking and metal (AA stacking layers. To this end, an analytical model joint with numerical solution of carrier concentration for bilayer graphene nanoribbon in the degenerate and nondegenerate regimes is presented. Moreover, to determine the proposed diode performance, the carrier concentration model is adopted to derive the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The simulated results indicate a strong bilayer graphene nanoribbon geometry and temperature dependence of current-voltage characteristic showing that the forward current of the diode rises by increasing of width. In addition, the lower value of turn-on voltage appears as the more temperature increases. Finally, comparative study indicates that the proposed diode has a better performance compared to the silicon schottky diode, graphene nanoribbon homo-junction contact, and graphene-silicon schottky diode in terms of electrical parameters such as turn-on voltage and forward current.

  4. Barrier height enhancement of Ni/GaN Schottky diode using Ru based passivation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashish, E-mail: dr.akmr@gmail.com; Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Kaur, Riajeet [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Joshi, Amish G. [CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Vinayak, Seema [Solid State Physical Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2014-03-31

    Wet chemical passivation of n-GaN surface using Ru based solution has been reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the GaN surface revealed removal of surface oxides by the introduction of Ru complex species. Ni/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on passivated GaN and a remarkable improvement in Schottky barrier height from 0.76 eV to 0.92 eV was observed.

  5. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Manjari, E-mail: meghagarg142@gmail.com; Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Nagarajan, S.; Sopanen, M. [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2016-01-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu) Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN) epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT), which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE) mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE) mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH) that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu{sub 2}O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  6. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current-voltage (I-V measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT, which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu2O layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu2O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu2O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  7. An X-band Schottky diode mixer in SiGe technology with tunable Marchand balun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a double balanced mixer with a tunable Marchand balun. The circuit is designed in a SiGe BiCMOS process using Schottky diodes. The tunability of the Marchand balun is used to enhance critical parameters for double balanced mixers. The local oscillator-IF isolation can...... be changed from –51 to –60.5 dB by tuning. Similarly, the IIP2 can be improved from 41.3 to 48.7 dBm at 11 GHz, while the input referred 1-dB compression point is kept constant at 8 dBm. The tuning have no influence on conversion loss, which remains at 8.8 dB at a LO power level of 11 dBm at the center...

  8. An improved forward I-V method for nonideal Schottky diodes with high series resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, C.-D.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M. -A.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods are described to obtain the value of the series resistance(R)of a Schottky diode from its forward I-V characteristic. The value of R is then used to plot the curve ln(I) versus V_D (= V - IR)which becomes a straight line even if ln(I) versus V does not. The ideality factor n and the Schottky-barrier height Φ_(B0) of the diode then follow from the standard procedure. The main advantages of the methods are: 1) a linear regression can be used to calculate the value of R, 2) many dat...

  9. Experimental and computational investigation of graphene/SAMs/n-Si Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Yagmurcukardes, N.; Karakaya, C.; Mermer, O.; Can, M.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.; Selamet, Y.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of two different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on electrical characteristics of bilayer graphene (BLG)/n-Si Schottky diodes. Novel 4″bis(diphenylamino)-1, 1‧:3″-terphenyl-5‧ carboxylic acids (TPA) and 4,4-di-9H-carbazol-9-yl-1,1‧:3‧1‧-terphenyl-5‧ carboxylic acid (CAR) aromatic SAMs have been used to modify n-Si surfaces. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) results have been evaluated to verify the modification of n-Si surface. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of bare and SAMs modified devices show rectification behaviour verifying a Schottky junction at the interface. The ideality factors (n) from ln(I)-V dependences were determined as 2.13, 1.96 and 2.07 for BLG/n-Si, BLG/TPA/n-Si and BLG/CAR/n-Si Schottky diodes, respectively. In addition, Schottky barrier height (SBH) and series resistance (Rs) of SAMs modified diodes were decreased compared to bare diode due to the formation of a compatible interface between graphene and Si as well as π-π interaction between aromatic SAMs and graphene. The CAR-based device exhibits better diode characteristic compared to the TPA-based device. Computational simulations show that the BLG/CAR system exhibits smaller energy-level-differences than the BLG/TPA, which supports the experimental findings of a lower Schottky barrier and series resistance in BLG/CAR diode.

  10. Free-standing gallium nitride Schottky diode characteristics and stability in a high-temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Donagh; Zimmerman, Walter; Steffen, Sinje; Hilgarth, Just; Maaskant, Pleun; Ginige, Ravin; Lewis, Liam; Lambert, Benoit; Corbett, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Schottky diodes have been fabricated using low-resistivity n-type free-standing GaN substrates with a reduced defect density lowly doped n-type epi-layer and an Ni/Ti/Pt/Au Schottky contact metalization. A thermionic field emission current transport mechanism was identified with a Schottky barrier height of about 0.75 eV and a diode ideality of 1.1 measured at 25 °C, both of which increase with measurement temperature up to 200 °C. The diodes were subjected to long-term testing under forward current (1.3 A cm-2) or reverse voltage (-3.5 V) biased storage at 300 °C in N2 for 466 h and were also monitored under non-biased storage conditions for up to 1000 h at 350 °C and 400 °C in N2 or at 300 °C for 1500 h in air. Except for the non-biased storage test at 400 °C, the diodes show <10% drift in ideality and barrier height during the long-term storage tests. For the 400 °C test, there is a significant increase in both barrier height and ideality over a relatively short storage period (48 h). This to be the first reported study on the long-term stability of Schottky diodes on free-standing GaN and while no catastrophic (e.g. thermal runaway) degradation of any of the diodes was observed, it is proposed that optimized thermal annealing of the Ni-based Schottky contact metalization in the temperature range 350-400 °C is necessary for stable long-term operation at high temperature.

  11. Extraction of the Schottky parameters in metal-semiconductor-metal diodes from a single current-voltage measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a method to extract the parameters of the two inherent Schottky contacts from a single current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve, the I-V characteristics of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diodes with asymmetric Schottky barrier heights are theoretically investigated using the thermionic emission model. The MSM diode structure is commonly used because an additional MS interface is required for the electrical characterization of MS diodes. A finite charge-injection barrier...

  12. A low-cost fabrication method for sub-millimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is designed and simulated. Effect of Schottky layer thickness on cut-off frequency is studied. A novel microfabrication process is proposed and implemented. The presented microfabrication process avoids electron-beam (e-beam) lithography which reduces the cost. Also, this process provides more flexibility in selection of design parameters and allows significant reduction in the device parasitic capacitance. A key feature of the process is that the Schottky contact, the air-bridges, and the transmission lines, are fabricated in a single lift-off step. This process relies on a planarization method that is suitable for trenches of 1-10 μm deep and is tolerant to end-point variations. The fabricated diode is measured and results are compared with simulations. A very good agreement between simulation and measurement results are observed.

  13. Simulation of electrical characteristics of GaN vertical Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiak, Lidia; Jasiński, Jakub; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Reverse current of GaN vertical Schottky diodes is simulated using Silvaco ATLAS to optimize the geometry for the best performance. Several physical quantities and phenomena, such as carrier mobility and tunneling mechanism are studied to select the most realistic models. Breakdown voltage is qualitatively estimated based on the maximum electric field in the structure.

  14. Silicon Schottky photovoltaic diodes for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Various factors in Schottky barrier solar cell fabrication are evaluated in order to improve understanding of the current flow mechanism and to isolate processing variables that improve efficiency. Results of finger design, substrate resistivity, surface finishing and activation energy studies are detailed. An increased fill factor was obtained by baking of the vacuum system to remove moisture.

  15. An improved forward I-V method for nonideal Schottky diodes with high series resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, C.-D.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods are described to obtain the value of the series resistance (R) of a Schottky diode from its forward I-V characteristic. The value of R is then used to plot the curve ln(I) versus V sub D (= V - IR) which becomes a straight line even if ln(I) versus V does not. The ideality factor n and the Schottky-barrier height of the diode then follow from the standard procedure. The main advantages of the methods are: (1) a linear regression can be used to calculate the value of R; (2) many data points are used over the whole data range, which raises the accuracy of the results, and (3) the validity of constant R assumption can be checked by the linearity of the ln (I) versus V sub D curve. The methods are illustrated on the experimental data of a real diode.

  16. Improvement of diode parameters in Al/n-Si Schottky diodes with Coronene interlayer using variation of the illumination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakma, Osman; Çavdar, Şükrü; Koralay, Haluk; Tuğluoğlu, Nihat; Faruk Yüksel, Ömer

    2017-12-01

    In present work, Coronene thin films on Si wafer have been deposited by the spin coating method. It has been ultimately produced Al/Coronene/n-Si/In Schottky diode. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been used to determine the effect of illumination intensity in the Schottky diodes. The barrier height (ΦB) values increased as ideality factor (n) values decreased with a increase in illumination intensity. The ΦB values have been found to be 0.697 and 0.755 eV at dark and 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The n values have been found to be 2.81 and 2.07 at dark and 100 mW/cm2, respectively. Additionally, the series resistance (Rs) values from modified Norde method and interface state density (Nss) values using current-voltage measurements have been determined. The values of Rs have been found to be 1924 and 5094 Ω at dark and 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The values of Nss have been found to be 4.76 × 1012 and 3.15 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2 at dark and 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The diode parameters are improved by applying the variation of illumination intensity to the formed Schottky diodes.

  17. Thin-film GaN Schottky diodes formed by epitaxial lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingshan; Youtsey, Chris; McCarthy, Robert; Reddy, Rekha; Allen, Noah; Guido, Louis; Xie, Jinqiao; Beam, Edward; Fay, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The performance of thin-film GaN Schottky diodes fabricated using a large-area epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process is reported in this work. Comparison of the device characteristics before and after lift-off processing reveals that the Schottky barrier height remains unchanged by the liftoff processing and is consistent with expectations based on metal-semiconductor work function differences, with a barrier height of approximately 1 eV obtained for Ni/Au contacts on n- GaN. However, the leakage current in both reverse and low-forward-bias regimes is found to improve significantly after ELO processing. Likewise, the ideality factor of the Schottky diodes also improves after ELO processing, decreasing from n = 1.12-1.18 before ELO to n = 1.04-1.10 after ELO. A possible explanation for the performance improvement obtained for Schottky diodes after substrate removal by ELO processing is the elimination of leakage paths consisting of vertical leakage along threading dislocations coupled with lateral conduction through the underlying n+ buffer layer that is removed in the ELO process. Epitaxial liftoff with GaN may enable significant improvement in device performance and economics for GaN-based electronics and optoelectronics.

  18. Manufacturing technology program for high burnout silicon Schottky-barrier mixer diodes for Navy air-to-air avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Y.; Ellis, S.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes the establishment of low cost semiconductor processes to manufacture low-barrier-height high-burnout X-band silicon Schottky barrier diodes in production quantities. These devices are thermal-compression-bonded in a rugged low-cost pill (ODS-119) package. They exhibit an overall low noise figure of 7.0 dB (single side band) at 0.5 mW of local oscillator power level and RF burnout of 12 watts (tau = 1 microsec and 1000 Hz rep. rate). Reliability and ruggedness of the design has been demonstrated by tests taken from MIL.S 19500 F.

  19. Schottky diode based on WS2 crossed with PEDOT/PSSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Deliris; Pinto, Nicholas; Naylor, Carl; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    An easy technique to fabricate a Schottky diode with WS2 and PEDOT-PSSA under ambient conditions is presented. WS2 is an air stable transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor. When connected as a field effect transistor, WS2 exhibited n-type behavior with a charge mobility of ~7cm2/V-s on SiO2. PEDOT/PSSA is a conducting polymer that can be electro-spun to form fibers with a conductivity of ~1 S/cm. In this work we fabricated a Schottky diode by crossing a CVD grown monolayer WS2 crystal with a single electro-spun PEDOT/PSSA fiber. The resulting diode characteristics were analyzed assuming the standard thermionic emission model of a Schottky junction. Analysis of the results includes the ideality parameter of 4.75, diode rectification ratio ~10, and a turn on voltage of 1.4V. Efforts to investigate if these parameters are tunable with a back gate will also be presented. This work was supported by NSF-DMR-1523463 and NSF DMR RUI-1360772. ATJ acknowledges support from EFRI 2DARE EFMA-1542879.

  20. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detectors integrated with broadband antenna (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Eui Su; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Il-Min; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) waves have been actively studied for the applications of astronomy, communications, analytical science and bio-technologies due to their low energy and high frequency. For example, THz systems can carry more information with faster rates than GHz systems. Besides, THz waves can be applied to imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. Furthermore, THz waves can be used for non-destructive and non-harmful tomography of living objects. In this reasons, Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) have been widely used as a THz detector for their ultrafast carrier transport, high responsivity, high sensitivity, and excellent noise equivalent power. Furthermore, SBD detectors envisage developing THz applications at low cost, excellent capability, and high yield. Since the major concerns in the THz detectors for THz imaging systems are the realizations of the real-time image acquisitions via a reduced acquisition time, rather than the conventional raster scans that obtains an image by pixel-by-pixel acquisitions, a line-scan based systems utilizes an array detector with an 1 × n SBD array is preferable. In this study, we fabricated the InGaAs based SBD array detectors with broadband antennas of log-spiral and square-spiral patterns. To optimize leakage current and ideality factor, the dependence to the doping levels of ohmic and Schottky layers have been investigated. In addition, the dependence to the capacitance and resistance to anode size are also examined as well. As a consequence, the real-time THz imaging with our InGaAs SBD array detector have been successfully obtained.

  1. Low-frequency noise properties in Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Linqing; Ma, Xiaochen; Wilson, Joshua; Jin, Jidong; Du, Lulu; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2015-08-01

    The low-frequency noise properties of Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes at different forward biases are investigated. The IGZO layer and Pt contact were deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. The diode showed an ideality factor of 1.2 and a barrier height of 0.94 eV. The current noise spectral density exhibited 1/f behavior at low frequencies. The analysis of the current dependency of the noise spectral density revealed that for the as-deposited diode, the noise followed Luo's mobility and diffusivity fluctuation model in the thermionic-emission-limited region and Hooge's empirical theory in the series-resistance-limited region. A low Hooge's constant of 1.4 × 10-9 was found in the space-charge region. In the series-resistance-limited region, the Hooge's constant was 2.2 × 10-5. After annealing, the diode showed degradation in the electrical performance. The interface-trap-induced noise dominated the noise spectrum. By using the random walk model, the interface-trap density was obtained to be 3.6 × 1015 eV-1 cm-2. This work provides a quantitative approach to analyze the properties of Pt-IGZO interfacial layers. These low noise properties are a prerequisite to the use of IGZO Schottky diodes in switch elements in memory devices, photosensors, and mixer diodes.

  2. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Namje; Yoon, Young-Jong; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2013-11-04

    We present a terahertz (THz) broadband antenna-integrated 1 × 20 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with an average responsivity of 98.5 V/W at a frequency of 250 GHz, which is measured without attaching external amplifiers and Si lenses, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of 106.6 pW/√Hz. The 3-dB bandwidth of the SBD detector is also investigated at approximately 180 GHz. For implementing an array-type SBD detector by a simple fabrication process to achieve a high yield, a structure comprising an SiN(x) layer instead of an air bridge between the anode and the cathode is designed. THz line beam imaging using a Gunn diode emitter with a center frequency of 250 GHz and a 1 × 20 SBD array detector is successfully demonstrated.

  3. Charged particle detection properties of epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, F.; Vanni, P. [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Verzellesi, G. [Modena Univ. (Italy). DSI; Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Nipoti, R.; Donolato, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Ist. LAMEL

    2001-07-01

    This work presents measurements of the charge-collection properties of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes under alpha radiation and investigates the influence of native and alpha induced defects on the detector performance. The contribution of the diffusion of minority carriers to the charge collection efficiency is pointed out. Values of 500 ns and 95 {mu}s are inferred for the hole and electron lifetime, respectively. (orig.)

  4. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; hide

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  5. 670 GHz Schottky Diode Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70 GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Sin, Seth (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) based subharmonic mixer working at 670 GHz using GaAs Schottky diodes. One example of the mixer has a LO input, an RF input and an IF output. Another possible mixer has a LO input, and IF input and an RF output. Each input or output is connected to a coplanar waveguide with a matching network. A pair of antiparallel diodes provides a signal at twice the LO frequency, which is then mixed with a second signal to provide signals having sum and difference frequencies. The output signal of interest is received after passing through a bandpass filter tuned to the frequency range of interest.

  6. Inductively coupled plasma etch damage in (-201) Ga2O3 Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Ahn, Shihyun; Ren, F.; Khanna, Rohit; Bevlin, Kristen; Geerpuram, Dwarakanath; Pearton, S. J.; Kuramata, A.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk, single-crystal Ga2O3 was etched in BCl3/Ar inductively coupled plasmas as a function of ion impact energy. For pure Ar, the etch rate (R) was found to increase with ion energy (E) as predicted from a model of ion enhanced sputtering by a collision-cascade process, R ∝(E0.5 - ETH0.5), where the threshold energy for Ga2O3, ETH, was experimentally determined to be ˜75 eV. When BCl3 was added, the complexity of the ion energy distribution precluded, obtaining an equivalent threshold. Electrically active damage introduced during etching was quantified using Schottky barrier height and diode ideality factor measurements obtained by evaporating Ni/Au rectifying contacts through stencil masks onto the etched surfaces. For low etch rate conditions (˜120 Å min-1) at low powers (150 W of the 2 MHz ICP source power and 15 W rf of 13.56 MHz chuck power), there was only a small decrease in reverse breakdown voltage (˜6%), while the barrier height decreased from 1.2 eV to 1.01 eV and the ideality factor increased from 1.00 to 1.06. Under higher etch rate (˜700 Å min-1) and power (400 W ICP and 200 W rf) conditions, the damage was more significant, with the reverse breakdown voltage decreasing by ˜35%, the barrier height was reduced to 0.86 eV, and the ideality factor increased to 1.2. This shows that there is a trade-off between the etch rate and near-surface damage.

  7. Temperature dependent electrical characterization of organic Schottky diode based on thick MgPc films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Sharma, R. K.; Sule, U. S.; Goutam, U. K.; Gupta, Jagannath; Gadkari, S. C.

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) based Schottky diode on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was fabricated by thermal evaporation method. The dark current voltage characteristics of the prepared ITO-MgPc-Al heterojunction Schottky diode were measured at different temperatures. The diode showed the non-ideal rectification behavior under forward and reverse bias conditions with a rectification ratio (RR) of 56 at  ±1 V at room temperature. Under forward bias, thermionic emission and space charge limited conduction (SCLC) were found to be the dominant conduction mechanisms at low (below 0.6 V) and high voltages (above 0.6 V) respectively. Under reverse bias conditions, Poole-Frenkel (field assisted thermal detrapping of carriers) was the dominant conduction mechanism. Three different approaches namely, I-V plots, Norde and Cheung methods were used to determine the diode parameters including ideality factor (n), barrier height (Φb), series resistance (R s) and were compared. SCLC mechanism showed that the trap concentration is 5.52  ×  1022 m-3 and it lies at 0.46 eV above the valence band edge.

  8. Schottky barrier diode based on β-Ga2O3 (100) single crystal substrate and its temperature-dependent electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiming; Mu, Wenxiang; Dong, Hang; Long, Shibing; Jia, Zhitai; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Tang, Minghua; Tao, Xutang; Liu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diode and its temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics were investigated for power device application. The edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique was utilized to grow the (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3 single crystal substrate that shows good crystal quality characterized by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ohmic and Schottky electrodes were fabricated by depositing Ti and Pt metals on the two surfaces, respectively. Through the current-voltage (I-V) measurement under different temperature and the thermionic emission modeling, the fabricated Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky diode was found to show good performances at room temperature, including rectification ratio of 1010, ideality factor (n) of 1.1, Schottky barrier height (ΦB) of 1.39 eV, threshold voltage (Vbi) of 1.07 V, ON-resistance (RON) of 12.5 mΩ.cm2, forward current density at 2 V (J@2V) of 56 A/cm2, and saturation current density (J0) of 2 × 10-16 A/cm2. The effective donor concentration Nd - Na was calculated to be about 2.3 × 1014 cm3. Good temperature dependent performance was also found in the device. The Schottky barrier height was estimated to be about 1.3 eV-1.39 eV at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. With increasing temperature, parameters such as RON and J@2V become better, proving that the diode can work well at high temperature. The EFG grown β-Ga2O3 single crystal is a promising material to be used in the power devices.

  9. The electrical characterization and response to hydrogen of Schottky diodes with a resistive metal electrode-rectifying an oversight in Schottky diode investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, P; Feng, L; Penate-Quesada, L [Centre for Nanostructured Media, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hill, G [EPSRC National Centre for III-V Technologies, Mappin Street, University ofSheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Mitra, J, E-mail: P.dawson@qub.ac.uk

    2011-03-30

    Schottky-barrier structures with a resistive metal electrode are examined using the 4-point probe method where the probes are connected to the metal electrode only. The observation of a significant decrease in resistance with increasing temperature (over a range of {approx}100 K) in the diode resistance-temperature (R{sub D}-T) characteristic is considered due to charge carrier confinement to the metal electrode at low temperature (high resistance), with the semiconductor progressively opening up as a parallel current carrying channel (low resistance) with increasing temperature due to increasing thermionic emission across the barrier. A simple model is constructed, based on thermionic emission at quasi-zero bias, that generates good fits to the experimental data. The negative differential resistance (NDR) region in the R{sub D}-T characteristic is a general effect and is demonstrated across a broad temperature range for a variety of Schottky structures grown on Si-, GaAs- and InP-substrates. In addition the NDR effect is harnessed in micro-scaled Pd/n-InP devices for the detection of low levels of hydrogen in an ambient atmosphere of nitrogen.

  10. Analysis of the active layer in SI GaAs Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFM, Bologna (Italy); Canali, C. [INFM and Dipartimento di Scienze dell`Ingegneria, Universita` di Modena, Via Campi 213/B, Modena (Italy); Nava, F. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` di Modena, Via Campi 213/A, Modena (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    The behavior of the active region width W of semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes versus reverse biasing has been investigated by optical beam induced current and surface potential techniques. It has been found that at low applied voltages, W follows the square root law peculiar to a Schottky barrier while, for a bias higher than 20 V, the active layer increases linearly with the voltage applied. To go deeper into this matter, the spatial distribution of the electric field has been analyzed in a wide range of bias voltages and it has been observed that at high voltages a plateau occurs, followed by a linear decrease down to a quasi-zero value. In terms of space charge distribution this means that there is a box-shaped space charge region moving towards the ohmic contact at increasing bias. (orig.) 21 refs.

  11. Fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes with high breakdown voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Kum, B H; Shin, M W; Park, J D

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and the breakdown characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Optimal processing conditions for the ohmic contacts were extracted using the transmission-line method (TLM) and were applied to the device fabrication. The Ti/4H-SiC SBDs with Si sub x B sub y passivation showed a maximum reverse breakdown voltage of 268 V with a forward current density as high as 70 mA/cm sup 2 at a forward voltage of 2 V. The breakdown of the Pt. 4H-SiC SBDs without any passivation occurred at near 110 V. It is concluded that the breakdown enhancement in the Ti/4H-SiC SBDs can be attributed to the passivation; otherwise, excess surface charge near the edge of the Schottky contact would lead to electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause field emission.

  12. Analysis of high reverse currents of 4H-SiC Schottky-barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Hiroyuki; Kameshiro, Norifumi; Konishi, Kumiko; Shima, Akio; Yamada, Ren-ichi

    2017-12-01

    Nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), and molybdenum (Mo) 4H-silicon carbide Schottky-barrier diodes (SiC SBDs) were fabricated and used to investigate the relation between forward and reverse currents. Temperature dependence of reverse current follows a theory that includes tunneling in regard to thermionic emission, namely, temperature dependence is weak at low temperature but strong at high temperatures. On the other hand, the reverse currents of the Ni and Mo SBDs are higher than their respective currents calculated from their Schottky barrier heights (SBHs), whereas the reverse current of the Ti SBD agrees well with that calculated from its SBH. The cause of the high reverse currents was investigated from the viewpoints of low barrier patch, Gaussian distribution of barrier height (GD), thin surface barrier, and electron effective mass. The high reverse current of the Ni and Mo SBDs can be explained not in terms of a low-barrier patch, GD, or thin surface barrier but in terms of small effective masses. Investigation of crystal structures at the Schottky interface revealed a large lattice mismatch between the metals (Ni, Ti, or Mo) and SiC for the Ni and Mo SBDs. The small effective mass is possibly attributed to the large lattice mismatch, which might generate transition layers at the Schottky interface. It is concluded from these results that the lattice constant as well as the work function is an important factor in selecting the metal species as the Schottky metal for wide band-gap SBDs, for which tunneling current dominates reverse current.

  13. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  14. Surface Modification on the Sputtering-Deposited ZnO Layer for ZnO-Based Schottky Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Hao Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepare a zinc oxide- (ZnO- based Schottky diode constructed from the transparent cosputtered indium tin oxide- (ITO- ZnO ohmic contact electrode and Ni/Au Schottky metal. After optimizing the ohmic contact property and removing the ion-bombardment damages using dilute HCl etching solution, the dilute hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and ammonium sulfide (NH42Sx solutions, respectively, are employed to modify the undoped ZnO layer surface. Both of the Schottky barrier heights with the ZnO layer surface treated by these two solutions, evaluated from the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements, are remarkably enhanced as compared to the untreated ZnO-based Schottky diode. Through the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and room-temperature photoluminescence (RTPL investigations, the compensation effect as evidence of the increases in the O–H and OZn acceptor defects appearing on the ZnO layer surface after treating by the dilute H2O2 solution is responsible for the improvement of the ZnO-based Schottky diode. By contrast, the enhancement on the Schottky barrier height for the ZnO layer surface treated by using dilute (NH42Sx solution is attributed to both the passivation and compensation effects originating from the formation of the Zn–S chemical bond and VZn acceptors.

  15. Temperature dependent current transport of Pd/ZnO nanowire Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, R. N.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.; Jana, P.

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire based Schottky barrier diodes are fabricated by depositing Pd metal contact on top of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays. A vertical array of ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates is synthesized by hybrid wet chemical route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirm the formation of stoichiometric well-aligned hexagonal (h-ZnO) nanowire arrays with wurtzite structure. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements on palladium-ZnO (Pd/ZnO) nanowire Schottky junctions in the temperature range 303-383 K exhibit excellent rectifying character. From these nonlinear I-V plots, different electrical parameters of diode-like reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor are determined as a function of temperature assuming pure thermionic emission model. The ideality factor is found to decrease while the barrier height increases with the increase in temperature. The series resistance values calculated from Cheung’s functions also show temperature dependency. Such behavior can be attributed to the presence of defects that traps carriers, and barrier height inhomogeneity at the interface of the barrier junction. After barrier height inhomogeneity correction, considering a Gaussian distributed barrier height fluctuation across the Pd/ZnO interface, the estimated values of mean barrier height and modified Richardson constant are more closely matched to the theoretically predicted value for Pd/ZnO Schottky barrier diodes. The variation of density of interface states as a function of interface state energy is also calculated.

  16. Analysis of Heavy Ion Irradiation Induced Thermal Damage in SiC Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, C.; Busatto, G.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Giuliani, F.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2015-02-01

    A study is presented aimed at describing phenomena involved in Single Event Burnout induced by heavy ion irradiation in SiC Schottky diodes. On the basis of experimental data obtained for 79Br irradiation at different energies, electro-thermal FEM is used to demonstrate that the failure is caused by a strong local increase of the semiconductor temperature. With respect to previous studies the temperature dependent thermal material properties were added. The critical ion energy calculated by this model is in agreement with literature experimental results. The substrate doping dependence of the SEE robustness was analyzed, proving the effectiveness of the developed model for device technological improvements.

  17. Catalytic-Metal/PdO(sub x)/SiC Schottky-Diode Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Lukco, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized hydrogen- and hydrocarbon-gas sensors, heretofore often consisting of Schottky diodes based on catalytic metal in contact with SiC, can be improved by incorporating palladium oxide (PdOx, where 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1) between the catalytic metal and the SiC. In prior such sensors in which the catalytic metal was the alloy PdCr, diffusion and the consequent formation of oxides and silicides of Pd and Cr during operation at high temperature were observed to cause loss of sensitivity. However, it was also observed that any PdOx layers that formed and remained at PdCr/SiC interfaces acted as barriers to diffusion, preventing further deterioration by preventing the subsequent formation of metal silicides. In the present improvement, the lesson learned from these observations is applied by placing PdOx at the catalytic metal/SiC interfaces in a controlled and uniform manner to form stable diffusion barriers that prevent formation of metal silicides. A major advantage of PdOx over other candidate diffusion-barrier materials is that PdOx is a highly stable oxide that can be incorporated into gas sensor structures by use of deposition techniques that are standard in the semiconductor industry. The PdOx layer can be used in a gas sensor structure for improved sensor stability, while maintaining sensitivity. For example, in proof-of-concept experiments, Pt/PdOx/SiC Schottky-diode gas sensors were fabricated and tested. The fabrication process included controlled sputter deposition of PdOx to a thickness of 50 Angstroms on a 400-m-thick SiC substrate, followed by deposition of Pt to a thickness of 450 Angstroms on the PdOx. The SiC substrate (400 microns in thickness) was patterned with photoresist and a Schottky-diode photomask. A lift-off process completed the definition of the Schottky-diode pattern. The sensors were tested by measuring changes in forward currents at a bias potential of 1 V during exposure to H2 in N2 at temperatures

  18. High performance trench MOS barrier Schottky diode with high-k gate oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Yin-Fei; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Liao

    2015-07-01

    A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00607), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61106089 and 61376097), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR14F040001).

  19. Surface plasma-enhanced internal photoemission in gallium arsenide Schottky diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosian, K M; Karakashian, A S; Teng, Y Y

    1987-07-01

    An aluminum on n-type gallium arsenide Schottky diode with a prism coupler on the front face was illuminated by a p-polarized Nd:YAG laser to excite the surface plasma resonance in the aluminum barrier contact. The internal photoemission current and reflectance were measured simultaneously as a function of the angle of incidence. The excitation of the surface plasma resonance was observed by a dip in the reflectance which occurred at the same angle as a peak in the photoemission current. These effects disappeared in the case of s-polarization. Enhancement in the photoemission current by as much as a factor of 3 was obtained.

  20. Performance analyses of Schottky diodes with Au/Pd contacts on n-ZnO thin films as UV detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Tarun; Periasamy, C.; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we report fabrication and performance analyses of UV detectors based on ZnO thin film Schottky diodes with Au and Pd contacts. RF magnetron sputtering technique has been used to deposit the nano-crystalline ZnO thin film, at room temperature. Characterization techniques such as XRD, AFM and SEM provided valuable information related to the micro-structural & optical properties of the thin film. The results show that the prepared thin film has good crystalline orientation and minimal surface roughness, with an optical bandgap of 3.1 eV. I-V and C-V characteristics were evaluated that indicate non-linear behaviour of the diodes with rectification ratios (IF/IR) of 19 and 427, at ± 4 V, for Au/ZnO and Pd/ZnO Schottky diodes, respectively. The fabricated Schottky diodes when exposed to a UV light of 365 nm wavelength, at an applied bias of -2 V, exhibited responsivity of 10.16 and 22.7 A/W, for Au and Pd Schottky contacts, respectively. The Pd based Schottky photo-detectors were found to exhibit better performance with superior values of detectivity and photoconductive gain of 1.95 × 1010 cm Hz0.5/W & 77.18, over those obtained for the Au based detectors which were observed to be 1.23 × 1010 cm Hz0.5/W & 34.5, respectively.

  1. RF-to-DC Characteristics of Direct Irradiated On-Chip Gallium Arsenide Schottky Diode and Antenna for Application in Proximity Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the RF-to-DC characteristics of the integrated AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode and antenna under the direct injection and irradiation condition. The conversion efficiency up to 80% under direct injection of 1 GHz signal to the diode was achieved. It was found that the reduction of series resistance and parallel connection of diode and load tend to lead to the improvement of RF-to-DC conversion efficiency. Under direct irradiation from antenna-to-antenna method, the output voltage of 35 mV was still obtainable for the distance of 8 cm between both antennas in spite of large mismatch in the resonant frequency between the diode and the connected antenna. Higher output voltage in volt range is expected to be achievable for the well-matching condition. The proposed on-chip AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT Schottky diode and antenna seems to be a promising candidate to be used for application in proximity communication system as a wireless low power source as well as a highly sensitive RF detector.

  2. Vertically grown Ge nanowire Schottky diodes on Si and Ge substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Nishant; Tracy, Clarence J.; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S. T.; Hathwar, Raghuraj; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2015-07-01

    The processing and performance of Schottky diodes formed from arrays of vertical Ge nanowires (NWs) grown on Ge and Si substrates are reported. The goal of this work is to investigate CMOS compatible processes for integrating NWs as components of vertically scaled integrated circuits, and elucidate transport in vertical Schottky NWs. Vertical phosphorus (P) doped Ge NWs were grown using vapor-liquid-solid epitaxy, and nickel (Ni)-Ge Schottky contacts were made to the tops of the NWs. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured for variable ranges of NW diameters and numbers of nanowires in the arrays, and the I-V characteristics were fit using modified thermionic emission theory to extract the barrier height and ideality factor. As grown NWs did not show rectifying behavior due to the presence of heavy P side-wall doping during growth, resulting in a tunnel contact. After sidewall etching using a dilute peroxide solution, rectifying behavior was obtained. Schottky barrier heights of 0.3-0.4 V and ideality factors close to 2 were extracted using thermionic emission theory, although the model does not give an accurate fit across the whole bias range. Attempts to account for enhanced side-wall conduction due to non-uniform P doping profile during growth through a simple shunt resistance improve the fit, but are still insufficient to provide a good fit. Full three-dimensional numerical modeling using Silvaco Atlas indicates that at least part of this effect is due to the presence of fixed charge and acceptor like traps on the NW surface, which leads to effectively high ideality factors.

  3. Analysis of current transport properties in nonpolar a-plane ZnO-based Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hogyoung [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeri; Kim, Dongwook [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Using current-voltage (I - V) measurements, we investigated the temperature-dependent transport properties in Ag/nonpolar a-plane ZnO Schottky diodes. The bias-dependent ideality factors were altered by the different temperatures and showed a hump at lower temperatures. The series resistance of the diode depended on the temperatures, which was related to the number of free carriers contributing to the series resistance. For high forward bias, the slope m obtained from the lnI - lnV curves decreased with increasing temperature, assuring the space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) model controlled by an exponential distribution of traps. The reverse-biased current transport was associated with the Schottky effect, with a thermally-assisted tunneling for lower voltages and the Poole-Frenkel effect for higher voltages. The density of localized states (N{sub t}) was obtained by applying the theory of SCLC transport, which yielded a N{sub t} value of 8.32 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1}cm{sup -3}.

  4. Local irradiation effects of one-dimensional ZnO based self-powered asymmetric Schottky barrier UV photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yaxue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi, Junjie, E-mail: junjieqi@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Biswas, Chandan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Li, Feng; Zhang, Kui; Li, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Materials and Technologies, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A self-powered metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetector was successfully fabricated based on Ag/ZnO/Au structure with asymmetric Schottky barriers. This exhibits excellent performance compared to many previous studies. Very high photo-to-dark current ratio (approximately 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6}) was demonstrated without applying any external bias, and very fast switching time of less than 30 ms was observed during the investigation. Opposite photocurrent direction was generated by irradiating different Schottky diodes in the fabricated photodetector. Furthermore, the device performance was optimized by largely irradiating both the ZnO microwire (MW) junctions. Schottky barrier effect theory and O{sub 2} adsorption–desorption theories were used to investigate the phenomenon. The device has potential applications in self-powered UV detection field and can be used as electrical power source for electronic, optoelectronic and mechanical devices. - Highlights: • A self-powered Schottky barrier UV photodetector based on 1-D ZnO is fabricated. • For the first time we investigate the local irradiation effects of UV detector. • Irradiating both the junctions and ZnO can optimize the performance of the device.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of magnetically tunable metal-semiconductor schottky diode using barium hexaferrite thin film on gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jotinder; Sharma, Vinay; Sharma, Vipul; Veerakumar, V.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2016-05-01

    Barium Hexaferrite (BaM) is an extensively studied magnetic material due to its potential device application. In this paper, we study Schottky junction diodes fabricated using gold and BaM and demonstrate the function of a spintronic device. Gold (50 nm)/silicon substrate was used to grow the BaM thin films (100-150 nm) using pulsed laser deposition. I-V characteristics were measured on the Au/BaM structure sweeping the voltage from ±5 volts. The forward and reverse bias current-voltage curves show diode like rectifying characteristics. The threshold voltage decreases while the output current increases with increase in the applied external magnetic field showing that the I-V characteristics of the BaM based Schottky junction diodes can be tuned by external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated that, the fabricated Schottky diode can be used as a half-wave rectifier, which could operate at high frequencies in the range of 1 MHz compared to the regular p-n junction diodes, which rectify below 10 kHz. In addition, it is found that above 1 MHz, Au/BaM diode can work as a rectifier as well as a capacitor filter, making the average (dc) voltage much larger.

  6. Observation of silicon carbide Schottky barrier diode under applied reverse bias using atomic force microscopy/Kelvin probe force microscopy/scanning capacitance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Takeshi; Satoh, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hidekazu

    2017-08-01

    We have observed a commercial silicon-carbide Schottky barrier diode (SiC-SBD) using our novel analysis system, in which atomic force microscopy (AFM) is combined with both Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM; for surface-potential measurement) and scanning capacitance force microscopy (SCFM; for differential-capacitance measurement). The results obtained for the SiC-SBD under an applied reverse bias indicate both the scan area in the sample and a peak value of the SCFM signal in the region where the existence of trapped electrons is deduced from the KFM analysis. Thus, our measurement system can be used to examine commercial power devices; however, novel polishing procedures are required in order to investigate the Schottky contact region.

  7. 4H-SiC Schottky diode arrays for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioliou, G. [Semiconductor Materials and Devices Laboratory, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Chan, H.K. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gohil, T. [Semiconductor Materials and Devices Laboratory, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Vassilevski, K.V.; Wright, N.G.; Horsfall, A.B. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Barnett, A.M. [Semiconductor Materials and Devices Laboratory, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-21

    Five SiC Schottky photodiodes for X-ray detection have been electrically characterized at room temperature. One representative diode was also electrically characterized over the temperature range 20°C to 140 °C. The performance at 30 °C of all five X-ray detectors, in both current mode and for photon counting X-ray spectroscopy was investigated. The diodes were fabricated in an array form such that they could be operated as either a 2×2 or 1×3 pixel array. Although the devices showed double barrier heights, high ideality factors and higher than expected leakage current at room temperature (12 nA/cm{sup 2} at an internal electric field of 105 kV/cm), they operated as spectroscopic photon counting soft X-ray detectors uncooled at 30 °C. The measured energy resolution (FWHM at 17.4 keV, Mo Kα) varied from 1.36 to 1.68 keV among different diodes.

  8. Hard X-ray detection with a gallium phosphide Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alan [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: aowens@rssd.esa.int; Andersson, S.; Hartog, R. den; Quarati, F. [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Webb, A.; Welter, E. [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    We report on the detection of hard X-rays using a GaP Schottky diode at the HASYLAB synchrotron radiation research facility. Exposure to alpha particles from an {sup 214}Am source showed that the device was spectroscopic at room temperature with a FWHM energy resolution of 3.5% at 5.5 MeV. It was also found to be responsive to X-rays in the range 11-100 keV. Although individual energies are not spectrally resolved there is a proportionality of response to increasing X-ray energy. A two-dimensional scan of the sensitive area using a 30x30 {mu}m{sup 2} 30 keV pencil beam showed the spatial response of the detector to be uniform at the few percent level, consistent with statistics.

  9. Review and test of methods for determination of the Schottky diode parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olikh, O. Ya.

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the extraction of the Schottky diode parameters from a current-voltage characteristic. 10 analytical methods, 2 numerical methods, and 4 evolutionary algorithms of the series resistance, barrier height, and ideality factor determination are reviewed. The accuracy of the methods is quantified using a wide range of both ideal and noisy synthetic data. In addition, the influencing factors of the parameters extraction accuracy are estimated. The adaptive procedure, which improves the precision of analytical Gromov's method, is suggested. The use of Lambert W function has been shown to reduce the error of parameter extraction by numerical method. Finally, all methods are applied to experimental data. The most reliable and preferred methods are chosen.

  10. Numerical simulations of the electrical transport characteristics of a Pt/n-GaN Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fayçal; Pezzimenti, Fortunato; Dehimi, Lakhdar; Megherbi, Mohamed L.; Della Corte, Francesco G.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, using a numerical simulator, we investigated the current-voltage characteristics of a Pt/n-GaN thin Schottky diode on the basis of the thermionic emission (TE) theory in the 300 to 500 K temperature range. During the simulations, the effect of different defect states within the n-GaN bulk with different densities and spatial locations is considered. The results show that the diode ideality factor and the threshold voltage decrease with increasing temperature, while at the same time, the zero-bias Schottky barrier height (Φb0) extracted from the forward current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics increases. The observed behaviors of the ideality factor and zero-bias barrier height are analyzed on the basis of spatial barrier height inhomogeneities at the Pt/GaN interface by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD). The plot of apparent barrier height (Φb,App) as a function of q/2kT gives a straight line, where the mean zero-bias barrier height (\\overline{Φ \\text{b0}}) and the standard deviation (σ0) are 1.48 eV and 0.047 V, respectively. The plot of the modified activation energy against q/kT gives an almost the same value of \\overline{Φ \\text{b0}} and an effective Richardson constant A* of 28.22 A cm-2 K-2, which is very close to the theoretical value for n-type GaN/Pt contacts. As expected, the presence of defect states with different trap energy levels has a noticeable impact on the device electrical characteristics.

  11. Electrical and noise properties of proton irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Palmour, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    The current voltage characteristics and the low-frequency noise in high voltage 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diodes irradiated with high energy (15 MeV) protons were studied at different temperatures and irradiation doses Φ from 3 × 1012 cm-2 to 1 × 1014 cm-2. Irradiation led to the increase of the base resistance and the appearance of slow relaxation processes at small, V ≤ 0.2 V, and at rather high, V ≥ 2 V, forward voltages. The characteristic times of these relaxation processes ranged from ˜1 μs to 103 s. The exponential part of the current-voltage characteristic was only weakly affected by irradiation. The temperature dependence of the base resistance changed exponentially with temperature with activation energy Ea ˜ 0.6 eV, indicating that the Z1/2 level plays a dominant role in this process. The temperature increase also led to the increase of the ideality factor from 1.05 at 25 °C to 1.1 at 172 °C. At elevated temperatures and high forward voltages V > 2-4 V, the current voltage characteristics tend to be super-linear. It is concluded that at high voltages, the space charge limited current of majority carriers (electrons) and hole injection from the p-n regions play an important role in the formation of the current voltage characteristic. The frequency dependences of noise spectral density S of proton irradiated Schottky diodes have the unusual form of S ˜ 1/f 0.5.

  12. Transparent indium-tin oxide/indium-gallium-zinc oxide Schottky diodes formed by gradient oxygen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szuheng; Yu, Hyeonggeun; So, Franky

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) is promising for transparent electronics due to its high carrier mobility and optical transparency. However, most metal/a-IGZO junctions are ohmic due to the Fermi-level pinning at the interface, restricting their device applications. Here, we report that indium-tin oxide/a-IGZO Schottky diodes can be formed by gradient oxygen doping in the a-IGZO layer that would otherwise form an ohmic contact. Making use of back-to-back a-IGZO Schottky junctions, a transparent IGZO permeable metal-base transistor is also demonstrated with a high common-base gain.

  13. Temperature-dependent electrical parameters and current transport mechanisms of Ru/Ti/ n-InP Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munikrishna Reddy, Y.; Padmasuvarna, R.; Lakshmi Narasappa, T.; Padma, R.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties of Ru/Ti/ n-InP Schottky diodes have been investigated in the temperature range of 120 to 400 K. The estimated barrier heights for the Ru/Ti/ n-InP Schottky barrier diode from the I- V and C- V characteristics vary from 0.24 to 0.73 eV ( I- V) and 0.94 to 0.74 eV ( C- V) and the ideality factor ( n) from 4.65 to 1.80 in the temperature range of 120-400 K. It has been observed that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with the increase in temperature. The barrier height ( Φ b), ideality factor ( n) and series resistance ( R s) of the Ru/Ti/ n-InP Schottky diode have been also determined using Cheung's and Norde methods. The discrepancy between the barrier heights obtained from the I- V and C- V characteristics is discussed. The interface state densities ( N ss) extracted for the Ru/Ti/ n-InP Schottky diode are in the range of 6.75 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 ( E c —0.23 eV)-1.09 × 1014 eV-1 cm-2 ( E c —0.17 eV) at 120 K and 1.67 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 ( E c —0.75 eV)-5.02 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 ( E c —0.59 eV) at 400 K. It is observed that the interface state density ( N ss) decreases with increase in temperature. Results reveal that the conduction current is dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission in the temperature range from 120 to 320 K and by Schottky emission above 360 K.

  14. High sensitivity Schottky junction diode based on monolithically grown aligned polypyrrole nanofibers: Broad range detection of m-dihydroxybenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Seo, Hyung-Kee; Shin, Hyung Shik

    2015-07-30

    Aligned p-type polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers (NFs) thin film was grown on n-type silicon (100) substrate by an electrochemical technique to fabricate Schottky junction diode for the efficient detection of m-dihydroxybenzene chemical. The highly dense and well aligned PPy NFs with the average diameter (∼150-200 nm) were grown on n-type Si substrate. The formation of aligned PPy NFs was confirmed by elucidating the structural, compositional and the optical properties. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated Pt/p-aligned PPy NFs/n-silicon Schottky junction diode was evaluated by cyclovoltametry (CV) and current (I)-voltage (V) measurements with the variation of m-dihydroxybenzene concentration in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The fabricated Pt/p-aligned PPy NFs/n-silicon Schottky junction diode exhibited the rectifying behavior of I-V curve with the addition of m-dihydroxybenzene chemical, while a weak rectifying I-V behavior was observed without m-dihydroxybenzene chemical. This non-linear I-V behavior suggested the formation of Schottky barrier at the interface of Pt layer and p-aligned PPy NFs/n-silicon thin film layer. By analyzing the I-V characteristics, the fabricated Pt/p-aligned PPy NFs/n-silicon Schottky junction diode displayed reasonably high sensitivity ∼23.67 μAmM(-1)cm(-2), good detection limit of ∼1.51 mM with correlation coefficient (R) of ∼0.9966 and short response time (10 s). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The TiO(2) nanoparticle effect on the performance of a conducting polymer Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K H; Kang, K S; Chen, Y; Han, K J; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-12-17

    Among the conjugate polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been paid a great deal of attention for various application fields. The absorption intensity of the whole UV-visible range increases linearly, as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. When a small amount of TiO(2) nanoparticles are dispersed in the PEDOT:PSS solution, the absorption in the visible range normally increases, but the UV range absorption (TiO(2) absorption area) is greatly depressed as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. Various weight ratios of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS were prepared. The TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS solution was spin-coated onto the Al electrode and thermally treated to remove water molecules and densify the film. These thermal processes generated nanocracks and nanoholes on the surface of the TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS film. As the heating temperature increased, wider and longer nanocracks were generated. These nanocracks and nanoholes can be removed by subsequent coating and heating processes. Schottky diodes were fabricated using four different concentrations of TiO(2)-PEDOT:PSS solution. The forward current increased nearly two orders of magnitude by doping approximately 1% of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS. Increasing the TiO(2) nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS matrix, the forward current was continuously enhanced. The enhancement of forward current is nearly four orders of magnitude with respect to the pristine PEDOT:PSS Schottky diode. The possible conduction mechanisms were examined by using various plotting and curve-fitting methods including a space-charge-limited conduction mechanism [Ln(J) versus Ln(V)], Schottky emission mechanism [Ln(J) versus E(1/2)], and Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism [Ln(J/V) versus E(1/2)]. The plot of Ln(J) versus Ln(V) shows a linear relationship, implying that the major conduction mechanism is SCLC. As the concentration of TiO(2) increased, the conduction mechanism slightly detracted from the

  16. Inhomogeneous barrier height effect on the current-voltage characteristics of an Au/n-InP Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeghdar, Kamal; Dehimi, Lakhdar; Saadoune, Achour; Sengouga, Nouredine

    2015-12-01

    We report the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Schottky diode (Au/n-InP) as a function of temperature. The SILVACO-TCAD numerical simulator is used to calculate the I-V characteristic in the temperature range of 280-400 K. This is to study the effect of temperature on the I-V curves and assess the main parameters that characterize the Schottky diode such as the ideality factor, the height of the barrier and the series resistance. The I-V characteristics are analyzed on the basis of standard thermionic emission (TE) theory and the inhomogeneous barrier heights (BHs) assuming a Gaussian distribution. It is shown that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with increasing temperature, on the basis of TE theory. Furthermore, the homogeneous BH value of approximately 0.524 eV for the device has been obtained from the linear relationship between the temperature-dependent experimentally effective BHs and ideality factors. The modified Richardson plot, according to the inhomogeneity of the BHs, has a good linearity over the temperature range. The evaluated Richardson constant A* was 10.32 A·cm-2·K-2, which is close to the theoretical value of 9.4 A·cm-2·K-2 for n-InP. The temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics of the Au/n-InP Schottky diode have been successfully explained on the basis of the thermionic emission (TE) mechanism with a Gaussian distribution of the Schottky barrier heights (SBHs). Simulated I-V characteristics are in good agreement with the measurements [Korucu D, Mammadov T S. J Optoelectronics Advanced Materials, 2012, 14: 41]. The barrier height obtained using Gaussian Schottky barrier distribution is 0.52 eV, which is about half the band gap of InP.

  17. Optimized hydrogen sensing characteristic of Pd/ZnO nanoparticles based Schottky diode on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Lalit; Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Dwivedi, R.; Mishra, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    The present work deals with the development of the Pd/ZnO naoparticles based sensor for detection of hydrogen (H2) gas at relatively low temperature (75-110 °C). Pd/ZnO Schottky diode was fabricated by ZnO nanoparticles based thin film on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique. These ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) which reveals the ZnO film having particles size in the range of ~25 to ~110 nm with ~52.73 nm surface roughness. Gas dependent diode parameters such as barrier height and ideality factor have been evaluated upon exposure of H2 gas concentration in the range from 200-2000 ppm over the temperature range from 75 to 110 °C. The sensitivity of the Pd/ZnO sensor has been studied in terms of change in diode forward current upon exposure to H2 gas. Experimental result shows the optimized sensitivity ~246.22% for H2 concentration of 2000 ppm at temperature 90 °C. The hydrogen sensing mechanism has been explained by surface and subsurface adsorption of H2 molecules on Pd surface; subsequently, dissociation of H2 molecules into H  +  H atoms and diffusion to trap sites (oxygen ions) available on ZnO surface, resulting in formation of dipole moments at Pd/ZnO interface. The variation in the sensitivity, response and recovery time with temperature of Pd/ZnO sensor has also been studied.

  18. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Cree C4D40120D Commercial 1200V Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Wilcox, E. P.; Kim, Hak; Topper, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the commercial silicon carbide 1200V Schottky diode manufactured by Cree, Inc. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU). Its purpose was to evaluate this device as a candidate for use in the Solar-Electric Propulsion flight project.

  19. CdSe Nanowire-Based Flexible Devices: Schottky Diodes, Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors, and Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weifeng; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Zhiwei; Li, Yanping; Yao, Li; Wang, Yilun; Dai, Lun

    2015-06-24

    Novel CdSe nanowire (NW)-based flexible devices, including Schottky diodes, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs), and inverters, have been fabricated and investigated. The turn-on voltage of a typical Schottky diode is about 0.7 V, and the rectification ratio is larger than 1 × 10(7). The threshold voltage, on/off current ratio, subthreshold swing, and peak transconductance of a typical MESFET are about -0.3 V, 4 × 10(5), 78 mV/dec, and 2.7 μS, respectively. The inverter, constructed with two MESFETs, exhibits clear inverting behavior with the gain to be about 28, 34, and 38, at the supply voltages (V(DD)) of 3, 5, and 7 V, respectively. The inverter also shows good dynamic behavior. The rising and falling times of the output signals are about 0.18 and 0.09 ms, respectively, under 1000 Hz square wave signals input. The performances of the flexible devices are stable and reliable under different bending conditions. Our work demonstrates these flexible NW-based Schottky diodes, MESFETs, and inverters are promising candidate components for future portable transparent nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Kundakçı, Mutlu

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10-5 mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.

  1. Calculation of the intrinsic spectral density of current fluctuations in nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahi, F.Z. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria)], E-mail: fati_zo_mahi2002@yahoo.fr; Helmaoui, A. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzhinskis, V. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-01

    An analytical model for the noise spectrum of nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes (SBD) is developed. The calculated frequency dependence of the spectral density of current fluctuations exhibits resonances in the terahertz domain which are discussed and analyzed as functions of the length of the diode, free carrier concentration, length of the depletion region and applied voltage. A good agreement obtained with direct Monte Carlo simulations of GaAs SBDs operating from barrier-limited to flat-band conditions fully validates the proposed approach.

  2. Modification of electrical properties of Au/n-type InP Schottky diode with a high-k Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaswini, P. Prabhu; Padma, R.; Balaram, N.; Bindu, B.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2016-05-01

    Au/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/n-InP metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) Schottky diodes have been analyzed by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The surface morphology of the BST films on InP is fairly smooth. The Au/BST/n-InP MIS Schottky diode shows better rectification ratio and low leakage current compared to the conventional Au/n-InP metal-semiconductor (MS) Schottky diode. Higher barrier height is achieved for the MIS Schottky diode compared to the MS Schottky diode. The Norde and Cheung's methods are employed to determine the barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance. The interface state density (NSS) is determined from the forward bias I-V data for both the MS and MIS Schottky diodes. Results reveal that the NSS of the MIS Schottky diode is lower than that of the MS Schottky diode. The Poole-Frenkel emission is found dominating the reverse current in both Au/n-InP MS and Au/BST/n-InP MIS Schottky diodes, indicating the presence of structural defects and trap levels in the dielectric film.

  3. Self-assembled H-aggregation induced high performance poly (3-hexylthiophene) Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vivek; Pandey, Rajiv K.; Prakash, Rajiv; Singh, Arun Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The investigation of size confinement and chain orientation within the microstructure of a polymer thin film is very important for electronic device applications and fundamental research. Here, we present single step methodology for the synthesis of solution-processable poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers via a self-assembly process. The formation of P3HT nanofibers is confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The synthesized nanofibers are characterized by UV-visible absorption, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The aggregation type of self-assembled P3HT is studied by both UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The exciton bandwidth in polymer films is calculated by following the Spano's H-aggregate model and found to be 28 meV. Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the various stretching modes present in nanofibers. The structural investigation using grazing angle X-ray diffraction of nanofibers reveals the presence of alkyl chain ordering. We have fabricated organic Schottky diodes with P3HT nanofibers on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass with configuration Al/P3HT/ITO, and current density-voltage characteristics are subsequently used for extracting the electronic parameters of the device. We have also discussed the charge transport mechanism at the metal/polymer interface.

  4. Synthesis of Peripherally Tetrasubstituted Phthalocyanines and Their Applications in Schottky Barrier Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Gorduk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New metal-free and metallophthalocyanine compounds (Zn, Co, Ni, and Cu were synthesized using 2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxan and 4-nitrophthalonitrile compounds. All newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, MALDI-TOF MS, and GC-MS techniques. The applications of synthesized compounds in Schottky barrier diodes were investigated. Ag/Pc/p–Si structures were fabricated and charge transport mechanism in these devices was investigated using dc technique. It was observed from the analysis of the experimental results that the charge transport can be described by Ohmic conduction at low values of the reverse bias. On the other hand, the voltage dependence of the measured current for high values of the applied reverse bias indicated that space charge limited conduction is the dominant mechanism responsible for dc conduction. From the observed voltage dependence of the current density under forward bias conditions, it has been concluded that the charge transport is dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission.

  5. Optimization of chemical structure of Schottky-type selection diode for crossbar resistive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Jong Ho; Jeon, Woojin; Song, Seul Ji; Seok, Jun Yeong; Yoon, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Park, Tae Joo; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-10-24

    The electrical performances of Pt/TiO(2)/Ti/Pt stacked Schottky-type diode (SD) was systematically examined, and this performance is dependent on the chemical structures of the each layer and their interfaces. The Ti layers containing a tolerable amount of oxygen showed metallic electrical conduction characteristics, which was confirmed by sheet resistance measurement with elevating the temperature, transmission line measurement (TLM), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis. However, the chemical structure of SD stack and resulting electrical properties were crucially affected by the dissolved oxygen concentration in the Ti layers. The lower oxidation potential of the Ti layer with initially higher oxygen concentration suppressed the oxygen deficiency of the overlying TiO(2) layer induced by consumption of the oxygen from TiO(2) layer. This structure results in the lower reverse current of SDs without significant degradation of forward-state current. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis showed the current conduction through the local conduction paths in the presented SDs, which guarantees a sufficient forward-current density as a selection device for highly integrated crossbar array resistive memory.

  6. Effect of thermal treatment on the characteristics of iridium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawanda, A., E-mail: albert.chawanda@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru (Zimbabwe); Coelho, S.M.M.; Auret, F.D.; Mtangi, W. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Nyamhere, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nel, J.M.; Diale, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) Schottky diodes were characterized using I-V, C-V and SEM techniques under various annealing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The variation of the electrical and structural properties can be due to effects phase transformation during annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of these diodes is maintained up to 500 Degree-Sign C anneal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM results depicts that the onset temperature for agglomeration in 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: Iridium (Ir) Schottky barrier diodes were deposited on bulk grown (1 0 0) Sb-doped n-type germanium by using the electron beam deposition system. Electrical characterization of these contacts using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements was performed under various annealing conditions. The variation of the electrical properties of these Schottky diodes can be attributed to combined effects of interfacial reaction and phase transformation during the annealing process. Thermal stability of the Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) was observed up to annealing temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Furthermore, structural characterization of these samples was performed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different annealing temperatures. Results have also revealed that the onset temperature for agglomeration in a 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C.

  7. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm – 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H+), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles (4He++). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms. PMID:24058378

  8. Frequency and voltage dependent electrical responses of poly(triarylamine thin film-based organic Schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Anuar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metal-organic-metal (MOM type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine (PTAA thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit. Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz but decreases at high frequency (1 – 10 kHz. The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV−1cm−2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC signal.

  9. Frequency and voltage dependent electrical responses of poly(triarylamine) thin film-based organic Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar Mohamad, Khairul; Tak Hoh, Hang; Alias, Afishah; Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Fukuda, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    A metal-organic-metal (MOM) type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine) (PTAA) thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f) and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit). Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz) but decreases at high frequency (1 - 10 kHz). The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV-1cm-2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC) signal.

  10. The effects of localized tail states on charge transport mechanisms in amorphous zinc tin oxide Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youngbae; Peterson, Rebecca L.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature-dependent current–voltage measurements were performed on vertical Schottky diodes made with solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) semiconductor and palladium rectifying contacts. Above 260 K, forward bias electron transport occurs via thermionic emission over an inhomogeneous, voltage-dependent Schottky barrier with {\\bar{φ }}b0 = 0.72 eV, σ 0 = 0.12 eV, and A* = 44 A cm‑2 K‑2, where {\\bar{φ }}b0 and {σ }0 are the mean potential barrier and its standard deviation at zero bias, respectively, and A* is Richardson’s constant. For large currents, the series ohmic resistance of the bulk semiconductor dominates. At temperatures below 260 K, less carriers are excited from localized states below the conduction band edge, and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) dominates. The exponential tail density of states parameters extracted for a-ZTO are g tc = 1.34 × 1019 cm‑3 eV‑1 and kT t = 26 meV. The intermediate tail state density in a-ZTO, less than that of amorphous silicon and greater than that of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide, allows for experimental observation of a temperature-dependent transition of bulk charge transport mechanisms in strong forward bias from semiconductor-like ohmic conduction near room temperature to insulator-like SCLC at lower temperatures. In reverse bias, the same tail states lead to modified Poole–Frenkel emission, reducing the leakage current. The frequency response of a half-wave rectifier and diode impedance spectroscopy confirm that the Schottky diode cut-off frequency is above 1 MHz.

  11. Improved reverse recovery characteristics of inAlN/GaN schottky barrier diode using a SOI substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Peng, Li-Yi; Wang, Hsiang-Chun; Kao, Hsuan-Ling; Wang, Hou-Yu; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2017-10-01

    The low-frequency noise (LFN) and reverse recovery charge characteristics of a six-inch InAlN/AlN/GaN Schottky barrier diode (SBD) on the Si-on-insulator (SOI) substrate were demonstrated and investigated for the first time. Raman spectroscopy indicated that using SOI wafers lowered epitaxial stress. According to the DC and LFN measurements at temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 K, the InAlN/GaN SBD on the SOI substrate showed improved forward and reverse currents and achieved a lower reverse recovery charge, compared with a conventional device.

  12. A fast-neutron detection detector based on fission material and large sensitive 4H silicon carbide Schottky diode detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linyue; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Jianfu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ruan, Jinlu; Jin, Peng; Bai, Song; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    Silicon carbide radiation detectors are attractive in the measurement of the total numbers of pulsed fast neutrons emitted from nuclear fusion and fission devices because of high neutron-gamma discrimination and good radiation resistance. A fast-neutron detection system was developed based on a large-area 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector and a 235U fission target. Excellent pulse-height spectra of fission fragments induced by mono-energy deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion neutrons and continuous energy fission neutrons were obtained. The detector is proven to be a good candidate for pulsed fast neutron detection in a complex radiation field.

  13. Electrical properties of planar AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes: Role of 2DEG and analysis of non-idealities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Anna; Pio, Iolanda; Tasco, Vittorianna; Cuscunà, Massimo; Passaseo, Adriana; Cola, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    A detailed study of the electrical properties of planar AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes is presented, the focus being on the role of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) depletion and the diodes non-idealities in different voltage regimes. The 2DEG depletion behavior is inferred from the analysis of capacitance and current measurements with transition from vertical to lateral diode operation occurring at Vpinch-off = 4 V. In particular, the sub-micrometer depletion width, laterally extending from the edge of the Schottky contact under high reverse voltages, is evaluated on the basis of a simple fringe capacitance model. Current transport mechanisms are discussed, investigating the interrelation between 2DEG, Poole-Frenkel effect, and defects. With regard to defects, the role of dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN diode non-idealities, usually interpreted in terms of Schottky barrier inhomogeneities, is critically addressed. Photocurrent spatial mapping under high reverse voltage points out the not uniform electric field distribution around the Schottky contact and highlights the presence of local photo-conductive paths, likely associated with the dislocations near the edge of the Schottky contact.

  14. An Integrated 520-600 GHz Sub-Harmonic Mixer and Tripler Combination Based on GaAs MMIC Membrane Planar Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.; Gill, J.; Maestrini, A.; Lee, C.; Lin, R.; Sin, S.; Peralta, A.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    We present here the design, development and test of an integrated sub-millimeter front-end featuring a 520-600 GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300 GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional machined as well as silicon micro-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB mixer noise temperature of 2360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. Preliminary results on the silicon micro-machined blocks give a DSB mixer noise temperature of 4860 K and conversion losses of 12.16 dB at 540 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer for both packages is between 30 and 50 mW

  15. Magnetic field induced suppression of the forward bias current in Bi2Se3/Si Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoming; Hebard, Arthur

    Schottky diodes formed by van der Waals bonding between freshly cleaved flakes of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and doped silicon substrates show electrical characteristics in good agreement with thermionic emission theory. The motivation is to use magnetic fields to modulate the conductance of the topologically protected conducting surface state. This surface state in close proximity to the semiconductor surface may play an important role in determining the nature of the Schottky barrier. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were obtained for temperatures in the range 50-300 K and magnetic fields, both perpendicular and parallel to the interface, as high as 7 T. The I-V curve shows more than 6 decades linearity on semi-logarithmic plots, allowing extraction of parameters such as ideality (η), zero-voltage Schottky barrier height (SBH), and series resistance (Rs). In forward bias we observe a field-induced decrease in current which becomes increasingly more pronounced at higher voltages and lower temperature, and is found to be correlated with changes in Rs rather than other barrier parameters. A comparison of changes in Rs in both field direction will be made with magnetoresistance in Bi2Se3 transport measurement. The work is supported by NSF through DMR 1305783.

  16. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes based on CBD deposited ZnO:Cu nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Legodi, Matshisa J.; Mlambo, Mbuso; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2017-07-01

    Undoped and copper doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at a temperature of 90 °C. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be dependent on the Cu doping percentage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed strong diffraction peaks of hexagonal wurtzite of ZnO, and no impurity phases from metallic zinc or copper. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed changes in diameter and shape of nanorods, where by those doped with 2 at.% and 3 at.% aggregated and became compact. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicates high quality, single crystalline wurtzite structure ZnO and intensities of bright spots varied with copper doping concentration. UV-visible absorption peaks of ZnO red shifted with increasing copper doping concentration. Raman studies demonstrated among others, strong and sharp E2 (low) and E2 (high) optical phonon peaks confirming crystal structure of ZnO. Current-voltage measurements based on the gold/ZnO nanorods/ITO showed good rectifying behavior of the Schottky diode. The predicted Schottky barrier height of 0.60 eV was obtained which is not far from the theoretical Schottky-Mott value of 0.80 eV.

  17. Contact Metallization and Packaging Technology Development for SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors, PiN Diodes, and Schottky Diodes Designed for Long-Term Operations at 350degreeC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    for high temperature contacts. A Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT ) in 4H-SiC can operate at higher temperatures (300oC) because its operation does not...AFRL-PR-WP-TR-2006-2181 CONTACT METALLIZATION AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR SiC BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS , PiN DIODES, AND...SUBTITLE CONTACT METALLIZATION AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR SiC BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS , PiN DIODES, AND SCHOTTKY DIODES DESIGNED

  18. Real-time 2.5 Gbit/s ultra-wideband transmission using a Schottky diode-based envelope detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva

    2017-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/s real-time ultra-wideband transmission is presented, using a Schottky diode-based envelope detector fabricated ad-hoc using microstrip technology on a Rogers6002 substrate and surface-mount components. Real-time transmission with a BER below FEC threshold...

  19. Effects of Annealing on Electrical Characteristics and Current Transport Mechanisms of the Y/ p-GaN Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Asha, B.; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of annealing on the electrical properties and current transport mechanism of Y/ p-GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). We found no significant change in the surface morphology of the Y Schottky contacts during the annealing process. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the as-deposited Y/ p-GaN SBD was estimated to be 0.95 eV ( I- V)/1.19 eV ( C- V). The SBH increased upon annealing at 400°C and 500°C, and then decreased slightly with annealing at 600°C. Thus the maximum SBH of the Y/ p-GaN SBD was achieved at 500°C, with values of 1.01 eV ( I- V)/1.29 eV ( C- V). In addition, the SBH values were estimated by Cheung's, Norde, and Ψs- V plots and were found to be in good agreement with one another. Series resistance ( R S) values were also calculated by I- V, Cheung's, and Norde functions at different annealing temperatures, with results showing a decrease in the interface state density of the SBD with annealing at 500°C, followed by a slight increase upon annealing at 600°C. The forward-bias current transport mechanism of SBD was investigated by the log I-log V plot at different annealing temperatures. Our investigations revealed that the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism dominated the reverse leakage current in Y/ p-GaN SBD at all annealing temperatures.

  20. Submillimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode application based study and optimization for 0.1-1.5 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Malekabadi, Ali; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a design and optimization method for submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is proposed. Parasitic capacitance is significantly reduced to under 20% of the total capacitance of the diode. The parasitic capacitance value is measured to be 0.6 fF for 1 μm anode radius which increased the cut-off frequency to 1.5 THz. A corresponding microfabrication process that provides higher degrees of freedom for the anode diameter, air-bridge dimensions and distance to the substrate is introduced and implemented. The DC and RF measurements are provided and compared with the simulations. In order to provide a better understanding of the diode behavior, the limiting factors of the cut-off frequency for different applications are studied and compared. For the mixer/multiplier mode, an improved and expanded formulation for calculation of the cut-off frequency is introduced. It is shown that the usable voltage bias range (with acceptable cut-off frequency) is limited by the exponential reduction of junction resistance, Rj , in mixer/multiplier mode.

  1. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2007-01-01

    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...

  2. Quasi-Schottky-Barrier UTBB SOI MOSFET for Low-Power Robust SRAMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanatian, Hamdam; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim; Zeinali, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low-power robust static random access memory (SRAM) using a novel quasi-Schottky-barrier ultrathin body and ultrathin buried oxide (UTBB) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) device. In the proposed device, the drain terminal is highly doped and a metallic source terminal is used. Giv...

  3. A high speed PE-ALD ZnO Schottky diode rectifier with low interface-state density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jidong; Zhang, Jiawei; Shaw, Andrew; Kudina, Valeriya N.; Mitrovic, Ivona Z.; Wrench, Jacqueline S.; Chalker, Paul R.; Balocco, Claudio; Song, Aimin; Hall, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has recently attracted attention for its potential application to high speed electronics. In this work, a high speed Schottky diode rectifier was fabricated based on a ZnO thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and a PtOx Schottky contact deposited by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The rectifier shows an ideality factor of 1.31, an effective barrier height of 0.79 eV, a rectification ratio of 1.17  ×  107, and cut-off frequency as high as 550 MHz. Low frequency noise measurements reveal that the rectifier has a low interface-state density of 5.13  ×  1012 cm‑2 eV‑1, and the noise is dominated by the mechanism of a random walk of electrons at the PtO x /ZnO interface. The work shows that the rectifier can be used for both noise sensitive and high frequency electronics applications.

  4. Effect of high energy electron irradiation on low frequency noise in 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Palmour, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    The low-frequency noise in high voltage Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diodes irradiated with high energy (0.9 MeV) electrons was studied in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 50 kHz, temperature interval 295-410 K, and irradiation dose Φ from 0.2 × 1016 cm-2 to 7 × 1016 cm-2. The noise amplitude was found monotonically increasing with the irradiation dose. With the irradiation dose increase, the noise spectra on the linear part of the current voltage characteristic transform from the 1/f noise to the generation recombination noise of at least two trap levels. One of these levels can be classified as Z1/2 with the capture cross section determined from the noise measurements to be ˜10-15 cm2.

  5. GaN Schottky diodes with single-crystal aluminum barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H. Y.; Yang, W. C.; Lee, P. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, K. C.; Cheng, K. Y.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with single-crystal Al barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are fabricated. Examined using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffractions, ex-situ high-resolution x-ray diffractions, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, it is determined that epitaxial Al grows with its [111] axis coincident with the [0001] axis of the GaN substrate without rotation. In fabricated SBDs, a 0.2 V barrier height enhancement and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current are observed in single crystal Al/GaN SBDs compared to conventional thermal deposited Al/GaN SBDs. The strain induced piezoelectric field is determined to be the major source of the observed device performance enhancements.

  6. Initial leakage current paths in the vertical-type GaN-on-GaN Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Cho, Yujin; Harada, Yoshitomo; Nabatame, Toshihide; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Usami, Shigeyoshi; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Electrical characteristics of leakage current paths in vertical-type n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on free-standing GaN substrates are investigated by using photon emission microscopy (PEM). The PEM mapping shows that the initial failure of the SBD devices at low voltages is due to the leakage current paths from polygonal pits in the GaN epilayers. It is observed that these polygonal pits originate from carbon impurity accumulation to the dislocations with a screw-type component by microstructure analysis. For the SBD without polygonal pits, no initial failure is observed and the first leakage appeals at the edge of electrodes as a result of electric field concentration. The mechanism of leakage at pits is explained in terms of trap assisted tunneling through fitting current-voltage characteristics.

  7. Temperature dependent electrical characterisation of Pt/HfO2/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS Schottky diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Shetty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an improvement in Pt/n-GaN metal-semiconductor (MS Schottky diode characteristics by the introduction of a layer of HfO2 (5 nm between the metal and semiconductor interface. The resulting Pt/HfO2/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS Schottky diode showed an increase in rectification ratio from 35.9 to 98.9(@ 2V, increase in barrier height (0.52 eV to 0.63eV and a reduction in ideality factor (2.1 to 1.3 as compared to the MS Schottky. Epitaxial n-type GaN films of thickness 300nm were grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE. The crystalline and optical qualities of the films were confirmed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. Metal-semiconductor (Pt/n-GaN and metal-insulator-semiconductor (Pt/HfO2/n-GaN Schottky diodes were fabricated. To gain further understanding of the Pt/HfO2/GaN interface, I-V characterisation was carried out on the MIS Schottky diode over a temperature range of 150 K to 370 K. The barrier height was found to increase (0.3 eV to 0.79 eV and the ideality factor decreased (3.6 to 1.2 with increase in temperature from 150 K to 370 K. This temperature dependence was attributed to the inhomogeneous nature of the contact and the explanation was validated by fitting the experimental data into a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights.

  8. Barrier height of Pt–In[sub x]Ga[sub 1−x]N (0≤x≤0.5) nanowire Schottky diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The barrier height of Schottky diodes made on Inx Ga 1-x N nanowires have been determined from capacitance-voltage measurements. The nanowires were grown undoped on n-type (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The length, diameter and density of the nanowires are ∼1 μm, 20 nm, and 1× 1011 cm-2. The Schottky contact was made on the top surface of the nanowires with Pt after planarizing with parylene. The measured barrier height B varies from 1.4 eV (GaN) to 0.44 eV (In0.5 Ga0.5 N) and agrees well with the ideal barrier heights in the Schottky limit. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Schottky Diode Applications of the Fast Green FCF Organic Material and the Analyze of Solar Cell Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaldiran, Z.; Aydoğan, Ş.; İncekara, Ü.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a device applications of organic material Fast Green FCF (C37H34N2Na2O10S3Na2) has been investigated. After chemical cleaning process of boron doped H-Si crystals, Al metal was coated on the one surface of crystals by thermal evaporation and fast green organic materials were coated on other surface of crystals with spin coating method (coating parameters; 800 rpm for 60 s). Finally, Ni metal was coated on Fast Green by sputtering and we obtained the Ni/Fast Green FCF/n-Si/Al Schottky type diode. And then we calculated the basic diode parameters of device with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance- voltage (C-V) measurements at the room temperature. We calculated the ideality factory (n), barrier height (Φb) of rectifing contact from I-V measurements using thermionic emission methods. Furthermore, we calculated ideality factory (n), barrier height (Φb) and series resistance (Rs) of device using Cheung and Norde functions too. The diffusion potential, barrier height, Fermi energy level and donor concentration have been determined from the linear 1/C2-V curves at reverse bias, at room temperature and various frequencies. Besides we measured the current-voltage (I-V) at under light and analyzed the characteristics of the solar cell device.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of Pd/Cu doped ZnO/Si and Ni/Cu doped ZnO/Si Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Lucky; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta [Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Chakrabarti, P., E-mail: pchakrabarti.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, fabrication and characterization of copper doped ZnO (Cu doped ZnO) based Schottky devices have been reported. Cu doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on p-Si (100) samples by the sol-gel spin coating method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been done in order to evaluate the structural and morphological properties of the film. The optical properties of the film have been determined by using variable angle ellipsometry. Further, Seebeck measurement of the deposited Cu doped ZnO film leads to positive Seebeck coefficient confirming the p-type conductivity of the sample. The resistivity and acceptor concentration of the film has also been evaluated using four probe measurement system. Pd and Ni metals have been deposited on separate Cu doped ZnO thin film samples using low cost thermal evaporation method to form Schottky contacts. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode has been performed by semiconductor device analyzer (SDA). Electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, reverse saturation current and rectification ratio have also been determined for the as-prepared Schottky diode using conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung's method. - Highlights: • Fabrication of sol-gel derived Cu doped ZnO (p-type) Schottky contact proposed. • The p-type Conductivity of the sample confirmed by Seebeck Measurement. • Pd and Ni deposited on Cu doped ZnO film to form Schottky contacts. • Cu doped ZnO expected to emerge as a potential material for thin film solar cells.

  11. Fabrication of polymer Schottky diode with Al-PANI/MWCNT-Au structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Hajibadali; M Baghaei nejhad; GH Farzi

    2014-01-01

    .... Finally, a thin layer of aluminum was coated on polymer layer. The current-voltage characteristics of diode were studied and found that I-V curve is nonlinear and nonsymmetrical, showing rectifying behavior...

  12. The effect of high temperatures on the electrical characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunhuma, S. M.; Auret, F. D.; Legodi, M. J.; Diale, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes have been measured over a wide temperature range, 80-480 K. The diodes were rectifying throughout the range and showed good thermal stability. Room temperature values for the ideality factor, I-V barrier height and C-V barrier height were found to be n=1.10, ϕIV=0.85 eV and ϕCV=0.96 eV, respectively. ϕIV increases and n decreases with an increase in temperature. We investigated the effect of elevated temperatures on the barrier height and ideality factor by measuring the diodes at a high temperature (annealing mode) then immediately afterwards measuring at room temperature (post annealing mode). The measurements indicate I-V characteristics that degrade permanently above 300 K. Permanent changes to the C-V characteristics were observed only above 400 K. We also noted a discrepancy in the C-V barrier height and carrier concentration between 340 and 400 K, which we attribute to the influence of the EL2 defect (positioned 0.83 eV below the conduction band minima) on the free carrier density. Consequently, we were able to fit the ϕCV versus temperature curve into two regions with temperature coefficients -6.9×10-4 eV/K and -2.2×10-4 eV/K above and below 400 K.

  13. Junction characteristics of ITO/PANI-ZnS/Ag and ITO/PANI-CdS/Ag Schottky diodes: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S. K.; Baglari, S.; Sarkar, D.

    2016-01-01

    Schottky junctions are constructed by depositing PANI-ZnS and PANI-CdS nanocomposite thin films on ITO electrodes. Current-voltage ( I- V) measurements of these systems are performed as a function of temperature in the range of 313-363 K. These junctions show Schottky diode nature. Various parameters, such as saturation current ( I 0), ideality factor ( n), barrier height ( ∅ 0) and series resistance ( R S), are calculated from diode characteristics relations. These parameters show strong temperature dependence. The values of I 0 and ∅ increase with increasing temperature, whereas the values of n and R S show decreasing trend. A Richardson plot of the data shows nonlinear behaviour with Richardson constant 76 and 45 A cm-2 K-2 for PANI-ZnS and PANI-CdS nanocomposite thin films, respectively.

  14. Temperature dependence of current-and capacitance-voltage characteristics of an Au/4H-SiC Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülnahar, Murat

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of an Au/4H-SiC Schottky diode are characterized as a function of the temperature in 50-300 K temperature range. The experimental parameters such as ideality factor and apparent barrier height presents to be strongly temperature dependent, that is, the ideality factor increases and the apparent barrier height decreases with decreasing temperature, whereas the barrier height values increase with the temperature for C-V data. Likewise, the Richardson plot deviates at low temperatures. These anomaly behaviors observed for Au/4H-SiC are attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities. The barrier anomaly which relates to interface of Au/4H-SiC is also confirmed by the C-V measurements versus the frequency measured in 300 K and it is interpreted by both Tung's lateral inhomogeneity model and multi-Gaussian distribution approach. The values of the weighting coefficients, standard deviations and mean barrier height are calculated for each distribution region of Au/4H-SiC using the multi-Gaussian distribution approach. In addition, the total effective area of the patches NAe is obtained at separate temperatures and as a result, it is expressed that the low barrier regions influence meaningfully to the current transport at the junction. The homogeneous barrier height value is calculated from the correlation between the ideality factor and barrier height and it is noted that the values of standard deviation from ideality factor versus q/3kT curve are in close agreement with the values obtained from the barrier height versus q/2kT variation. As a result, it can be concluded that the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of Au/4H-SiC can be successfully commented on the basis of the thermionic emission theory with both models.

  15. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of Au/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes and the effect of transition metal oxides as an interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Somnath; Puigdollers, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Temperature dependent current-voltage (I‒V) characteristics of Au/n-type silicon (n-Si) Schottky barrier diodes have been investigated. Three transition metal oxides (TMO) are used as an interface layer between gold and silicon. The basic Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕb 0) and series resistance (Rs) are calculated and successfully explained by the thermionic emission (TE) theory. It has been found that ideality factor decreased and barrier height increased with increased of temperature. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) vs. 1000/T is determined the activation energy (Ea) and Richardson constant (A*). Whereas value of 'A*' is much smaller than the known theoretical value of n-type Si. The temperature dependent I-V characteristics obtained the mean value of barrier height (ϕb 0 bar) and standard deviation (σs) from the linear plot of ϕap vs. 1000/T. From the modified Richardson plot of ln(I0/T2) ˗ (qσ)2/2(kT)2 vs. 1000/T gives Richardson constant and homogeneous barrier height of Schottky diodes. Main observation in this present work is the barrier height and ideality factor shows a considerable change but the series resistance value exhibits negligible change due to TMO as an interface layer.

  16. Microstructural and electrical properties of Al/n-type Si Schottky diodes with Au-CuPc nanocomposite films as interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. R. Sekhar; Janardhanam, V.; Jyothi, I.; Chang, Han-Soo; Lee, Sung-Nam; Lee, Myung Sun; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2017-11-01

    Au-CuPc nanocomposite films were prepared by simultaneous evaporation of Au and CuPc with various Au and CuPc concentrations. Microstructural analysis of Au-CuPc films revealed elongated Au cluster formation from isolated Au nanoclusters with increasing Au concentration associated with coalescence of Au clusters. Au-CuPc films with different compositions were employed as interlayer in Al/n-Si Schottky diode. Barrier height and series resistance of the Al/n-Si Schottky diode with Au-CuPc interlayer decreased with increasing Au concentration. This could be associated with the enhancement of electron tunneling between neighboring clusters due to decrease in spacing of Au clusters and formation of conducting paths through the composite material. Interface state density of the Al/n-Si Schottky diode with Au-CuPc interlayer increased with increasing Au concentration. This might be because the inclusion of metal decreases the crystallinity and crystal size of the polymer matrix accompanied by the formation of local defect sites at the places of metal nucleation.

  17. Electronic parameters of high barrier Au/Rhodamine-101/n-Inp Schottky diode with organic Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nterlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guellue, Oe. [Batman University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Aydogan, S., E-mail: saydogan@atauni.edu.tr [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Tueruet, A. [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present that Rhodamine-101 (Rh-101) organic molecules can control the electrical characteristics of conventional Au/n-InP metal-semiconductor contacts. An Au/n-InP Schottky junction with Rh-101 interlayer has been formed by using a simple cast process. A potential barrier height as high as 0.88 eV has been achieved for Au/Rh-101/n-InP Schottky diodes, which have good current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. This good performance is attributed to the effect of formation of interfacial organic thin layer between Au and n-InP. By using capacitance-voltage measurement of the Au/Rh-101/n-InP Schottky diode the diffusion potential and the barrier height have been calculated as 0.78 V and 0.88 eV, respectively. From the I-V measurement of the diode under illumination, short circuit current and open circuit voltage have been extracted as 1.70 {mu}A and 240 mV, respectively.

  18. Characterisation of temperature dependent parameters of multi-quantum well (MQW) Ti/Au/n-AlGaAs/n-GaAs/n-AlGaAs Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Walid; Sengouga, Nouredine; Oussalah, Slimane; Mari, Riaz H.; Jameel, Dler; Al Saqri, Noor Alhuda; Aziz, Mohsin; Taylor, David; Henini, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Forward and reverse current-voltage (Isbnd V) of Ti/Au/n-Al0.33Ga0.67As/n-GaAs/n-Al0.33Ga0.67As multi-quantum well (MQW) Schottky diodes were measured over a range of temperatures from 20 to 400 K by a step of 20 K. The Schottky diodes parameters were then extracted from these characteristics. The Cheung method is used for this purpose, assuming a thermionic conduction mechanism. The extracted ideality factor decrease with increasing temperatures. But their values at low temperatures were found to be unrealistic. In order to explain this uncertainty, three assumptions were explored. Firstly an assumed inhomogeneous barrier height gave better parameters especially the Richardson constant but the ideality factor is still unrealistic at low temperatures. Secondly, by using numerical simulation, it was demonstrated that defects including interface states are not responsible for the apparent unrealistic Schottky diode parameters. The third assumption is the tunnelling mechanism through the barrier in the low temperature range. At these lower temperatures, the tunnelling mechanism was more suitable to explain the extracted parameters values.

  19. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  20. The effect of annealing temperature on the electrical characterization of Co/n type GaP Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orak, İ., E-mail: ikramorak@gmail.com [Vocational School of Health Services, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Ejderha, K. [Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Sönmez, E. [Department of Physics, Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey); Alanyalıoğlu, M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Turut, A. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Engineering Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34730 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The Co/n-GaP nano-Schottky diodes have been fabricated to investigate effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the device. DC Magnetron sputtering technique has been used for Co metallic contact. The samples have been annealed for three minutes at 400 °C and 600 °C. XRD analyzes of the devices subjected to thermal annealing process have been investigated. Surface images have been taken with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to examine the morphology of the surface of the metal layer before and after the annealing the sample. The current–voltage (I–V) measurements taken at room temperature have shown that the ideality factor and series resistance decrease with the increasing annealing temperature. The ideality factor was found to be 1.02 for sample annealed at 400 °C. Before and after annealing, depending on the temperature measurement, the capacitance–frequency (C–f), and conductance–frequency (G–f) have been measured, and graphs have been plotted.

  1. Investigation of diode parameters using I-V and C-V characteristics of In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueksel, O.F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Selcuk University, Kampus, Konya 42075 (Turkey)], E-mail: fyuksel@selcuk.edu.tr; Selcuk, A.B.; Ocak, S.B. [PK, 14 Etlik, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-08-01

    A study on interface states density distribution and characteristic parameters of the In/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) capacitor has been made. The thickness of the SiO{sub 2} film obtained from the measurement of the corrected capacitance in the strong accumulation region for MIS Schottky diodes was 220 A. The diode parameters from the forward bias I-V characteristics such as ideality factor, series resistance and barrier heights were found to be 1.75, 106-112 {omega} and 0.592 eV, respectively. The energy distribution of the interface state density D{sub it} was determined from the forward bias I-V characteristics by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height. The interface state density obtained using the I-V characteristics had an exponential growth, with bias towards the top of the valance band, from 9.44x10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} in 0.329-E{sub v} eV to 1.11x10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} in 0.527-E{sub v} eV at room temperature. Furthermore, the values of interface state density D{sub it} obtained by the Hill-Coleman method from the C-V characteristics range from 52.9x10{sup 13} to 1.11x10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at a frequency range of 30kHz-1 MHz. These values of D{sub it} and R{sub s} were responsible for the non-ideal behaviour of I-V and C-V characteristics.

  2. High-Performance Schottky Diode Gas Sensor Based on the Heterojunction of Three-Dimensional Nanohybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Vertical ZnO Nanorods on an AlGaN/GaN Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Triet, Nguyen; Thai Duy, Le; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Hanif, Adeela; Siddiqui, Saqib; Park, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Chu-Young; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-09-13

    A Schottky diode based on a heterojunction of three-dimensional (3D) nanohybrid materials, formed by hybridizing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with epitaxial vertical zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) and Al0.27GaN0.73(∼25 nm)/GaN is presented as a new class of high-performance chemical sensors. The RGO nanosheet layer coated on the ZnO NRs enables the formation of a direct Schottky contact with the AlGaN layer. The sensing results of the Schottky diode with respect to NO2, SO2, and HCHO gases exhibit high sensitivity (0.88-1.88 ppm-1), fast response (∼2 min), and good reproducibility down to 120 ppb concentration levels at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the Schottky diode can be explained by the effective modulation of the reverse saturation current due to the change in thermionic emission carrier transport caused by ultrasensitive changes in the Schottky barrier of a van der Waals heterostructure between RGO and AlGaN layers upon interaction with gas molecules. Advances in the design of a Schottky diode gas sensor based on the heterojunction of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas channel and highly responsive 3D-engineered sensing nanomaterials have potential not only for the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity but also for improving operation capability at room temperature.

  3. Temperature dependent forward current-voltage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures described by a two diodes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giuseppe; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the temperature dependence of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The electrical properties of the Schottky barrier were monitored by means of forward current-voltage (I-V) measurements, while capacitance-voltage measurements were used to determine the properties of the two dimensional electron gas. The forward I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes revealed a strong deviation from the ideal behavior, which could not be explained by a standard thermionic emission model. Thus, the Ni/AlGaN/GaN system has been described by a "two diode model," considering the presence of a second barrier height at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. Following this approach, the anomalous I-V curves could be explained and the value of the flat-band barrier height (at zero-electric field) could be correctly determined, thus resulting in good agreement with literature data based on photoemission measurements.

  4. Roles of lightly doped carbon in the drift layers of vertical n-GaN Schottky diode structures on freestanding GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Kaneda, Naoki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Kihara, Yuhei; Aoki, Toshichika; Shiojima, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    We studied the roles of lightly doped carbon in a series of n-GaN Schottky diode epitaxial structures on freestanding GaN substrates, and evaluated the effects of the doping on diode performances. A large variation of compensation ratio was observed for carbon doping at (1-2) × 1016 cm-3. A model was proposed to explain this phenomenon, in which a vulnerable balance between donor-type CGa and deep acceptor CN strongly affected the free-carrier generation. Application of Norde plots and reverse biased leakage current in current-voltage measurements suggested provisional optimization for a free-carrier concentration of 8 × 1015 cm-3 to achieve a tradeoff between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the n-GaN diodes.

  5. Electroluminescence from a forward-biased Schottky barrier diode on modulation Si {delta}-doped GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinski, Adam; Witczak, P.; Twardowski, A.; Baranowski, J. M.

    2001-06-18

    Electroluminescence (EL) from a forward-biased Schottky barrier diode on modulation Si {delta}-doped pseudomorphic GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with high mobility electron gas is investigated in this work. It has been found that the EL from the InGaAs quantum well can be observed at temperatures up to 90 K. The EL line shape depends on the current density, which reflects the filling of the InGaAs channel with electrons. The total integrated EL intensity depends linearly on the current density. We propose that hole diffusion from an inversion layer at the Schottky barrier is responsible for the observed optical recombination with electrons in the InGaAs quantum well. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Schottky Diodes and Thin Films Based on Copolymer: Poly(aniline-co-toluidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elmansouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(aniline-co-o-toluidine (PANI-co-POT thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide- (ITO- coated glass substrates by electrochemical polymerization under cyclic voltammetric conditions from aniline-co-o-toluidine monomer in an aqueous solution of HCl as a supporting electrolyte. These measurements showed that the optical band gap of the copolymer films is on the order of 2.65 eV. On the other hand, ITO/PANI-co-POT/Al devices were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Aluminum circular electrodes on the as-deposited PANI-co-POT films. The Current-Voltage characteristics of these devices are nonlinear. The diode parameters were calculated from I-V characteristics using the modified Shockley equation. The C-F characteristics were also measured.

  7. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  8. Ultra Wideband Signal Detection with a Schottky Diode Based Envelope Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva

    its interoperability with existing wireless services and its license free operation. The latter is conditioned on meeting a number of standards and regulations for maximum radiated powers, designed to ensure the former by defining uwb signals as signals with large bandwidths in the frequency range...... of 2.85 GHz to 10.6 GHz and low power spectral density radio frequency (rf) emission. The use of such low power levels ensures non-problematic coexistence with other already deployed wireless technologies – e.g. WiFi, GPS and mobile services – and allows deployment in environments sensitive to rf...

  9. Effects of 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation on the electrical properties of nickel Schottky diodes on 4H–SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omotoso, E. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Paradzah, A.T.; Diale, M.; Coelho, S.M.M.; Janse van Rensburg, P.J.; Ngoepe, P.N.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    Current–voltage, capacitance–voltage and conventional deep level transient spectroscopy at temperature ranges from 40 to 300 K have been employed to study the influence of alpha-particle irradiation from an {sup 241}Am source on Ni/4H–SiC Schottky contacts. The nickel Schottky barrier diodes were resistively evaporated on n-type 4H–SiC samples of doping density of 7.1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. It was observed that radiation damage caused an increase in ideality factors of the samples from 1.04 to 1.07, an increase in Schottky barrier height from 1.25 to 1.31 eV, an increase in series resistance from 48 to 270 Ω but a decrease in saturation current density from 55 to 9 × 10{sup −12} A m{sup −2} from I–V plots at 300 K. The free carrier concentration of the sample decreased slightly after irradiation. Conventional DLTS showed peaks due to four deep levels for as-grown and five deep levels after irradiation. The Richardson constant, as determined from a modified Richardson plot assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights for the as-grown and irradiated samples were 133 and 151 A cm{sup −2} K{sup −2}, respectively. These values are similar to literature values.

  10. Simulation design of high reverse blocking high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyuan; Du, Jiangfeng; Xin, Qi; Li, Ruonan; Yu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel high-K/low-K compound passivation AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode (CPG-SBD) is proposed to improve the off-state characteristics of AlGaN/GaN schottky barrier diode with gated edge termination (GET-SBD) by adding low-K blocks in to the high-K passivation layer. The reverse leakage current of CPG-SBD can be reduced to 1.6 nA/mm by reducing the thickness of high-K dielectric under GET region to 5 nm, while the forward voltage and on-state resistance keep 1 V and 3.8 Ω mm, respectively. Breakdown voltage of CPG-SBDs can be improved by inducing discontinuity of the electric field at the high-K/low-K interface. The breakdown voltage of the optimized CPG-SBD with 4 blocks of low-K can reach 1084 V with anode to cathode distance of 5 μm yielding a high FOM of 5.9 GW/cm2. From the C-V simulation results, CPG-SBDs induce no parasitic capacitance by comparison of the GET-SBDs.

  11. Wavelength-dependent visible light response in vertically aligned nanohelical TiO2-based Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyunah; Sung, Ji Ho; Lee, Yuna; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Enhancements in photocatalytic performance under visible light have been reported by noble metal functionalization on nanostructured TiO2; however, the non-uniform and discrete distribution of metal nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface makes it difficult to directly clarify the optical and electrical mechanisms. Here, we investigate the light absorption and the charge separation at the metal/TiO2 Schottky junctions by using a unique device architecture with an array of TiO2 nanohelixes (NHs) forming Schottky junctions both with Au-top and Pt-bottom electrodes. Wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements through the Pt/TiO2 NHs/Au structures revealed that the origin of the visible light absorption and the separation of photogenerated carriers is the internal photoemission at the metal/nanostructured TiO2 Schottky junctions. In addition, a huge persistent photoconductivity was observed by the time-dependent photocurrent measurement, implying a long lifetime of the photogenerated carriers before recombination. We believe that the results help one to understand the role of metal functionalization on TiO2 and hence to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency by utilizing appropriately designed Schottky junctions.

  12. Determination of the laterally homogeneous barrier height of palladium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (111)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chawanda, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available .5×1015 cm-3. The Pd Schottky contacts were fabricated by vacuum resistive evaporation. The electrical analysis of the contacts was investigated by means of current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements at a temperature of 296 K...

  13. Nano-scale NiSi and n-type silicon based Schottky barrier diode as a near infra-red detector for room temperature operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S. [Centre for Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Midya, K.; Duttagupta, S. P., E-mail: sdgupta@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Ramakrishnan, D. [Department of Earth Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-09-28

    The fabrication of nano-scale NiSi/n-Si Schottky barrier diode by rapid thermal annealing process is reported. The characterization of the nano-scale NiSi film was performed using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the film (27 nm) has been measured by cross-sectional Secondary Electron Microscopy and XPS based depth profile method. Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics show an excellent rectification ratio (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} = 10⁵) at a bias voltage of ±1 V. The diode ideality factor is 1.28. The barrier height was also determined independently based on I–V (0.62 eV) and high frequency capacitance–voltage technique (0.76 eV), and the correlation between them has explained. The diode photo-response was measured in the range of 1.35–2.5 μm under different reverse bias conditions (0.0–1.0 V). The response is observed to increase with increasing reverse bias. From the photo-responsivity study, the zero bias barrier height was determined to be 0.54 eV.

  14. Impacts of growth orientation and N incorporation on the interface-states and the electrical characteristics of Cu/GaAsN Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Han, Xiuxun; Li, Jian; Gao, Xin; Ohshita, Yoshio

    2017-12-01

    The frequency dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with Cu contacts on Si doped GaAsN epilayers with (100) and (311)A/B orientations have been investigated in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 1 MHz at room temperature. C, G/ω and the deduced series resistance (Rs) show strong dependences on the applied frequency in the forward bias region, which is closely correlated to the frequency-dependent response of interface states (Nss). In GaAsN SBDs with all three growth orientations, the increasing N composition is found to increase the peak value of capacitance and enhance its dependence on frequency, which thus implies a general rule that increasing N incorporation causes an increase in Nss. The increasing extent of Nss due to N incorporation, however, differs a lot for different growth orientations as analyzed by using Hill-Coleman method. It is revealed that (311)B is the promising growth orientation to suppress the Nss generation over a wider N composition range in GaAsN Schottky devices. The reduced formation probability of non-substitutional N due to the efficient N incorporation on the (311)B plane is considered to be responsible for the observations.

  15. The Fabrication and Characterization of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode Radiation Detectors with a Sensitive Area of up to 4 cm2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yue Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC detectors of an Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diode structure and with sensitive areas of 1–4 cm2 were fabricated using high-quality lightly doped epitaxial 4H-SiC material, and were tested in the detection of alpha particles and pulsed X-rays/UV-light. A linear energy response to alpha particles ranging from 5.157 to 5.805 MeV was obtained. The detectors were proved to have a low dark current, a good energy resolution, and a high neutron/gamma discrimination for pulsed radiation, showing the advantages in charged particle detection and neutron detection in high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

  16. Real-time continuous-wave terahertz line scanner based on a compact 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Kim, Namje; Lee, Won-Hui; Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Wangjoo; Han, Seong-Tae; Choi, Sung-Wook; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate real-time continuous-wave terahertz (THz) line-scanned imaging based on a 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with a scan velocity of 25 cm/s, a scan line length of 12 cm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm². Foreign substances, such as a paper clip with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm that is hidden under a cracker, are clearly detected by this THz line-scanning system. The system consists of the SBD array detector, a 200-GHz gyrotron source, a conveyor system, and several optical components such as a high-density polyethylene cylindrical lens, metal cylindrical mirror, and THz wire-grid polarizer. Using the THz polarizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the SBD array detector improves because the quality of the source beam is enhanced.

  17. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    in conjunction with optical coherence tomography, two-photon microscopy or coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In order to provide high-power green diode laser emission, nonlinear frequency conversion of state-of-the-art near-infrared diode lasers represents a necessary means. However, the obtained....... The underlying principle is spectral beam combining of multiple, comparable diode lasers with subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion. In the former approach multiple lasers are incoherently combined with an external optical component. With two 1062 nm tapered diode lasers and a reflecting volume Bragg grating...

  18. Development of a high-voltage waveguide photodetector comprised of Schottky diodes and based on the Ge-Si structure with Ge quantum dots for portable thermophotovoltaic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhanov, N. A.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Yakimov, A. I.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    This paper demontstrates the possibility of developing a high-voltage waveguide photodetector comprised of Schottky diodes and based on a Au/Ge — Si structure with Ge quantum dots pseudomorphic to a silicon matrix, which ensures an increase in the external quantum yield and open-circuit voltage. It is shown on this photodetector that there is a great increase and broadening in sensitivity up to λ = 2.1 μm, which coincides with the main radiation range of a black (gray) body at the emitter temperatures from 1200 to 1700 °C, practically used in thermophotovoltaic converters. This state of the ensemble of Ge quantum dots by means of molecular beam epitaxy can be obtained only under the condition of low growth temperature (250-300 °C). It is established that, below the Si absorption edge, photoresponse on the photodetectors under consideration is determined by two main mechanisms: absorption on the ensemble of Ge quantum dots and Fowler emission. It is shown by the analysis of the Raman scattering spectra on the optical photons of Ge-Si structures that the quantum efficiency of photodetectors based on them in the first case is due to the degree of nonuniform stress relaxation in the array of Ge quantum dots. The photoresponse directly associated with the Ge quantum dots is manifested on Schottky diodes with a superthin intermediate oxide layer SiO2, which eliminates the second mechanism. In further development, the proposed photodetector architecture with pseudomorphic Ge quantum dots can be used both for portable thermophotovoltaic converters and fiber-optic data transmission systems at wavelengths corresponding to basic telecommunication standards (λ = 0.85, 1.3 and 1.55, 1.3, and 1.55 μm) on the basis of silicon technologies.

  19. Self-powered flexible and transparent photovoltaic detectors based on CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Jin, Weifeng; Zhou, Yu; Dai, Yu; Yu, Bin; Liu, Chu; Xu, Wanjin; Li, Yanping; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan; Dai, Lun

    2013-05-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic and optoelectronic devices have attracted more and more research interest due to their potential applications in developing portable, wearable, low-cost, and implantable devices. We have fabricated and studied high-performance flexible and transparent CdSe nanobelt (NB)/graphene Schottky junction self-powered photovoltaic detectors for the first time. Under 633 nm light illumination, typical photosensitivity and responsivity of the devices are about 1.2 × 105 and 8.7 A W-1, respectively. Under 3500 Hz switching frequency, the response and recovery times of them are about 70 and 137 μs, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the best reported values for nanomaterial based Schottky junction photodetectors up to date. The detailed properties of the photodetectors, such as the influences of incident light wavelength and light intensity on the external quantum efficiency and speed, are also investigated. Detailed discussions are made in order to understand the observed phenomena. Our work demonstrates that the self-powered flexible and transparent CdSe NB/graphene Schottky junction photovoltaic detectors have a bright application prospect.Flexible and transparent electronic and optoelectronic devices have attracted more and more research interest due to their potential applications in developing portable, wearable, low-cost, and implantable devices. We have fabricated and studied high-performance flexible and transparent CdSe nanobelt (NB)/graphene Schottky junction self-powered photovoltaic detectors for the first time. Under 633 nm light illumination, typical photosensitivity and responsivity of the devices are about 1.2 × 105 and 8.7 A W-1, respectively. Under 3500 Hz switching frequency, the response and recovery times of them are about 70 and 137 μs, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the best reported values for nanomaterial based Schottky junction photodetectors up to date. The detailed

  20. Effect of different diode laser powers in photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary photodynamic therapy study investigated the effect of different diode laser powers (mW) for the activation of two photosensitizers (AlTSPc, aluminum tetrasulfonatedphthalocyanine and ZnTSPc, zinc tetrasulfonatedphthalocyanine...

  1. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  2. High Power Diode Lasers with External Feedback: Overview and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    In summary, different external-cavity feedback techniques to improve the spatial beam quality and narrow the linewidth of the output beam from both BALs and TDLs are presented. Broad-area diode laser system with external-cavity feedback around 800 nm can produce several Watts of output power...... with a good beam quality. Tapered diode laser systems with external-cavity feedback around 800 and 1060 nm can deliver more than 2 W output power with diffraction-limited beam quality and can be operated in single-longitudinal mode. These high-brightness, narrow linewidth, and tunable external-cavity diode...

  3. High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 μs combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

  4. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  5. High power diode laser Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier (MOPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John R.; Mouroulis, P.; Wicks, G.

    1994-01-01

    High power multiple quantum well AlGaAs diode laser master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) systems were examined both experimentally and theoretically. For two pass operation, it was found that powers in excess of 0.3 W per 100 micrometers of facet length were achievable while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. Internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies as high as 25 percent were observed at an internal amplifier gain of 9 dB. Theoretical modeling of multiple quantum well amplifiers was done using appropriate rate equations and a heuristic model of the carrier density dependent gain. The model gave a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the model allowed exploration of a wider design space for the amplifiers. The model predicted that internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in excess of 50 percent should be achievable with careful system design. The model predicted that no global optimum design exists, but gain, efficiency, and optical confinement (coupling efficiency) can be mutually adjusted to meet a specific system requirement. A three quantum well, low optical confinement amplifier was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial growth. Coherent beam combining of two high power amplifiers injected from a common master oscillator was also examined. Coherent beam combining with an efficiency of 93 percent resulted in a single beam having diffraction-limited characteristics. This beam combining efficiency is a world record result for such a system. Interferometric observations of the output of the amplifier indicated that spatial mode matching was a significant factor in the less than perfect beam combining. Finally, the system issues of arrays of amplifiers in a coherent beam combining system were investigated. Based upon experimentally observed parameters coherent beam combining could result in a megawatt-scale coherent beam with a 10 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  6. Power blue and green laser diodes and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Thomas; Strauß, Uwe; Eichler, Christoph; Vierheilig, Clemens; Tautz, Sönke; Brüderl, Georg; Stojetz, Bernhard; Wurm, Teresa; Avramescu, Adrian; Somers, André; Ristic, Jelena; Gerhard, Sven; Lell, Alfred; Morgott, Stefan; Mehl, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    InGaN based green laser diodes with output powers up to 50mW are now well established for variety of applications ranging from leveling to special lighting effects and mobile projection of 12lm brightness. In future the highest market potential for visible single mode profile lasers might be laser projection of 20lm. Therefore direct green single-mode laser diodes with higher power are required. We found that self heating was the limiting factor for higher current operation. We present power-current characteristics of improved R and D samples with up to 200mW in cw-operation. An optical output power of 100mW is reached at 215mA, a current level which is suitable for long term operation. Blue InGaN laser diodes are also the ideal source for phosphor based generation of green light sources of high luminance. We present a light engine based on LARP (Laser Activated Remote Phosphor) which can be used in business projectors of several thousand lumens on screen. We discuss the advantages of a laser based systems in comparison with LED light engines. LARP requires highly efficient blue power laser diodes with output power above 1W. Future market penetration of LARP will require lower costs. Therefore we studied new designs for higher powers levels. R and D chips with power-current characteristics up to 4W in continuous wave operation on C-mount at 25°C are presented.

  7. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  8. Atomic composition of WC/ and Zr/O-terminated diamond Schottky interfaces close to ideality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Araújo, D. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Fiori, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Traoré, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Villar, M.P. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Eon, D.; Muret, P.; Pernot, J. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Teraji, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal/O-terminated diamond interfaces are analyzed by a variety of TEM techniques. • Thermal treatment is shown to modify structural and chemical interface properties. • Electrical behavior vs annealing is shown to be related with interface modification. • Interfaces are characterized with atomic resolution to probe inhomogeneities. • Oxide formation and modification is demonstrated in both Schottky diodes. - Abstract: Electrical and nano-structural properties of Zr and WC-based Schottky power diodes are compared and used for investigating oxide-related effects at the diamond/metal interface. Differences in Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors of both structures are shown to be related with the modification of the oxygen-terminated diamond/metal interface configuration. Oxide formation, oxide thickness variations and interfacial oxygen redistribution, associated with thermal treatment are demonstrated. Ideality factors close to ideality (n{sub WC} = 1.02 and n{sub Zr} = 1.16) are obtained after thermal treatment and are shown to be related with the relative oxygen content at the surface (OCR{sub WC} = 3.03 and OCR{sub Zr} = 1.5). Indeed, thermal treatment at higher temperatures is shown to promote an escape of oxygen for the case of the WC diode, while it generates a sharper accumulation of oxygen at the metal/diamond interface for the case of Zr diode. Therefore, the metal-oxygen affinity is shown to be a key parameter to improve diamond-based Schottky diodes.

  9. Monolithic watt-level millimeter-wave diode-grid frequency tripler array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, R. J.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Rutledge, D. B.; Hancock, B.; Lieneweg, U.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide watt-level CW output power throughout the millimeter and submillimeter wave region, thousands of solid-state diodes have been monolithically integrated using a metal grid to produce a highly efficient frequency multiplier. Devices considered include GaAs Schottky diodes, thin MOS diodes, and GaAs Barrier-Intrinsic-N(+)diodes. The performance of the present compact low-cost device has been theoretically and experimentally validated.

  10. Recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation on electrical degradation in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Mingmin [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gao, Bo [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin1234@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the phenomenon that the recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation can partially recovery damage with more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} is investigated by the degradation of the electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with swift heavy ion irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements clearly indicated that E{sub 0.62} defect induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, which was a recombination center, could result in the increase of reverse leakage current (I{sub R}) at fluence less than 1 × 10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2} and the recovery of I{sub R} at fluence more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} in 4H-SiC SBD. The variation tendency of I{sub R} is consisted with the change of E{sub 0.62} defect. Furthermore, it is reasonable explanation that the damage or defect formed at low fluence in SiC may be recovered by further swift heavy ion irradiation with high fluence, which is due to the melting with the ion tracks of the amorphous zones through a thermal spike and subsequent epitaxial recrystallization initiated from the neighboring crystalline regions.

  11. The determination of the interface state density distribution of the Al/methyl red/p-Si Schottky barrier diode by using a capacitance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilicoglu, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, University of Dicle, Diyarbakir 21280 (Turkey)]. E-mail: tahsin@dicle.edu.tr; Aydin, M.E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, University of Dicle, Diyarbakir 21280 (Turkey); Ocak, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, University of Dicle, Diyarbakir 21280 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Al/methyl red/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) have been fabricated by adding a solution of the non-polymeric organic compound methyl red in chloroform on top of p-Si substrates, and then evaporating the solvent. The electronic and interface state density distribution properties were obtained from the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics (high and low frequency) of Al/methyl red/p-Si SBD at room temperature. The energy distribution of the interface state density located in the inorganic semiconductor band gap at the organic compound/inorganic semiconductor interface in the energy range from (0.675-E{sub v})eV to (0.783-E{sub v})eV has been determined. In addition, the interface state density N{sub ss} range from 6.12x10{sup 13}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} in (0.675-E{sub v})eV to 4.31x10{sup 12}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} in (0.783-E{sub v})eV. The interface state density has an exponential rise with bias from the mid-gap towards the top of the valence band.

  12. Impact of doping on the performance of p-type Be-doped Al0.29 Ga0.71As Schottky diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorah A. Al-Ahmadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of changing the acceptors concentration on the electrical characteristics of Au/Ti on Be-doped Al0.29Ga0.71As Schottky contact have been investigated in the temperature range of 100–400 K. Using three devices with three different doping levels, the barrier height (ΦB, ideality factor (n and series resistance (RS for each diode were evaluated using both thermionic emission (TE theory and Cheung's method. Our experimental results showed that the sample with a moderate doping concentration of 3 × 1016 cm-3 has the best performance, including ideality factor of 1.25 and rectification ratio of 2.24 × 103 at room temperature. All samples showed an abnormal behavior of reducing ΦB and increasing n with increase of temperature. This behavior was attributed, in case of low concentration samples, to barrier inhomogeneity and was explained by assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface. While for the heavily doped sample, such non-ideal manner was ascribed with tunneling through the field emission (FE mechanism.

  13. Low-Temperature Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays by Chemical Bath Deposition for Schottky Diode Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaolin

    2015-04-01

    A well-aligned ZnO nanorod array (ZNRA) was successfully grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by chemical bath deposition at low temperature. The morphology, crystalline structure, transmittance spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of as-grown ZNRA were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results of these measurements showed that the ZNRA contained densely packed, aligned nanorods with diameters from 30 nm to 40 nm and a wurtzite structure. The ZNRA exhibited good optical transparency within the visible spectral range, with >80% transmission. Gold (Au) was deposited on top of the ZNRA, and the current-voltage characteristics of the resulting ITO/ZNRA/Au device in the dark were evaluated in detail. The ITO/ZNRA/Au device acted as a Schottky barrier diode with rectifying behaviour, low turn-on voltage (0.6 V), small reverse-bias saturation current (3.73 × 10-6 A), a high ideality factor (3.75), and a reasonable barrier height (0.65 V) between the ZNRA and Au.

  14. Vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan; Fischer, Arthur J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2017-03-14

    A vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode can hold off high voltages (kV's) when operated under reverse bias. The III-nitride device layers can be grown on a wider bandgap template layer and growth substrate, which can be removed by laser lift-off of the epitaxial device layers grown thereon.

  15. Radiation-resistant photostructure for Schottky diode based on Cr/In2Hg3Te6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ge, Si, InGaAs, GaInAsP photodiodes are used as optical radiation receivers and function in a spectral range of transparency of quartz fiberglass. For the optical systems operated in the increased radioactivity the photodetectors' application on In2Hg3Te6 crystal base characterized by a photosensitivity in the spectral range of 0,5-1,6 mm and also by increased radiation resistance to alpha, beta and gamma radiation is most acceptable. Schottky photodiode structure was designed on the base of this semiconductor formed by a modified floating zone recrystallization technique where the sedimentation effect was leveled. It consists of n-In2Hg3Te6 substrate and deposited by cathode sputtering Cr barrier layer of thickness within a range 10-11 nm choice of Cr is determined by its optimal optical, electric and adhesive features in high quality radiation-resistant photodiode structures manufacturing. Indium and nichrome are used as ohmic contacts. The barrier structures have the contact area of 1,13 mm2 with photo response of 0,6-1,6 mm at the maximal sensitivity 0,43 A/W on the wavelength l,55 mm. Reverse dark current of these structures do not exceed 4 mA at the bias of 1 V (T=295 K, and the potential barrier height is equal to 0,41 eV. The tests of radiation resistance of these structures demonstrated their ability to function at doses of 2⋅108 rem without evident parameters changes. This allows using them in practical aims in the conditions of high radiation.

  16. Response of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes to alpha-particle irradiation at different fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omotoso, E., E-mail: ezekiel.omotoso@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Departments of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Diale, M.; Ngoepe, P.N.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been carried out on 1.9×10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC at room temperature using 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation over a fluence ranges from 2.6×10{sup 10} to 9.2×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}. Current–voltage (I–V), capacitance–voltage (C–V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been carried out to study the change in characteristics of the devices and free carrier removal rate due to alpha-particle irradiation, respectively. As radiation fluence increases, the ideality factors increased from 1.20 to 1.85 but the Schottky barrier height (SBH{sub I–V}) decreased from 1.47 to 1.34 eV. Free carrier concentration, N{sub d} decreased with increasing fluence from 1.7×10{sup 16} to 1.1×10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} at approximately 0.70 μm depth. The reduction in N{sub d} shows that defects were induced during the irradiation and have effect on compensating the free carrier. The free carrier removal rate was estimated to be 6480±70 cm{sup −1}. Alpha-particle irradiation introduced two electron traps (E{sub 0.39} and E{sub 0.62}), with activation energies of 0.39±0.03 eV and 0.62±0.08 eV, respectively. The E{sub 0.39} as attribute related to silicon or carbon vacancy, while the E{sub 0.62} has the attribute of Z{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}.

  17. Calculation of the Electronic Parameters of an Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky Barrier Diode Influenced by Alpha Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maktuff Jaber Al-Ta'ii

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many types of materials such as inorganic semiconductors have been employed as detectors for nuclear radiation, the importance of which has increased significantly due to recent nuclear catastrophes. Despite the many advantages of this type of materials, the ability to measure direct cellular or biological responses to radiation might improve detector sensitivity. In this context, semiconducting organic materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA have been studied in recent years. This was established by studying the varying electronic properties of DNA-metal or semiconductor junctions when exposed to radiation. In this work, we investigated the electronics of aluminium (Al/DNA/silicon (Si rectifying junctions using their current-voltage (I-V characteristics when exposed to alpha radiation. Diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were determined for different irradiation times. The observed results show significant changes with exposure time or total dosage received. An increased deviation from ideal diode conditions (7.2 to 18.0 was observed when they were bombarded with alpha particles for up to 40 min. Using the conventional technique, barrier height values were observed to generally increase after 2, 6, 10, 20 and 30 min of radiation. The same trend was seen in the values of the series resistance (0.5889–1.423 Ω for 2–8 min. These changes in the electronic properties of the DNA/Si junctions could therefore be utilized in the construction of sensitive alpha particle detectors.

  18. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  19. Capacitance behavior of InAlN Schottky diodes in presence of large concentrations of shallow and deep states related to oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, M. A.; Lugani, L.; Taniyasu, Y.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-05-01

    The capacitance-voltage-temperature characteristics of nonintentionally doped In0.16Al0.84N/n+-GaN Schottky diodes were measured at 1 MHz and in the 90-400 K range. They are discussed in the framework of existing theories, which properly treat the Poisson's equation, especially near the edge of the space-charge region, the so-called transition region. The concentration of a shallow donor and of a deep DX-like center, previously reported, is properly determined. The key parameter to discuss the temperature dependence of the capacitance is the ratio between the frequency of the small ac modulating signal and the temperature-dependent emission rate associated to each level. The capacitance-voltage C-Va curves were successfully fitted using a three parameters expression over the full range of temperatures. The concentration of both shallow and deep levels exceeds a few 1018 cm-3. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling, we assign both levels to the dominant oxygen impurity. This result supports our previous assignment of the shallow donor to a substitutional oxygen atom on a nitrogen site and the deep state to an O-related DX center, naturally explaining its high concentration. The sluggish kinetics at low temperatures, associated to the large concentration of deep levels located near the transition region, is illustrated by hysteresis loops in the C-Va curves below 270 K. Furthermore, the contribution of free carriers to the capacitance is revealed below 150 K, when both shallow and deep donors cannot respond anymore due to an emission rate lower than the 1 MHz modulating frequency. Finally, the presence of a highly doped thin surface barrier, as already reported in other III-nitrides, finds further support.

  20. High-power diode lasers and their direct industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosen, Peter; Treusch, Hans-Georg; Haas, C. R.; Gardenier, U.; Weck, Manfred; Sinnhoff, V.; Kasperowski, S.; vor dem Esche, R.

    1995-04-01

    The paper summarizes activities of the two Fraunhofer-Institutes ILT and IPT concerning the development of high-power laser-diode stacks and their direct industrial applications. With microchannel coolers in copper technology and ultra-precision machined micro-optics a stack of 330 - 400 W total power with a maximum intensity of the focused beam of 2 104 W/cm2 has been built and tested in first applications. By further improvements of the lens-fabrication and -alignment technology as well as increase of the number of stacked diodes an output power in the kW-range and intensities up to about 105 W/cm2 shall be achieved in the near future. Applications of such laser sources in surface technology, in the processing of plastics, in laser-assisted machining and in brazing are discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Optical Power Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The heart of the driver board was an opamp , which operated off of the DAQ output voltage. The opamp created an isolated circuit with the power...then flowed from the power supply to the opamp to the UV LED. Each branch had a resistor and pin holes for electrical measurement in series with...with the available equipment. The oscilloscope could be used to show the trace and measure a voltage drop across a known resistance in line with the

  2. Effect of cooling on the efficiency of Schottky varactor frequency multipliers at millimeter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhi, Jyrki; Raiesanen, Antti; Erickson, Neal

    1992-01-01

    The efficiency of the Schottky diode multiplier can be increased by cooling the diode to 77 K. The main reason for better efficiency is the increased mobility of the free carriers. Because of that the series resistance decreases and a few dB higher efficiency can be expected at low input power levels. At high output frequencies and at high power levels, the current saturation decreases the efficiency of the multiplication. When the diode is cooled the maximum current of the diode increases and much more output power can be expected. There are also slight changes in the I-V characteristic and in the diode junction capacitance, but they have a negligible effect on the efficiency of the multiplier.

  3. High-power non linear frequency converted laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2015-01-01

    We present different methods of generating light in the blue-green spectral range by nonlinear frequency conversion of tapered diode lasers achieving state-of-the-art power levels. In the blue spectral range, we show results using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as cavity...... enhanced sum frequency generation (SFG) with watt-level output powers. SHG and SFG are also demonstrated in the green spectral range as a viable method to generate up to 4 W output power with high efficiency using different configurations....

  4. Effects of thermal cycling on aluminum metallization of power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Kristensen, Peter Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of aluminum metallization on top of power electronic chips is a well-known wear out phenomenon under power cycling conditions. However, the origins of reconstruction are still under discussion. In the current study, a method for carrying out passive thermal cycling of power diodes...... is controlled and the device is not subjected to a current load the observed degradation of metallization and corresponding increase of resistance is purely induced by thermo-mechanical stress. A correlation between number of cycles, micro-structural evolution, and sheet resistance is found and conclusions...

  5. Design and characterization of a novel power over fiber system integrating a high power diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsein; Zahuranec, Terry

    2017-02-01

    High power 9xx nm diode lasers along with MH GoPower's (MHGP's) flexible line of Photovoltaic Power Converters (PPCs) are spurring high power applications for power over fiber (PoF), including applications for powering remote sensors and sensors monitoring high voltage equipment, powering high voltage IGBT gate drivers, converters used in RF over Fiber (RFoF) systems, and system power applications, including powering UAVs. In PoF, laser power is transmitted over fiber, and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells (packaged into Photovoltaic Power Converters, or PPCs) which efficiently convert the laser light. In this research, we design a high power multi-channel PoF system, incorporating a high power 976 nm diode laser, a cabling system with fiber break detection, and a multichannel PPC-module. We then characterizes system features such as its response time to system commands, the PPC module's electrical output stability, the PPC-module's thermal response, the fiber break detection system response, and the diode laser optical output stability. The high power PoF system and this research will serve as a scalable model for those interested in researching, developing, or deploying a high power, voltage isolated, and optically driven power source for high reliability utility, communications, defense, and scientific applications.

  6. Using high-power light emitting diodes for photoacoustic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Skov

    The preliminary result of using a high-power light emitting diode, LED, for photoacoustic imaging is presented. The pulsed light source is created by a 1Watt red Luxeon LED. The LED delivers light pulses with 25W peak power when supplied by 40A peak, 60ns wide current pulses. The phantom used...... for the experiment consists of a 3mm high x 5mm wide slice of green colored gelatine overlaid by a 3cm layer of colorless gelatine. The light pulses from the LED is focused on the green gelatine. The photoacoustic response from the green gelatine is detected by a single transducer on the opposite (top) surface...

  7. Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth green external-cavity GaN diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system.......A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system....

  8. High-power pump diodes for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Braker, Joe; Stapleton, Dean; Alegria, Kim; Irwin, David

    2017-05-01

    DILAS offers a variety of high power pump diode lasers, optimized for different gain media. Systems optimized for DPAL pumping at 766nm will be discussed, including results demonstrating precise wavelength and spectral width control necessary to optimal overlap with atomic lines. In addition, pump modules optimized at 793 nm for Tm fiber laser pumping have been demonstrated, including a low SWaP module targeted for airborne applications. Lastly, DILAS' line of high-efficiency/low-SWaP pump at 976nm for Yb fiber laser will be presented. Starting with the 330W IS46 module, DILAS has demonstrated >53% efficiency, and has now increased brightness up to 625W from a 225 um/ 0.22 NA fiber. Developments towards a module with >900W output power will also be shown.

  9. Deep traps and temperature effects on the capacitance of p-type Si-doped GaAs Schottky diodes on (2 1 1) and (3 1 1) oriented GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaraf, R.; Sengouga, N.; Mari, R. H.; Meftah, Af.; Aziz, M.; Jameel, Dler; Al Saqri, Noor; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SILVACO-TCAD numerical simulator is used to explain the effect of different types of deep levels on the temperature dependence of the capacitance of p-type Si-doped GaAs Schottky diodes grown on high index GaAs substrates, namely (3 1 1)A and (2 1 1)A oriented GaAs substrates. For the (3 1 1)A diodes, the measured capacitance-temperature characteristics at different reverse biases show a large peak while the (2 1 1)A devices display a much smaller one. This peak is related to the presence of different types of deep levels in the two structures. These deep levels are characterized by the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. In the (3 1 1)A structure only majority deep levels (hole deep levels) were observed while both majority and minority deep levels were present in the (2 1 1)A diodes. The simulation software, which calculates the capacitance-voltage and the capacitance-temperature characteristics in the absence and presence of different types of deep levels, agrees well with the experimentally observed behavior of the capacitance-temperature properties. A further evidence to confirm that deep levels are responsible for the observed phenomenon is provided by a simulation of the capacitance-temperature characteristics as a function of the ac-signal frequency.

  10. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  11. Crystal defects observed by the etch-pit method and their effects on Schottky-barrier-diode characteristics on (\\bar{2}01) β-Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Makoto; Oshima, Takayoshi; Hanada, Kenji; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Oishi, Toshiyuki; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Ueda, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    A pixel array of vertical Schottky-barrier diodes (SBDs) was fabricated and measured on the surface of a (\\bar{2}01) β-Ga2O3 single crystal. Subsequently, etch pits and patterns were observed on the same surface. Three types of etch pits were discovered: (1) a line-shaped etch pattern originating from a void and extending toward the [010] direction, (2) an arrow-shaped etch pit whose arrow’s head faces toward the [102] direction and, (3) a gourd-shaped etch pit whose point head faces toward the [102] direction. Their average densities were estimated to be 5 × 102, 7 × 104, and 9 × 104 cm-2, respectively. We confirmed no clear relationship between the leakage current in SBDs and these crystalline defects. Such results are obtained because threading dislocations run mainly in the [010] growth direction and do not go through the (\\bar{2}01) sample plate.

  12. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  13. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  14. Diode pumped 1kHz high power Nd:YAG laser with excellent beam quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of a one kilohertz diode pumped all solid-state Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system with a phase conjugate mirror is presented. The setup allows high power scaling without reduction in beam quality.

  15. Comparison of SHG Power Modulation by Wavelength Detuning of DFB- and DBR-Tapered Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed visible lasers are used for a number of applications such as laser displays and medical treatments. Generating this visible light by direct frequency doubling of high power diode lasers opens new possibilities on how the power modulation can be performed. We present an investigation...... of the response of the second harmonic light to perturbations of the infrared laser diode and compare how the response differs for DFB- and DBR-Tapered laser diodes. We show that the visible light can be modulated from CW to kHz with modulation depths above 90% by wavelength detuning the laser diode....

  16. Giant spin-torque diode sensitivity in the absence of bias magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Carpentieri, Mario; Hao, Xiaojie; Jiang, Hongwen; Katine, Jordan A.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Ocker, Berthold; Langer, Juergen; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Baoshun; Azzerboni, Bruno; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Finocchio, Giovanni; Zeng, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Microwave detectors based on the spin-torque diode effect are among the key emerging spintronic devices. By utilizing the spin of electrons in addition to charge, they have the potential to overcome the theoretical performance limits of their semiconductor (Schottky) counterparts. However, so far, practical implementations of spin-diode microwave detectors have been limited by the necessity to apply a magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction microwave detectors, exhibiting high-detection sensitivity of 75,400 mV mW−1 at room temperature without any external bias fields, and for low-input power (micro-Watts or lower). This sensitivity is significantly larger than both state-of-the-art Schottky diode detectors and existing spintronic diodes. Micromagnetic simulations and measurements reveal the essential role of injection locking to achieve this sensitivity performance. This mechanism may provide a pathway to enable further performance improvement of spin-torque diode microwave detectors. PMID:27052973

  17. Performance of the cold powered diodes and diode leads in the main magnets of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; Bajko, M; Bednarek, M; Bottura, L; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Dib, G; D'Angelo, G; Gharib, A; Grand-Clement, L; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Prin, H; Roger, V; Rowan, S; Savary, F; Tock, J-Ph; Verweij, A

    2015-01-01

    During quench tests in 2011 variations in resistance of an order of magnitude were found in the diode by-pass circuit of the main LHC magnets. An investigation campaign was started to understand the source, the occurrence and the impact of the high resistances. Many tests were performed offline in the SM18 test facility with a focus on the contact resistance of the diode to heat sink contact and the diode wafer temperature. In 2014 the performance of the diodes and diode leads of the main dipole bypass systems in the LHC was assessed during a high current qualification test. In the test a current cycle similar to a magnet circuit discharge from 11 kA with a time constant of 100 s was performed. Resistances of up to 600 μΩ have been found in the diode leads at intermediate current, but in general the high resistances decrease at higher current levels and no sign of overheating of diodes has been seen and the bypass circuit passed the test. In this report the performance of the diodes and in particular the co...

  18. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  19. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo1-xWxSe2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo0.5W0.5Se2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe2 and WSe2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo0.5W0.5Se2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo0.5W0.5Se2-based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  20. The resistance change of the power diodes under the influence of the surge current impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishchenko I. Yu.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the investigations of causes of failure of the crystals of semiconductor power diodes while surge current pulses pass through them. It is shown that when currents values are lower than the surge current, the impact resistance and reliability of the diode do not change. At surge current, the resistance of the diode increases with each repeated pulse. After several pulses have passed, the diode fails, because its forward resistance increases 3 times, and the temperature greatly exceeds the acceptable level. The authors explain the observed effects.

  1. Heat transfer and structure stress analysis of micro packaging component of high power light emitting diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the heat transfer and structural stress analysis of the micro- scale packaging structure of a high-power light emitting diode. The thermal-effect and thermal-stress of light emitting diode are determined numerically. Light emitting diode is attached to the silicon substrate through the wire bonding process by using epoxy as die bond material. The silicon substrate is etched with holes at the bottom and filled with high conductivity copper material. The chip temperature and structure stress increase with input power consumption. The micro light emitting diode is mounted on the heat sink to increase the heat dissipation performance, to decrease chip temperature, to enhance the material structure reliability and safety, and to avoid structure failure as well. This paper has successfully used the finite element method to the micro-scale light emitting diode heat transfer and stress concentration at the edges through etched holes.

  2. High-Power, High-Efficiency 1.907nm Diode Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight developed high-power, high-efficiency laser diodes emitting at 1907nm for the pumping of solid-state lasers during the Phase I. The innovation brought to bear...

  3. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R

    2011-01-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, $\\alpha$. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through $\\alpha$ in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as $\\alpha$ varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to $\\alpha$.

  4. High-Power, High-Efficiency 1.907nm Diode Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight proposes to develop high-power, high-efficiency laser diodes emitting at 1907nm. Performance is expected to improve from the current state-of-the-art...

  5. Power MOSFET-diode-based limiter for high-frequency ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Kim, Min Gon; Cummins, Thomas M; Hwang, Jae Youn; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the limiter circuits used in the ultrasound imaging systems is to pass low-voltage echo signals generated by ultrasonic transducers while preventing high-voltage short pulses transmitted by pulsers from damaging front-end circuits. Resistor-diode-based limiters (a 50 Ω resistor with a single cross-coupled diode pair) have been widely used in pulse-echo measurement and imaging system applications due to their low cost and simple architecture. However, resistor-diode-based limiters may not be suited for high-frequency ultrasound transducer applications since they produce large signal conduction losses at higher frequencies. Therefore, we propose a new limiter architecture utilizing power MOSFETs, which we call a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter. The performance of a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter was evaluated with respect to insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD), and response time (RT). We compared these results with those of three other conventional limiter designs and showed that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter offers the lowest IL (-1.33 dB) and fastest RT (0.10 µs) with the lowest suppressed output voltage (3.47 Vp-p) among all the limiters at 70 MHz. A pulse-echo test was performed to determine how the new limiter affected the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer. We found that the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer were 130% and 129% greater, respectively, when combined with the new power MOSFET-diode-based limiter versus the resistor-diode-based limiter. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter is capable of producing lower signal attenuation than the three conventional limiter designs at higher frequency operation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The Impacts of Platinum Diffusion to the Reverse Recovery Lifetime of a High Power Diode Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheh C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reverse recovery lifetime of a diode is one the key parameter in power electronics market. To make a diode with fast switching speed, diodes are often doped with impurities such as gold and platinum to improve its lifetime. In this works, we present the reverse recovery lifetime improvement of a power rectifier diode through platinum diffusion in the intrinsic region in between P-N junction using Design of Experiment (DOE approach. A commercial available power rectifier is used in this study. We factored in the temperature and thermal diffusion time during the platinum diffusion process in our DOE. From results, DOE 2 (with shorter thermal duration and high temperature for diffusion is selected based on meeting requirement for forward voltage and reverse recovery specifications i.e. forward voltage at 1.8V and reverse recovery time at 27ns.

  7. Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 µm fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus

    2000-01-01

    Efficient CW operation of a 2.71 um Er,Pr:ZBLAN double-clad fibre laser pumped with a single diode laser operating at a wavelength of 975 nm is described. A maximum output power of 0.5 W and a slope efficiency of 25% (with respect to the launched pump power) were obtained. Threshold pump powers of <

  8. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2018-01-02

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  9. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  10. Power Scaling of Nonlinear Frequency Converted Tapered Diode Lasers for Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Diode lasers have proven to be versatile light sources for a wide range of applications. Nonlinear frequency conversion of high brightness diode lasers has recently resulted in visible light power levels in the watts range enabling an increasing number of applications within biophotonics....... This review provides an overview of the developments within nonlinear frequency converted high power laser diodes in the visible spectral range. Single-pass nonlinear frequency doubling is presented as a nonsophisticated method to achieve watt-level output powers and possible routes to higher power...... and efficiency are included. Application examples within pumping of mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers and implementation of such lasers in optical coherence tomography are presented showing the application potential of these lasers....

  11. High-power AlGaAs channeled substrate planar diode lasers for spaceborne communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J. C.; Goldstein, B.; Pultz, G. N.; Slavin, S. E.; Carlin, D. B.; Ettenberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    A high power channeled substrate planar AlGaAs diode laser with an emission wavelength of 8600 to 8800 A was developed. The optoelectronic behavior (power current, single spatial and spectral behavior, far field characteristics, modulation, and astigmatism properties) and results of computer modeling studies on the performance of the laser are discussed. Lifetest data on these devices at high output power levels is also included. In addition, a new type of channeled substrate planar laser utilizing a Bragg grating to stabilize the longitudinal mode was demonstrated. The fabrication procedures and optoelectronic properties of this new diode laser are described.

  12. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  13. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz

    2011-01-01

    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...

  14. Spectral, spatial and temporal control of high-power diode lasers through nonlinear optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A high-power diode laser offers multi-Watt output power from a small and efficient device, which makes them an interesting source for numerous applications. The spatial and spectral output however, are of reduced quality which limits the applicability. This limited quality is connected to the design

  15. Proton Irradiations on SJ HV Power MOSFETs to Realize Fast Diode Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Bertuglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of proton irradiations on Super Junction High Voltage power MOSFETs to realize transistors with fast diode. Experiments were performed on a sample of 600 V power MOSFETs and achieved results were compared to standard irradiated devices by electrons.

  16. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)-graphene oxide nanocomposites as an interlayer for Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinezhad, Lida; Bilkan, Çigdem; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar; Nematollahzadeh, Ali; Orak, Ikram; Altindal, Şemsettin

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were prepared by simple solution-mixing route and characterized by Raman, UV-visible and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The XRD pattern and SEM analysis showed significant changes in the nanocomposite structures, and the FT-IR spectroscopy results confirmed the chemical interaction between the GO filler and the PVA matrix. After these morphological characterizations, PVA-GO-based diodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were characterized using current-voltage (I-V) and impedance-voltage-frequency (Z-V-f) measurements at room temperature. Semilogarithmic I-V characteristics of diode showed a good rectifier behavior. The values of C and G/ω increased with decreasing frequency due to the surface/interface states (Nss) which depend on the relaxation time and the frequency of the signal. The voltage, dependent profiles of Nss and series resistance (Rs) were obtained from the methods of high-low frequency capacitance and Nicollian and Brews, respectively. The obtained values of Nss and Rs were attributed to the use of cross-linked PVA-GO interlayer at the Au/n-Si interface.

  17. Green high-power tunable external-cavity GaN diode laser at 515 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A 480 mW green tunable diode laser system is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The laser system is based on a GaN broad-area diode laser and Littrow external-cavity feedback. The green laser system is operated in two modes by switching the polarization direction of the laser beam...... incident on the grating. When the laser beam is p-polarized, an output power of 50 mW with a tunable range of 9.2 nm is achieved. When the laser beam is s-polarized, an output power of 480 mW with a tunable range of 2.1 nm is obtained. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode...

  18. High power, high efficiency continuous-wave 808 nm laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenfu; Li, Te; Yang, Guowen; Song, Yunfei

    2017-12-01

    The continuous-wave 100 W-class 808 nm laser diode arrays with extremely high power conversion efficiency of 68% were reported at the heatsink temperature of 25 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this was the highest power conversion efficiency at continuous-wave 106 W 808 nm laser diode array with 50% fill factor so far. An asymmetric broad waveguide epitaxial structure with very low internal optical loss of 0.5 cm-1 was presented. In order to improve the efficiency, various fill factor devices were studied. The 50 W laser diode array with 30% fill factoir and 1.0 mm cavity length demonstrated power conversion efficiency of 71% at heatsink temperature of 15 °C.

  19. The novel transparent sputtered p-type CuO thin films and Ag/p-CuO/n-Si Schottky diode applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tombak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, the physical properties and microelectronic parameters of direct current (DC sputtered p-type CuO film and diode have been investigated. The film of CuO as oxide and p-type semiconductor is grown onto glass and n-Si substrates by reactive DC sputtering at 250 °C. After deposition, a post-annealing procedure is applied at various temperatures in ambient. Through this research, several parameters are determined such structural, optical and electrical magnitudes. The thickness of CuO thin films goes from 122 to 254 nm. A (111-oriented cubic crystal structure is revealed by X-ray analysis. The grain size is roughly depending on the post-annealing temperature, it increases with temperature within the 144–285 nm range. The transmittance reaches 80% simultaneously in visible and infrared bands. The optical band gap is varied between 1.99 and 2.52 eV as a result of annealing temperature while the resistivity and the charge carrier mobility decrease with an increase in temperature from 135 to 14 Ω cm and 0.92 to 0.06 cm2/Vs, respectively. The surface of samples is homogenous, bright dots are visible when temperature reaches the highest value. As a diode, Ag/CuO/n-Si exhibits a non-ideal behavior and the ideality factor is about 3.5. By Norde method, the barrier height and the series resistance are extracted and found to be 0.96 V and 86.6 Ω respectively.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertical Gallium Nitride Power Schottky Diodes on Bulk GaN Substrates FY2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an...probing station and a device testing instrument can be challenging due to the extensive amount of programming involved. In this work, the Python

  1. Design of electronics charts of defence with the use of power avalanche diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchina V. V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Features of switching parameters of frequency avalanche diodes and modeling of their application in the electric schemes of protection are considered. Efficiency of protection against of the overvaulting are formed at switching in the course of transients, by means of electric schemes with application of avalanche diodes and there are using clearing of the impulses of overvaulting by initiation of the avalanche discharge. Modeling of work of the electronic power devices was spent in the system MATLAB+Simulink with simultaneous there is application of the package SimPowerSystems.

  2. Reliability of high power/brightness diode lasers emitting from 790 to 980 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Bai, J.; Price, K.; Devito, M.; Grimshaw, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, H.; Bruce, K.; Dawson, D.; Kanskar, M.; Martinsen, R.; Haden, J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the development of high power single emitter laser diodes from 790 nm to 980 nm for reliable use in industrial and pumping applications. High performance has been demonstrated on diode lasers from 790 nm to 980 nm, with corresponding peak efficiency ~65%. Reliability has been fully demonstrated on high power diode lasers of 3.8 mm laser cavity at 3 major wavelengths. We report on the correlation between photon-energy (wavelength) and device failure modes (reliability). A newly released laser design demonstrates diode lasers with 5.0 mm laser cavity at 915-980 nm and 790 nm, with efficiency that matches the values achieved with 3.8 mm cavity length. 915-980 nm single emitters with 5.0 mm laser cavity were especially designed for high power and high brightness applications and can be reliably operated at 12 W to 18 W. These pumps have been incorporated into nLIGHT's newly developed fiber coupled pump module, elementTM. Ongoing highly accelerated diode life-tests have accumulated over 200,000 raw device hours, with extremely low failure rate observed to date. High reliability has also been demonstrated from multiple accelerated module-level lifetests.

  3. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  4. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  5. Improved low-power semiconductor diode lasers for photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susanne M.; Mueller, Eduard K.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Cryogenically cooling semiconductor diode lasers provides higher power output, longer device lifetime, and greater monochromaticity. While these effects are well known, such improvements have not been quantified, and thus cryogenically operated semiconductor lasers have not been utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report quantification of these results from laser power meter and photospectrometer data. The emission wavelengths of these low power multiple quantum well semiconductor lasers were found to decrease and become more monochromatic with decreasing temperature. Significant power output improvements also were obtained at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the threshold current, i.e. the current at which lasing begins, decreased with decreasing temperature. This lower threshold current combined with the increased power output produced dramatically higher device efficiencies. It is proposed that cryogenic operation of semiconductor diode lasers will reduce the number of devices needed to produce the requisite output for many veterinary and medical applications, permitting significant cost reductions.

  6. Degradation Processes in High-Power Diode Lasers under External Optical Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomm, Jens. W.; Hempel, Martin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    The effect of moderate external feedback on the gradual degradation of 808 nm emitting AlGaAs-based high-power broad-area diode lasers is analyzed. Eventually the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains unaffected by the aging, while severe impact...

  7. High-power diode laser versus electrocautery surgery on human papillomavirus lesion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeder, Fernando Martins; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti R; Pelino, Jose Eduardo Pelizon; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Genovese, Walter Joao

    2012-05-01

    The use of high-power lasers has facilitated and improved human papillomavirus (HPV) treatment protocols and has also become very popular in recent years. This application has been more frequently used in hospitals, especially in gynecology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of high-power diode laser to remove oral lesions caused by HPV and the consequent effects on virus load following the wound tissue healing process compared with one of the most conventional surgical techniques involving electrocautery. Surgeries were performed on 5 patients who had 2 distinct lesions caused by HPV. All patients were submitted to both electrocautery and high-power diode laser. Following a 20-day period, when the area was healed, sample material was collected through curettage for virus load quantitative analysis.Observation verified the presence of virus in all the samples; however, surgeries performed with the laser also revealed a significant reduction in virus load per cell compared with those performed with electrocautery. The ease when handling the diode laser, because of the flexibility of its fibers and precision of its energy delivery system, provides high-accuracy surgery, which facilitates the treatment of large and/or multifocal lesions. The use of high-power diode laser is more effective in treatment protocols of lesions caused by HPV.

  8. Barrier characteristics of Pt/Ru Schottky contacts on n-type GaN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    voltage (C–V) characteristics of. Ru/Pt/n-GaN Schottky diodes in the temperature range 100–420 K. The calculated values of barrier height and ide- ality factor for the Ru/Pt/n-GaN Schottky diode are 0·73 eV and 1·4 at 420 K, 0·18 eV and 4·2 at 100 K ...

  9. High-Power 1180-nm GaInNAs DBR Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Antti T.; Viheriala, Jukka; Korpijarvi, Ville-Markus

    2017-01-01

    We report high-power 1180-nm GaInNAs distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes with and without a tapered amplifying section. The untapered and tapered components reached room temperature output powers of 655 mW and 4.04 W, respectively. The diodes exhibited narrow linewidth emission with side......-mode suppression ratios in the range of 50 dB for a broad range of operating current, extending up to 2 A for the untapered component and 10 A for the tapered component. The high output power is rendered possible by the use of a high quality GaInNAs-based quantum well gain region, which allows for lower strain...... and better carrier confinement compared with traditional GaInAs quantum wells. The development opens new opportunities for the power scaling of frequency-doubled lasers with emission at yellow-orange wavelengths....

  10. The impact of external optical feedback on the degradation behavior of high-power diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Martin; Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...... unaffected, severe impact is observed to the cladding layers and the waveguide. Consequently hardening of diode lasers for operation under external optical feedback must necessarily involve claddings and waveguide, into which the quantum well is embedded....

  11. Thermal properties of high-power diode lasers investigated by means of high resolution thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowska, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Kozlowska@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska St., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Malag, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Elzbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska St., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    In the present work, thermal effects in high-power diode lasers are investigated by means of high resolution thermography. Thermal properties of the devices emitting in the 650 nm and 808 nm wavelength ranges are compared. The different versions of the heterostructure design are analyzed. The results show a lowering of active region temperature for diode lasers with asymmetric heterostructure scheme with reduced quantum well distance from the heterostructure surface (and the heat sink). Optimization of technological processes allowed for the improvement of the device performance, e.g. reduction of solder non-uniformities and local defect sites at the mirrors which was visualized by the thermography.

  12. Schottky solar cell using few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides toward large-scale fabrication of semitransparent and flexible power generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, Toshiki; Okita, Wakana; Nagai, Reito; Li, Chao; Kaneko, Toshiro; Kato, Toshiaki

    2017-09-20

    Few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are known as true two-dimensional materials, with excellent semiconducting properties and strong light-matter interaction. Thus, TMDs are attractive materials for semitransparent and flexible solar cells for use in various applications. Hoewver, despite the recent progress, the development of a scalable method to fabricate semitransparent and flexible solar cells with mono- or few-layered TMDs remains a crucial challenge. Here, we show easy and scalable fabrication of a few-layered TMD solar cell using a Schottky-type configuration to obtain a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 0.7%, which is the highest value reported with few-layered TMDs. Clear power generation was also observed for a device fabricated on a large SiO 2 and flexible substrate, demonstrating that our method has high potential for scalable production. In addition, systematic investigation revealed that the PCE and external quantum efficiency (EQE) strongly depended on the type of photogenerated excitons (A, B, and C) because of different carrier dynamics. Because high solar cell performance along with excellent scalability can be achieved through the proposed process, our fabrication method will contribute to accelerating the industrial use of TMDs as semitransparent and flexible solar cells.

  13. Tuning the Schottky rectification in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-molybdenum disulfide heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Yu, Zhuo-Liang; Wang, Lin-Zhi; Cai, Meng-Qiu

    2017-12-04

    It was still a great challenge to design high performance of rectification characteristic for the rectifier diode. Lately, a new approach was proposed experimentally to tune the Schottky barrier height (SBH) by inserting an ultrathin insulated tunneling layer to form metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures. However, the electronic properties touching off the high performance of these heterostructures and the possibility of designing more efficient applications for the rectifier diode were not presently clear. In this paper, the structural, electronic and interfacial properties of the novel MIS diode with the graphene/hexagonal boron nitride/monolayer molybdenum disulfide (GBM) heterostructure had been investigated by first-principle calculations. The calculated results showed that the intrinsic properties of graphene and MoS 2 were preserved due to the weak van der Waals contact. The height of interfacial Schottky barrier can be tuned by the different thickness of hBN layers. In addition, the GBM Schottky diode showed more excellent rectification characteristic than that of GM Schottky diode due to the interfacial band bending caused by the epitaxial electric field. Based on the electronic band structure, we analyzed the relationship between the electronic structure and the nature of the Schottky rectifier, and revealed the potential of utilizing GBM Schottky diode for the higher rectification characteristic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Schottky contacts to In2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Wenckstern

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available n-type binary compound semiconductors such as InN, InAs, or In2O3 are especial because the branch-point energy or charge neutrality level lies within the conduction band. Their tendency to form a surface electron accumulation layer prevents the formation of rectifying Schottky contacts. Utilizing a reactive sputtering process in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, we demonstrate Schottky barrier diodes on indium oxide thin films with rectifying properties being sufficient for space charge layer spectroscopy. Conventional non-reactive sputtering resulted in ohmic contacts. We compare the rectification of Pt, Pd, and Au Schottky contacts on In2O3 and discuss temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of Pt/In2O3 in detail. The results substantiate the picture of oxygen vacancies being the source of electrons accumulating at the surface, however, the position of the charge neutrality level and/or the prediction of Schottky barrier heights from it are questioned.

  15. Schottky contacts to In2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wenckstern, H.; Splith, D.; Schmidt, F.; Grundmann, M.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.

    2014-04-01

    n-type binary compound semiconductors such as InN, InAs, or In2O3 are especial because the branch-point energy or charge neutrality level lies within the conduction band. Their tendency to form a surface electron accumulation layer prevents the formation of rectifying Schottky contacts. Utilizing a reactive sputtering process in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, we demonstrate Schottky barrier diodes on indium oxide thin films with rectifying properties being sufficient for space charge layer spectroscopy. Conventional non-reactive sputtering resulted in ohmic contacts. We compare the rectification of Pt, Pd, and Au Schottky contacts on In2O3 and discuss temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of Pt/In2O3 in detail. The results substantiate the picture of oxygen vacancies being the source of electrons accumulating at the surface, however, the position of the charge neutrality level and/or the prediction of Schottky barrier heights from it are questioned.

  16. Investigation of high-power diode-end-pumped Tm:YLF laser in slab geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yingjie; Duan, Xiaoming; Yuan, Jinhe; Dai, Tongyu; Yao, Baoquan; Wang, Yuezhu

    2015-03-10

    Comparative investigations of high-power diode-end-pumped Tm:YLF laser with a-cut and c-cut slab crystals were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 87.5 W of 1907.8 nm Tm:YLF laser with two slab crystals was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 35.9% and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 32.1% with respect to the pump power. The c-cut slab Tm:YLF laser operated at 1907.8 nm with a beam quality factor of M2∼1.79 at the output power level of 71.0 W.

  17. Highly efficient and high-power diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenlong; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zheng, Lihe; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2017-04-01

    A diode-pumped high-power femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser with high efficiency is demonstrated. With a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passive mode-locking and a Gires-Tournois interferometer mirror for intracavity dispersion compensation, stable mode-locking pulses of 297 fs duration at 1042 nm were obtained. The maximum average power of 3.07 W was realized under 5.17 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to as high as 59.4% opt-opt efficiency. The single pulse energy and peak power are about 35.5 nJ and 119.5 kW, respectively.

  18. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier.

  19. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagett, C J H; Moriya, P H; Celistrino Teixeira, R; Shiozaki, R F; Hemmerling, M; Courteille, Ph W

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam.

  20. High power fiber coupled diode lasers for display and lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovs, Simon; Unger, Andreas; Dürsch, Sascha; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2017-02-01

    The performance of diode lasers in the visible spectral range has been continuously improved within the last few years, which was mainly driven by the goal to replace arc lamps in cinema or home projectors. In addition, the availability of such high power visible diode lasers also enables new applications in the medical field, but also the usage as pump sources for other solid state lasers. This paper summarizes the latest developments of fiber coupled sources with output power from 1.4 W to 120 W coupled into 100 μm to 400 μm fibers in the spectral range around 405 nm and 640 nm. New developments also include the use of fiber coupled multi single emitter arrays at 450 nm, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power.

  1. Investigation of MOS-Gated Thyristors and Power Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    You, Budong

    2000-01-01

    The MOS-gated thyristors (MGT) refer to the class of power devices that combine the ease of a MOS gate control with the superior current carrying capability of a thyristor structure for high-power applications. The MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT) is a typical MGT device. A comprehensive investigation of the reverse-biased safe operating area (RBSOA) characteristics of the MCT has been undertaken. The electrical failure mechanisms of the MCT are discussed, and the relationship between the dy...

  2. Fluorine plasma treatment induced deep level traps and their effect on current transportation in Al0.83In0.17N/AlN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yong; Yu, Tongjun; Ji, Cheng; Cheng, Yutian; Yang, Xuelin; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-08-01

    The deep level traps and the electrical properties of fluorine plasma treated (F-treated) and non-treated Al0.83In0.17N/AlN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were investigated by the temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Three deep level traps were detected in the SBD after F-treatment at ~E c  -  0.17 eV, ~E c  -  0.27 eV and ~E c  -  1.14 eV. One of the deep level traps at ~E c  -  1.14 eV is mainly located in the Al0.83In0.17N barrier layer with a captured cross section (σ) of ~6.50  ×  10-18 cm2. This F-related deep level trap has 3-4 orders of magnitude of the larger σ and ~0.46 eV greater active energy than that of the dislocation-related one at ~E c  -  0.68 eV with σ of ~1.92  ×  10-21 cm2. Meanwhile, the leakage current of F-treated SBD at  -5 V is reduced by ~2 orders of magnitude compared with that of the non-treated one. This leakage current reduction is mainly attributed to the increase of the Poole-Frenkel emission barrier height from ~0.09 eV in non-treated SBD to ~0.46 eV in the F-treated one. It is believed that the main reverse current transportation is the Poole-Frenkel emission from the F-related deep level trap states into the continuum states of the dislocations in F-treated Al0.83In0.17N/AlN/GaN SBD.

  3. A nanoscale pn junction in series with tunable Schottky barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspitarte, Lee; McCulley, Daniel R.; Minot, Ethan D.

    2017-10-01

    PN junctions in nanoscale materials are of interest for a range of technologies including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes. However, Schottky barriers at the interface between metal contacts and the nanomaterial are often unavoidable. The effect of metal-semiconductor interfaces on the behavior of nanoscale diodes must be understood, both to extract the characteristics of the pn junction, and to understand the overall characteristics of the final device. Here, we study the current-voltage characteristics of diodes that are formed in fully suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We utilize tunable Schottky barrier heights at the CNT-metal interface to elucidate the role of the Schottky barriers on the device characteristics. We develop a quantitative model to show how a variety of device characteristics can arise from apparently similar devices. Using our model we extract key parameters of the Schottky barriers and the pn junction, and predict the overall I-V characteristics of the device. Our equivalent circuit model is relevant to a variety of nanomaterial-based diode devices that are currently under investigation.

  4. High Power Laser Diode Arrays for 2-Micron Solid State Coherent Lidars Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra; Sudesh, Vikas; Baker, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    Laser diode arrays are critical components of any diode-pumped solid state laser systems, constraining their performance and reliability. Laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used as the pump source for energizing the solid state lasing media to generate an intense coherent laser beam with a high spatial and spectral quality. The solid state laser design and the characteristics of its lasing materials define the operating wavelength, pulse duration, and power of the laser diodes. The pump requirements for high pulse energy 2-micron solid state lasers are substantially different from those of more widely used 1-micron lasers and in many aspects more challenging [1]. Furthermore, the reliability and lifetime demanded by many coherent lidar applications, such as global wind profiling from space and long-range clear air turbulence detection from aircraft, are beyond the capability of currently available LDAs. In addition to the need for more reliable LDAs with longer lifetime, further improvement in the operational parameters of high power quasi-cw LDAs, such as electrical efficiency, brightness, and duty cycle, are also necessary for developing cost-effective 2-micron coherent lidar systems for applications that impose stringent size, heat dissipation, and power constraints. Global wind sounding from space is one of such applications, which is the main driver for this work as part of NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program. This paper discusses the current state of the 792 nm LDA technology and the technology areas being pursued toward improving their performance. The design and development of a unique characterization facility for addressing the specific issues associated with the LDAs for pumping 2-micron coherent lidar transmitters and identifying areas of technological improvement will be described. Finally, the results of measurements to date on various standard laser diode packages, as well as custom-designed packages with potentially longer lifetime, will be reported.

  5. High-power green light generation by second harmonic generation of single-frequency tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    laser emits in excess of 9 W single-frequency output power with a good beam quality. The output from the tapered diode laser is frequency doubled using periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. We investigate the modulation potential of the green light and improve the modulation depth from 1:4 to 1:50.......We demonstrate the generation of high power (>1.5W) and single-frequency green light by single-pass second harmonic generation of a high power tapered diode laser. The tapered diode laser consists of a DBR grating for wavelength selectivity, a ridge section and a tapered section. The DBR tapered...

  6. High-power multi-beam diode laser transmitter for a flash imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Christer; Aitta, Petteri; Kivi, Sini; Mitikka, Risto; Tyni, Lauri; Heikkinen, Veli

    2013-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing the transmitter for the "Flash Optical Sensor for TErrain Relative NAVigation" (FOSTERNAV) multi-beam flash imaging lidar. FOSTERNAV is a concept demonstrator for new guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technologies to fulfil the requirements for landing and docking of spacecraft as well as for navigation of rovers. This paper presents the design, realisation and testing of the multi-beam continuous-wave (CW) laser transmitter to be used in a 256x256 pixel flash imaging lidar. Depending on the target distance, the lidar has three operation modes using either several beams with low divergence or one single beam with a large divergence. This paper describes the transmitter part of the flash imaging lidar with focus on the electronics and especially the laser diode drivers. The transmitter contains eight fibre coupled commercial diode laser modules with a total peak optical power of 32 W at 808 nm. The main requirement for the laser diode drivers was linear modulation up to a frequency of 20 MHz allowing, for example, low distortion chirps or pseudorandom binary sequences. The laser modules contain the laser diode, a monitoring photodiode, a thermo-electric cooler, and a thermistor. The modules, designed for non-modulated and low-frequency operation, set challenging demands on the design of the drivers. Measurement results are presented on frequency response, and eye diagrams for pseudo-random binary sequences.

  7. p+-n--n+-type power diode with crystalline/nanocrystalline Si mosaic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensheng, Wei; Chunxi, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Using p+-type crystalline Si with n+-type nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) and n+-type crystalline Si with p+-type nc-Si mosaic structures as electrodes, a type of power diode was prepared with epitaxial technique and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. Firstly, the basic p+-n--n+-type Si diode was fabricated by epitaxially growing p+- and n+-type layers on two sides of a lightly doped n--type Si wafer respectively. Secondly, heavily phosphorus-doped Si film was deposited with PECVD on the lithography mask etched p+-type Si side of the basic device to form a component with mosaic anode. Thirdly, heavily boron-doped Si film was deposited on the etched n+-type Si side of the second device to form a diode with mosaic anode and mosaic cathode. The images of high resolution transmission electronic microscope and patterns of X-ray diffraction reveal nanocrystallization in the phosphorus- and boron-deposited films. Electrical measurements such as capacitance-voltage relation, current-voltage feature and reverse recovery waveform were carried out to clarify the performance of prepared devices. The important roles of (n-)Si/(p+)nc-Si and (n-)Si/(n+)nc-Si junctions in the static and dynamic conduction processes in operating diodes were investigated. The performance of mosaic devices was compared to that of a basic one. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274006).

  8. Optical power diodes based on phase-transition materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenghao; Horak, Erik H.; Zhou, You; Zhang, Zhen; Salman, Jad; Roney, Patrick; Rensberg, Jura; Gundlach, Bradley; Ramanathan, Shriram; Goldsmith, Randall H.; Ronning, Carsten; Kats, Mikhail A.

    2017-03-01

    We present several designs and experimental implementations of optical power diodes - devices that are designed to be transparent from one direction, but opaque from the other, when illuminated by a beam with sufficient intensity. Optical power diodes can be used to protect optical devices that both detect and transmit light. Our designs are based on phase-change material vanadium dioxide (VO2), which undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) that can be triggered thermally or optically. Here, VO2 films serve as nonlinear elements that can be transformed from transparent to opaque by intense illumination. We build thin-film metallic structures on top of the VO2 films such that the optical absorption becomes asymmetric - light impinging from one direction is absorbed at a higher rate than from the other direction, triggering the transition, and turning the device opaque. This results in asymmetric transmission. The designs are optimized with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, using optical constants of VO2 extracted using ellipsometry, and are shown to be scalable across the near- and mid-infrared. Our initial experimental results using a simple design comprised of metal and VO2 films on sapphire, designed for an operating wavelength of 1.35µm, show a transmission asymmetry ratio of 2, and experiments with superior designs are ongoing. Future work will include the use of defect-engineered VO2 to engineer the intensity threshold of optical power diodes.

  9. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  10. Silicon Schottky Diode Safe Operating Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Campola, Michael J.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  11. Modeling and fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martychowiec, A.; Pedryc, A.; Kociubiński, A.

    2017-08-01

    The rapidly growing demand for electronic devices requires using of alternative semiconductor materials, which could replace conventional silicon. Silicon carbide has been proposed for these harsh environment applications (high temperature, high voltage, high power conditions) because of its wide bandgap, its high temperature operation ability, its excellent thermal and chemical stability, and its high breakdown electric field strength. The Schottky barrier diode (SBD) is known as one of the best refined SiC devices. This paper presents prepared model, simulations and description of technology of 4H-SiC Schottky junction as well as characterization of fabricated structures. The future aim of the application of the structures is an optical detection of an ultraviolet radiation. The model section contains a comparison of two different solutions of SBD's construction. Simulations - as a crucial process of designing electronic devices - have been performed using the ATLAS device of Silvaco TCAD software. As a final result the paper shows I-V characteristics of fabricated diodes.

  12. Temperature-dependent Schottky barrier in high-performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Dan; Zhou, Qing; Mao, Peng; Cao, Jiamin; Ding, Liming; Wang, Jizheng

    2017-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted great attention in the past 30 years, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) now reaches around 10%, largely owning to the rapid material developments. Meanwhile with the progress in the device performance, more and more interests are turning to understanding the fundamental physics inside the OSCs. In the conventional bulk-heterojunction architecture, only recently it is realized that the blend/cathode Schottky junction serves as the fundamental diode for the photovoltaic function. However, few researches have focused on such junctions, and their physical properties are far from being well-understood. In this paper based on PThBDTP:PC71BM blend, we fabricated OSCs with PCE exceeding 10%, and investigated temperature-dependent behaviors of the junction diodes by various characterization including current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and impedance measurements between 70 to 290 K. We found the Schottky barrier height exhibits large inhomogeneity, which can be described by two sets of Gaussian distributions. PMID:28071700

  13. Optical injection and spectral filtering of high-power UV laser diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, V M; Tock, C J; Lucas, D M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate injection-locking of 120mW laser diodes operating at 397nm. We achieve stable operation with injection powers of ~100uW and a slave laser output power of up to 110mW. We investigate the spectral purity of the slave laser light via photon scattering experiments on a single trapped Ca40 ion. We show that it is possible to achieve a scattering rate indistinguishable from that of monochromatic light by filtering the laser light with a diffraction grating to remove amplified spontaneous emission.

  14. High power, 1060-nm diode laser with an asymmetric hetero-waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Zhang, Yu [National Key Lab. On High Power Diode Laser,Changchun University of Science and Technology,Changchun, 130033 (China); Hao, E [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 (China)

    2015-07-31

    By introducing an asymmetric hetero-waveguide into the epitaxial structure of a diode laser, a 6.21-W output is achieved at a wavelength of 1060 nm. A different design in p- and n-confinement, based on optimisation of energy bands, is used to reduce voltage loss and meet the requirement of high power and high wall-plug efficiency. A 1060-nm diode laser with a single quantum well and asymmetric hetero-structure waveguide is fabricated and analysed. Measurement results show that the asymmetric hetero-structure waveguide can be efficiently used for reducing voltage loss and improving the confinement of injection carriers and wall-plug efficiency. (lasers)

  15. Use of high-power diode lasers for hardening and thermal conduction welding of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Demmer, Axel; Zaboklicki, A.

    1997-08-01

    CO2 and Nd:YAG high power lasers have become established as machining tools in industrial manufacturing over the last few years. The most important advantages compared to conventional processing techniques lie in the absence of forces introduced by the laser into the workpiece and in the simple arid highly accurate control in terms ofpositioning and timing making the laser a universally applicable, wear-free and extremely flexible tool /1,2/. The laser can be utilised costeffectively in numerous manufacturing processes but there are also further applications for the laser which produce excellent results from a technical point of view, but are not justified in terms of cost. The extensive use of lasers, particularly in small companies and workshops, is hindered by two main reasons: the complexity and size ofthe laser source and plant and the high investment costs /3/. A new generation of lasers, the high power diode lasers (HDL), combines high performance with a compact design, making the laser a cheap and easy to use tool with many applications /3,4,5,6/. In the diode laser, the laser beam is generated by a microelectronic diode which transforms electrical energy directly into laser energy. Diode lasers with low power outputs have, for some time, been making their mark in our everyday lives: they are used in CD players, laser printers and scanners at cash tills. Modern telecommunications would be impossible without these lasers which enable information to be transmitted in the form oflight impulses through optical fibres. They can also be found in compact precision measurement instrumentation - range fmders, interferometers and pollutant analysis devices /3,6/. In the field of material processing, the first applications ofthe laser, such as for soldering, inscribing, surface hardening and plastic or heat conduction welding, will exceed the limits ofthe relatively low performance output currently available. The diode laser has a shorter wavelength than the CO2 and

  16. Progress in increasing the maximum achievable output power of broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2012-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers provide the optical energy for all high performance laser systems, either directly or as pump sources for solid-state lasers. Continuous improvement is required in the peak achievable output power of these diode laser devices in order to enable performance improvements in full laser systems. In recent years, device technology has advanced to the point where the main limit to optical power is no longer device failure, but is instead power saturation due to various physical effects within the semiconductor device itself. For example, the combination of large optical cavity designs with advanced facet passivation means that facet failure is no longer the dominant limiting factor. Increases in the optical power therefore require firstly a clear identification of the limiting mechanisms, followed by design changes and material improvements to address these. Recent theoretical and experimental diagnostic studies at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut have helped trace the saturation effects to three main effects: gain saturation, longitudinal-holeburning and current driven carrier leakage. Design changes based on these studies have enabled increases in the achievable emitted power density from broad area lasers. Recent experimental examples include ~100W from 100μm stripes under short-pulsed conditions, > 30W from 100μm stripes under quasi-continuous wave conditions and > 10W from 30μm stripes under continuous wave conditions. An overview of the results of the diagnostic studies performed at the FBH will be presented, and the design changes necessary to address the observed power saturation will be discussed.

  17. High power diode laser vaporization of the prostate: preliminary results for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ali; Cam, Kamil; Tekin, Ali; Memik, Omur; Coban, Soner; Ozer, Yavuz

    2009-09-01

    Vaporization techniques using lasers have gained wide acceptance for benign prostatic hyperplasia as an alternative to transurethral prostate resection. The high power, 980 nm wavelength diode laser is a new promising alternative with a more rapid ablation rate and excellent hemostatic properties, as shown in ex vivo and in vivo animal models. We prospectively evaluated vaporization efficiency of the high power, 980 nm diode laser for bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. A total of 47 consecutive patients were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were maximal flow rate 12 ml per second or less with voided volume 150 ml or greater, International Prostate Symptom Score 12 or greater and quality of life score 3 or greater. Patients with a history of neurogenic voiding dysfunction, chronic prostatitis, or prostate or bladder cancer were excluded from analysis. Preoperative maximal flow rate, post-void residual urine, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, International Index of Erectile Function-5, prostate specific antigen and prostate volume were compared with values at 3 and 6 months. Complications were assessed. Month 3 assessment revealed that the mean +/- SD International Prostate Symptom Score decreased significantly from 21.93 +/- 4.88 to 10.31 +/- 3.79 (p = 0.0001). The mean maximal flow rate increased significantly from 8.87 +/- 2.18 to 17.51 +/- 4.09 ml per second (p = 0.0001). Quality of life score changed considerably compared to baseline. All of these values showed slight improvement at month 6. There was no deterioration in erectile function according to the International Index of Erectile Function-5 short form. Post-void residual urine decreased significantly. Prostate volume and prostate specific antigen reductions were also significant. The most common postoperative complications were retrograde ejaculation (13 of 41 patients or 31.7%) and irritative symptoms (11 of 47 or 23.4%), which subsided in the

  18. Analysis of High-Power Diode Laser Heating Effects on HY-80 Steel for Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechec, Maxwell; Baker, Brad; McNelley, Terry; Matthews, Manyalibo; Rubenchik, Alexander; Rotter, Mark; Beach, Ray; Wu, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    In this research, several conditions of high power diode laser heated HY-80 steel were characterized to determine the viability of using such lasers as a preheating source before friction stir welding in order to reduce frictional forces thereby reducing tool wear and increasing welding speeds. Differences in microstructures within heat affected zones were identified at specific laser powers and traverse speeds. Vickers hardness values were recorded and analyzed to validate the formation of additional martensite in diode laser heated regions of HY-80 steel. Conditions that produced little to no additional martensite were identified and relationships among high power diode laser power, traverse speed, and martensite formation were determined. The development of heat affected zones, change in grain structure, and creation of additional martensite in HY-80 can be prevented through the optimization of laser amperage and transverse speed.

  19. Novel palladium germanide schottky contact for high performance schottky barrier ge MOSFETs and characterization of its leakage current mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Kyung; Shin, Hong-Sik; Kang, Min-Ho; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2012-07-01

    The leakage current mechanism of Palladium (Pd) germanide Schottky contact on n-type Ge-on-Si substrate is analyzed in depth. The electric field dependent analysis shows that the dominant leakage current mechanism is the Poole-Frenkel emission due to the existence of deep level traps in the depletion region of the Pd germanide/n-type Ge Schottky diode. The analysis of the dependence of leakage current on temperature also shows that the Poole-Frenkel emission and generation current are the dominant components below 100 degrees C and that the Schottky emission related to thermionic emission of majority carriers over a potential barrier is the main cause of this dominance at high temperature region.

  20. Carrier transport in reverse-biased graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Hudy, L. J.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse-biased graphene (Gr)/semiconductor Schottky diodes exhibit much enhanced sensitivity for gas sensing. However, carrier transport across the junctions is not fully understood yet. Here, Gr/SiC, Gr/GaAs and Gr/Si Schottky junctions under reverse-bias are investigated by temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements. A reduction in barrier height with increasing reverse-bias is observed for all junctions, suggesting electric-field enhanced thermionic emission. Further analysis of th...

  1. Diode-clamped multi-level power converter with a zero-sequence current loop for three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang [Department of Microelectronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Rd., Kaohsiung (China); Wu, Kuen-Der; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Xiao, Shun-Tian [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter configured by a three-phase passive power filter and a three-phase diode-clamped multi-level power converter with a small power capacity of zero-sequence current loop connected in series to compensate for the harmonic currents of nonlinear load. The salient feature is that a small power capacity of zero-sequence current loop is applied to overcome the problem of balancing voltages of two DC capacitors for a diode-clamped multi-level power converter applying in the three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. A laboratory prototype is developed to verify the performance of the proposed three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. The experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of the proposed three-phase three-wire hybrid power filter. (author)

  2. Electrical characterization of all-epitaxial Fe/GaN(0001) Schottky tunnel contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garrido, Sergio; Ubben, Kai U.; Herfort, Jens; Gao Cunxu; Brandt, Oliver [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-16

    We analyze the properties of Fe Schottky contacts prepared in situ on n-type GaN(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. In particular, we investigate the suitability of these epitaxial Fe layers for electrical spin injection. Current-voltage-temperature measurements demonstrate pure field emission for Fe/GaN:Si Schottky diodes with [Si]=5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The Schottky barrier height of the clean, epitaxial Fe/GaN interface is determined by both current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage techniques to be (1.47{+-}0.09)eV.

  3. Optimization of passive low power wireless electromagnetic energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimo, Antwi; Grgić, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M

    2012-10-11

    This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor) resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at -30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna) is built and tested for receiving range performance.

  4. Laser assisted die bending: a new application of high power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.; Spitzer, O.; Bammer, F.; Schuöcker, G.; Sperrer, G.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays high power lasers are mainly used for cutting of sheet metals, for welding, hardening and rapid prototyping. In the forming of sheet metals as bending or deep drawing lasers are not used. Nevertheless a few years ago a new application of high power lasers has been invented, where bending of materials that break at room temperature becomes possible by heating them along the bending edge with high power lasers thus allowing their treatment without cracks and rupture. For this purpose a large number of diode lasers are arranged in the bottom tool of a bending machine (a V-shaped die) which heat up the initially flat sheet metal during the bending process what is performed by pressing it into the die with a knife shaped upper tool where due to the laser heating the material is softened and thus cracks are avoided. For the technical realization of the new process of laser assisted die bending, modules equipped with numerous laser diodes and a total beam power of 2,5 kW are used. The light emitted by these modules enters a tool with a length of 15cm and is deflected towards the workpiece. By using ten of these modules with adjacent dies and by integrating those in a bending press a bending edge of sheet metals with a length of 1500mm can be realized. Such a bending press with laser assistance also needs energization with a power of practically 50kW, a respective water flow, a heat exchanger system and also a control for all functions of this system. Special measures have also been developed to avoid radiating of those tools that are not covered by a workpiece in the case of bending edges shorter than the full length of the bending tools whereas individual short circuiting of diode modules can be performed. Specific measures to ensure a safe operation without any harm to the operational person have been realized. Exploitation of the bending process has been carried out for titanium, where material thicknesses up to 3mm have been bent successfully.

  5. 16 W output power by high-efficient spectral beam combining of DBR-tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    Up to 16 W output power has been obtained using spectral beam combining of two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. Using a reflecting volume Bragg grating, a combining efficiency as high as 93.7% is achieved, resulting in a single beam with high spatial coherence. The result represents the highest...... output power achieved by spectral beam combining of two single element tapered diode lasers. Since spectral beam combining does not affect beam propagation parameters, M2-values of 1.8 (fast axis) and 3.3 (slow axis) match the M2- values of the laser with lowest spatial coherence. The principle...... of spectral beam combining used in our experiments can be expanded to combine more than two tapered diode lasers and hence it is expected that the output power may be increased even further in the future....

  6. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Duchovskis, P [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Bliznikas, Z [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Breive, K [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ulinskaite, R [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Brazaityte, A [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Novickovas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zukauskas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-09-07

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  7. Enhanced optical output power of blue light-emitting diodes with quasi-aligned gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanhao; Li, Qunqing; Li, Guanhong; Chen, Mo; Liu, Junku; Zou, Yuan; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2014-01-01

    The output power of the light from GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was enhanced by fabricating gold (Au) nanoparticles on the surface of p-GaN. Quasi-aligned Au nanoparticle arrays were prepared by depositing Au thin film on an aligned suspended carbon nanotube thin film surface and then putting the Au-CNT system on the surface of p-GaN and thermally annealing the sample. The size and position of the Au nanoparticles were confined by the carbon nanotube framework, and no other additional residual Au was distributed on the surface of the p-GaN substrate. The output power of the light from the LEDs with Au nanoparticles was enhanced by 55.3% for an injected current of 100 mA with the electrical property unchanged compared with the conventional planar LEDs. The enhancement may originate from the surface plasmon effect and scattering effect of the Au nanoparticles.

  8. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB, continuous wave (CW 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF, a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA coefficient of 1.8 × 10−5 cm−1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  9. Recent developments in high power 2.3-2.4 μm diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.; Kisin, M.; Donetsky, D.; Westerfeld, D.

    2007-04-01

    Mid-infrared light emitters capable of room temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation are in demand for variety of applications ranging from medical diagnostics to missile countermeasures. Room temperature type-I quantum-well (QW) GaSb-based lasers, laser arrays and light emitting diodes operating in the spectral range from below 2 to over 3μm have been reported. The maximum CW output power from 1cm-wide 2.35μm linear laser array was 10 W, in quasi-CW operation (30 μs pulse, 300 Hz pulse repetition frequency) the maximum measured power is 18.5 W. In short pulse operation heating is negligible, and the light-current characteristics remains linear to beyond 20 W at 100 A.

  10. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Tittel, Frank K

    2018-01-04

    A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB), continuous wave (CW) 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF), a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.8 × 10-5 cm-1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  11. Understanding Pt-ZnO:In Schottky nanocontacts by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirakkara, Saraswathi; Choudhury, Palash Roy; Nanda, K. K.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Undoped and In doped ZnO (IZO) thin films are grown on Pt coated silicon substrates Pt/Si by pulsed laser deposition to fabricate Pt/ZnO:In Schottky diodes. The Schottky diodes were investigated by conventional two-probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements and by the I-V spectroscopy tool of conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The large deviation of the ideality factor from unity and the temperature dependent Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) obtained from the conventional method imply the presence of inhomogeneous interfaces. The inhomogeneity of SBHs is confirmed by C-AFM. Interestingly, the I-V curves at different points are found to be different, and the SBHs deduced from the point diodes reveal inhomogeneity at the nanoscale at the metal-semiconductor interface. A reduction in SBH and turn-on voltage along with enhancement in forward current are observed with increasing indium concentration.

  12. Tuning range and output power optimization of an external-cavity GaN diode laser at 455 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how different feedback gratings affect the tuning range and the output power of external feedback diode laser systems. A tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser system around 455 nm is investigated. The laser system is based on a high-power GaN diode...... laser in a Littrow external-cavity. Both a holographic diffraction grating and a ruled diffraction grating are used as feedback elements in the external cavity. The output power, spectral bandwidth, and tunable range of the external cavity diode laser system are measured and compared with the two...... gratings at different injected currents. When the holographic grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 1.4 nm with an output power around 530 mW. When the ruled grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 6.0 nm with an output power around 80 mW. The results can...

  13. Long term observation of low-power diode laser welding after penetrating keratoplasty in human patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo

    2010-02-01

    Low power diode laser welding is a recently developed technique used as a support tool for conventional suturing in ophthalmic surgery. The main application is in penetrating keratoplasty: in the last four years (2005-2009), clinical trials were performed at the Ophthalmic Department of Prato, Italy). In penetrating keratoplasty, diode laser welding is used to assure the transplanted corneal button in its final position. The donor tissue is positioned in the recipient eye and 8-16 single stitches are apposed. The surgical wound is then stained with a saturated (10% w/w) sterile water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG), it is washed with sterile water and then a diode laser (810 nm, 13 W/cm2) is used to induce the sealing of the wound. The laser light induces a thermal effect, localized in the stained tissue. In vivo and ex vivo studies in animal models evidenced that welding induces a modification of the corneal collagen architecture through the wound walls, thus enabling a short healing time and a good restoration of the tissue. In this study on human subjects, we confirmed the results evidenced in animal models, by morphological observations. In two cases out of 60, transplant rejection was observed. It was thus possible to study the efficacy of laser welding in the closure of the wound one year after implant. Direct morphological observation evidenced good strengthens of the welded tissue. Histological analysis pointed out a good restoration of the regular collagen architecture at the external perimeter of the corneal button, where laser welding was performed, showing the occurrence of a correct and effective wound healing process.

  14. Next generation 9xx/10xx nm high power laser diode bars for multi-kilowatt industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commin, Paul; Todt, René; Krejci, Martin; Bättig, Rainer; Brunner, Reinhard; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    We report on the development of high power, 9xx-10xx nm laser diode bars for use in direct diode systems and for solidstate and fibre laser pumping with applications in industrial markets. For 1 cm wide bars on micro channel cooler (MCC) we have achieved a reliable output power of 250 W across the 900 nm - 1060 nm range. At this output power level we have achieved power conversion efficiencies of 65-66 % and 90 % power content slow axis beam divergence of ~6.5°. Results of a 6400 h life test show an average power degradation of 0.6 % per 1000 h at this operating power level. We will also show results of high power bars assembled on the new OCLARO conductive cooler, the BLM. This new cooler has a small footprint of 12.6 mm × 24.8 mm and is designed for lateral or vertical stacking of diodes in multi kilowatt systems but with the benefits associated with a conductive cooler. The thermal properties are shown to be the same as for a standard CS mount. 1 cm wide high fill factor bars and 0.5 cm wide low fill factor half bars assembled on the BLM operate at 63-64 % power conversion efficiency (PCE) with output powers of up to 250 W and 150 W, respectively.

  15. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  16. High-power dual-wavelength external-Cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier with tunable terahertz frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tunable dual-wavelength operation of a diode laser system based on a tapered diode amplifier with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated around 800nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5:0 THz......, this is the highest output power from a dual-wavelength diode laser system operating with tunable terahertz frequency difference. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......Tunable dual-wavelength operation of a diode laser system based on a tapered diode amplifier with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated around 800nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5:0 THz....... An output power of 1:54W is achieved with a frequency difference of 0:86 THz, the output power is higher than 1:3W in the 5:0 THz range of frequency difference, and the amplified spontaneous emission intensity is more than 20 dB suppressed in the range of frequency difference. To our knowledge...

  17. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-An Cheng; Chien-Hsuan Chang; Hung-Liang Cheng; Ching-Hsien Tseng; Tsung-Yuan Chung

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED) driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC) converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circ...

  18. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  19. High Power Laser Diode Array Qualification and Guidelines for Space Flight Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Eegholm, Niels; Stephen, Mark; Leidecker, Henning; Plante, Jeannette; Meadows, Byron; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Jamison, Tracee; LaRocca, Frank

    2006-01-01

    High-power laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used for a variety of space-based remote sensor laser programs as an energy source for diode-pumped solid-state lasers. LDAs have been flown on NASA missions including MOLA, GLAS and MLA and have continued to be viewed as an important part of the laser-based instrument component suite. There are currently no military or NASA-grade, -specified, or - qualified LDAs available for "off-the-shelf" use by NASA programs. There has also been no prior attempt to define a standard screening and qualification test flow for LDAs for space applications. Initial reliability studies have also produced good results from an optical performance and stability standpoint. Usage experience has shown, howeve that the current designs being offered may be susceptible to catastrophic failures due to their physical construction (packaging) combined with the electro-optical operational modes and the environmental factors of space application. design combined with operational mode was at the root of the failures which have greatly reduced the functionality of the GLAS instrument. The continued need for LDAs for laser-based science instruments and past catastrophic failures of this part type demand examination of LDAs in a manner which enables NASA to select, buy, validate and apply them in a manner which poses as little risk to the success of the mission as possible.

  20. Reliability of High Power Laser Diode Arrays Operating in Long Pulse Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Baker, Nathaniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Reliability and lifetime of quasi-CW laser diode arrays are greatly influenced by their thermal characteristics. This paper examines the thermal properties of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse duration regime.

  1. Silicon Carbide Diodes Performance Characterization at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Gardner, Brent G.; Adams, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research center's Electrical Systems Development branch is working to demonstrate and test the advantages of Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices in actual power electronics applications. The first step in this pursuit is to obtain commercially available SiC Schottky diodes and to individually test them under both static and dynamic conditions, and then compare them with current state of the art silicon Schottky and ultra fast p-n diodes of similar voltage and current ratings. This presentation covers the results of electrical tests performed at NASA Glenn. Steady state forward and reverse current-volt (I-V) curves were generated for each device to compare performance and to measure their forward voltage drop at rated current, as well as the reverse leakage current at rated voltage. In addition, the devices were individually connected as freewheeling diodes in a Buck (step down) DC to DC converter to test their reverse recovery characteristics and compare their transient performance in a typical converter application. Both static and transient characterization tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 25 C to 300 C, in order to test and demonstrate the advantages of SiC over Silicon at high temperatures.

  2. High-power single spatial mode AlGaAs channeled-substrate-planar semiconductor diode lasers for spaceborne communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J. C.; Carlin, D. B.; Ettenberg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A high power single spatial mode channeled substrate planar AlGaAs semiconductor diode laser was developed. The emission wavelength was optimized at 860 to 880 nm. The operating characteristics (power current, single spatial mode behavior, far field radiation patterns, and spectral behavior) and results of computer modeling studies on the performance of the laser are discussed. Reliability assessment at high output levels is included. Performance results on a new type of channeled substrate planar diode laser incorporating current blocking layers, grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, to more effectively focus the operational current to the lasing region was demonstrated. The optoelectronic behavior and fabrication procedures for this new diode laser are discussed. The highlights include single spatial mode devices with up to 160 mW output at 8600 A, and quantum efficiencies of 70 percent (1 W/amp) with demonstrated operating lifetimes of 10,000 h at 50 mW.

  3. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-03-25

    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  4. High-power diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked bulk Yb:KGW laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Reza; Major, Arkady

    2017-11-01

    A high-power (>1  W) pure Kerr-lens mode-locked bulk Yb:KGW laser with multimode fiber-coupled diode pumping was demonstrated. The laser delivered 240 fs pulses with 2.3 W of average output power at 86.8 MHz, corresponding to 97 kW of peak power and 26 nJ of pulse energy. The shortest generated pulse duration was 120 fs with 1.2 W of output power. The self-starting regime was also observed with a background continuous-wave component. The laser exhibited more than an order of magnitude higher output power when compared to the previously reported bulk Yb-ion-doped lasers with multimode laser diode pumping systems.

  5. Removal of graffiti from quarry stone by high power diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of architectural monuments in urban areas is threatened by numerous attacks, among which the graffiti is sometimes one of the most important. Particularly, Morelia's historic center (Mexico) (appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO) suffers, for some years, a high number of graffiti. Most of these monuments in Morelia were built using a local stone called Pink Morelia Quarry. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility to remove the graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry using a high power diode laser treatment. An extensive experimental analysis of the operating conditions has been carried out leading to successful results. The optimal parameters to achieve a total removal of graffiti have been determined. We concluded that continuous wave regime leads to better results than modulated wave regime, additionally, a two laser passes process demonstrated a high performance.

  6. Design and fabrication of low power GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Zawawi, Mohamad Adzhar; Missous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A very low peak voltage GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been studied in detail. Excellent growth control with atomic-layer precision resulted in a peak voltage of merely 0.28 V (0.53 V) in forward (reverse) direction. The peak current density in forward bias is around 15.4 kA/cm2 with variation of within 7%. As for reverse bias, the peak current density is around 22.8 kA/cm2 with 4% variation which implies excellent scalability. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a GaAs/AlAs RTD by using a conventional optical lithography and chemical wet-etching with very low peak voltage suitable for application in low dc input power RTD-based sub-millimetre wave oscillators.

  7. Thermally stable conformal encapsulation material for high-power ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Yuan; Wang, Jau-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    A conformal encapsulation material for use in high-power, thermally stable ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes was successfully developed. For silicone, thermal degradation started at ˜200°C, and the transmittance was 85.5% at 365 nm. The transmittance decreased by 55% after thermal aging at 250°C for 72 h and it decreased further by 2.5%, even at room temperature, under continuous exposure to UV light at 365 nm for 72 h. By contrast, for the sol-gel material, thermal degradation started at ˜300°C, and the transmittance was 90% at 365 nm. The transmittance decreased negligibly after thermal aging at 250°C for 72 h and it did not decrease further even at 75°C under continuous exposure to UV light at 365 nm for 72 h.

  8. High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers for optical space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechner, Walter; Burnham, Ralph; Kasinski, Jeff; Bournes, Pat; Dibiase, Don; Le, Khoa; Marshall, Larry; Hays, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance of a large diode-pumped multi-stage Nd:YAG laser system for space and airborne applications will be described. The laser operates at a repetition rate of 40 Hz and produces an output either at 1.064 micron or 532 nm with an average power in the Q-switched mode of 30 W at the fundamental and 20 W at the second harmonic wavelength. The output beam is diffraction limited (TEM 00 mode) and can optionally also be operated in a single longitudinal mode. The output energy ranges from 1.25 Joule/pulse in the free lasing mode, 0.75 Joule in a 17 nsec Q-switched pulse, to 0.5 Joules/pulse at 532 nm. The overall electrical efficiency for the Q-switched second harmonic output is 4.

  9. High-power diode-end-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser delivering 189 W at 1890 nm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koen, W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a high-power Tm:YLF slab laser double-end-pumped by two 300 W laser diode stacks. The resonator was designed such that the laser emitted at 1890 nm instead of the conventional operating wavelength of 1912 nm. At full incident...

  10. Phase-Defined van der Waals Schottky Junctions with Significantly Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming; Yang, Liangliang; Zhou, Shengwen; Ye, Xianjun; Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Wenguang; McCluskey, Matthew D; Gu, Yi

    2017-07-06

    We demonstrate a van der Waals Schottky junction defined by crystalline phases of multilayer In 2 Se 3 . Besides ideal diode behaviors and the gate-tunable current rectification, the thermoelectric power is significantly enhanced in these junctions by more than three orders of magnitude compared with single-phase multilayer In 2 Se 3 , with the thermoelectric figure-of-merit approaching ∼1 at room temperature. Our results suggest that these significantly improved thermoelectric properties are not due to the 2D quantum confinement effects but instead are a consequence of the Schottky barrier at the junction interface, which leads to hot carrier transport and shifts the balance between thermally and field-driven currents. This "bulk" effect extends the advantages of van der Waals materials beyond the few-layer limit. Adopting such an approach of using energy barriers between van der Waals materials, where the interface states are minimal, is expected to enhance the thermoelectric performance in other 2D materials as well.

  11. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  12. System analysis of wavelength beam combining of high-power diode lasers for photoacoustic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodriguez, Sergio; Osiński, Marek; Sacher, Joachim; Carpintero, Guillermo; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-04-01

    This paper, originally published on 27 April 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 8 June 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. The purpose of wavelength-beam combining (WBC) is to improve the output power of a multi-wavelength laser system while maintaining the quality of the combined beam. This technique has been primarily proposed for industrial applications, such as metal cutting and soldering, which require optical peak power between kilowatts and megawatts. In order to replace the bulkier solid-state lasers, we propose to use the WBC technique for photoacoustic (PA) applications, where a multi-wavelength focused beam with optical peak power between hundreds of watts up to several kilowatts is necessary to penetrate deeply into biological tissues. In this work we present an analytical study about the coupling of light beams emitted by diode laser bars at 808 nm, 880 nm, 910 nm, 940 nm, and 980 nm into a .

  13. AlGaInN laser diode bars for high-power, optical integration and quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Stanczyk, S.; Wisniewski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Schiavon, D.; Leszczyński, M.

    2017-05-01

    GaN laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology for high power, optical integration and quantum applications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., 380nm, to the visible 530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications including displays and imaging systems, free-space and underwater telecommunications and the latest quantum technologies such as optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry.

  14. Robust modeling and performance analysis of high-power diode side-pumped solid-state laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer; Ghoniemy, Samy; Mokhtar, Ayman

    2015-12-20

    In this paper, we present an enhanced high-power extrinsic diode side-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) model to accurately predict the dynamic operations and pump distribution under different practical conditions. We introduce a new implementation technique for the proposed model that provides a compelling incentive for the performance assessment and enhancement of high-power diode side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using cooperative agents and by relying on the MATLAB, GLAD, and Zemax ray tracing software packages. A large-signal laser model that includes thermal effects and a modified laser gain formulation and incorporates the geometrical pump distribution for three radially arranged arrays of laser diodes is presented. The design of a customized prototype diode side-pumped high-power laser head fabricated for the purpose of testing is discussed. A detailed comparative experimental and simulation study of the dynamic operation and the beam characteristics that are used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for analyzing the performance of high-power DPSSLs under different conditions are discussed. The simulated and measured results of power, pump distribution, beam shape, and slope efficiency are shown under different conditions and for a specific case, where the targeted output power is 140 W, while the input pumping power is 400 W. The 95% output coupler reflectivity showed good agreement with the slope efficiency, which is approximately 35%; this assures the robustness of the proposed model to accurately predict the design parameters of practical, high-power DPSSLs.

  15. High-power diode lasers at 1178  nm with high beam quality and narrow spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, K; Bugge, F; Blume, G; Feise, D; Erbert, G

    2015-01-01

    High-power distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers (DBR-TPLs) at 1180 nm were developed based on highly strained InGaAs quantum wells. The lasers emit a nearly diffraction-limited beam with more than two watts with a narrow spectral width. These features are believed to make this type of diode laser a key component for the manufacturing of miniaturized laser modules in the yellow and orange spectral range by second-harmonic generation to cover a spectral region currently not accessible with direct emitting diode lasers. Future applications might be the laser-cooling of sodium, high-resolution glucose-content measurements, as well as spectroscopy on rare earth elements.

  16. Tuning of Schottky barrier height of Al/n-Si by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Indudhar Panduranga [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Shetty, Pramoda Kumara, E-mail: pramod.shetty@manipal.edu [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Mahesha, M.G. [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Petwal, V.C.; Dwivedi, Jishnu [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, Indore 452012 (India); Choudhary, R.J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Tuning of Schottky barrier height has been achieved by electron beam irradiation at different doses on n-Si wafer prior to the fabrication of Schottky contact. • The XPS analyses have shown irradiation induced defects and the formation of several localized chemical states in Si/SiOx interface that influences the Schottky barrier height. • High ideality factor indicates metal-insulator-semiconductor configuration of the Schottky diode and the inhomogeneous nature of the Schottky barrier height. • The modifications in I–V characteristics have been observed as a function of electron dose. This is caused due to changes in the Schottky diode parameters and different transport mechanisms. - Abstract: The effect of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on Al/n-Si Schottky diode has been studied by I–V characterization at room temperature. The behavior of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface is analyzed by means of variations in the MS contact parameters such as, Schottky barrier height (Φ{sub B}), ideality factor (n) and series resistance (R{sub s}). These parameters were found to depend on the EBI dose having a fixed incident beam of energy 7.5 MeV. At different doses (500, 1000, 1500 kGy) of EBI, the Schottky contacts were prepared and extracted their contact parameters by applying thermionic emission and Cheung models. Remarkably, the tuning of Φ{sub B} was observed as a function of EBI dose. The improved n with increased Φ{sub B} is seen for all the EBI doses. As a consequence of which the thermionic emission is more favored. However, the competing transport mechanisms such as space charge limited emission, tunneling and tunneling through the trap states were ascribed due to n > 1. The analysis of XPS spectra have shown the presence of native oxide and increased radiation induced defect states. The thickness variation in the MS interface contributing to Schottky contact behavior is discussed. This study explains a new technique to tune

  17. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    power. The PPSLT chip was placed in a home-made mount whose temperature was controlled with a thermo- electric cooler (TEC) and monitored with a...main optical damage mechanisms need to be assessed when dealing with cw lasers, namely (1) optical surface damage arising from the high electric ...Yuen, H. P. Bae, M. A. Wistey, A. Moto , and J. S. Harris Jr., "Enhanced Luminescence in GaInNAsSb Quantum Wells Through Variation of the Arsenic and

  18. Geometry modeling of single track cladding deposited by high power diode laser with rectangular beam spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaming; Qin, Xunpeng; Huang, Song; Hu, Zeqi; Ni, Mao

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the relationship between the process parameters and geometrical characteristics of the sectional profile for the single track cladding (STC) deposited by High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) with rectangle beam spot (RBS). To obtain the geometry parameters, namely cladding width Wc and height Hc of the sectional profile, a full factorial design (FFD) of experiment was used to conduct the experiments with a total of 27. The pre-placed powder technique has been employed during laser cladding. The influence of the process parameters including laser power, powder thickness and scanning speed on the Wc and Hc was analyzed in detail. A nonlinear fitting model was used to fit the relationship between the process parameters and geometry parameters. And a circular arc was adopted to describe the geometry profile of the cross-section of STC. The above models were confirmed by all the experiments. The results indicated that the geometrical characteristics of the sectional profile of STC can be described as the circular arc, and the other geometry parameters of the sectional profile can be calculated only using Wc and Hc. Meanwhile, the Wc and Hc can be predicted through the process parameters.

  19. Monolithic fiber coupler for high power diode laser bars: results of prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, T.; Bagschik, K.; Kalkusinki, A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel micro optical element is introduced, allowing coupling of light from several emitters of a laser diode bar into an optical fiber at high brightness. The monolithic fiber coupler is designed with individual segments for each emitter of the laser diode bar, providing two refractive surfaces for each emitter. By means of the monolithic fiber coupler, very cost effective fiber coupled laser diode modules based on bars are feasible. Consequently, approaches based on laser diodes bars can also compete with single emitter solutions for pumping application. Further applications of laser modules with monolithic fiber couplers may also be for direct material processing or as components in projection and illumination systems.

  20. Schottky barrier height of MnSb/GaAs(111)B contacts : Influence of interface structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manago, T; Miyanishi, S; Akinaga, H; Van Roy, W; Roelfsema, RFB; Sato, T; Tamura, E; Yuasa, S

    2000-01-01

    The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of MnSb(0001)/n-GaAs(111)B diodes was investigated in terms of current-voltage characteristics for three different GaAs surfaces, GaAs (root 19x root 19), GaAs (2x2), and sulfur passivated GaAs. We observed that the SBH and the ideality factor changed significantly

  1. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.

    2010-01-01

    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...... 0.07 nm throughout the tuning range, and the beam quality factor M2 is 2.0 with the output power of 1.27 W....

  2. Cost-effective optoacoustic system based on the combination of high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    One of the main issues of the advances in optoacoustic (OA) applications is to reduce the high costs and the big sizes of solid state lasers. High-power diode lasers (HPDLs) have been demonstrated to be a valid alternative reducing enormously the expenses, besides other advantages such as smaller sizes and higher modulation frequencies. However, in some cases it is possible to furtherly reduce their costs. We present a cost-effective OA system based on the combination of several 905-nm HPDLs with direct coupling into a fiber bundle. These HPDLs have an internal pulse driver, based on an n-channel Mosfet and two charging capacitors, which needs an external Mosfet driver circuit and a voltage supply in order to improve the optical pulse shape and energy. We compare the performances and the prices of this OA system with another similar HPDL-based OA system built with commercial elements. Results indicate good OA signal generation ( 15.6 mVpp) with pulse energy of 12.3 μJ and, especially, a cost reduction by a factor of 15 if compared to the other HPDL-based system.

  3. 1-W average power levels and tunability from a diode-pumped 2.94-microm Er:YAG oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C E; Beach, R J; Sutton, S B; Furu, L H; Krupke, W F

    1994-10-15

    A tunable Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a quasi-cw InGaAs diode array, generates > 500 mW of power at 2.936 microm. The cavity is a 4-cm plano-concave resonator that uses total internal reflection on the pump face of the Er:YAG crystal to couple the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. Tuning is accomplished by angle tuning a 300-microm-thick YAG étalon. The tuning range is 2.933-2.939 microm. Thermal lensing limits the duty factor to 4% or 8%, depending on the Er:YAG crystal thickness (2 or 1 mm). A 2.5-cm-long resonator operates at an 11% duty factor and generates 1.3 W of average power.

  4. PEnELOPE: a high peak-power diode-pumped laser system for laser-plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Mathias; Roeser, Fabian; Loeser, Markus; Albach, Daniel; Schramm, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    We introduce the directly diode-pumped PEnELOPE laser-system which is designed for a pulse energy of 150 J, a repetition rate of 1Hz and a pulse duration of 120 fs. The principle setup of amplifier and stretcher-compressor system as well as the pumping, energy extraction and cooling scheme of the power amplifiers will be reported. In this paper we focus on numerical modeling as well as design studies.

  5. Wettability characteristics of carbon steel modified with CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer and high power diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle. These modifications are related to changes in the surface roughness, changes in the surface oxygen content and changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. The wettability characteristics of the selected mild steel could be controll...

  6. All-optical Q-switching limiter for high-power gigahertz modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Alexander; Keller, Ursula

    2015-04-06

    Passively modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) with pulse repetition rates in the gigahertz regime suffer from an increased tendency for Q-switching instabilities. Low saturation fluence intracavity saturable absorbers - such as the semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) - can solve this problem up to a certain average output power limited by the onset of SESAM damage. Here we present a passive stabilization mechanism, an all-optical Q-switching limiter, to reduce the impact of Q-switching instabilities and increase the potential output power of SESAM modelocked lasers in the gigahertz regime. With a proper cavity design a Kerr lens induced negative saturable absorber clamps the maximum fluence on the SESAM and therefore limits the onset of Q-switching instabilities. No critical cavity alignment is required because this Q-switching limiter acts well within the cavity stability regime. Using a proper cavity design, a high-power diode-pumped Yb:CALGO solid-state laser generated sub-100 fs pulses with an average output power of 4.1 W at a pulse repetition rate of 5 GHz. With a pulse duration of 96 fs we can achieve a peak power as high as 7.5 kW directly from the SESAM modelocked laser oscillator without any further external pulse amplification and/or pulse compression. We present a quantitative analysis of this Kerr lens induced Q-switching limiter and its impact on modelocked operation. Our work provides a route to compact high-power multi-gigahertz frequency combs based on SESAM modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers without any additional external amplification or pulse compression.

  7. TCAD analysis of graphene silicon Schottky junction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yawei; Liu, Yushen; Ma, Yulong; Xu, Jing; Yang, Xifeng; Feng, Jinfu

    2015-08-01

    The performance of graphene based Schottky junction solar cell on silicon substrate is studied theoretically by TCAD Silvaco tools. We calculate the current-voltage curves and internal quantum efficiency of this device at different conditions using tow dimensional model. The results show that the power conversion efficiency of Schottky solar cell dependents on the work function of graphene and the physical properties of silicon such as thickness and doping concentration. At higher concentration of 1e17cm-3 for n-type silicon, the dark current got a sharp rise compared with lower doping concentration which implies a convert of electron emission mechanism. The biggest fill factor got at higher phos doping predicts a new direction for higher performance graphene Schottky solar cell design.

  8. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  9. Fullerene-based Schottky-junction organic solar cells: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutty, Sibi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in fullerene-based Schottky organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented, with a focus on the current understanding of device physics. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs attain high open-circuit voltages due to the n-type Schottky junction formed between fullerene and an adjacent high work function anode. Small concentrations of donor material doped into the fullerene matrix serve as efficient exciton dissociation and hole transport agents that can substantially bolster short-circuit currents and fill factors. As a consequence, fullerene-based Schottky OSCs have been demonstrated to provide some of the highest-performance vacuum-deposited small molecule OSCs, with power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1%. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs constructed using different donor materials and varying cathode buffer layers, as studied by a number of different research groups, are presented. To elucidate the differences between Schottky OSCs and more traditional bulk-heterojunction OSCs, we discuss the photophysics of fullerenes, the role of the donor material, and charge transport in low donor concentration active layers. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs possess considerable advantages because they can reach high efficiencies with a simple structure using readily available and cost-effective materials. The impact and applicability of the Schottky device architecture on the field of organic photovoltaics at large are discussed.

  10. Tunnel barrier schottky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Rongming; Cao, Yu; Li, Zijian; Williams, Adam J.

    2018-02-20

    A diode includes: a semiconductor substrate; a cathode metal layer contacting a bottom of the substrate; a semiconductor drift layer on the substrate; a graded aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor barrier layer on the drift layer and having a larger bandgap than the drift layer, the barrier layer having a top surface and a bottom surface between the drift layer and the top surface, the barrier layer having an increasing aluminum composition from the bottom surface to the top surface; and an anode metal layer directly contacting the top surface of the barrier layer.

  11. Efficient generation of 3.5W laser light at 515nm by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André

    2017-01-01

    More than 3.5 W of green light at 515 nm is generated by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser. The frequency doubling is performed in a cascade of PPMgLN and PPMgSLT crystals in order to reach high power and avoid thermal effects present in PPMgLN at high power...

  12. Transient analysis of power systems solution techniques, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Velasco, J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation of a rectenna element for microwave power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcspadden, James O.; Yoo, Taewhan; Chang, Kai

    1992-01-01

    A microstrip measurement system has been designed to analyze packaged GaAs Schottky barrier diodes under small and large signal conditions. The nonlinear equivalent circuit parameters of the diode are determined using a small signal test method that analyzes the diode's scattering parameters at various bias levels. The experimental results of a 2.45 GHz diode are verified using a nonlinear circuit simulation program based on a multireflection algorithm. A 35 GHz rectenna has been built using a microstrip patch antenna and Ka-band mixer diode. The measured efficiency was 29 percent at 120 mW input power. A frequency selective surface is designed using an equivalent circuit model to reduce the second harmonic radiations for a 2.45 GHz rectenna. Theoretical results are found to be in fairly good agreement with experiments.

  14. Schottky contact barrier height enhancement on p-type silicon by wet chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, G. A.; Poggi, A.; Susi, E.; Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.

    1989-04-01

    A wet chemical etch preceding the usual cleaning process has been found to yield Schottky barriers of high values on p-type silicon. This procedure produces a passivated surface layer which has resulted in Al/0-Si Schottky diodes with barrier height of 0.75 eV and ideality factor of 1.15. Measurements have confirmed the presence of electrically active donor-like states in this surface layer. The origin of the donor states is explained in terms of the deactivation of the boron acceptor by the formation of H + B - pairs.

  15. Dual-wavelength high-power diode laser system based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier with tunable frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    A dual-wavelength high-power semiconductor laser system based on a tapered amplifier with double-Littrow external cavity is demonstrated around 800 nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 10.0 THz. To our...... knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range of the frequency difference from a dual-wavelength diode laser system. The spectrum, output power, and beam quality of the diode laser system are characterized. The power stability of each wavelength is measured, and the power fluctuations of the two wavelengths...

  16. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  17. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  18. Wettability characteristics of a modified mild steel with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin

    1999-01-01

    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high-power diode laser radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle of certain liquids. Such changes were identified as being due to modifications to (i) the surface roughness, (ii) changes in the surface oxygen content and (iii) changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. However, it was found that changes in the wet...

  19. Investigations on the potential of a low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian; Wagner, Sophia; Hibst, Raimund

    2015-02-01

    Flash lamp pumped Er:YAG-lasers are used in clinical practice for dental applications successfully. As an alternative, several diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems (Pantec Engineering AG) become available, with mean laser power of 2W, 15W, and 30W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the potential of the 2W Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and both, a focusing unit for non-contact tissue cutting and a fiber tip for tissue cutting in contact mode. In order to produce reproducible cuts, the samples (porcine gingiva) were moved by a computer controlled translation stage. On the fresh samples cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscopy. Afterwards histological sections were prepared and microscopically analyzed regarding cutting depth and thermal damage zone. The experiments show that low laser power ≤ 2W is sufficient to perform efficient oral soft tissue cutting with cut depth up to 2mm (sample movement 2mm/s). The width of the thermal damage zone can be controlled by the irradiation parameters within a range of about 50μm to 110μm. In general, thermal injury is more pronounced using fiber tips in contact mode compared to the focused laser beam. In conclusion the results reveal that even the low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser is an appropriate tool for oral surgery.

  20. Experimental and simulation studies of neutron-induced single-event burnout in SiC power diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event burnouts (SEBs) of silicon carbide (SiC) power diodes have been investigated by white neutron irradiation experiments and transient device simulations. It was confirmed that a rapid increase in lattice temperature leads to formation of crown-shaped aluminum and cracks inside the device owing to expansion stress when the maximum lattice temperature reaches the sublimation temperature. SEB device simulation indicated that the peak lattice temperature is located in the vicinity of the n-/n+ interface and anode contact, and that the positions correspond to a hammock-like electric field distribution caused by the space charge effect. Moreover, the locations of the simulated peak lattice temperature agree closely with the positions of the observed destruction traces. Furthermore, it was theoretically demonstrated that the period of temperature increase of a SiC power device is two orders of magnitude less than that of a Si power device, using a thermal diffusion equation.

  1. Increasing the output power of single 808-nm laser diodes using diamond submounts produced by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkinazi, E E; Bezotosnyi, V V; Bondarev, Vadim Yu; Kovalenko, V I; Konov, Vitalii I; Krokhin, Oleg N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, Valerii F; Popov, Yurii M; Popovich, A F; Ral' chenko, Viktor G; Cheshev, E A

    2012-11-30

    We have designed and fabricated submounts from synthetic diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition and developed an economical process for metallising such submounts. Laser diode chips having an 808-nm emission wavelength, 3-mm-long cavity and 130-mm-wide stripe contact were mounted on copper heat sinks with the use of diamond submounts differing in quality. The devices were tested for more than 150 h in continuous mode at an output power of 8 W on diamond with a thermal conductivity of 700 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, and no changes in their output power were detected. On diamond with a thermal conductivity of 1600 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, stable cw operation for 24 h at an output power of 12 W was demonstrated. (letters)

  2. The controlled growth of graphene nanowalls on Si for Schottky photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schottky diode with directly-grown graphene on silicon substrate has advantage of clean junction interface, promising for photodetectors with high-speed and low noise. In this report, we carefully studied the influence of growth parameters on the junction quality and photoresponse of graphene nanowalls (GNWs-based Schottky photodetectors. We found that shorter growth time is critical for lower dark current, but at the same time higher photocurrent. The influence of growth parameters was attributed to the defect density of various growth time, which results in different degrees of surface absorption for H2O/O2 molecules and P-type doping level. Raman characterization and vacuum annealing treatment were carried out to confirm the regulation mechanism. Meanwhile, the release of thermal stress also makes the ideality factor η of thinner sample better than the thicker. Our results are important for the response improvement of photodetectors with graphene-Si schottky junction.

  3. Influence of different output powers on the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Yuksel, Sahru; Gulsoy, Murat

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative antimicrobial treatment method. Different wavelengths of light sources mostly in the visible spectrum have been investigated for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy. Even though the wavelengths in near infrared spectrum have the advantage of higher penetration capability in biological tissue, they have not been preferred for PDT because of their possible photothermal effect in biological tissues. In our previous studies, the desired PDT effect was achieved with 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) on drug resistant pathogens. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the influence of different output powers during PDT applications with 809-nm diode laser to clarify whether there is a photothermal effect to kill the pathogens or only the photochemical effect of photodynamic therapy. 4 different output powers (500 mW, 745 mW, 1000 mW, 1500 mW) were examined in Laseronly and PDT groups of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 in vitro. In the PDT groups, a non-phototoxic ICG concentration (50 μl/ml) has been chosen to eliminate the toxic effect of ICG and evaluate only the thermal effect of laser. Applied energy dose (252 J/cm2) was kept constant by increasing the exposure duration (300, 240, 180 and 120 seconds respectively). These output powers in Laser-only or PDT groups did not seem to cause photothermal effect. There was not any significant decrease or increase on bacterial load after the applications with different output powers. Higher output powers in PDT groups with the same ICG concentration did not cause any higher killing effect.

  4. Ultra-wideband balanced schottky envelope detector for data communication with high bitrate to carrier frequency ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granja, Angel Blanco; Cimoli, Bruno; Rodriguez, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    filter that rejects the second harmonic spurious from the Schottky diode and a bias tee that selects the optimum rectification point. The manufactured prototype is able to demodulate error free a 4 Gbps amplitude shift keying (ASK) signal at 4 GHz carrier frequency, leading to a record bitrate...

  5. Ex vivo efficacy evaluation of laser vaporization for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Junya; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Laser vaporization of the prostate is considered to be a promising treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and efficiency of vaporization and hemostasis are both important parameters for such treatment. In this study, we used a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm to obtain high vaporization efficiency with good hemostasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of laser vaporization for treatment of BPH in ex vivo experiments using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm quantitatively. Materials and Methods: An ex vivo experimental setup simulating clinical treatment situation was constructed. Bovine prostate tissue was used as a sample. The power setting was 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 W, and the irradiation time was 0.5, 1, or 2 s. After laser irradiation, vaporized and coagulated depths were measured. Results: The vaporized depth increased with the laser power and irradiation time, and the results confirmed that the high-power laser diode could efficiently vaporize the prostate tissue. Coagulated depth increased as the laser power became higher. Conclusions: Laser vaporization of prostate tissue using a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm represents a promising treatment for BPH; this method exhibits high vaporization efficiency and good hemostasis. However, operators must be aware of the risk of postoperative perforation of the prostatic capsule caused by coagulation of deep regions that cannot be visualized by endoscopic observation. PMID:25368442

  6. Ex vivo efficacy evaluation of laser vaporization for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Junya; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-09-30

    Laser vaporization of the prostate is considered to be a promising treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and efficiency of vaporization and hemostasis are both important parameters for such treatment. In this study, we used a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm to obtain high vaporization efficiency with good hemostasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of laser vaporization for treatment of BPH in ex vivo experiments using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm quantitatively. An ex vivo experimental setup simulating clinical treatment situation was constructed. Bovine prostate tissue was used as a sample. The power setting was 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 W, and the irradiation time was 0.5, 1, or 2 s. After laser irradiation, vaporized and coagulated depths were measured. The vaporized depth increased with the laser power and irradiation time, and the results confirmed that the high-power laser diode could efficiently vaporize the prostate tissue. Coagulated depth increased as the laser power became higher. Laser vaporization of prostate tissue using a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm represents a promising treatment for BPH; this method exhibits high vaporization efficiency and good hemostasis. However, operators must be aware of the risk of postoperative perforation of the prostatic capsule caused by coagulation of deep regions that cannot be visualized by endoscopic observation.

  7. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  8. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99, low utility-line current THD (<7%, low-output voltage ripples (<1%, low-output current ripples (<10%, and high circuit efficiency (>90% are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications.

  9. Parametric Study and Multi-Criteria Optimization in Laser Cladding by a High Power Direct Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-12-01

    In laser cladding, the performance of the deposited layers subjected to severe working conditions (e.g., wear and high temperature conditions) depends on the mechanical properties, the metallurgical bond to the substrate, and the percentage of dilution. The clad geometry and mechanical characteristics of the deposited layer are influenced greatly by the type of laser used as a heat source and process parameters used. Nowadays, the quality of fabricated coating by laser cladding and the efficiency of this process has improved thanks to the development of high-power diode lasers, with power up to 10 kW. In this study, the laser cladding by a high power direct diode laser (HPDDL) as a new heat source in laser cladding was investigated in detail. The high alloy tool steel material (AISI H13) as feedstock was deposited on mild steel (ASTM A36) by a HPDDL up to 8kW laser and with new design lateral feeding nozzle. The influences of the main process parameters (laser power, powder flow rate, and scanning speed) on the clad-bead geometry (specifically layer height and depth of the heat affected zone), and clad microhardness were studied. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop the analytical models for desired output properties according to input process parameters. The Analysis of Variance was applied to check the accuracy of the developed models. The response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function were used for multi-criteria optimization of the cladding process. In order to investigate the effect of process parameters on the molten pool evolution, in-situ monitoring was utilized. Finally, the validation results for optimized process conditions show the predicted results were in a good agreement with measured values. The multi-criteria optimization makes it possible to acquire an efficient process for a combination of clad geometrical and mechanical characteristics control.

  10. High-power 1.9-3.3-μm type-I quantum-well cascade diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterengas, L.; Hosoda, T.; Wang, M.; Feng, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Belenky, G.

    2017-02-01

    Cascade pumping of type-I quantum well gain sections was utilized to increase output power and efficiency of GaSb-based diode lasers operating in spectral region from 1.9 to 3.3 μm. Two-step ridge waveguide design with shallow 5-μm-wide and deep 15-μm-wide etched sections yielded λ 2 μm lasers generating 250 mW of continuous wave output power in nearly diffraction limited beam when mounted epi-down. The same device mounted epi-up demonstrated output power of about 180 mW. Lasers operating in the wavelength range above 3.2 μm with variable deep etched ridge width and two-step ridge design were fabricated and characterized. Two-step ridge waveguide design yielded the lowest threshold current and the highest slope efficiency. Tens of mW of continuous wave output power was obtained in nearly diffraction limited beams in the wavelength range from 3.2 to 3.3 μm near and above 20 °C in both epi-up and epi-down mounting configurations. Laterally-coupled 2-nd-order distributed feedback lasers operated near 3.22 μm in continuous wave regime at room temperatures with more than 10 mW of output power at room temperature in epi-up mounted configuration.

  11. Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Chou, Hung-Yu; Yang, Kai-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-08-01

    In this letter, we present a new design for a light-emitting diode- based bike headlamp. The optical design contains two horizontal reflectors and a light pipe with two horizontal parallel mirrors. The designed illumination pattern in our simulations performs a contrast of 250 in the K-mark regulation, and it was measured to be 21 in the experiment with a not well-finished prototype, which was operated at 1 W. The contrast is higher than 5 as requested in the regulation.

  12. Silicon Carbide Diodes Characterization at High Temperature and Comparison With Silicon Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Gardner, Brent G.; Adams, Jerry D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes from different manufacturers rated at 200, 300, 600, and 1200 V, were electrically tested and characterized as a function of temperature up to 300 C. Electrical tests included both steady state and dynamic tests. Steady state tests produced forward and reverse I-V characteristic curves. Transient tests evaluated the switching performance of the diodes in either a hard-switched DC to DC buck converter or a half-bridge boost converter. For evaluation and comparison purposes, the same tests were performed with current state-of-the-art ultra fast silicon (Si) pn-junction diodes of similar ratings and also a Si Schottky diode. The comparisons made were forward voltage drop at rated current, reverse current at rated voltage, and turn-off peak reverse recovery current and reverse recovery time. In addition, efficiency measurements were taken for the buck DC to DC converter using both the SiC Schottky diodes and the Si pn-junction diodes at different temperatures and frequencies. The test results showed that at high temperature, the forward voltage drop for SiC Schottky diodes is higher than the forward drop of the ultra fast Si pn-junction diodes. As the temperature increased, the forward voltage drop of the SiC Schottky increased while for the ultra fast Si pn-junction diodes, the forward voltage drop decreased as temperature increased. For the elevated temperature steady state reverse voltage tests, the SiC Schottky diodes showed low leakage current at their rated voltage. Likewise, for the transient tests, the SiC Schottky diodes displayed low reverse recovery currents over the range of temperatures tested. Conversely, the Si pn-junction diodes showed increasing peak reverse current values and reverse recovery times with increasing temperature. Efficiency measurements in the DC to DC buck converter showed the advantage of the SiC Schottky diodes over the ultra fast Si pn-junction diodes, especially at the

  13. Corrosion resistant nickel superalloy coatings laser-clad with a 6 kW high power diode laser (HPDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Jari; Honkanen, Mari; Hovikorpi, Jari; Vihinen, Jorma; Vuoristo, Petri; Maentylae, Tapio

    2003-03-01

    A series of exerpiments were performed to investigate the one-step laser cladding of Inconel 625 powder, injected off-axially onto Fe37 and 42CrMo4 substrates. The experiments were carried out using a 6 kW high power diode laser (HPDL) mounted to a 6 axis robot system. The rectangular shape of the delivering beam was focused to a spot size of 22 x 5 mm on the work piece. The coating samples were produced using different levels of powder feed rate (77 - 113 g/min), traveling speed (300 - 400 mm/min) and laser power (4.8 - 6 kW). Hot corrosion resistance of laser-clad Inconel 625 coatings were tested in Na2SO4 - V2O5 at 650°C for 1000 hours. Wet corrosion properties of the obtained coatings were tested in immersion tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Diode laser power of 6 kW (808 and 940 nm) was high enough to produce 20 mm wide laser-clad tracks with a thickness of 2.5 mm in a single pass, when powder feed rate was more than 6 kg/h and traverse speed was 400 mm/min. Wet corrosion properties of laser-clad Inconel 625 coatings were found to be superior to sprayed and welded coatings. Hot corrosion resistance was even slightly better than corresponding wrought alloy. Finally, one-step HPDL cladding was demonstrated in coating of shaft for hydraulic cylinder with Inconel 625 powder. Due to high coating quality, high deposition rate and traverse speed HPDL devices are very promising for large area cladding applications.

  14. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  15. Power fading mitigation of 40-Gbit/s 256-QAM OFDM carried by colorless laser diode under injection-locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-11-02

    The pre-compensation on power fading effect of a colorless laser diode (CLD) carried 40-Gbit/s 256-QAM OFDM transmission during 25-km is demonstrated. By offsetting the DC bias to thrice the threshold (I(th)) and increasing the injection to 0 dBm, the CLD not only enhances its coherence but also suppresses modulation throughput declination and reduces the relative intensity related noise floor to -50 dBm. Modeling the receiving power of the delivered 256-QAM OFDM subcarriers is established, indicating that raising the bias to 3I(th) down-shifts the power fading induced notch to 8.8 GHz. This further degrades the OFDM subcarrier peak power by -2.9 dB after 25-km transmission, and the corresponded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error-rate (BER) are 26.1 dB, 4.9% and 6.5 × 10(-3), respectively. Pre-leveling the OFDM subcarrier as well as the modulation throughput effectively compromises the over-bias enlarged power fading to promote transmission. With a pre-leveled power slope of 1.5 dB/GHz for 256-QAM OFDM data, the modulation throughput declination of the high biased CLD significantly mitigates under BtB transmission, enabling the receiving sensitivity at -7.2 dBm with SNR, EVM and BER of 29.9 dB, 3.1% and 1.5 × 10(-4), respectively. Increasing the pre-leveling slope to 3.2 dB/GHz minimizes the fiber dispersion induced power fading, which improves the receiving SNR, EVM and BER to 27.4 dB, 4.2% and 2.6 × 10(-3), respectively, with receiving sensitivity of -3 dBm and power penalty of 4.2 dB after 25-km SMF transmission.

  16. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  17. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianhua, E-mail: lxh@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Kexun, E-mail: likx@nankai.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic oxidation of methylene blue was studied under laser light irradiation. • Fast removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was achieved. • The photocatalyst Ag/AgCl is efficient and stable under 443 nm laser light irritation. • Diode laser is a good light source for photocatalytic degradation of dyes. - Abstract: This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles)

  18. Bactericidal effects of a high-power, red light-emitting diode on two periodontopathic bacteria in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Makoto; Tsuno, Akiko; Okagami, Yoshihide; Tsuchiya, Fumito; Izumi, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Isao

    2011-11-01

      Light-emitting diodes have been investigated as new light activators for photodynamic therapy. We investigated the bactericidal effects of high-power, red light-emitting diodes on two periodontopathic bacteria in vitro.   A light-emitting diode (intensity: 1100 mW/cm(2) , peak wavelength: 650 nm) was used to irradiate a bacterial solution for either 10 or 20 s. Bacterial solutions (Porphyromonas gingivalis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) at a concentration of 2.5 × 10(6) c.f.u./mL were mixed with an equal volume of either methylene blue or toluidine blue O (0-20 μg/mL) and added to titer plate wells. The plate wells were irradiated with red light-emitting diode light from a distance of 22 or 40 mm. The contents were diluted, and 50 μL was smeared onto blood agar plates. After 1 week of culturing, bacterial c.f.u. were counted.   The light-emitting diode energy density was estimated to be approximately 4 and 8 J/cm(2) after 10 and 20 s of irradiation, respectively. Red light-emitting diode irradiation for 10 s from a distance of 22 mm, combined with methylene blue at concentrations >10 μg/mL, completely killed Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.   High-power, red light-emitting diode irradiation with a low concentration of dye showed effective bactericidal effects against two periodontopathic bacteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Experimental study on an S-band near-field microwave magnetron power transmission system on hundred-watt level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Jiang, Wan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Chengyang; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-magnetron microwave source, a metamaterial transmitting antenna, and a large power rectenna array are presented to build a near-field 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission system. The square 1 m2 rectenna array consists of sixteen rectennas with 2048 Schottky diodes for large power microwave rectifying. It receives microwave power and converts them into DC power. The design, structure, and measured performance of a unit rectenna as well as the entail rectenna array are presented in detail. The multi-magnetron microwave power source switches between half and full output power levels, i.e. the half-wave and full-wave modes. The transmission antenna is formed by a double-layer metallic hole array, which is applied to combine the output power of each magnetron. The rectenna array DC output power reaches 67.3 W on a 1.2 Ω DC load at a distance of 5.5 m from the transmission antenna. DC output power is affected by the distance, DC load, and the mode of microwave power source. It shows that conventional low power Schottky diodes can be applied to a microwave power transmission system with simple magnetrons to realise large power microwave rectifying.

  20. Overview of catastrophic failures of freewheeling diodes in power electronic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    Emerging applications (e.g. electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, more electric aircrafts, etc.) have brought more stringent reliability constrains into power electronic products because of safety requirements and maintenance cost issues. To improve the reliability of power electronics...

  1. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser at 675 nm as a pump source for UV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Erbert, Gotz

    2011-01-01

    High-power narrow-spectrum diode laser systems based on tapered gain media in external cavity are demonstrated at 675 nm. Two 2-mm-long amplifiers are used, one with a 500-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device A), the other with a 750-µm-long ridge-waveguide section (device B). The laser system...

  2. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coaxial foilless diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Kong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A kind of coaxial foilless diode is proposed in this paper, with the structure model and operating principle of the diode are given. The current-voltage relation of the coaxial foilless diode and the effects of structure parameters on the relation are studied by simulation. By solving the electron motion equation, the beam deviation characteristic in the presence of external magnetic field in transmission process is analyzed, and the relationship between transverse misalignment with diode parameters is obtained. These results should be of interest to the area of generation and propagation of radial beam for application of generating high power microwaves.

  4. Barrier height determination on Schottky contacts formed at the back contact-semiconductor interface of degraded solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiakos, K.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described of determining an equivalent circuit for solar cells which have degraded as a result of the formation of a rectifying Schottky barrier at the back contact. An excellent fit of experimental data has been achieved using SCEPTRE with an equivalent circuit derived from the shape of the measured current voltage characteristics. One key parameter of the Schottky barrier diode, the reverse saturation current, can be used to determine the barrier potential. The barrier potential increases as the cell is stressed with 0.5 volts being a typical experimentally determined value for a degraded cell.

  5. A comparative investigation of the efficacy of CO2 and high power diode lasers for the forming of EN3 mild steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the effectiveness of a high power diode laser (HPDL) and a CO2 laser for the forming of thin section EN3 mild steel sheet has been conducted. The buckling mechanism was identified as the laser forming mechanism responsible for the induced bending. For both lasers it was found that the induced bending angles increased with an increasing number of irradiations and high laser powers, whilst decreasing as the traverse speed was increased. Also, it was apparent from ...

  6. Silicon Carbide Diodes Performance Characterization and Comparison With Silicon Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Trapp, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes from different manufacturers were electrically tested and characterized at room temperature. Performed electrical tests include steady state forward and reverse I-V curves, as well as switching transient tests performed with the diodes operating in a hard switch dc-to-dc buck converter. The same tests were performed in current state of the art silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky and pn junction devices for evaluation and comparison purposes. The SiC devices tested have a voltage rating of 200, 300, and 600 V. The comparison parameters are forward voltage drop at rated current, reverse current at rated voltage and peak reverse recovery currents in the dc to dc converter. Test results show that steady state characteristics of the tested SiC devices are not superior to the best available Si Schottky and ultra fast pn junction devices. Transient tests reveal that the tested SiC Schottky devices exhibit superior transient behavior. This is more evident at the 300 and 600 V rating where SiC Schottky devices showed drastically lower reverse recovery currents than Si ultra fast pn diodes of similar rating.

  7. Hybrid graphene/silicon Schottky photodiode with intrinsic gating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Luongo, Giuseppe; Giubileo, Filippo; Funicello, Nicola; Niu, Gang; Schroeder, Thomas; Lisker, Marco; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    We propose a hybrid device consisting of a graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) Schottky diode in parallel with a Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor for high-performance photodetection. The device, fabricated by transfer of commercial graphene on low-doped n-type Si substrate, achieves a photoresponse as high as 3 \\text{A} {{\\text{W}}-1} and a normalized detectivity higher than 3.5× {{10}12} \\text{cm} \\text{H}{{\\text{z}}1/2} {{\\text{W}}-1} in the visible range. It exhibits a photocurrent exceeding the forward current because photo-generated minority carriers, accumulated at Si/SiO2 interface of the Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor, diffuse to the Gr/Si junction. We show that the same mechanism, when due to thermally generated carriers, although usually neglected or disregarded, causes the increased leakage often measured in Gr/Si heterojunctions. We perform extensive I-V and C-V characterization at different temperatures and we measure a zero-bias Schottky barrier height of 0.52 eV at room temperature, as well as an effective Richardson constant A **  =  4× {{10}-5} \\text{A} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} {{\\text{K}}-2} and an ideality factor n≈ 3.6 , explained by a thin (<1 nm) oxide layer at the Gr/Si interface.

  8. Adapting Schottky Diode Detector Technology to a Space Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-10

    information from this data. The magnetic fielh’can be measured using induction in a wound coil or solenoid. Several coil schemes are currently enployed...surface of the blocks should be machined with a ’honeycomb’ structure to reduce surface reflections and provide recessed cavities in order to simulate a...Cryogenics. This unit is a dc- brushless , I watt split-Stirling engine that cools to 77 degrees K. A picture of the unit is reproduced in Figure 4.2

  9. High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schellhorn, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to develop a high-power Tm:YLF slab laser which can be utilized to pump a Ho slab laser. A 68 W Tm:YLF slab laser was recently presented in [1] pumped from one end by a single 6-bar stack delivering ~300 W of pump power. In this work, we...

  10. A study of power diode failure mechanisms in the US Army research laboratory 30-mm solid propellant electrothermal-chemical (SPETC) gun facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulka, Gary L.; White, Kevin J.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments have been performed with a 100-kJ Pulse Forming Network (PFN) at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for the purpose of characterizing semiconductor diodes which serve as capacitor-protecting crowbar devices. These devices are viewed as critical electronic power components required for electric gun research that is currently in progress within the U.S. Army and elsewhere. As part of this study, computer techniques were used to refine and develop the understanding of the dynamic, or switching, behavior of PFN diodes. In combination with experimental results, the computer simulations helped to define particular conditions within a given electric gun system that can cause vulnerable or stressful situations for the semiconductor devices under test. It was determined from analyses of the various data collected, that when operated in a PFN under specific loading conditions (simulated here with fixed resistive loads), diodes are subject to transient or high frequency voltage peaks. In some experimental cases at the ARL, the magnitude of the rate of change in voltage (dV/dt) across the devices was such that catastrophic failure was observed. The details of the boundary conditions necessary for device failure are described and several solutions that will circumvent operational problems including device grouping, choice of diode reverse recovery time, and selection of capacitive and inductive circuit parameters are discussed in detail. Background information describing some fundamental physics of semiconductor diodes and their role in electrothermal-chemical (ETC) propulsion technology is provided first.

  11. Promise and Challenges of High-Voltage SiC Bipolar Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunenobu Kimoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although various silicon carbide (SiC power devices with very high blocking voltages over 10 kV have been demonstrated, basic issues associated with the device operation are still not well understood. In this paper, the promise and limitations of high-voltage SiC bipolar devices are presented, taking account of the injection-level dependence of carrier lifetimes. It is shown that the major limitation of SiC bipolar devices originates from band-to-band recombination, which becomes significant at a high-injection level. A trial of unipolar/bipolar hybrid operation to reduce power loss is introduced, and an 11 kV SiC hybrid (merged pin-Schottky diodes is experimentally demonstrated. The fabricated diodes with an epitaxial anode exhibit much better forward characteristics than diodes with an implanted anode. The temperature dependence of forward characteristics is discussed.

  12. Precise matching of diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    Two circuit arrangements using ac and dc power source provide low-cost method for matching forward voltage drops of diodes and other semiconductors. Both circuits are simpler and less expensive than conventional, characteristic-curve tracers.

  13. Micro-Fabrication of Spray Cooling Nozzles for High-Power Diode Laser Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Louis

    2003-01-01

    .... A novel fabrication method was developed in the late 1980's called stereolithography. This process involved using a low power laser to introduce free radicals in a polymer in which the molecules would cross-link and become solid...

  14. Schottky Noise and Beam Transfer Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz M.; Blaskiewicz M.

    2016-12-01

    Beam transfer functions (BTF)s encapsulate the stability properties of charged particle beams. In general one excites the beam with a sinusoidal signal and measures the amplitude and phase of the beam response. Most systems are very nearly linear and one can use various Fourier techniques to reduce the number of measurements and/or simulations needed to fully characterize the response. Schottky noise is associated with the finite number of particles in the beam. This signal is always present. Since the Schottky current drives wakefields, the measured Schottky signal is influenced by parasitic impedances.

  15. A battery-powered high-current power supply for superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wake, M; Suda, K

    2002-01-01

    Since superconductors do not require voltages, a high-current power supply could run with low power if the voltage is sufficiently reduced. Even a battery-powered power supply could give as much as 2,000A for a superconductor. To demonstrate this hypothesis, a battery-powered 2,000A power supply was constructed. It uses an IGBT chopper and Schottky diode together with a specially arranged transformer to produce a high current with low voltage. Testing of 2,000A operation was performed for about 1.5 hr using 10 car batteries. Charging time for this operation was 8 hr. Ramping control was smooth and caused no trouble. Although the IGBT frequency ripple of 16.6 kHz was easily removed using a passive filter, spike noise remained in the output voltage. This ripple did not cause any trouble in operating a pancake-type inductive superconducting load. (author)

  16. Fabrication and characterization of the charge-plasma diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajasekharan, B.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Salm, Cora; van Hemert, T.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    We present a new lateral Schottky-based rectifier called the charge-plasma diode realized on ultrathin silicon-oninsulator. The device utilizes the workfunction difference between two metal contacts, palladium and erbium, and the silicon body. We demonstrate that the proposed device provides a low

  17. Ultra Low Power Adiabatic Logic Using Diode Connected DC Biased PFAL Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous scaling down of technology in the field of integrated circuit design, low power dissipation has become one of the primary focuses of the research. With the increasing demand for low power devices, adiabatic logic gates prove to be an effective solution. This paper briefs on different adiabatic logic families such as ECRL (Efficient Charge Recovery Logic, 2N-2N2P and PFAL (Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic, and presents a new proposed circuit based on the PFAL logic circuit. The aim of this paper is to simulate various logic gates using PFAL logic circuits and with the proposed logic circuit, and hence to compare the effectiveness in terms of average power dissipation and delay at different frequencies. This paper further presents implementation of C17 and C432 benchmark circuits, using the proposed logic circuit and the conventional PFAL logic circuit to compare effectiveness of the proposed logic circuit in terms of average power dissipation at different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by using HSPICE Simulator at 65 nm technology at different frequency ranges. Finally, average power dissipation characteristics are plotted with the help of graphs, and comparisons are made between PFAL logic family and new proposed PFAL logic family.

  18. High-efficiency, high-output-power antiguide laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehuys, D.; Major, J. S., Jr.; Welch, D.; Scifres, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Antiguide laser arrays have been fabricated and operated up to peak pulsed powers of 7.7 W in a beam with a full-width at half-maximum in the main lobe of 0.7 deg. Up to 0.7 W of continuous wave power is emitted into a radiation pattern 2.5 times the diffraction limit. By varying the temperature of the array to vary the operating wavelength of the device, the threshold gain condition of the array modes is altered, allowing thermal tuning of the far field of the device.

  19. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  20. Feasibility of High-Power Diode Laser Array Surrogate to Support Development of Predictive Laser Lethality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W H; Rubenchik, A M; Springer, H K

    2011-01-13

    Predictive modeling and simulation of high power laser-target interactions is sufficiently undeveloped that full-scale, field testing is required to assess lethality of military directed-energy (DE) systems. The cost and complexity of such testing programs severely limit the ability to vary and optimize parameters of the interaction. Thus development of advanced simulation tools, validated by experiments under well-controlled and diagnosed laboratory conditions that are able to provide detailed physics insight into the laser-target interaction and reduce requirements for full-scale testing will accelerate development of DE weapon systems. The ultimate goal is a comprehensive end-to-end simulation capability, from targeting and firing the laser system through laser-target interaction and dispersal of target debris; a 'Stockpile Science' - like capability for DE weapon systems. To support development of advanced modeling and simulation tools requires laboratory experiments to generate laser-target interaction data. Until now, to make relevant measurements required construction and operation of very high power and complex lasers, which are themselves costly and often unique devices, operating in dedicated facilities that don't permit experiments on targets containing energetic materials. High power diode laser arrays, pioneered by LLNL, provide a way to circumvent this limitation, as such arrays capable of delivering irradiances characteristic of De weapon requires are self-contained, compact, light weight and thus easily transportable to facilities, such as the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where testing with energetic materials can be performed. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of using such arrays to support future development of advanced laser lethality and vulnerability simulation codes through providing data for materials characterization and laser

  1. Development of constant-power driving control for light-emitting-diode (LED) luminaire

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2013-01-01

    The illumination of an LED may be affected by operating temperature even under constant-current condition. A constant-power driving technique is proposed in the present study for LED luminaire. A linear system dynamics model of LED luminaire is first derived and used in the design of the feedback control system. The PI controller was designed and tuned taking into account the control accuracy and robust properties with respect to plant uncertainty and variation of operating conditions. The control system was implemented on a microprocessor and used to control a 150W LED luminaire. The test result shows that the feedback system accurately controls the input power of LED luminaire to within 1.3 per cent error. As the ambient temperature changes from 0 to 40 °C, the LED illumination varies slightly (-1.7%) for constant-power driving, as compared to that of constant-current driving (-12%) and constant-voltage driving (+50%). The constant-power driving has revealed advantage in stabilizing the illumination of LED under large temperature variation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphene-GaN Schottky Photodiodes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of graphene as the top metal on GaN Schottky. This will replace platinum, which is 50% transparent at the desired wavelength, with graphene, which has...

  3. Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Min; Xiao, Teng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Ying; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2011-10-11

    Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS/MoO{sub 3}/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3})/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work function, lower refractive index, and decreased surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS vs ITO, and to Ohmic hole injection from PEDOT:PSS to the NPD layer via the MoO{sub 3} interlayer. The results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO in SMOLEDs with strongly improved device performance.

  4. Status of the High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser Development at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Novák

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the latest developments of kilowatt-level diode pumped solid state lasers for advanced applications at the HiLASE Centre is presented. An overview of subcontracted and in-house-developed laser beamlines is presented. The aim of development is to build kW-class beamlines delivering picosecond pulses between 1- and 100-kHz repetition rates and high-energy nanosecond pulses at 10 Hz. The picosecond beamlines are based on Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification. The current status of the beamlines’ performance is reported. The advantages of zero-phonon line and pulsed pumping are demonstrated with respect to efficiency, thin disk temperature and beam quality. New diagnostics methods supporting the high average power lasers’ development, such as the high-resolution spectroscopy of Yb-doped materials, in situ thin disk deformation measurements, single-shot M2 measurement, realization of wavefront correction by a deformable mirror and the laser performance of a new mixed garnet ceramics, are described. The energetic, thermal and fluid-mechanical numerical modeling for the optimization of the multi-slab amplifiers is also described.

  5. Orthodontic bracket shear bond strengths produced by two high-power light-emitting diode modes and halogen light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkkahraman, Hakan; Küçükeşmen, H Cenker

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets cured with two different high-power light-emitting diode (LED) polymerization modes with traditional halogen polymerization. A total of forty-five extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Each group consisted of 15 teeth mounted in an acrylic block. Following a standard enamel etching protocol, orthodontic brackets were cured on the first group of teeth with fast-mode LED, the second group with soft-start mode LED, and on the last group with a halogen light. After bonding, the shear bond strengths of the brackets were tested with a universal testing machine. The results showed that brackets cured with soft-start mode LED produced the highest shear bond strengths (23.86 +/- 6.20 MPa). No significant difference was found between fast-mode LED (17.14 +/- 5.75 MPa) and the halogen group (17.38 +/- 5.41 MPa) (P > .05). The LED is effective for bonding metal brackets to teeth, and the soft-start mode gives higher bond strengths than the fast mode.

  6. Voltage-Sharing Converter to Supply Single-Phase Asymmetrical Four-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter With High Power Factor Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boora, Arash A.; Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz

    2010-01-01

    The output voltage quality of some of the single-phase multilevel inverters can be improved when their dc-link voltages are regulated asymmetrically. Symmetrical and asymmetrical multilevel diode-clamped inverters have the problem of dc-link capacitor voltage balancing, especially when power factor...... of the load is close to unity. In this paper, a new single-inductor multi-output dc/dc converter is proposed that can control the dc-link voltages of a single-phase diode-clamped inverter asymmetrically to achieve voltage quality enhancement. The circuit of the presented converter is explained and the main...... that the proposed combination of introduced multioutput dc–dc converter and single-phase ADCI is a good candidate for power conversion in residential photovoltaic (PV) utilization....

  7. Characterization of the optical beam emitted by high-power phase-locked arrays of diode lasers (P = 1 W CW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Grzegorz; Dabrowska, ElŻbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian; Kalbarczyk, Joanna; Malag, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    The quality of the beam emitted by high-power laser diodes is still the main disadvantage of these devices. One of the ways to improve it is to design diode as a matrix of narrow active stripes - so called: phase-locked arrays. The optical coupling which is occurs in such devices causes the emission in the form of a few almost diffraction limited beams (lobes). Unfortunately, because of temperature dependence of refractive indices this coupling often disappears at high drive currents. In this paper the CW operation (up to 4Ith) of the phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays is reported. The devices are based on asymmetric heterostructure which is designed for improving thermal and electrical resistances. The single supermode operation is obtained and the lasers are emitted up to 1 W of the optical power in CW.

  8. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing on a...... circuit demonstrates a 1/f noise corner frequency around 10 kHz.......In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing...... on an Arlon 25N substrate to shield the sensitive noise measurement. Conversion loss measurements of both mixers is performed both for on-wafer and packaged versions. The experimental results shows that the Schottky diode mixer exhibits a 1/f noise corner frequency of 250 kHz, while the diode connected HBT...

  9. Alpha-Energy-Deposition-Profiling of Radioisotope p-i-n Diodes for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Cory; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2006-03-01

    The high energy density and long half-life of certain alpha-emitting radioisotopes enables viable and long-lived power supplies to be fabricated on the micro-scale. A design incorporating an InGaP p-i-n photovoltaic (PV) device that directly converts the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles into electricity represents both a scalable and efficient microsystem design. To better understand the relationship between the alpha-energy-deposition-profile (ADEP) and the maximum power conversion efficiency for this device structure, we have performed two systematic studies. In these studies, I-V characteristics for the InGaP PV device under alpha-flux are measured as a function of alpha source distance, and as function of aluminum film thickness (10 nm to 10 μm) which is deposited onto the surface of the PV device. Both techniques will alter the ADEP in relation to the active region of the PV device. These experimental results are compared to a theoretical model which utilizes Monte Carlo simulations and numerical calculations to determine the ADEP for the same device configuration. The understanding gained from this analysis has direct implications towards the fabrication of radioisotope microbatteries with structural characteristics that enable optimal power conversion efficiencies to be achieved.

  10. Quartz head contact laser fiber: a novel fiber for laser ablation of the prostate using the 980 nm high power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Hassan S; Shoeb, Mohammed S; Yassin, Mohammed M; Shaker, Sayed H

    2012-02-01

    High power 980 nm diode laser ablation of the prostate using the side firing fiber has proven its efficiency and safety in treating lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Nevertheless, this procedure is associated with some drawbacks such as prolonged irritative symptoms and tissue sloughing. In this study we evaluated the clinical outcome of high power 980 nm diode laser ablation of the prostate using a new quartz head contact fiber, and compared it to the standard side firing fiber in a randomized fashion. A total of 120 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia scheduled for high power 980 nm diode laser ablation of the prostate were randomized to receive treatment with the standard side firing fiber or the novel quartz head contact fiber between April 2009 and April 2010. Patients were followed for at least 6 months, although 7 were lost to followup. The side firing fiber and quartz head contact fiber groups demonstrated significant improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score (from 20 to 8.39 vs 21.63 to 9.91), International Prostate Symptom Score-quality of life (from 4.47 to 1.94 vs 4.57 to 1.98) and maximum flow rate (from 7.79 to 22.22 vs 8.93 to 29.63 ml per second), and decreased prostate volume (47.79% vs 55.54%) and prostate specific antigen (59.69% to 60.61%), respectively. Complications, postoperative passage of tissue remnants and irritative symptoms were significantly less in the quartz head contact fiber group, as was the number of fibers per case. The quartz head contact fiber can produce similarly good outcomes in ablating the prostate using the high power 980 nm diode laser compared to the side firing fiber, and with fewer complications and side effects. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Schottky barrier height tuning using P+ DSS for NMOS contact resistance reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaja, Fareen Adeni; Rao, K. V.; Ni, Chi-Nung; Muthukrishnan, Shankar; Lei, Jianxin; Darlark, Andrew; Peidous, Igor; Brand, Adam; Henry, Todd; Variam, Naushad

    2012-11-01

    Nickel silicide (NiSi) contacts are adopted in advanced CMOS technology nodes as they demonstrate several benefits such as low resistivity, low Si consumption and formation temperature. But a disadvantage of NiSi contacts is that they exhibit high electron Schottky barrier height (SBH), which results in high contact resistance (Rc) and reduces the NMOS drive current. To reduce SBH for NMOS, we used phosphorous (P) ion implantation into NiPt silicide with optimized anneal in order to form dopant segregated Schottky (DSS). Electrical characterization was performed using test structures such as Transmission Line Model, Cross-Bridge Kelvin Resistor, Van der Pauw and diodes to extract Rc and understand the effects of P+ DSS on ΦBn tuning. Material characterization was performed using SIMS, SEM and TEM analysis. We report ˜45% reduction in Rc over reference sample by optimizing ion implantation and anneal conditions (spike RTA, milli-second laser anneals (DSA)).

  12. Analytical modeling of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FET for high-speed switching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meisam; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Abadi, Hediyeh Karimi Feiz; Saeidmanesh, Mehdi; Akbari, Elnaz; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-30

    Recent development of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (FETs) will be governed by transistor electrostatics and quantum effects that impose scaling limits like those of Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The current-voltage characteristic of a Schottky-barrier FET has been studied as a function of physical parameters such as effective mass, graphene nanoribbon length, gate insulator thickness, and electrical parameters such as Schottky barrier height and applied bias voltage. In this paper, the scaling behaviors of a Schottky-barrier FET using trilayer graphene nanoribbon are studied and analytically modeled. A novel analytical method is also presented for describing a switch in a Schottky-contact double-gate trilayer graphene nanoribbon FET. In the proposed model, different stacking arrangements of trilayer graphene nanoribbon are assumed as metal and semiconductor contacts to form a Schottky transistor. Based on this assumption, an analytical model and numerical solution of the junction current-voltage are presented in which the applied bias voltage and channel length dependence characteristics are highlighted. The model is then compared with other types of transistors. The developed model can assist in comprehending experiments involving graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FETs. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure exhibits negligible short-channel effects, an improved on-current, realistic threshold voltage, and opposite subthreshold slope and meets the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors near-term guidelines. Finally, the results showed that there is a fast transient between on-off states. In other words, the suggested model can be used as a high-speed switch where the value of subthreshold slope is small and thus leads to less power consumption.

  13. CW operation of high-power blue laser diodes with polished facets on semi-polar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) GaN substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhashemi, A.

    2016-10-11

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of high-power blue laser diodes (LDs) with polished facets on semi-polar (202̅1̅) gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is demonstrated. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated using indium GaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 452 nm, the peak two-facet CW output power from an LD with uncoated facets was 1.71 W at a current of 3 A, corresponding to an optical power density of 32.04 MW/cm2 on each facet. The dependence of output power on current did not change with repeated CW measurements, indicating that the polished facets did not degrade under high-power CW operation. These results show that polished facets are a viable alternative to cleaved or etched facets for high-power CW semi-polar LDs.

  14. The development of monolithic alternating current light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wen-Yung; Yen, Hsi-Hsuan; Chan, Yi-Jen

    2011-02-01

    The monolithic alternating current light emitting diode (ACLED) has been revealed for several years and was regarded as a potential device for solid state lighting. In this study, we will discuss the characteristics, development status, future challenges, and ITRI's development strategy about ACLED, especially focusing on the development progress of the monolithic GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes integrated ACLED (SBD-ACLED). The SBD-ACLED design can not only improve the chip area utilization ratio but also provide much higher reverse breakdown voltage by integrating four SBDs with the micro-LEDs array in a single chip, which was regarded as a good on-chip ACLED design. According to the experimental results, higher chip efficiency can be reached through SBD-ACLED design since the chip area utilization ratio was increased. Since the principle and the operation condition of ACLED is quite different from those of the typical DCLED, critical issues for ACLED like the current droops, the flicker phenomenon, the safety regulations, the measurement standards and the power fluctuation have been studied for getting a practical and reliable ACLED design. Besides, the "AC LED application and research alliance" (AARA) lead by ITRI in Taiwan for the commercialization works of ACLED has also been introduced.

  15. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Grgić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF to direct current (DC power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna is built and tested for receiving range performance.

  16. Optimization of Passive Low Power Wireless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimo, Antwi; Grgić, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the optimization of antenna captured low power radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) power converters using Schottky diodes for powering remote wireless sensors. Linearized models using scattering parameters show that an antenna and a matched diode rectifier can be described as a form of coupled resonator with different individual resonator properties. The analytical models show that the maximum voltage gain of the coupled resonators is mainly related to the antenna, diode and load (remote sensor) resistances at matched conditions or resonance. The analytical models were verified with experimental results. Different passive wireless RF power harvesters offering high selectivity, broadband response and high voltage sensitivity are presented. Measured results show that with an optimal resistance of antenna and diode, it is possible to achieve high RF to DC voltage sensitivity of 0.5 V and efficiency of 20% at −30 dBm antenna input power. Additionally, a wireless harvester (rectenna) is built and tested for receiving range performance. PMID:23202014

  17. Research and investigation of a communication chain on optical fiber with a Fabry-Perot power diode for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacis, Irina Bristena; Vasile, Alexandru; Ionescu, Ciprian; Marghescu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze different power devices - emitters of optical flow, from the point of view of optical coupling, emitted optical powers, optical fiber losses and receiver. The research and characterization of the transmission through a power optical system is done using a computer system specialized for the automotive industry. This system/platform can deliver current pulses that are controlled by a computer through a software (it is possible to set different parameters such as pulse repetition frequency, duty cycle, and current intensity). For the experiments a power Fabry Perot 1035 laser diode operating in pulse with μφ 1055 nm, Ith = 40 mA, and Iop =750 mA was used with a single-mode SFM 128 optical fiber and an EM type optical coupler connected through alignment. Two types of measurements were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental structure. In the first case the amplitude of the voltage pulses was measured at the output of an optical detector with receiving diode in a built-in amplifier with a 50 kΩ load resistance. In the second stage measurements were conducted to determine the optical power injected in the optical fiber and received at the reception cell of a power meter. Another parameter of optical coupling that can be measured using the experimental structure is irradiation. This parameter is very important to determine the optimum cutting angle of the fiber for continuity welding.

  18. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  19. Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chu-Young; Lee, Jin-Bock; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Sang-Heon; Park, Tae-Young; Kim, Je Won; Kim, Yong Chun; Park, Seong-Ju

    2010-01-18

    We report on the improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN using a pyramidal-shaped SiO(2) mask. The light output power was increased by 80% at 20 mA of injection current compared with that of conventional LEDs without LEO structures. This improvement is attributed to an increased internal quantum efficiency by a significant reduction in threading dislocation and by an enhancement of light extraction efficiency by pyramidal-shaped SiO(2) LEO mask.

  20. Organic modification of metal / semiconductor Schottky contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Pinzon, H.A.

    2006-07-10

    In the present work a Metal / organic / inorganic semiconductor hybrid heterostructure (Ag / DiMe-PTCDI / GaAs) was built under UHV conditions and characterised in situ. The aim was to investigate the influence of the organic layer in the surface properties of GaAs(100) and in the electrical response of organic-modified Ag / GaAs Schottky diodes. The device was tested by combining surface-sensitive techniques (Photoemission spectroscopy and NEXAFS) with electrical measurements (current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, impedance and charge transient spectroscopies). Core level examination by PES confirms removal of native oxide layers on sulphur passivated (S-GaAs) and hydrogen plasma treated GaAs(100) (H+GaAs) surfaces. Additional deposition of ultrathin layers of DiMe-PTCDI may lead to a reduction of the surface defects density and thereby to an improvement of the electronic properties of GaAs. The energy level alignment through the heterostructure was deduced by combining UPS and I-V measurements. This allows fitting of the I-V characteristics with electron as majority carriers injected over a barrier by thermionic emission as a primary event. For thin organic layers (below 8 nm thickness) several techniques (UPS, I-V, C-V, QTS and AFM) show non homogeneous layer growth, leading to formation of voids. The coverage of the H+GaAs substrate as a function of the nominal thickness of DiMe-PTCDI was assessed via C-V measurements assuming a voltage independent capacitance of the organic layer. The frequency response of the device was evaluated through C-V and impedance measurements in the range 1 kHz-1 MHz. The almost independent behaviour of the capacitance in the measured frequency range confirmed the assumption of a near geometrical capacitor, which was used for modelling the impedance with an equivalent circuit of seven components. From there it was found a predominance of the space charge region impedance, so that A.C. conduction can only takes place through the

  1. Schottky barrier height of Ni to β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3 with different compositions grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Oshima, Yuichi; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.

    2017-03-01

    Coherent β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3 films (x = 0, 0.038, 0.084, 0.164) were grown successfully on a Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrate using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution x-ray diffraction were used to verify the alloy composition and high quality of the films. Schottky diodes were then fabricated using Ni as the Schottky metal. Capacitance-voltage measurements revealed a very low (current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed at temperatures varying from 300 K to 500 K on the Schottky diodes. These measurements revealed that the apparent Schottky barrier height could have similar values for different compositions of β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3. We believe this is attributed to the lateral fluctuation in the alloy’s composition. This results in a lateral variation in the barrier height. Therefore, the average Schottky barrier height extracted from I-V measurements could be similar for β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3 films with different compositions.

  2. High-power diode lasers between 1.8μm and 3.0μm for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilzensauer, S.; Giesin, C.; Schleife, J.; Gilly, J.; Patterson, S.; Kelemen, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    Over the last years high-power diode lasers in the wavelength window between 1.8μm and 3.0μm have demonstrated impressive characteristics in terms of output power, beam quality and efficiency. This facilitates the realization of compact and efficient light sources for use in the field of infrared countermeasures (IRCM), optically pumped semiconductor lasers emitting in the 2-4μm regime, low probability of intercept communication links, and trace gas analysis. The small size of a diode laser chip of typically less than a square millimeter allows for the fabrication of compact scalable laser modules with output powers of up to 140W. We will present results on MBE grown (AlGaIn)(AsSb) quantum-well diode laser single emitters and bars emitting between 1.8μm and 3.0μm. Different epitaxial and resonator designs have been investigated in cw and pulsed mode in order to meet industrial needs of high wall-plug and fiber-coupling efficiencies. More than 30% maximum wall-plug efficiency in cw operation for single emitters and laser bars has been reached together with output powers for single emitters of 2W (cw) and 9W (pulsed). The single emitters and bars are all suitable for fiber coupling. For a 1-bar module typical coupling efficiencies between 70% and 80% have been established for 400μm core fibers. In terms of output power, an AuSn soldered laser stack built of 10x 20% fill factor bars emitting at 1908nm, results in a record value of 140W at 58A in cw condition.

  3. Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J.D.

    1997-09-02

    (MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controlled switching and effecting a direction of rectification. 89 figs.

  4. Vertical and In-Plane Current Devices Using NbS2/n-MoS2van der Waals Schottky Junction and Graphene Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Hyong Seo; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Minju; Lim, June Yeong; Yu, Sanghyuck; Park, Ji Hoon; Yi, Yeonjin; Kim, Taekyeong; Jun, Seong Chan; Im, Seongil

    2018-02-08

    A van der Waals (vdW) Schottky junction between two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is introduced here for both vertical and in-plane current devices: Schottky diodes and metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The Schottky barrier between conducting NbS 2 and semiconducting n-MoS 2 appeared to be as large as ∼0.5 eV due to their work-function difference. While the Schottky diode shows an ideality factor of 1.8-4.0 with an on-to-off current ratio of 10 3 -10 5 , Schottky-effect MESFET displays little gate hysteresis and an ideal subthreshold swing of 60-80 mV/dec due to low-density traps at the vdW interface. All MESFETs operate with a low threshold gate voltage of -0.5 ∼ -1 V, exhibiting easy saturation. It was also found that the device mobility is significantly dependent on the condition of source/drain (S/D) contact for n-channel MoS 2 . The highest room temperature mobility in MESFET reaches to approximately more than 800 cm 2 /V s with graphene S/D contact. The NbS 2 /n-MoS 2 MESFET with graphene was successfully integrated into an organic piezoelectric touch sensor circuit with green OLED indicator, exploiting its predictable small threshold voltage, while NbS 2 /n-MoS 2 Schottky diodes with graphene were applied to extract doping concentrations in MoS 2 channel.

  5. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  6. Practical investigation of the gate bias effect on the reverse recovery behavior of the body diode in power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Petersen, Lars Press; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2014-01-01

    This work considers an alternative method of reducing the body diode reverse recovery by taking advantage of the MOSFET body effect, and applying a bias voltage to the gate before reverse recovery. A test method is presented, allowing the accurate measurement of voltage and current waveforms during...... reverse recovery at high di=dt. Different bias voltages and dead times are combined, giving a loss map which makes it possible to evaluate the practical efficacy of gate bias on reducing the MOSFET body diode reverse recovery, while comparing it to the well known methods of dead time optimization...

  7. Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLi) could potentially improve exogenous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, because it offers the capability of discriminating a signal of interest from background, provides real-time monitoring of a chemical environment, and permits the use of several different fluorescent dyes having the same emission wavelength. We present a high-power, LED-based, NIR light source for the clinical translation of wide-field (larger than 5 cm in diameter) FLi at frequencies up to 35 MHz. Lifetime imaging of indocyanine green (ICG), IRDye 800-CW, and 3,3(')-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI) was performed over a large field of view (10 cm by 7.5 cm) using the LED light source. For comparison, a laser diode light source was employed as a gold standard. Experiments were performed both on the bench by diluting the fluorescent dyes in various chemical environments in Eppendorf tubes, and in vivo by injecting the fluorescent dyes mixed in Matrigel subcutaneously into CD-1 mice. Last, measured fluorescence lifetimes obtained using the LED and the laser diode sources were compared with those obtained using a state-of-the-art time-domain imaging system and with those previously described in the literature. On average, lifetime values obtained using the LED and the laser diode light sources were consistent, exhibiting a mean difference of 3% from the expected values and a coefficient of variation of 12%. Taken together, our study offers an alternative to laser diodes for clinical translation of FLi and explores the use of relatively low frequency modulation for in vivo imaging.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    advantages due to creating coating layers with superior properties in terms of purity, homogeneity, low dilution, hardness, bonding, and microstructure. In the development of modern materials for hardfacing applications, the functionality is often improved by combining materials with different properties into composites. Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) coating is a composite material with two constituent parts, i.e., matrix and the reinforcement. This class of composites are addressing improved mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength, toughness, and tribological and chemical resistance. Fabrication of MMCs is to achieve a combination of properties not achievable by any of the materials acting alone. MMCs have attracted significant attention for decades due to their combination of wear-resistivity, corrosion-resistivity, thermal, electrical and magnetic properties. Presently, there is a strong emphasis on the development of advanced functional coatings for corrosion, erosion, and wear protection for different industrial applications. In this research, a laser cladding system equipped with a high power direct diode laser associated with gas driven metal powder delivery system was used to develop advanced MMC coatings. The high power direct diode laser used in this study offers wider beam spot, shorter wavelength and uniform power distribution. These properties make the cladding set-up ideal for coating due to fewer cladding tracks, lower operation cost, higher laser absorption, and improved coating qualities. In order to prevent crack propagation, porosity, and uniform dispersion of carbides in MMC coating, cladding procedure was assisted by an induction heater as a second heat source. The developed defect free MMC coatings were combined with nano-size particles of WC, rare earth (RE) element (La2O3), and Mo as a refractory metal to enhance mechanical properties, chemical composition, and subsequently improve the tribological performance of the coatings. The resistance

  9. High-power diode laser in the circumvestibular incision for Le Fort I osteotomy in orthognathic surgery: a prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Filipe; Chiavaioli, Gustavo Marques; de Toledo, Guilherme Lacerda; Freire-Maia, Belini; Amaral, Marcio Bruno Figueiredo; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2018-01-01

    The incisions during orthognathic surgery are classically performed with conventional scalpel or electrocautery. Considering that the high-power diode laser surgery may provide advantages when compared to conventional incision techniques, the current study aimed to present a prospective case series of patients submitted to circumvestibular incision for Le Fort I osteotomy. Ten patients with dentofacial deformities who underwent to rapid assisted maxillary expansion or bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were enrolled in the study. All incisions were performed by a single surgeon using an 808-nm diode laser, with an optical fiber of 600 μm, at a power of 2.5 W, in a continuous-wave mode. The performance of the incision was evaluated by incision velocity, bleeding, edema, secondary infection, clinical healing, and pain. The velocity of the incision ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 mm/s (mean 0.13 ± 0.03 mm/s). Considering bleeding during the soft tissue incision, all surgeries were classified as absent bleeding. All patients presented a clinical healing of the surgical wound in a period that range from 3 to 5 weeks and experienced swelling during the follow-up period. On average, approximately 50% of the swelling had resolved after the third postoperative week, and 28.8% of swelling remained after 2 months after the surgery. The pain decreased after 2 and 3 days, and 90.0% of the patients reported no pain after 7 postoperative days. High-power diode laser is effective and safety during circumvestibular incisions for Le Fort I osteotomy in orthognathic surgery decreasing bleeding, surgery time, pain, and edema after orthognathic surgery.

  10. High-power continuous-wave dual-wavelength diode-pumped Yb:YAG slab amplifier with temperature-dependent effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifang; Shen, Yijie; Xu, Liu; Zhou, Tangjian; Lin, Weiping; Gao, Qingsong; Wu, Yingchen

    2017-10-01

    A kilo-Watt-level continuous-wave dual-wavelength dual-end diode-pumped Yb:YAG slab amplifier is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. A 1.18 kW seed with stable dual-wavelength operation at 1029.6 and 1031.5 nm can be amplified to the maximum output power of 6.56 kW. We also propose a numerical model to characterize the amplifier system including broad spectrum and temperature-dependent effects. The numerical results of power and spectra evolutions show great agreement with our experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the dual-wavelength laser with the highest average power, which has great potential in scaling the application scope of dual-wavelength lasers.

  11. High-Power and High-Efficiency 1.3- µm Superluminescent Diode With Flat-Top and Ultrawide Emission Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    We report on a flat-top and ultrawide emission bandwidth of 125 nm from InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum-well (MQW) superluminescent diode with antireflection coated and tilted ridge-waveguide device configuration. A total output power in excess of 70 mW with an average power spectral density of 0.56 mW/nm and spectral ripple ≤ 1.2 ± 0.5 dB is measured from the device. Wall-plug efficiency and output power as high as 14% and 80 mW, respectively, is demonstrated from this batch of devices. We attribute the broad emission to the inherent inhomogeneity of the electron-heavy-hole (e-hh) and electron-light-hole (e-lh) recombination of the ground state and the first excited state of the MQWs and their simultaneous emission.

  12. Performance assessment of nanoscale Schottky MOSFET as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp. 511–520. Performance assessment of nanoscale Schottky MOSFET as resonant tunnelling device: Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism ... 2School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. *Corresponding author. E-mail: z.ahangari@iausr.ac.ir. MS received 2 January 2013; ...

  13. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  14. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  15. Schottky contact formation on polar and non-polar AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Pramod; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Tweedie, James; Kirste, Ronny; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)

    2014-11-21

    The interfaces of m- and c-plane AlN with metals of different work functions and electro-negativities were characterized and the Schottky barrier heights were measured. The Schottky barrier height was determined by measuring the valence band maximum (VBM) with respect to the Fermi level at the surface (interface) before (after) metallization. VBM determination included accurate modeling and curve fitting of density of states at the valence band edge with the XPS data. The experimental behavior of the barrier heights could not be explained by the Schottky-Mott model and was modeled using InterFace-Induced Gap States (IFIGS). A slope parameter (S{sub X}) was used to incorporate the density of surface states and is a measure of Fermi level pinning. The experimental barriers followed theoretical predictions with a barrier height at the surface Fermi level (Charge neutrality level (CNL)) of ∼2.1 eV (∼2.7 eV) on m-plane (c-plane) and S{sub X} ∼ 0.36 eV/Miedema unit. Slope parameter much lower than 0.86 implied a surface/interface states dominated behavior with significant Fermi level pinning and the measured barrier heights were close to the CNL. Titanium and zirconium provided the lowest barriers (1.6 eV) with gold providing the highest (2.3 eV) among the metals analyzed on m-plane. It was consistently found that barrier heights decreased from metal polar to non-polar surfaces, in general, due to an increasing CNL. The data indicated that charged IFIGS compensate spontaneous polarization charge. These barrier height and slope parameter measurements provided essential information for designing Schottky diodes and other contact-based devices on AlN.

  16. Development of an efficient DC-DC SEPIC converter using wide bandgap power devices for high step-up applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bayati, Ali M. S.; Alharbi, Salah S.; Alharbi, Saleh S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A highly efficient high step-up dc-dc converter is the major requirement in the integration of low voltage renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic panel module and fuel cell stacks, with a load or utility. This paper presents the development of an efficient dc-dc single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) for high step-up applications. Three SEPIC converters are designed and studied using different combinations of power devices: a combination based on all Si power devices using a Si-MOSFET and a Si-diode and termed as Si/Si, a combination based on a hybrid of Si and SiC power devices using the Si-MOSFET and a SiC-Schottky diode and termed as Si/SiC, and a combination based on all SiC power devices using a SiC-MOSFET and the SiC-Schottky diode and termed as SiC/SiC. The switching behavior of the Si-MOSFET and SiC-MOSFET is characterized and analyzed within the different combinations at the converter level. The effect of the diode type on the converter's overall performance is also discussed. The switching energy losses, total power losses, and the overall performance effciency of the converters are measured and reported under different switching frequencies. Furthermore, the potential of the designed converters to operate efficiently at a wide range of input voltages and output powers is studied. The analysis and results show an outstanding performance efficiency of the designed SiC/SiC based converter under a wide range of operating conditions.

  17. High power gain switched laser diodes using a novel compact picosecond switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor structure for pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2006-04-01

    A number of up-to-date applications, including advanced optical radars with high single-shot resolution, precise 3 D imaging, laser tomography, time imaging spectroscopy, etc., require low-cost, compact, reliable sources enabling the generation of high-power (1-100 W) single optical pulses in the picosecond range. The well-known technique of using the gain-switching operation mode of laser diodes to generate single picosecond pulses in the mW range fails to generate high-power single picosecond pulses because of a lack of high-current switches operating in the picosecond range. We report here on the achieving of optical pulses of 45W / 70ps, or alternatively 5W / 40ps, with gain-switched commercial quantum well (QW) laser diodes having emitting areas of 250 × 200 μm and 75 × 2 μm, respectively. This was made possible by the use of a novel high-current avalanche switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure with a switching time (transistor structure.) A simulation code developed earlier but modified and carefully verified here allowed detailed comparison of the experimental and simulated laser responses and the transient spectrum.

  18. High-power narrow-linewidth QCW diode-pumped TEM00 1319 nm Nd:YAG oscillator using twisted-mode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qi; Zhong, Qing-Shuang; Chang, Jin-Quan; Guo, Chuan; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Yuan, Lei; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Chen, Hong-Bin; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a high-average-power, narrow-linewidth, quasi-continuous-wave diode-side-pumped 1319 nm Nd:YAG twisted-mode laser oscillator with a linearly polarized TEM00 mode. The resonator is based on a symmetrical convex-convex structure with a two-rod configuration for birefringence compensation, working in a thermally near-unstable cavity. With an optimum cavity length of 940 mm, a 39.4 W linear polarized 1319 nm laser is obtained with a good beam quality of M 2  =  1.21 and a linewidth of ~250 MHz, and the corresponding brightness is as high as 1.55 GW cm-2. The laser is operated at a repetition rate of 500 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power 1319 nm laser with narrow-linewidth from diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and is the first report on the twisted-mode laser operation at the 1.3 µm region.

  19. Alternative current source based Schottky contact with additional electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Additional electric field (AEF) in the Schottky contacts (SC) that covered the peripheral contact region wide and the complete contact region narrow (as TMBS diode) SC. Under the influence of AEF is a redistribution of free electrons produced at certain temperatures of the semiconductor, and is formed the space charge region (SCR). As a result of the superposition of the electric fields SCR and AEF occurs the resulting electric field (REF). The REF is distributed along a straight line perpendicular to the contact surface, so that its intensity (and potential) has a minimum value on the metal surface and the maximum value at a great distance from the metal surface deep into the SCR. Under the influence of AEF as a sided force the metal becomes negative pole and semiconductor - positive pole, therefore, SC with AEF becomes an alternative current source (ACS). The Ni-nSi SC with different diameters (20-1000 μm) under the influence of the AEF as sided force have become ACS with electromotive force in the order of 0.1-1.0 mV, which are generated the electric current in the range of 10-9-10-7 A, flowing through the external resistance 1000 Ohm.

  20. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  1. Origin of a sharp spectral peak near the critical angle in the spectral power density profile of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyong; Kang, Kyungnam; Kim, Kyoung-Youm; Kim, Jungho

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the origin of the sharp spectral peak near the critical angle in the spectral power density profile of a top-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED). On the basis of the point dipole model, spectral power densities of the top-emitting OLED are calculated with respect to the thickness of the capping layer (CPL). Sharp peaks in the spectral power density profile are observed at certain CPL thicknesses near the spectral interface between the radiation- and waveguide-mode regions, which is determined by the critical angle. By calculating the waveguide-mode spatial profile, the sharp peak in the spectral power density profile is identified as the radiation-mode-like waveguide mode, which has a very large evanescent length near the cut-off condition of waveguide modes. By decomposing the total spectral power density into the out-coupled light and absorption loss components, we demonstrate that the sharp spectral peak near the critical angle can enhance the relative power contribution of the absorption loss.

  2. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT): Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Caccianiga; Marco Baldoni; Carlo Angelo Ghisalberti; Alessio Paiusco

    2016-01-01

    Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT): such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980?nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy) combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI) activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII). Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblast...

  3. Highly sensitive hydrogen sensor based on graphite-InP or graphite-GaN Schottky barrier with electrophoretically deposited Pd nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdansky Karel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Depositions on surfaces of semiconductor wafers of InP and GaN were performed from isooctane colloid solutions of palladium (Pd nanoparticles (NPs in AOT reverse micelles. Pd NPs in evaporated colloid and in layers deposited electrophoretically were monitored by SEM. Diodes were prepared by making Schottky contacts with colloidal graphite on semiconductor surfaces previously deposited with Pd NPs and ohmic contacts on blank surfaces. Forward and reverse current-voltage characteristics of the diodes showed high rectification ratio and high Schottky barrier heights, giving evidence of very small Fermi level pinning. A large increase of current was observed after exposing diodes to flow of gas blend hydrogen in nitrogen. Current change ratio about 700,000 with 0.1% hydrogen blend was achieved, which is more than two orders-of-magnitude improvement over the best result reported previously. Hydrogen detection limit of the diodes was estimated at 1 ppm H2/N2. The diodes, besides this extremely high sensitivity, have been temporally stable and of inexpensive production. Relatively more expensive GaN diodes have potential for functionality at high temperatures.

  4. Thermally Stable Silver Nanowires-Embedding Metal Oxide for Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Ray, Abhijit; Jeong, Chaehwan; Kim, Joondong

    2016-04-06

    Thermally stable silver nanowires (AgNWs)-embedding metal oxide was applied for Schottky junction solar cells without an intentional doping process in Si. A large scale (100 mm(2)) Schottky solar cell showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.1% under standard illumination, and 8.3% under diffused illumination conditions which is the highest efficiency for AgNWs-involved Schottky junction Si solar cells. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-capped AgNWs showed excellent thermal stability with no deformation at 500 °C. The top ITO layer grew in a cylindrical shape along the AgNWs, forming a teardrop shape. The design of ITO/AgNWs/ITO layers is optically beneficial because the AgNWs generate plasmonic photons, due to the AgNWs. Electrical investigations were performed by Mott-Schottky and impedance spectroscopy to reveal the formation of a single space charge region at the interface between Si and AgNWs-embedding ITO layer. We propose a route to design the thermally stable AgNWs for photoelectric device applications with investigation of the optical and electrical aspects.

  5. Dislocation-assisted tunnelling of charge carriers across the Schottky barrier on the hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Dixit, V. K.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.

    2015-11-01

    Barrier height and Ideality factor of Ni/n-GaN Schottky diodes are measured by performing temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The measured value of barrier height is found to be much smaller than the theoretically calculated Schottky-Mott barrier height for the Ni/n-GaN diodes. Furthermore, a high value of ideality factor (>2) is measured at low temperatures. In order to understand these results, we need to consider a double Gaussian distribution of barrier height where the two components are related to the thermionic emission and thermionic filed emission mediated by dislocation-assisted tunnelling of carriers across the Schottky barrier. Thermionic emission is seen to dominate at temperatures higher than 170 K while the dislocation-assisted tunnelling dominates at low temperatures. The value of characteristic tunnelling energy measured from the forward bias current-voltage curves also confirms the dominance of dislocation-assisted tunnelling at low temperatures which is strongly corroborated by the Hall measurements. However, the value of characteristic tunnelling energy for high temperature range cannot be supported by the Hall results. This discrepancy can be eliminated by invoking a two layer model to analyse the Hall data which confirms that the charged dislocations, which reach the sample surface from the layer-substrate interface, provide an alternate path for the transport of carriers. The dislocation-assisted tunnelling of carriers governs the values of Schottky diode parameters at low temperature and the same is responsible for the observed inhomogeneity in the values of barrier height. The present analysis is applicable wherever the charge transport characteristics are severely affected by the presence of a degenerate layer at GaN-Sapphire interface and dislocations lines pierce the Schottky junction to facilitate the tunnelling of carriers.

  6. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  7. Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Negar; Wang, Xin; Granberg, Hjalmar; Andersson Ersman, Peter; Crispin, Xavier; Dyreklev, Peter; Engquist, Isak; Gustafsson, Göran; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future “internet of things” viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-μPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-μPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-μPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm2, a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 103 between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  8. Epitaxial diodes of a half-metallic ferromagnet on an oxide semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, F.M.; Ramaneti, R.; Banerjee, T.; Gokcan, H.; Haq, E.; Blank, D.H.A.; Jansen, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of epitaxial Schottky diodes of a half-metallic ferromagnet on an oxide semiconductor. La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on niobium-doped SrTiO3 semiconductor substrates with two doping concentrations and a

  9. Effect of ring-shaped SiO2 current blocking layer thickness on the external quantum efficiency of high power light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Liu, Mengling; Hu, Hongpo; Gao, Yilin; Liu, Xingtong

    2017-12-01

    A ring-shaped SiO2 CBL underneath the p-electrode was employed to enhance current spreading of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Effects of ring-shaped SiO2 current blocking layer (CBL) thickness on optical and electrical characteristics of high power LEDs were investigated. A 190-nm-thick ring-shaped SiO2 CBL with inclined sidewalls was obtained using a combination of a thermally reflowed photoresist technique and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process, allowing for the deposition of conformal indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive layer on sidewalls of ring-shaped SiO2 CBL. It was indicated that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of high power LEDs increased with increasing thickness of ring-shaped SiO2 CBL. The EQE of high power LED with 190-nm-thick ring-shaped SiO2 CBL was 12.7% higher than that of high power LED without SiO2 CBL. Simulations performed with commercial SimuLED software package showed that the ring-shaped SiO2 CBL could significantly alleviate current crowding around p-electrode, resulting in enhanced current spreading over the entire high power LED structure.

  10. Liaison, Schottky Problem and Invariant Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Maria Emilia; Mallavibarrena, Raquel; Sols, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a homage to the memory of the Spanish mathematician Federico Gaeta (1923-2007). Apart from a historical presentation of his life and interaction with the classical Italian school of algebraic geometry, the volume presents surveys and original research papers on the mathematics he studied. Specifically, it is divided into three parts: linkage theory, Schottky problem and invariant theory. On this last topic a hitherto unpublished article by Federico Gaeta is also included.

  11. Schottky Barriers in Bilayer Phosphorene Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Dan, Yang; Wang, Yangyang; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Han; Quhe, Ruge; Zhang, Xiuying; Li, Jingzhen; Guo, Wanlin; Yang, Li; Lu, Jing

    2017-04-12

    It is unreliable to evaluate the Schottky barrier height (SBH) in monolayer (ML) 2D material field effect transistors (FETs) with strongly interacted electrode from the work function approximation (WFA) because of existence of the Fermi-level pinning. Here, we report the first systematical study of bilayer (BL) phosphorene FETs in contact with a series of metals with a wide work function range (Al, Ag, Cu, Au, Cr, Ti, Ni, and Pd) by using both ab initio electronic band calculations and quantum transport simulation (QTS). Different from only one type of Schottky barrier (SB) identified in the ML phosphorene FETs, two types of SBs are identified in BL phosphorene FETs: the vertical SB between the metallized and the intact phosphorene layer, whose height is determined from the energy band analysis (EBA); the lateral SB between the metallized and the channel BL phosphorene, whose height is determined from the QTS. The vertical SBHs show a better consistency with the lateral SBHs of the ML phosphorene FETs from the QTS compared than that of the popular WFA. Therefore, we develop a better and more general method than the WFA to estimate the lateral SBHs of ML semiconductor transistors with strongly interacted electrodes based on the EBA for its BL counterpart. In terms of the QTS, n-type lateral Schottky contacts are formed between BL phosphorene and Cr, Al, and Cu electrodes with electron SBH of 0.27, 0.31, and 0.32 eV, respectively, while p-type lateral Schottky contacts are formed between BL phosphorene and Pd, Ti, Ni, Ag, and Au electrodes with hole SBH of 0.11, 0.18, 0.19, 0.20, and 0.21 eV, respectively. The theoretical polarity and SBHs are in good agreement with available experiments. Our study provides an insight into the BL phosphorene-metal interfaces that are crucial for designing the BL phosphorene device.

  12. Influence of nanostructure Fe-doped ZnO interlayer on the electrical properties of Au/n-type InP Schottky structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padma, R.; Balaram, N.; Reddy, I. Neelakanta; Reddy, V. Rajagopal, E-mail: reddy_vrg@rediffmail.com

    2016-07-01

    The Au/Fe-doped ZnO/n-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) Schottky structure is fabricated with Fe-doped ZnO nanostructure (NS) as an interlayer. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results demonstrated that the surface morphology of the Fe−ZnO NS on n-InP is fairly smooth. The x-ray diffraction results reveal that the average grain size of the Fe−ZnO film is 12.35 nm. The electrical properties of the Au/n-InP metal-semiconductor (MS) and Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structures are investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements at room temperature. The Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structure has good rectifying ratio with low-leakage current compared to the Au/n-InP MS structure. The barrier height obtained for the MIS structure is higher than those of MS Schottky structure because of the modification of the effective barrier height by the Fe−ZnO NS interlayer. Further, the barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance are determined for the MS and MIS Schottky structures using Norde and Cheung's functions and compared to each other. The estimated interface state density of MIS Schottky structure is lower than that of MS Schottky structure. Experimental results revealed that the Poole-Frenkel emission is the dominant conduction mechanism in the lower bias region whereas Schottky emission is the dominant in the higher bias region for both the Au/n-InP MS and Au/Fe−ZnO NS/n-InP MIS Schottky structures. - Highlights: • Barrier height of Au/n-InP Schottky diode was modified by Fe−ZnO nanostructure interlayer. • MIS structure has a good rectification ratio compared to the MS structure. • The interface state density of MIS structure is lower than that of MS structure. • Poole-Frenkel mechanism is found to dominate in both MS and MIS structure.

  13. Microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of remelted TiG2 and Ti6Al4V by a high power diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya-Vazquez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Corrosion y Proteccion, Universidad de Cadiz, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sanchez-Amaya, J.M., E-mail: josemaria.sanchez@uca.es [Titania, Ensayos y Proyectos Industriales S.L., Ctra Sanlucar A-2001 Km 7,5, Parque Tecnologico TecnoBahia-Edif. RETSE Nave 4, 11500 El Puerto de Santa Maria, Cadiz (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CASEM, Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510-Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Boukha, Z.; Botana, F.J. [Laboratorio de Corrosion y Proteccion, Universidad de Cadiz, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser remelting of TiG2 and Ti6Al4V is performed with argon shielded diode laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure, microhardness and corrosion of remelted samples are deeply analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes of laser remelted TiG2 lead to microhardness increase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remelted Ti6Al4V presents microhardness increase and corrosion improvement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Martensite depth in remelted Ti6Al4V is linearly proportional to laser fluence. - Abstract: The high strength, low density and superior corrosion resistance allow titanium alloys to be widely employed in different industrial applications. The properties of these alloys can be modulated by different heat treatments, including laser processing. In the present paper, laser remelting treatments, performed with a high power diode laser, were applied to samples of two titanium alloys (TiG2 and Ti6Al4V). The influence of the applied laser fluence on microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. Results show that laser remelting treatments with appropriate fluences provoke microstructural changes leading to microhardness increase and corrosion resistance improvement.

  14. Utilising power devices below 100 K to achieve ultra-low power losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kennith Kin

    One of the main trends in the development of high power electric machines (motors, generators) is to replace the magnetic components with superconducting wires, this inevitably leads to a critical requirement from the industry (Converteam) to operate power devices at cryogenic temperatures. However, the current understanding of the behaviour power devices at cryogenic temperatures is limited, especially below the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K. This is a problem since most of the superconducting wires operate at temperatures below 77 K. Furthermore, it is uncertain which device type is better, if at all suited to cryogenic operation. In order to answer this, a thorough analysis of the known cryogenic behaviour of all the generic power devices was performed, including the physical behaviour of silicon at cryogenic temperatures. It is concluded that the power MOSFET is the best likely candidate for cryogenic operation. To understand the cryogenic behaviour of silicon power MOSFETs especially between the temperatures of 20 K and 100 K, a cryogenic measurement system was built to characterise different types of power MOSFETs. All the measured power MOSFETs exhibited large improvement in on-state resistance down to 50 K and non-linear degradation of breakdown voltages with lower temperatures. Various behaviour was observed below 50 K including carrier freeze-out, electric field dependent ionisation of free charge carriers and large variations in on-state resistance between identical devices. Several power Schottky diodes were also characterised and all exhibited merged PiN Schottky diode behaviour at cryogenic temperatures. Non-silicon devices such as silicon carbide power MOSFETs and gallium nitride HEMTs were also measured. Silicon carbide exhibited no improvements at cryogenic temperatures, whereas gallium nitride HEMTs may prove to be the best power device to be utilised in future cryogenic applications. Since unusual behaviour was observed in power MOSFETs

  15. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-12-12

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  16. Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danared, H; Källberg, A; Rensfelt, K-G; Simonsson, A

    2002-04-29

    Some years ago it was found at GSI in Darmstadt that the momentum spread of electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions dropped abruptly to very low values when the particle number decreased to 10 000 or less. This has been interpreted as an ordering of the ions, such that they line up after one another in the ring. We report observations of similar transitions at CRYRING, including an accompanying drop in Schottky-noise power. We also introduce a model of the ordered beam from which the Schottky-noise power can be calculated numerically. The good agreement between the model calculation and the experimental data is seen as evidence for a spatial ordering of the ions.

  17. Thermal performance of a vapor chamber-based plate of high-power light-emitting diodes filled with Al2O3 nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jung-Chang; Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Chen, Teng-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Nanofluid that contains Al2O3 nanoparticles evenly dispersed in deionized water is considered to have superior heat transfer characteristics due to the significant increase in both collision frequency and contact surface area between the nanoparticles and the deionized water. The thermal performance of the vapor chamber-based plate of a high power light-emitting diode (LED) filled with Al2O3 nanofluid was experimentally investigated. The thermal characteristics of the vapor chamber were also compared with those of copper- and aluminum-based plates exposed to the heating source of four single-crystal LEDs. The experimental results show that the effective thermal conductivity of the vapor chamber increased with an increase in heat flux. A higher heating power caused an increase in the temperature variation in the vapor chamber, the illumination of the vapor chamber-, copper-, and aluminum-based plates, and the material resistance of the copper- and aluminum-based plates. In contrast, the spreading, convective, and total thermal resistance all decreased with an increase in heating power for all three base plates. The total thermal resistance of the vapor chamber is mostly due to its spreading thermal resistance, and appeared to be lower than that of the copper- and aluminum-based plates under a heating power of over 5 Watts.

  18. Modeling and Design of a New Flexible Graphene-on-Silicon Schottky Junction Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Dell’Olio; Michele Palmitessa; Caterina Ciminelli

    2016-01-01

    A new graphene-based flexible solar cell with a power conversion efficiency >10% has been designed. The environmental stability and the low complexity of the fabrication process are the two main advantages of the proposed device with respect to other flexible solar cells. The designed solar cell is a graphene/silicon Schottky junction whose performance has been enhanced by a graphene oxide layer deposited on the graphene sheet. The effect of the graphene oxide is to dope the graphene and t...

  19. Robust moisture and thermally stable phosphor glass plate for highly unstable sulfide phosphors in high-power white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Seok; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Hyungeui; Im, Won Bin

    2013-09-01

    Potential white light-emitting diode (LED) phosphor SrGa2S4, which remains superfluous due to its unstable nature in the presence of moisture, was successfully integrated in a high-power white LED system by developing a glass-based phosphor plate. A glass system with softening temperature at around 600°C, which lies far below the possible decomposition temperature of the sulfide phosphor, provides a stable shield. Physical properties such as thermal stability, transparency, and lower porosity along with chemical stability under operating conditions of the LEDs ensure long-term operability. H2S emission due to the decomposition of sulfide phosphors, which leads to corrosion of LED electrodes, was contained using the developed plate. Higher thermal resistivity of the developed glass system in comparison with conventional resins ensures lower thermal quenching of the luminescence and better color purity.

  20. Photoluminescence close to V-shaped pits in the quantum wells and enhanced output power for InGaN light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Ma, Shufang; Jia, Zhigang; Jia, Wei; Liu, Peizhi; Dong, Hailiang; Shang, Lin; Zhang, Aiqin; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2017-11-01

    Unlike the typical ‘S-shaped’ temperature dependent behavior for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs), the emission of the c-plane MQWs (C-QWs) close to V-shaped pits (V-pits) broadens across the short-wavelength band and exhibits a blue-shift as temperature increases by temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (µ-TDPL). The phenomenon can be mainly attributed to a higher proportion carriers generate high-energy radiative transition in C-QWs close to V-pits because of augmented carrier mobility, in which the mechanism of carriers absorbed in sidewall MQWs (S-QWs) move to the C-QWs close to V-pits acts as a significant process. The sizes of V-pits can be enlarged as increasing the thickness of low temperature GaN interlayer (LT-GaN interlayer), leading to improved output power for LEDs.

  1. Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kang, Jang-Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Park, Seong-Ju; Jeon, Dong Min; Kim, Je Won; Kim, Yong Chun

    2010-02-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition as transparent conducting layers for GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The forward voltage of LEDs with ZnO:Ga was 3.3 V at 20 mA. The low forward voltage was attributed to the removal of a resistive ZnGa2O4 phase, decreased resistivity of ZnO:Ga films, and increased hole concentration in p-GaN by thermal annealing process. The light output power of LEDs with ZnO:Ga was increased by 25% at 20 mA compared to that of LEDs with Sn-doped indium oxide due to the enhanced transmittance and the increased hole concentration in p-GaN.

  2. Thermal resistanse and nonuniform distribution of electroluminescence and temperature in high-power AlGaInN light-emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Aladov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies current spreading, light emission, and heat transfer in high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes (LEDs and their effect on the chip thermal resistance by experimental and theoretical approaches. The thermal resistance was measured using two methods: by monitoring the transient response of the LED operation voltage to the temperature variation with the Transient Tester T3Ster and by temperature mapping with the use of an infrared thermal-imaging microscope. The near field of the electroluminescence intensity was recorded with an optical microscope and a CCD camera. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the current spreading and heat transfer in the LED chip was carried out using the SimuLED package in order to interpret the obtained experimental results.

  3. Modulation of electrical properties in Cu/n-type InP Schottky junctions using oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Cho, Yunae; Jung, Chan Yeong; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Using current-voltage (I-V) measurements, we investigated the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the temperature-dependent electrical properties of Cu/n-type indium phosphide (InP) Schottky contacts at temperatures in the range 100-300 K. Changes in the electrical parameters were evident below 180 K for the low-plasma-power sample (100 W), which is indicative of the presence of a wider distribution of regions of low barrier height. Modified Richardson plots were used to obtain Richardson constants, which were similar to the theoretical value of 9.4 A cm-2 K-2 for n-type InP. This suggests that, for all the samples, a thermionic emission model including a spatially inhomogeneous Schottky barrier can be used to describe the charge transport phenomena at the metal/semiconductor interface. The voltage dependence of the reverse-bias current revealed that Schottky emission was dominant for the untreated and high-plasma-power (250 W) samples. For the low-plasma-power sample, Poole-Frenkel emission was dominant at low voltages, whereas Schottky emission dominated at higher voltages. Defect states and nonuniformity of the interfacial layer appear to be significant in the reverse-bias charge transport properties of the low-plasma-power sample.

  4. Effects of Die-Attach Quality on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaopiao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of high-power light-emitting-diode (LED devices strongly depends on the die-attach quality because voids may increase junction temperature and total thermal resistance of LED devices. Die-attach material has a key role in the thermal management of high-power LED package by providing low-contact thermal resistance. Thermal and mechanical analyses were carried out by experiments and thermal simulation. The quantitative analysis results show that thermal resistance of die-attach layer (thermal resistance caused by die-attach material and voids in die-attach layer plays an important role in total thermal resistance of high-power LED packaging according to the differential structure function of thermal transient characteristics. The increase of void fraction in die-attach layer causes the increases of thermal resistance of die-attach layer; the thermal resistance increased by 1.95 K/W when the void fraction increased to 62.45%. The voids also make an obvious influence on thermal stress and thermal strain of chip; the biggest thermal stress of chip was as high as 847.1 MPa compared to the 565.2 MPa when the void fraction increases from being void-free to 30% in the die-attach layer.

  5. Structural Optimization of High-Power AlGaInP Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes for Visible Light Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Sub; Hue Joo, Jee; Lee, Jin Hong; Hyeob Baek, Jong; Seo, Jae Won; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2008-08-01

    For developing high-power resonant cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLEDs) appropriate for visible light communications, we have investigated the effect of reflectivity of a p-side distributed Bragg reflector (p-DBR) and the number of quantum wells (QWs) in active layers on the spectral characteristics and optical power of RCLEDs. As the reflectivity of p-DBR increased, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum was reduced from 12.3 to 3.6 nm, whereas the relative integrated intensity decreased from 1.0 to 0.37, which can be attributed to the improvement of spectral purity of peaks with in-phase condition. As the number of QWs decreased, optical power increased owing to the reduction of the optical loss of recycling light in the active region. Using the optimized structural conditions, we demonstrated RCLEDs having a modulation speed up to 130 MHz in free space, which shows that the optimized RCLED structure is a promising candidate for visible light communications (VLCs).

  6. 140-fs duration and 60-W peak power blue-violet optical pulses generated by a dispersion-compensated GaInN mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using a nonlinear pulse compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Hideki; Koda, Rintaro; Fuutagawa, Noriyuki; Narui, Hironobu

    2015-12-14

    Blue-violet optical pulses of 140-fs duration and 60-W peak power were obtained from a dispersion-compensated GaInN mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using a nonlinear pulse compression technique. Wavelength-dependent group velocity dispersion expressed by third-order phase dispersion was applied to the optical pulses using a pulse compressor with a spatial light modulator. The obtained optical pulses had the shortest duration ever obtained for a mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using edge-emitting type devices.

  7. A Silicon Nanocrystal Schottky Junction Solar Cell produced from Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solution-processed semiconductors are seen as a promising route to reducing the cost of the photovoltaic device manufacture. We are reporting a single-layer Schottky photovoltaic device that was fabricated by spin-coating intrinsic silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs from colloidal suspension. The thin-film formation process was based on Si NCs without any ligand attachment, exchange, or removal reactions. The Schottky junction device showed a photovoltaic response with a power conversion efficiency of 0.02%, a fill factor of 0.26, short circuit-current density of 0.148 mA/cm2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.51 V.

  8. Laser transurethral resection of the prostate: Safety study of a novel system of photoselective vaporization with high power diode laser in prostates larger than 80mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, G; Arance, I; Gimbernat, H; Redondo, C; García-Tello, A; Angulo, J C

    2015-01-01

    To present the feasibility of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with of a new diode laser-resection system. Surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is constantly evolving. Laser techniques are increasingly used in prostates of large size. A prospective study was performed to evaluate operative data and patient outcomes with PVP using high-power diode laser (HPD) and a novel quartz-head fiber with shovel shape in patients with prostate>80mL. Demographic data, operative time, hemoglobin loss, operative results (IPSS, quality of life (QoL), Qmax, post void residue (PVR), IIEF-5 and micturition diary) and complications following Clavien-Dindo classification are described. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Sixteen (51.6%) were on active antiplatelet treatment and 12 (38.7%) had received anticoagulants before surgery. All cases were followed at least 6mo. No intraoperative or postoperative major complications occurred. Three patients (9.7%) had minor complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Twenty-seven (87.1%) were discharged on postoperative day one without catheter. There were significant improvements in IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR, both at 3 and 6mo (P<.0001), but sexual function according to IIEF-5 showed no differences. Urgency (any grade) increased at 3mo (48.4%; P=.002) and considerably decreased at 6mo (9.7%; P<.0001). This pilot experience with shovel shape fiber and HPD is encouraging. It shows that laser-resection is a safe procedure, achieving excellent results in terms of IPSS, QoL and Qmax in large prostates even in high-risk patients. Longer follow-up, comparative and randomized controlled studies are needed to widespread these results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Study on Active Cooling Systems Used for Thermal Management of High-Power Multichip Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W. The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC, and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs.

  10. Polycrystalline silicon carbide dopant profiles obtained through a scanning nano-Schottky contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golt, M. C.; Strawhecker, K. E.; Bratcher, M. S. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, WMRD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Shanholtz, E. R. [ORISE, Belcamp, Maryland 21017 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The unique thermo-electro-mechanical properties of polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) make it a desirable candidate for structural and electronic materials for operation in extreme environments. Necessitated by the need to understand how processing additives influence poly-SiC structure and electrical properties, the distribution of lattice defects and impurities across a specimen of hot-pressed 6H poly-SiC processed with p-type additives was visualized with high spatial resolution using a conductive atomic force microscopy approach in which a contact forming a nano-Schottky interface is scanned across the sample. The results reveal very intricate structures within poly-SiC, with each grain having a complex core-rim structure. This complexity results from the influence the additives have on the evolution of the microstructure during processing. It was found that the highest conductivities localized at rims as well as at the interface between the rim and the core. The conductivity of the cores is less than the conductivity of the rims due to a lower concentration of dopant. Analysis of the observed conductivities and current-voltage curves is presented in the context of nano-Schottky contact regimes where the conventional understanding of charge transport to diode operation is no longer valid.

  11. Zinc Selenide-Based Schottky Barrier Detectors for Ultraviolet-A and Ultraviolet-B Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as zinc selenide (ZnSe have become popular for ultraviolet (UV photodetectors due to their broad UV spectral response. Schottky barrier detectors made of ZnSe in particular have been shown to have both low dark current and high responsivity. This paper presents the results of electrical and optical characterization of UV sensors based on ZnSe/Ni Schottky diodes fabricated using single-crystal ZnSe substrate with integrated UV-A (320–400 nm and UV-B (280–320 nm filters. For comparison, characteristics characterization of an unfiltered detector is also included. The measured photoresponse showed good discrimination between the two spectral bands. The measured responsivities of the UV-A and UV-B detectors were 50 mA/W and 10 mA/W, respectively. A detector without a UV filter showed a maximum responsivity of about 110 mA/W at 375 nm wavelength. The speed of the unfiltered detector was found to be about 300 kHz primarily limited by the RC time constant determined largely by the detector area.

  12. Hot carrier multiplication on graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Keun; Choi, Hongkyw; Lee, Hyunsoo; Lee, Changhwan; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Choon-Gi; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-08

    Carrier multiplication (i.e. generation of multiple electron-hole pairs from a single high-energy electron, CM) in graphene has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally, but direct application of hot carrier multiplication in graphene has not been reported. Here, taking advantage of efficient CM in graphene, we fabricated graphene/TiO2 Schottky nanodiodes and found CM-driven enhancement of quantum efficiency. The unusual photocurrent behavior was observed and directly compared with Fowler's law for photoemission on metals. The Fowler's law exponent for the graphene-based nanodiode is almost twice that of a thin gold film based diode; the graphene-based nanodiode also has a weak dependence on light intensity-both are significant evidence for CM in graphene. Furthermore, doping in graphene significantly modifies the quantum efficiency by changing the Schottky barrier. The CM phenomenon observed on the graphene/TiO2 nanodiodes can lead to intriguing applications of viable graphene-based light harvesting.

  13. 2D SiNx photonic crystal coated Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic plate phosphor for high-power white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Jeong Rok; Do, Young Rag

    2011-12-05

    This paper reports the optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL) on Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) yellow ceramic plate phosphor (CPP) in order to enhance the forward emission of YAG:Ce CPP-capped high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By adding the 2D SiNx PCL with a 580 nm lattice constant, integrated yellow emission was improved by a factor of 1.72 compared to that of a conventional YAG:Ce CPP capped on a blue LED cup. This enhanced forward yellow emission is attributed to increased extraction of yellow emission light and improved absorption of blue excitation light through Bragg scattering and/or the leaky modes produced by the 2D PCLs. The introduction of 2D PCL can also reduce the wide variation of optical properties as a function of both ambient temperature and applied current, compared to those of a high-power YAG:Ce CPP-capped LED.

  14. Enhancement of light output power in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using hydrothermally grown ZnO micro-walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Jun Sung; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2012-05-07

    We report on the efficiency enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnO micro-walls grown by a hydrothermal method. The formation of ZnO micro-walls at the indium tin oxide (ITO) border on the LED structure is explained by the heterogeneous nucleation effect. The light output power of LEDs with ZnO micro-walls operated at 20 mA was found to increase by approximately 30% compared to conventional LEDs. Moreover, the finding of nearly the same current-voltage characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with and without a ZnO micro-wall shows that the ZnO micro-wall does not influence the electrical properties of the device but only leads to an increase in the light extraction efficiency. From the confocal scanning electroluminescence results, we confirm that ZnO micro-walls enhance the light output power via the photon wave-guiding effect.

  15. Compact tunable external cavity diode laser with diffraction-limited 1 W optical power, and it's application in BEC and CRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stry, Sandra; Hildebrandt, Lars; Sacher, Joachim

    2004-09-01

    The combination of high power, small linewidth and rapid tuneability is essential for many fields in high resolution spectroscopy. Furthermore these optical features are essential for laser-cooling techniques. Enhancement of high power lasers with excellent spectral and spatial quality is currently an important research subject. The requirements for a laser system applied in both fields of application are demanding: a mode-hop free tuning range of a few GHz, with a linewidth in the order of 1MHz and an output power of a few 100mW. We report a very compact external cavity diode laser system (ECDL) with an output power of up to 800mW with an almost Gaussian shaped beam quality (M2<1.2). The coupling efficiency for a single mode fibre exceeds 60%. The centre wavelength can be preadjusted within the tuning range of 20 nm. This laser operates single mode with a mode-hop free tuning range of up to 15GHz without current compensation and a side-mode-suppression better than 50dB at different wavelength between 730 and 1060nm. To demonstrate the suitability for neutral atom cooling we used this laser as light source in the production of a BEC of over a million 87Rb atoms. In addition we approved this light source for high resolution spectroscopy, more precisely for the Cavity-Ring-Down-Spectroscopy (CRDS). Our ECDL was part of a MIR-light source which utilizes difference-frequency-generation in PPLN. At the wavelength of 3.3μm we were able to perform a high resolution absorption measurement of 50ppb Ethane. Both applications clearly demonstrate the suitability of this laser for high-precision measurements.

  16. Monolayer graphene film on ZnO nanorod array for high-performance Schottky junction ultraviolet photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Biao; Hu, Ji-Gang; Luo, Lin-Bao; Xie, Chao; Zeng, Long-Hui; Lv, Peng; Li, Fang-Ze; Jie, Jian-Sheng; Feng, Mei; Wu, Chun-Yan; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-09

    A new Schottky junction ultraviolet photodetector (UVPD) is fabricated by coating a free-standing ZnO nanorod (ZnONR) array with a layer of transparent monolayer graphene (MLG) film. The single-crystalline [0001]-oriented ZnONR array has a length of about 8-11 μm, and a diameter of 100∼600 nm. Finite element method (FEM) simulation results show that this novel nanostructure array/MLG heterojunction can trap UV photons effectively within the ZnONRs. By studying the I-V characteristics in the temperature range of 80-300 K, the barrier heights of the MLG film/ZnONR array Schottky barrier are estimated at different temperatures. Interestingly, the heterojunction diode with typical rectifying characteristics exhibits a high sensitivity to UV light illumination and a quick response of millisecond rise time/fall times with excellent reproducibility, whereas it is weakly sensitive to visible light irradiation. It is also observed that this UV photodetector (PD) is capable of monitoring a fast switching light with a frequency as high as 2250 Hz. The generality of the above results suggest that this MLG film/ZnONR array Schottky junction UVPD will have potential application in future optoelectronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High-Power Single-Mode 2.65-micron InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Forouhar, Siamak; Borgentun, Carl E.; Gupta, James

    2013-01-01

    Central to the advancement of both satellite and in-situ science are improvements in continuous-wave and pulsed infrared laser systems coupled with integrated miniaturized optics and electronics, allowing for the use of powerful, single-mode light sources aboard both satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle platforms. There is a technological gap in supplying adequate laser sources to address the mid-infrared spectral window for spectroscopic characterization of important atmospheric gases. For high-power applications between 2 to 3 micron, commercial laser technologies are unsuitable because of limitations in output power. For instance, existing InP-based laser systems developed for fiber-based telecommunications cannot be extended to wavelengths longer than 2 micron. For emission wavelengths shorter than 3 micron, intersubband devices, such as infrared quantum cascade lasers, become inefficient due to band-offset limitations. To date, successfully demonstrated singlemode GaSb-based laser diodes emitting between 2 and 3 micron have employed lossy metal Bragg gratings for distributed- feedback coupling, which limits output power due to optical absorption. By optimizing both the quantum well design and the grating fabrication process, index-coupled distributed-feedback 2.65-micron lasers capable of emitting in excess of 25 mW at room temperature have been demonstrated. Specifically, lasers at 3,777/cm (2.65 micron) have been realized to interact with strong absorption lines of HDO and other isotopologues of H2O. With minor modifications of the optical cavity and quantum well designs, lasers can be fabricated at any wavelength within the 2-to-3-micron spectral window with similar performance. At the time of this reporting, lasers with this output power and wavelength accuracy are not commercially available. Monolithic ridge-waveguide GaSb lasers were fabricated that utilize secondorder lateral Bragg gratings to generate single-mode emission from InGaAsSb/ Al

  18. Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky-device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kin Mun; Grote, Fabian; Sun, Hui; Lei, Yong [Institute of Materials Physics, Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster (Germany); Wen, Liaoyong; Fang, Yaoguo [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highly ordered arrays of vertical zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) or nanopores were fabricated in our group by first thermal evaporating a thin film of gold on the ultrathin alumina membrane (UTAM). The UTAM was then utilized as a substrate for the growth of the ordered arrays using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. Alternatively, a modified CVD process was also used to fabricate ultra-long ZnO NWs with the length of the nanowire exceeding 100 micrometres. Subsequently, densely packed arrays of ZnO NWs Schottky diodes were synthesized by transferring the long NWs on a substrate using a dry contact printing method and the electrical contacts were made on the NWs with a photolithographic process. The interesting electrical properties of the ZnO NWs, diodes or other metal oxide NWs such as the field emission, electron transport and piezoelectric properties were characterized by current-voltage or by other appropriate measurements.

  19. Graphene-based vertical-junction diodes and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suk-Ho

    2017-09-01

    In the last decade, graphene has received extreme attention as an intriguing building block for electronic and photonic device applications. This paper provides an overview of recent progress in the study of vertical-junction diodes based on graphene and its hybrid systems by combination of graphene and other materials. The review is especially focused on tunnelling and Schottky diodes produced by chemical doping of graphene or combination of graphene with various semiconducting/ insulating materials such as hexagonal boron nitrides, Si-quantum-dots-embedded SiO2 multilayers, Si wafers, compound semiconductors, Si nanowires, and porous Si. The uniqueness of graphene enables the application of these convergence structures in high-efficient devices including photodetectors, solar cells, resonant tunnelling diodes, and molecular/DNA sensors.

  20. Schottky-contact plasmonic rectenna for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavirad, Mohammad; Siadat Mousavi, Saba; Roy, Langis; Berini, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    We propose a plasmonic gold nanodipole array on silicon, forming a Schottky contact thereon, and covered by water. The behavior of this array under normal excitation has been extensively investigated. Trends have been found and confirmed by identification of the mode propagating in nanodipoles and its properties. This device can be used to detect infrared radiation below the bandgap energy of the substrate via internal photoelectric effect (IPE). Also we estimate its responsivity and detection limit. Finally, we assess the potential of the structure for bulk and surface (bio) chemical sensing. Based on modal results an analytical model has been proposed to estimate the sensitivity of the device. Results show a good agreement between numerical and analytical interpretations.

  1. Active and fast charge-state switching of single NV centres in diamond by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schreyvogel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate an active and fast control of the charge state and hence of the optical and electronic properties of single and near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centres (NV centres in diamond. This active manipulation is achieved by using a two-dimensional Schottky-diode structure from diamond, i.e., by using aluminium as Schottky contact on a hydrogen terminated diamond surface. By changing the applied potential on the Schottky contact, we are able to actively switch single NV centres between all three charge states NV+, NV0 and NV− on a timescale of 10 to 100 ns, corresponding to a switching frequency of 10–100 MHz. This switching frequency is much higher than the hyperfine interaction frequency between an electron spin (of NV− and a nuclear spin (of 15N or 13C for example of 2.66 kHz. This high-frequency charge state switching with a planar diode structure would open the door for many quantum optical applications such as a quantum computer with single NVs for quantum information processing as well as single 13C atoms for long-lifetime storage of quantum information. Furthermore, a control of spectral emission properties of single NVs as a single photon emitters – embedded in photonic structures for example – can be realized which would be vital for quantum communication and cryptography.

  2. Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-07

    The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350 mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

  3. Effect of high-temperature/current stress on the forward tunneling current of InGaN/GaN high-power blue-light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Chenju; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Mengling; Zhou, Shengjun

    2017-08-01

    Through the analysis of the temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated InGaN/GaN high-power blue-light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the low-bias region was confirmed to be dominated by tunneling current, while the medium-bias region was dominated by diffusion-recombination current. Electrons and heavy holes appeared to play similar roles in the tunneling current of the fabricated LEDs, with no apparent dominant tunneling entity determined by characteristic energy as previous works suggested. After 1000 h of high-temperature/current stress, the medium-bias regions of the I-V curves of LEDs remained almost unchanged, while the current in the low-bias region was greatly enhanced by the stress, which confirmed the different carrier transport mechanism behaviors in the low- and medium-bias regions. Further comparison between the I-V characteristics of the unstressed and stressed LEDs suggested that the change in I-V curve was associated with the increase in defect density and the apparent doping concentration in the InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active region.

  4. High average power, diode pumped petawatt laser systems: a new generation of lasers enabling precision science and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, C. L.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S.; Bopp, R.; Buck, S.; Cupal, J.; Drouin, M.; Erlandson, A.; Horáček, J.; Horner, J.; Jarboe, J.; Kasl, K.; Kim, D.; Koh, E.; Koubíková, L.; Maranville, W.; Marshall, C.; Mason, D.; Menapace, J.; Miller, P.; Mazurek, P.; Naylon, A.; Novák, J.; Peceli, D.; Rosso, P.; Schaffers, K.; Sistrunk, E.; Smith, D.; Spinka, T.; Stanley, J.; Steele, R.; Stolz, C.; Suratwala, T.; Telford, S.; Thoma, J.; VanBlarcom, D.; Weiss, J.; Wegner, P.

    2017-05-01

    Large laser systems that deliver optical pulses with peak powers exceeding one Petawatt (PW) have been constructed at dozens of research facilities worldwide and have fostered research in High-Energy-Density (HED) Science, High-Field and nonlinear physics [1]. Furthermore, the high intensities exceeding 1018W/cm2 allow for efficiently driving secondary sources that inherit some of the properties of the laser pulse, e.g. pulse duration, spatial and/or divergence characteristics. In the intervening decades since that first PW laser, single-shot proof-of-principle experiments have been successful in demonstrating new high-intensity laser-matter interactions and subsequent secondary particle and photon sources. These secondary sources include generation and acceleration of charged-particle (electron, proton, ion) and neutron beams, and x-ray and gamma-ray sources, generation of radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET), targeted cancer therapy, medical imaging, and the transmutation of radioactive waste [2, 3]. Each of these promising applications requires lasers with peak power of hundreds of terawatt (TW) to petawatt (PW) and with average power of tens to hundreds of kW to achieve the required secondary source flux.

  5. The Performance of ICDAS-II Using Low-Powered Magnification with Light-Emitting Diode Headlight and Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy Device for Detection of Occlusal Caries on Primary Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ari; Timucin Ari

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the diagnostic performance of low-powered magnification with light-emitting diode headlight (LPMLED) using ICDAS-II criteria and AC Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) device, on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. The occlusal surfaces of 18 extracted primary molars were examined blindly by two examiners. The teeth were sectio...

  6. Supersensitive, Fast-Response Nanowire Sensors by Using Schottky Contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2010-05-31

    A Schottky barrier can be formed at the interface between a metal electrode and a semiconductor. The current passing through the metal-semiconductor contact is mainly controlled by the barrier height and barrier width. In conventional nanodevices, Schottky contacts are usually avoided in order to enhance the contribution made by the nanowires or nanotubes to the detected signal. We present a key idea of using the Schottky contact to achieve supersensitive and fast response nanowire-based nanosensors. We have illustrated this idea on several platforms: UV sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors. The gigantic enhancement in sensitivity of up to 5 orders of magnitude shows that an effective usage of the Schottky contact can be very beneficial to the sensitivity of nanosensors. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Summary of LHC MD:377: Schottky pick-up

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Lefevre, Thibaut; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this MD was to record Schottky spectra under well known machine conditions. In summary, 7 set-points for the chromaticity and 8 for the emittance have been established and Schottky spectra have been recorded for each setting. The data will be used to benchmark and develop different fitting algorithms. This note presents the initial attempt of curve-fitting and discusses its shortcomings.

  8. Influence of the temperature dependent spectral power distribution of light-emitting Diodes on the illuminance responsivity of a photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Chou, P. T.; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2013-10-01

    Accurate optical measurements of LEDs are crucial because of the increasing popularity of LEDs. However, a photometer with a V(λ) filter spectrum curve may yield large errors when it is used for photometric measurements of colored LEDs. The junction-dependent light output and spectral distribution of LEDs also introduce measurement errors of the measured photometric characteristics. For the accurate measurements of LEDs, the c(St,Ss) factors were used to estimate the possible deviation in the photometric measurement of colored LEDs with various junction temperatures using commercial and industrial grade photometer heads. The spectral measurements of LEDs with specified junction temperature were conducted using a miniature fiber-optic spectrometer, and the relative spectral power distributions of LEDs were used to calculate the spectral mismatch correction c(St,Ss) factors of the photometer heads. Therefore, the c(St,Ss) factors of colored LEDs were calculated according to the temperature dependent spectral power distributions with various junction temperatures, and these factors were used to estimate the possible deviation in the photometric measurement of colored LEDs. The estimation of the possible deviation in the photometric measurement shows that photometers with excellent relative spectral responsitivities must be used for accurate measurement; otherwise, careful calibration must be conducted when using a photometer with inferior relative spectral responsitivity of the photopic filter.

  9. A novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, P. E.; Petersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy is demonstrated. The system is based on linear spatial filtering and optical phase conjugate feedback from a photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal. The spatial coherence properties of the diode laser are significantly improved. The system...... provides an almost diffraction limited output which is efficiently coupled into a 50 mum core diameter fiber. The optical power transmitted through the fiber is increased by a factor of six when the feedback is applied to the diode laser. 85 percent of the power from the freely running laser diode...... is extracted in a high-quality beam and 80 percent of the output power is extracted through the fiber. The power transmitted through tile fiber scales linearly with the power of the laser diode. which means that a laser diode emitting 1.7 W multi-mode radiation would provide 1 W of optical power through a 50...

  10. Schottky-contact plasmonic dipole rectenna concept for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavirad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Saba Siadat; Roy, Langis; Berini, Pierre

    2013-02-25

    Nanoantennas are key optical components for several applications including photodetection and biosensing. Here we present an array of metal nano-dipoles supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) integrated into a silicon-based Schottky-contact photodetector. Incident photons coupled to the array excite SPPs on the Au nanowires of the antennas which decay by creating "hot" carriers in the metal. The hot carriers may then be injected over the potential barrier at the Au-Si interface resulting in a photocurrent. High responsivities of 100 mA/W and practical minimum detectable powers of -12 dBm should be achievable in the infra-red (1310 nm). The device was then investigated for use as a biosensor by computing its bulk and surface sensitivities. Sensitivities of ∼ 250 nm/RIU (bulk) and ∼ 8 nm/nm (surface) in water are predicted. We identify the mode propagating and resonating along the nanowires of the antennas, we apply a transmission line model to describe the performance of the antennas, and we extract two useful formulas to predict their bulk and surface sensitivities. We prove that the sensitivities of dipoles are much greater than those of similar monopoles and we show that this difference comes from the gap in dipole antennas where electric fields are strongly enhanced.

  11. Electronic properties of Al/DNA/p-Si MIS diode: Application as temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guellue, O., E-mail: omergullu@gmail.com [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, 80000 Osmaniye (Turkey); Tueruet, A. [Atatuerk University, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > This work proposes that DNA molecules should be considered, among other candidates, as a potential organic thin film for metal-interface layer-semiconductor devices. > We successfully fabricated Al/DNA/p-Si device with interlayer by a simple cast method. > The temperature is found to significantly effect the electrical properties of the Al/DNA/p-Si device. > The facts: (i) that the technology of the fabrication of a Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky diode much simpler and economical than that for the Si p-n junction and (ii) the sensibility of the Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky diode as temperature sensor is 42% higher than that of a Si p-n junction, indicate that the Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky diode is a good alternative as temperature sensor. - Abstract: The current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed in the temperature range (200-300 K) on Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky barrier type diodes. The Schottky diode shows non-ideal I-V behaviour with ideality factors n equal to 1.34 {+-} 0.02 and 1.70 {+-} 0.02 at 300 K and 200 K, respectively, and is thought to have a metal-interface layer-semiconductor (MIS) configuration. The zero-bias barrier height {Phi}{sub b} determined from the I-V measurements was 0.75 {+-} 0.01 eV at 300 K and decreases to 0.61 {+-} 0.01 eV at 200 K. The forward voltage-temperature (V{sub F}-T) characteristics were obtained from the I-V measurements in the temperature range 200-300 K at different activation currents (I{sub F}) in the range 20 nA-6 {mu}A. The V{sub F}-T characteristics were linear for three activation currents in the diode. From the V{sub F}-T characteristics at 20 nA, 100 nA and 6 {mu}A, the values of the temperature coefficients of the forward bias voltage (dV{sub F}/dT) for the diode were determined as -2.30 mV K{sup -1}, -2.60 mV K{sup -1} and -3.26 mV K{sup -1} with a standard error of 0.05 mV K{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Integrated SiC Super Junction Transistor-Diode Devices for High-Power Motor Control ModulesOoperating at 500 C Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monolithic Integrated SiC Super Junction Transistor-JBS diode (MIDSJT) devices are used to construct 500

  13. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT): Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Baldoni, Marco; Ghisalberti, Carlo Angelo; Paiusco, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT): such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980 nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy) combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI) activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII). Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines, isolated from human dermis, were irradiated every 48 h for 10 days using LI and LII combined with SiOxyL(+) ™ Solution (hydrogen peroxide (HP) stabilized with a glycerol phosphate complex). Two days after the last irradiation, the treated cultures were analyzed by flow cytofluorometry (FACS) and western blotting to quantify keratin 5 and keratin 8 with monoclonal antibodies reactive to cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 8. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. Results. Both experimental models show the superiority of LII against LI. In parallel, stabilized HP provided better results in the regeneration test in respect to common HP, while the biocidal activity remains comparable. Conclusion. The use of high-frequency lasers combined with stabilized hydrogen peroxide can provide optimal results for a substantial decrease of bacterial count combined with a maximal biostimulation induction of soft tissues and osteogenesis.

  14. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT: Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT: such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980 nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII. Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines, isolated from human dermis, were irradiated every 48 h for 10 days using LI and LII combined with SiOxyL+™ Solution (hydrogen peroxide (HP stabilized with a glycerol phosphate complex. Two days after the last irradiation, the treated cultures were analyzed by flow cytofluorometry (FACS and western blotting to quantify keratin 5 and keratin 8 with monoclonal antibodies reactive to cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 8. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. Results. Both experimental models show the superiority of LII against LI. In parallel, stabilized HP provided better results in the regeneration test in respect to common HP, while the biocidal activity remains comparable. Conclusion. The use of high-frequency lasers combined with stabilized hydrogen peroxide can provide optimal results for a substantial decrease of bacterial count combined with a maximal biostimulation induction of soft tissues and osteogenesis.

  15. Gold nanoparticles deposited on linker-free silicon substrate and embedded in aluminum Schottky contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Saleh; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-10-15

    Given the enormous importance of Au nanoparticles (NPs) deposition on Si substrates as the precursor for various applications, we present an alternative approach to deposit Au NPs on linker-free n- and p-type Si substrates. It is demonstrated that, all conditions being similar, there is a significant difference between densities of the deposited NPs on both substrates. The Zeta-potential and polarity of charges surrounding the hydroxylamine reduced seeded growth Au NPs, are determined by a Zetasizer. To investigate the surface properties of Si substrates, contact angle measurement is performed. Field-emission scanning electron microscope is then utilized to distinguish the NPs density on the substrates. Finally, Al/Si Schottky barrier diodes with embedded Au NPs are fabricated, and their structural and electrical characteristics are further evaluated using an energy-filtered transmission electron microscope and current-voltage measurements, respectively. The results reveal that the density of NPs is significantly higher on n-type Si substrate and consequently has more pronounced effects on the electrical characteristics of the diode. It is concluded that protonation of Si-OH group on Si surface in low pH is responsible for the immobilization of Au NPs, which eventually contributes to the lowering of barrier height and enhances the electrical characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-power direct green laser oscillation of 598 mW in Pr(3+)-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Jun; Horiuchi, Yuya; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujimoto, Yasushi

    2011-05-15

    We demonstrated a high-power and highly efficient Pr-doped waterproof fluoride glass fiber laser at 522.2 nm excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes and achieved a subwatt output power of 598 mW and slope efficiency of 43.0%. This system will enable us to make a vivid laser display, a photocoagulation laser for eye surgery, a color confocal scanning laser microscope, and an effective laser for material processing. Direct visible ultrashort pulse generation is also expected. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. a 530-590 GHZ Schottky Heterodyne Receiver for High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy with Lille's Fast-Scan Fully Solid-State DDS Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Maestrini, Alain; Defrance, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy, especially at THz and mm-wave ranges require the advances in instrumentation techniques to provide high resolution of the recorded spectra with precise frequency measurement that facilitates the mathematical treatment. We report the first implementation of a Schottky heterodyne receiver, operating at room temperature and covering the range between 530 and 590 GHz, for molecular laboratory spectroscopy. A 530-590 GHz non-cryogenic Schottky solid-state receiver was designed at LERMA, Observatoire de Paris and fabricated in partnership with LPN- CNRS (Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures), and was initially developed for ESA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), intended to observe Jupiter and its icy moon atmospheres. It is based on a sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixer, designed and fabricated at LERMA-LPN, pumped by a Local Oscillator (LO), consisting of a frequency Amplifier/Multiplier chains (AMCs) from RPG (Radiometer Physics GmBh). The performance of the receiver was demonstrated by absorption spectroscopy of CH_3CH_2CN with Lille's fast-scan DDS spectrometer. A series of test measurements showed the receiver's good sensitivity, stability and frequency accuracy comparable to those of 4K QMC bolometers, thus making room-temperature Schottky receiver a competitive alternative to 4K QMC bolometers to laboratory spectroscopy applications. We will present the first results with such a combination of a compact room temperature Schottky heterodyne receiver and a fast-scan DDS spectrometer. J. Treuttel, L. Gatilova, A. Maestrini et al., 2016, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Tech., 6, 148-155. This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  18. Advanced laser diodes for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAWTER,GREGORY A.; MAR,ALAN; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed diode lasers for short pulse duration and high peak pulse power in the 0.01--100.0 m pulsewidth regime. A primary goal of the program was producing up to 10 W while maintaining good far-field beam quality and ease of manufacturability for low cost. High peak power, 17 W, picosecond pulses have been achieved by gain switching of flared geometry waveguide lasers and amplifiers. Such high powers area world record for this type of diode laser. The light emission pattern from diode lasers is of critical importance for sensing systems such as range finding and chemical detection. They have developed a new integrated optical beam transformer producing rib-waveguide diode lasers with a symmetric, low divergence, output beam and increased upper power limits for irreversible facet damage.

  19. Droop-Free, Reliable, and High-Power InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes for Monolithic Metal-Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; ElAfandy, Rami T; Prabaswara, Aditya; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Ajia, Idris A; Roqan, Iman S; Janjua, Bilal; Shen, Chao; Eid, Jessica; Alyamani, Ahmed Y; El-Desouki, Munir M; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-07-13

    A droop-free nitride light-emitting diode (LED) with the capacity to operate beyond the "green gap" has been a subject of intense scientific and engineering interest. While several properties of nanowires on silicon make them promising for use in LED development, the high aspect ratio of individual nanowires and their laterally discontinuous features limit phonon transport and device performance. Here, we report on the monolithic integration of metal heat-sink and droop-free InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowire LEDs emitting at ∼710 nm. The reliable operation of our uncooled nanowire-LEDs (NW-LEDs) epitaxially grown on molybdenum was evident in the constant-current soft burn-in performed on a 380 μm × 380 μm LED. The square LED sustained 600 mA electrical stress over an 8 h period, providing stable light output at maturity without catastrophic failure. The absence of carrier and phonon transport barriers in NW-LEDs was further inferred from current-dependent Raman measurements (up to 700 mA), which revealed the low self-heating. The radiative recombination rates of NW-LEDs between room temperature and 40 °C was not limited by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, Auger recombination, or carrier leakage mechanisms, thus realizing droop-free operation. The discovery of reliable, droop-free devices constitutes significant progress toward the development of nanowires for practical applications. Our monolithic approach realized a high-performance device that will revolutionize the way high power, low-junction-temperature LED lamps are manufactured for solid-state lighting and for applications in high-temperature harsh environment.

  20. Early Experiences of Contact Laser Vaporization of the Prostate using the 980 nm High Power Diode Laser for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideyo; Hirano, Yoshikazu; Kato, Shinobu; Ioritani, Naomasa; Ichikawa, Takaharu; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Homma, Yukio

    2017-06-02

    We report early experiences of contact laser vaporization of the prostate for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 80 patients recruited at four institutions in Japan from April 2013 through September 2014 underwent contact laser vaporization of the prostate using 980 nm high power diode laser with an end-firing fiber in the contact mode. Patients were followed prospectively at 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, postoperatively per protocol, and at 1 and 2 years post-protocol. Of 76 eligible patients, 64 (84.2%) achieved more than 50% decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score at 24 weeks (95% confidence interval: 74.0-91.6%), clearing the pre-fixed non-inferiority efficacy level to transurethral resection of the prostate (65%). Symptom scores, maximum flow rate, post-void residual urine, and prostate volume showed significant improvements at 12 and 24 weeks after the surgery. Perioperative complications included transient urinary retention (n = 20), retrograde ejaculation (5), bladder neck contracture (4), urethral stricture (3), stone in prostatic bed (3), bladder stone (2), bladder perforation (1), bladder deformity (1), and transient urgency incontinence (1). Urinary retention and bladder neck contracture occurred almost exclusively at one institution. Improved symptom scores, maximum flow rate, and post-void residual urine observed at 24 weeks remained virtually unchanged at 1 and 2 years. Early experience of contact laser vaporization in Japan showed efficacy comparable to transurethral resection of the prostate as a surgical procedure for BPH at 24 weeks. Long-term efficacy of the procedure remains uncertain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Droop-Free, Reliable, and High-Power InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes for Monolithic Metal-Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-07-28

    A droop-free nitride light-emitting diode (LED) with the capacity to operate beyond the “green gap” has been a subject of intense scientific and engineering interest. While several properties of nanowires on silicon make them promising for use in LED development, the high aspect ratio of individual nanowires and their laterally discontinuous features limit phonon transport and device performance. Here, we report on the monolithic integration of metal heat-sink and droop-free InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowire LEDs emitting at ∼710 nm. The reliable operation of our uncooled nanowire-LEDs (NW-LEDs) epitaxially grown on molybdenum was evident in the constant-current soft burn-in performed on a 380 μm × 380 μm LED. The square LED sustained 600 mA electrical stress over an 8 h period, providing stable light output at maturity without catastrophic failure. The absence of carrier and phonon transport barriers in NW-LEDs was further inferred from current-dependent Raman measurements (up to 700 mA), which revealed the low self-heating. The radiative recombination rates of NW-LEDs between room temperature and 40 °C was not limited by Shockley–Read–Hall recombination, Auger recombination, or carrier leakage mechanisms, thus realizing droop-free operation. The discovery of reliable, droop-free devices constitutes significant progress toward the development of nanowires for practical applications. Our monolithic approach realized a high-performance device that will revolutionize the way high power, low-junction-temperature LED lamps are manufactured for solid-state lighting and for applications in high-temperature harsh environment.

  2. Contact Whiskers for Millimeter Wave Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.; Grange, J. A.; Lichtenberger, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Several techniques are investigated for making short conical tips on wires (whiskers) used for contacting millimeter-wave Schottky diodes. One procedure, using a phosphoric and chromic acid etching solution (PCE), is found to give good results on 12 microns phosphor-bronze wires. Full cone angles of 60 degrees-80 degrees are consistently obtained, compared with the 15 degrees-20 degrees angles obtained with the widely used sodium hydroxide etch. Methods are also described for cleaning, increasing the tip diameter (i.e. blunting), gold plating, and testing the contact resistance of the whiskers. The effects of the whisker tip shape on the electrical resistance, inductance, and capacitance of the whiskers are studied, and examples given for typical sets of parameters.

  3. Surface morphological, electrical and transport properties of rapidly annealed double layers Ru/Cr Schottky structure on n-type InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi Latha, K.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-07-01

    The electrical and transport properties of a fabricated bilayer Ru/Cr/ n-InP Schottky diode (SD) have been investigated at different annealing temperatures. Atomic force microscopy results have showed that the overall surface morphology of the Ru/Cr/ n-InP SD is fairly smooth at elevated temperatures. High barrier height is achieved for the diode annealed at 300 °C compared to the as-deposited, annealed at 200 and 400 °C diodes. The series resistance and shunt resistance of the Ru/Cr/ n-InP SD are estimated by current-voltage method at different annealing temperatures. The barrier heights and series resistance are also determined by Cheung's and modified Norde functions. The interface state density of the Ru/Cr/ n-InP SD is found to be decreased after annealing at 300 °C and then slightly increased upon annealing at 400 °C. The difference between barrier heights obtained from current-voltage and capacitance-voltage is also discussed. Experimental results have showed that the Poole-Frenkel emission is found to be dominant in the lower bias region whereas Schottky emission is dominant in the higher bias region for the Ru/Cr/ n-InP SDs irrespective of annealing temperatures.

  4. Graphene geometric diodes for terahertz rectennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zixu; Joshi, Saumil; Grover, Sachit; Moddel, Garret

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a new thin-film graphene diode called a geometric diode that relies on geometric asymmetry to provide rectification at 28 THz. The geometric diode is coupled to an optical antenna to form a rectenna that rectifies incoming radiation. This is the first reported graphene-based antenna-coupled diode working at 28 THz, and potentially at optical frequencies. The planar structure of the geometric diode provides a low RC time constant, on the order of 10-15 s, required for operation at optical frequencies, and a low impedance for efficient power transfer from the antenna. Fabricated geometric diodes show asymmetric current-voltage characteristics consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the devices. Rectennas employing the geometric diode coupled to metal and graphene antennas rectify 10.6 µm radiation, corresponding to an operating frequency of 28 THz. The graphene bowtie antenna is the first demonstrated functional antenna made using graphene. Its response indicates that graphene is a suitable terahertz resonator material. Applications for this terahertz diode include terahertz-wave and optical detection, ultra-high-speed electronics and optical power conversion.

  5. Recent Progress in Ohmic/Schottky-Contacted ZnO Nanowire Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ranran; Hua, Qilin; Dong, Lin; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-01-01

      We review the recent progress of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire sensors with ohmic-contacted and Schottky-contacted configurations and the enhancement of the performances of Schottky-contacted ZnO NW sensors (SCZNSs...

  6. Gigantic Enhancement in Sensitivity Using Schottky Contacted Nanowire Nanosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Te-Yu

    2009-12-09

    A new single nanowire based nanosensor is demonstrated for illustrating its ultrahigh sensitivity for gas sensing. The device is composed of a single ZnO nanowire mounted on Pt electrodes with one end in Ohmic contact and the other end in Schottky contact. The Schottky contact functions as a "gate" that controls the current flowing through the entire system. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the responsive variation of the surface chemisorbed gases and the amplification role played by the nanowire to Schottky barrier effect, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 32 000% was achieved using the Schottky contacted device operated in reverse bias mode at 275 °C for detection of 400 ppm CO, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using an Ohmic contact device under the same conditions. In addition, the response time and reset time have been shortened by a factor of 7. The methodology and principle illustrated in the paper present a new sensing mechanism that can be readily and extensively applied to other gas sensing systems. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  8. High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Yu; Dai, Lun; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Nan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Peng, Ruomin; Wen, Xiaonan; Chen, Zhijian; Liu, Zhongfan; Qin, Guogang

    2010-12-01

    High-performance single CdS nanowire (NW) as well as nanobelt (NB) Schottky junction solar cells were fabricated. Au (5 nm)/graphene combined layers were used as the Schottky contact electrodes to the NWs (NBs). Typical as-fabricated NW solar cell shows excellent photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage of ∼0.15 V, a short circuit current of ∼275.0 pA, and an energy conversion efficiency of up to ∼1.65%. The physical mechanism of the combined Schottky electrode was discussed. We attribute the prominent capability of the devices to the high-performance Schottky combined electrode, which has the merits of low series resistance, high transparency, and good Schottky contact to the CdS NW (NB). Besides, a promising site-controllable patterned graphene transfer method, which has the advantages of economizing graphene material and free from additional etching process, was demonstrated in this work. Our results suggest that semiconductor NWs (NBs) are promising materials for novel solar cells, which have potential application in integrated nano-optoelectronic systems.

  9. Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.

  10. Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan; Khan, Usman; Rafiq, M. A.; Falak, Attia; Narain, Adeela; Jing, Tang; Xu, Xiulai

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.

  11. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  12. Thermal sensor based zinc oxide diode for low temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocaya, R.O. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (South Africa); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Tantawy, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farooq, W.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Yakuphanoglu, F., E-mail: fyhan@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig, 23169 (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    The device parameters of Al/p-Si/Zn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O-NiO/Al Schottky diode for x = 0.005 were investigated over the 50 K–400 K temperature range using direct current–voltage (I–V) and impedance spectroscopy. The films were prepared using the sol–gel method followed by spin-coating on p-Si substrate. The ideality factor, barrier height, resistance and capacitance of the diode were found to depend on temperature. The calculated barrier height has a mean. Capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements show that the capacitance decreases with increasing frequency, suggesting a continuous distribution of interface states over the surveyed 100 kHz to 1 MHz frequency range. The interface state densities, N{sub ss}, of the diode were calculated and found to peak as functions of bias and temperature in two temperature regions of 50 K–300 K and 300 K–400 K. A peak value of approximately 10{sup 12}/eV cm{sup 2} was observed around 0.7 V bias for 350 K and at 3 × 10{sup 12}/eVcm{sup 2} around 2.2 V bias for 300 K. The relaxation time was found to average 4.7 μs over all the temperatures, but showing its lowest value of 1.58 μs at 300 K. It is seen that the interface states of the diode is controlled by the temperature. This suggests that Al/p-Si/Zn1-xAlxO-NiO/Al diode can be used as a thermal sensors for low temperature applications. - Highlights: • Al/pSi/Zn1-xAlxO-NiO/Al Schottky diode was fabricated by sol gel method. • The interface state density of the diode is controlled by the temperature. • Zinc oxide based diode can be used as a thermal sensor for low temperature applications.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using high-power blue light-emitting diode and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, C; Aoki, A; Takeuchi, Y; Sasaki, Y; Hiratsuka, K; Abiko, Y; Izumi, Y

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) using a combination of red-colored laser/light-emitting diode (LED) and blue dye has been employed for periodontal therapy and the antimicrobial effect seems promising. Blue light, which has favorable wavelength properties, would be more effective as a light source for a-PDT because blue light itself possesses an antimicrobial effect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a-PDT using a novel combination of high-power blue LED and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 suspension was irradiated with blue LED (BL) (425-470 nm) or red LED (RL) (625-635 nm) at 30-90 J/cm(2) , or was mixed with erythrosine (ER), phloxine B (PB) or rose bengal (RB) with or without BL irradiation (30 J/cm(2) ). RL (30 J/cm(2) ) in combination with toluidine blue was employed as positive control. All the suspensions of P. gingivalis were serially diluted, plated and incubated anaerobically, and the numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted on day 7. BL irradiation at 60 and 90 J/cm(2) demonstrated a significant reduction in the numbers of CFUs. ER, PB and RB solutions at 160 μg/mL showed almost no or only a minimal reduction in the numbers of CFUs. BL at 30 J/cm(2) combined with ER, PB or RB at 160 μg/mL resulted in a log reduction of 0.9, 1.0 and 7.1, respectively, in the numbers of CFUs; 30 J/cm(2) BL with RB at 1.6, 16 and 160 μg/mL demonstrated a log reduction of 6.3, 8.0 and 5.5, respectively; and a log reduction of 5.2 was obtained after 30 J/cm(2) RL with 16 μg/mL TB. Within the limits of this study, BL was found to have an antimicrobial/growth-inhibiting effect on P. gingivalis, and a-PDT using a combination of BL and RB shows promise as a new technical modality for bacterial elimination in periodontal therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Simulation and measurement of the resonant Schottky pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong-Dong; Wu, Jun-Xia; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Mao, Rui-Shi; Xu, Hu-Shan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Ma, Xin-Wen; Tu, Xiao-Lin; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Nolden, F.; Hülsmann, P.; Yu., A. Litvinov; Peschke, C.; Petri, P.; S. Sanjari, M.; Steck, M.

    2011-12-01

    A resonant Schottky pickup with high sensitivity, built by GSI, will be used for nuclear mass and lifetime measurement at CSRe. The basic concepts of Schottky noise signals, a brief introduction of the geometry of the detector, the transient response of the detector, and MAFIA simulated and perturbation measured results of characteristics are presented in this paper. The resonant frequency of the pickup is about 243 MHz and can be slightly changed at a range of 3 MHz. The unloaded quality factor is about 1072 and the shunt impedance is 76 kΩ. The measured results of the characteristics are in agreement with the MAFIA simulations.

  15. Surface modification of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic treated with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers for altered wettability characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.

    1998-01-01

    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic was found to affect significant changes in the wettability characteristics of the material. It was observed that interaction with CO2, Nd:YAG and HPDL radiation reduced the enamel contact angle from 1180 to 310, 340 and 330 respectively. In contrast, interaction with excimer laser radiation resulted an increase in the contact angle to 1210. Such changes were identifi...

  16. Diode-pumped high-peak-power femtosecond Yb+3:(Gd0.1Y0.9)2SiO5 laser at 1058.5 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yandang; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Su, Xiancui; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Gao, Zijing

    2017-09-01

    A diode-pumped continuous-wave mode-locked (CWML) femtosecond Yb+3:(Gd0.1Y0.9)2SiO5 (Yb:GYSO) laser at 1058.5 nm with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) was successfully realized and demonstrated. Pulses with a duration of 186 fs were obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 80.1 MHz with a maximum average output power of 564 mW, corresponding to a maximum single pulse energy of 7.04 nJ and peak power of 37.9 kW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest peak power ever obtained from a mode-locked femtosecond Yb:GYSO laser.

  17. Compact green-diode-based lasers for biophotonic bioimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diode lasers simultaneously offer tunability, high-power emission, and compact size at fairly low cost and are increasingly preferred for pumping titanium:sapphire lasers.......Diode lasers simultaneously offer tunability, high-power emission, and compact size at fairly low cost and are increasingly preferred for pumping titanium:sapphire lasers....

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Film Using Various p-Type Dopants and Its Application to GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ryong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films using various p-type dopants and its application to GaN-based light-emitting diodes. To enhance the current injection and spreading of the RGO/SWNT films on the light-emitting diodes (LEDs), we increased the work function (φ) of the films using chemical doping with AuCl3, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and MoO3; thereby reduced the Schottky barrier height between the RGO/SWNT films and p-GaN. By comparison, LEDs fabricated with work-function-tuned RGO/SWNT film doped with MoO3 exhibited the decrease of the forward voltage from 5.3 V to 5.02 V at 20 mA and the increase of the output power up to 1.26 times. We also analyzed the current injection mechanism using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Fabrication of high performance field-effect transistors and practical Schottky contacts using hydrothermal ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Daumont, Christophe; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    2015-09-04

    The production of large quantities of single crystalline semiconducting ZnO nanowires (NWs) at low cost can offer practical solutions to realizing several novel electronic/optoelectronic and sensor applications on an industrial scale. The present work demonstrates high-density single crystalline NWs synthesized by a multiple cycle hydrothermal process at ∼100 °C. The high carrier concentration in such ZnO NWs is greatly suppressed by a simple low cost thermal annealing step in ambient air at ∼450 °C. Single ZnO NW FETs incorporating these modified NWs are characterized, revealing strong metal work function-dependent charge transport, unobtainable with as-grown hydrothermal ZnO NWs. Single ZnO NW FETs with Al as source and drain (s/d) contacts show excellent performance metrics, including low off-state currents (fA range), high on/off ratio (10(5)-10(7)), steep subthreshold slope (V-s). Modified ZnO NWs with platinum s/d contacts demonstrate excellent Schottky transport characteristics, markedly different from a reference ZnO NW device with Al contacts. This included abrupt reverse bias current-voltage saturation characteristics and positive temperature coefficient (∼0.18 eV to 0.13 eV). This work is envisaged to benefit many areas of hydrothermal ZnO NW research, such as NW FETs, piezoelectric energy recovery, piezotronics and Schottky diodes.

  20. Barrier height modification and mechanism of carrier transport in Ni/in situ grown Si3N4/n-GaN Schottky contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S. Y.; Zakheim, D. A.; Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Brunkov, P. N.; Lundina, E. Y.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

    2018-02-01

    In situ growth of an ultra-thin (up to 2.5 nm) Si3N4 film on the top of n-GaN is shown to reduce remarkably the height of the barrier formed by deposition of Ni-based Schottky contact. The reduction is interpreted in terms of polarization dipole induced at the Si3N4/n-GaN interface and Fermi level pinning at the Ni/Si3N4 interface. Detailed study of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics enables identification of the electron transport mechanism in such Schottky diodes under forward bias: thermal/field electron emission over the barrier formed in n-GaN followed by tunneling through the Si3N4 film. At reverse bias and room temperature, the charge transfer is likely controlled by Poole-Frenkel ionization of deep traps in n-GaN. Tunneling exponents at forward and reverse biases and the height of the Ni/Si3N4 Schottky barrier are evaluated experimentally and compared with theoretical predictions.

  1. Low Contact Resistivity with Low Silicide/p+-Silicon Schottky Barrier for High-Performance p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Isogai, Tatsunori; Goto, Tetsuya; Teramoto, Akinobu; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2010-04-01

    A current drivability improvement of p-channel metal-oxide-silicon field effect transistors (MOSFETs) is necessary for the performance enhancement of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. In this paper, we present the key technology for fabricating indispensable CMOS circuits with a small Schottky barrier height and a low contact resistance for p-type silicon using Pd2Si. We fabricated a Pd2Si gate Schottky barrier diode and a Kelvin pattern on silicon. The measured Schottky barrier height is 0.29 eV for p-type silicon. We also realized a very low contact resistivity of 3.7 ×10-9 Ω cm2 for the p+ region of silicon. The p-channel MOSFET with Pd2Si source/drain contacts realized a good characteristic, that is, a small off current. The technology developed in this work involves silicide formation for source/drain contacts of p-channel MOSFETs, which is expected to realize the performance enhancement of MOSFETs.

  2. Power Amplifier Module with 734-mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene A.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Lamgrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Lin, Robert H.; Soria, Mary M.; Cooperrider, Joelle T.; Micovic, Moroslav; Kurdoghlian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers-to generate higher frequency signals in nonlinear Schottky diode-based LO sources. By advancing PA technology, the LO system performance can be increased with possible cost reductions compared to current GaAs PAs. High-power, high-efficiency GaN PAs are cross-cutting and can enable more efficient local oscillator distribution systems for new astrophysics and planetary receivers and heterodyne array instruments. It can also allow for a new, electronically scannable solid-state array technology for future Earth science radar instruments and communications platforms.

  3. Enhanced Plasmonic Light Absorption for Silicon Schottky-Barrier Photodetectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    is transferred into hot carriers near the Schottky barrier. The proposed broadband photodetector with a bi-grating metallic structure on the silicon substrate enables to absorb 76 % of the infrared light in the metal with a 200-nm bandwidth, while staying insensitive to the incident angle. These results pave...

  4. New Schottky-Pickup for COSY-Jülich

    CERN Document Server

    Mohos, I; Dietrich, J; Klehr, F

    2001-01-01

    A new Schottky-pickup for the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at the Forschungszentrum J?lich was developed, tested and installed. The new pickup with four diagonally arranged plates replaces the two 1 m long Schottky-pickups used until now in COSY. The previous ones were removed mainly to gain space for new installations (e.g. rf-cavity, experimental devices), but also to increase the horizontal aperture. The available space for the new pickup is only 0.8 m. The pickup plates can be combined by means of relays to measure either in the horizontal or in the vertical plane. The pickup can also be used either as a sensitive broadband beam position monitor or as a tuneable narrowband pickup for Schottky-noise analysis with ultahigh sensitivity. A new method for resonant tuning of the Schottky-pickups for transversal measurements was developed. The differentially excited resonant circuitry enhances the sensitivity by about a factor of 30. The pickups are also used for dynamical tune measurements (tune meter) in the accele...

  5. Coaxial foilless diode

    OpenAIRE

    Long Kong; QingXiang Liu; XiangQiang Li; ShaoMeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    A kind of coaxial foilless diode is proposed in this paper, with the structure model and operating principle of the diode are given. The current-voltage relation of the coaxial foilless diode and the effects of structure parameters on the relation are studied by simulation. By solving the electron motion equation, the beam deviation characteristic in the presence of external magnetic field in transmission process is analyzed, and the relationship between transverse misalignment with diode par...

  6. Interferometry and Holography With Diode Laser Light

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, Jose Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We made an interferometric Michelson type setup and a simple holographic setup to demonstrate the feasibility of interferometric and holographic techniques by means of a diode laser. The laser was made by using a common diode available as a penlight element (less than R$ 15,00 value) and a simple stabilized 110 VCA- 3 VCC power supply. Interference fringes and holograms of small objects where obtained very similar to those of a helium-neon laser based setup.

  7. Design, fabrication, and characterization of 4H-silicon carbide rectifiers for power switching applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, David Charles

    Silicon Carbide has received a substantial increase in research interest over the past few years as a base material system for high-frequency and high-power semiconductor devices. Of the over 1200 polytypes, 4H-SiC is the most attractive polytype for power devices due to its wide band gap (3.2eV), excellent thermal conductivity (4.9 W/cm·K), and high critical field strength (˜2 x 106 V/cm). Important for power devices, the 10x increase in critical field strength of SiC allows high voltage blocking layers to be fabricated significantly thinner than for comparable Si devices. For power rectifiers, this reduces device on-resistance, while maintaining the same high voltage blocking capability. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky, pn, and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers for use in high voltage switching applications have been designed, fabricated, and extensively characterized. First, a detailed review of 4H-SiC material parameters was performed and SiC models were implemented into a standard Si drift-diffusion numerical simulator. Using these models, a SiC simulation methodology was developed in order to enable predictive SiC device design. A wide variety of rectifier and edge termination designs were investigated and optimized with respect to breakdown efficiency, area consumption, resistance to interface charge, and fabrication practicality. Simulated termination methods include: field plates, floating guard rings, and a variety of junction termination extensions (JTE). Using the device simulation results, both Schottky and JBS rectifiers were fabricated with a novel self-aligned edge termination design, and fabricated with process elements developed at the Alabama Microelectronics Science and Technology Center facility. These rectifiers exhibited near-ideal forward characteristics and had blocking voltages in excess of 2.5kV. The SiC diodes were subjected to inductive switching tests, and were found to have superior reverse recovery characteristics compared

  8. Diode and Diode Circuits, a Programmed Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman; Kirwin, Gerald J.

    This programed text on diode and diode circuits was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 4 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended as a supplement to a regular text and other instructional material. (DH)

  9. Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Marschall, Sebastian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, dio...... imaging. This review provides an overview of the latest development of diode laser technology and systems and their use within selected biomedical applications.......Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, diode...... lasers simultaneously offer tunability, high-power emission and compact size at fairly low cost. Therefore, diode lasers are increasingly preferred in important applications, such as photocoagulation, optical coherence tomography, diffuse optical imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging, and terahertz...

  10. Novel field-effect schottky barrier transistors based on graphene-MoS 2 heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, He

    2014-08-11

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5-20 cm2/V.s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V.s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics.

  11. Large-area silicon nanowire Schottky junction photodetector with tunable absorption and low junction capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, L. P.; Seyedi, M. A.; Fiorentino, M.; Beausoleil, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    Silicon photodetectors for operation in the near-infrared with a sufficient responsivity and high-speed operation are currently needed as scalable, CMOS compatible components for photonic and communication applications. Photodetectors based on semiconductor nanowire structures with dielectric planarization enable larger active optical areas and higher operating speeds than planar devices due to reduced junction capacitance and enhanced absorption. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a silicon nanowire photodetector with dielectric infilling and a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) Schottky contact. Optical simulations show that the absorbed power can be confined at the top of the nanowire array, enabling efficient operation in the near-infrared. This is despite the relatively low absorption coefficient for silicon in this wavelength range in addition to the design of the nanowire array to have a low fill factor compared to the bulk material in order to minimize the junction capacitance. The responsivity of this device is  >0.3 A W-1 at a reverse bias of 2 V and the junction capacitance is 8  ±  2 nF cm-2, which are respectively comparable and lower than the values expected for a planar silicon Schottky junction photodetector with a similar active area.

  12. Modeling and Design of a New Flexible Graphene-on-Silicon Schottky Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’Olio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new graphene-based flexible solar cell with a power conversion efficiency >10% has been designed. The environmental stability and the low complexity of the fabrication process are the two main advantages of the proposed device with respect to other flexible solar cells. The designed solar cell is a graphene/silicon Schottky junction whose performance has been enhanced by a graphene oxide layer deposited on the graphene sheet. The effect of the graphene oxide is to dope the graphene and to act as anti-reflection coating. A silicon dioxide ultrathin layer interposed between the n-Si and the graphene increases the open-circuit voltage of the cell. The solar cell optimization has been achieved through a mathematical model, which has been validated by using experimental data reported in literature. The new flexible photovoltaic device can be integrated in a wide range of microsystems powered by solar energy.

  13. High detectivity visible-blind SiF4 grown epitaxial graphene/SiC Schottky contact bipolar phototransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chava, Venkata S. N.; Barker, Bobby G.; Balachandran, Anusha; Khan, Asif; Simin, G.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report the performance of a bipolar epitaxial graphene (EG)/p-SiC/n+-SiC UV phototransistor fabricated with a Schottky (EG)/SiC junction grown using a SiF4 precursor. The phototransistor showed responsivity as high as 25 A/W at 250 nm in the Schottky emitter (SE) mode. The Schottky collector (SC) mode showed a responsivity of 17 A/W at 270 nm with a visible rejection (270 nm:400 nm)>103. The fastest response was seen in the SC-mode, with 10 ms turn-on and 47 ms turn-off, with a noise equivalent power of 2.3 fW at 20 Hz and a specific detectivity of 4.4 × 1013 Jones. The high responsivity is due to internal gain from bipolar action. We observe additional avalanche gain from the device periphery in the SC-mode by scanning photocurrent microscopy but not in the SE-mode. This high-performance visible-blind photodetector is attractive for advanced applications such as flame detection.

  14. Seeing laser scalpel: a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser system at 2.02 μm with double-clad fiber combined OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Manuel; Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Unterrainer, Karl

    2017-02-01

    We report on a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser at 2.02 μm. The pulsed laser generates average output power and pulse energy of beyond 90W and 900mJ in 400 μs pulses, respectively. This wavelength allows usage of standard fused silica fibers and optics, a price competitive solution for minimally-invasive endoscopic surgery. Recent developments in double-clad fiber combiners enable a rugged delivery system for the laser and the OCT ideal for a seeing laser scalpel. This gives the possibility to detect in-depth underlying tissue not yet ablated by the laser in a 2D or 3D fashion with micrometer resolution.

  15. Enhancing power density of strained In0.8Ga0.2As/AlAs resonant tunneling diode for terahertz radiation by optimizing emitter spacer layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ding; Su, Juan; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wenxian; Xiao, Meng; Tan, Wei; Lu, Shulong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the power density of resonant tunneling diode (RTD) can be enhanced by optimizing emitter spacer layer thickness, in addition to reducing barrier thickness. Compared to the widely used epitaxial structure with ultrathin emitter spacer layer thickness, appropriate increasing the thickness will increase the voltage drop in accumulation region, leading to larger voltage widths of negative differential resistance region. By measuring J-V characteristics, the specific contact resistivity, and the self-capacitance, we theoretically analyze the maximum output power of the fabricated RTDs. It shows that the optimized In0.8Ga0.2As/AlAs RTD with 20 nm emitter spacer thickness and 5 μm2 mesa area theoretically possesses the capability to reach 3.1 mW at 300 GHz and 1.8 mW at 600 GHz.

  16. Design and evaluation of laser diodes with distributed bragg reflectors and diffracted waves amplifiers bound to their association into a powerful coherent source; Conception et Evaluation de Diodes Laser a Reflecteurs de Bragg Distribues et d`amplificateurs a onde Diffractee et vue de leur Association en une Source Coherente de Puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagens, B.

    1995-09-29

    This work is concerned with the evaluation of AlGaAs/GaAs MOPAs (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) based on the association of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum well laser diode with an optical power amplifier. For any given structure and incident wave, the software SIMLAS allows to describe the behaviour of a travelling wave amplifier and to obtain its working characteristics including the output power, the amplified spontaneous emission and the quality of the output beam. This model takes into account the nonlinear interaction between the wave, the injected carriers distribution and the complex index of the structure. The application of the software to a flared non-guided amplified shows that the output power associated with a good beam quality is limited to a range less than one watt. Then a new design is proposed to greatly improve this performance. The modelling software of the DBR laser takes into account wave propagation in a second-order grating structure and the gain and absorption properties in the quantum well. Thus, the output optical power, efficiency, threshold current and model discrimination of the device can be predicted. The model has been used to establish the definition of design criteria in order to promote edge emission relative to surface emission. Finally the fabrication of each device is established. Special attention is paid to the design of the grating region. The fabrication process is validated by the prototypes performance. (author) refs.

  17. Electronic Characteristics of Rare Earth Doped GaN Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    233U and 235U) and plutonium (239Pu) must fall within the limitations of the detector. These isotopes primarily undergo alpha decay [3, 4], which might...2001). Portal, freight and vehicle monitor performance using scintillating glass fiber detectors for the detection of plutonium in the Illicit...Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry , 248, 699–705. [7] McHale, Stephen R. “The Effects of Rare Earth

  18. Fabrication and characteristics of Hg/n-bulk GaN schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkadi NABIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the electrical characteristics of bulk gallium nitride doped n have been investigated by the current–voltage (I–V and capacitance-voltage (C-V at 300 K temperature. Using the thermionic emission theory, the saturation current, IS (2.45×10-7 A, the ideality factor n (1.13, the barrier height ϕbn (0.65 and the serial resistance RS (670 are determined for our structure (Hg/n-GaN. It has also been calculated the barrier height from C–V experimental data. The determined value is higher (1.24 eV compared with the value obtained from I–V (0.65 eV characteristics, it was found the following electrical parameters, doping concentration (ND = 1.68×1016 cm-3, diffusion voltage (Vd = 1.11 V and density of interface states (Nss.

  19. HBT and Schottky diode table-based nonlinear models for microwave integrated circuits design

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Testera, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Accurate active device nonlinear models are key elements in the design of Microwave Integrated Circuits (MICs) with Circuit Aided Design (CAD) tools. There is a large diversity of nonlinear models proposals, each one with their own formulation and characteristics. The most popular ones are empirical, in the sense that model parameters are extracted from electrical measurements, and they could be classified in analytical/compact and black-box (both, table-based and behavioral). Analytical ...

  20. Schottky diode behaviour with excellent photoresponse in NiO/FTO heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, B.; Sarkar, K.; Bera, A.; Deb, K.; Thapa, R.

    2017-10-01

    Delocalization of charge carriers through formation of native defects in NiO, to achieve a good metal oxide hole transport layer was attemted in this work and thus a heterojunction of p-type NiO and n-type FTO have been prepared through sol-gel process on FTO coated glass substrate. The synthesis process was stimulated by imparting large number of OH- sites during nucleation of Ni(OH)2 on FTO, so that during oxidation through annealing Ni vacancies are introduced. The structural properties as observed from X-ray diffraction measurement indicate formation of well crystalline NiO nanoparticles. Uniform distribution of NiO nanoparticles has been observed in the images obtained from scanning electron microscope. The occurrence of p-type conductivity in the NiO film was stimulated through the formation of delocalized defect carriers originated from crystal defects like vacancies or interstitials in the lattice. Ni vacancy creates shallow levels with respect to the valance band maxima and they readily produce holes. Thus a native p-type conductivity of NiO originates from Ni vacancies. NiO was thus obtained as an auspicious hole transport medium, which creates an expedient heterojunction at the interface with FTO. Excellent rectifying behavior was observed in the electrical J-V plot obtained from the prepared heterojunction. The results are explained from the band energy diagram of the NiO/FTO heterojunction. Remarkable photoresponse has been observed in the reverse characteristics of the heterojunction caused by photon generated electron hole pairs.