Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth
The underrepresentation and underperformance of females in physics has been well documented and has long concerned policy-makers, educators, and the physics community. In this thesis, we focus on gender disparities in the first- and second-semester introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. Success in these courses is critical for future study and careers in physics (and other sciences). Using data gathered from roughly 10,000 undergraduate students, we identify and model gender differences in the introductory physics courses in three areas: student performance, retention, and psychological factors. We observe gender differences on several measures in the introductory physics courses: females are less likely to take a high school physics course than males and have lower standardized mathematics test scores; males outscore females on both pre- and post-course conceptual physics surveys and in-class exams; and males have more expert-like attitudes and beliefs about physics than females. These background differences of males and females account for 60% to 70% of the gender gap that we observe on a post-course survey of conceptual physics understanding. In analyzing underlying psychological factors of learning, we find that female students report lower self-confidence related to succeeding in the introductory courses (self-efficacy) and are less likely to report seeing themselves as a "physics person". Students' self-efficacy beliefs are significant predictors of their performance, even when measures of physics and mathematics background are controlled, and account for an additional 10% of the gender gap. Informed by results from these studies, we implemented and tested a psychological, self-affirmation intervention aimed at enhancing female students' performance in Physics 1. Self-affirmation reduced the gender gap in performance on both in-class exams and the post-course conceptual physics survey. Further, the benefit of the self
Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…
Green, Tom L.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore sustainability commitments' potential implications for the curriculum of introductory economics courses. Universities have signed the Talloires Declaration, committing themselves to promoting students' environmental literacy and ecological citizenship, thereby creating pressure to integrate…
For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...
As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…
Benegas, J.; Flores, J. Sirur
This longitudinal study reports the results of a replication of Tutorials in Introductory Physics in high schools of a Latin-American country. The main objective of this study was to examine the suitability of Tutorials for local science education reform. Conceptual learning of simple resistive electric circuits was determined by the application of the single-response multiple-choice test "Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric Circuits Concepts Test" (DIRECT) to high school classes taught with Tutorials and traditional instruction. The study included state and privately run schools of different socioeconomic profiles, without formal laboratory space and equipment, in classes of mixed-gender and female-only students, taught by novice and experienced instructors. Results systematically show that student learning is significantly higher in the Tutorials classes compared with traditional teaching for all of the studied conditions. The results also show that long-term learning (one year after instruction) in the Tutorials classes is highly satisfactory, very similar to the performance of the samples of college students used to develop the test DIRECT. On the contrary, students following traditional instruction returned one year after instruction to the poor performance (students attending seven universities in Spain and four Latin-American countries. Some replication and adaptation problems and difficulties of this experience are noted, as well as recommendations for successful use of Tutorials in high schools of similar educational systems.
Holschuh, Jodi Lynn
This study had two main purposes: to address measurement concerns about assessing students' epistemological beliefs and to explore the relationship between epistemological beliefs and deep and surface strategy use in an introductory biology classroom. The following research questions guided the study: (a) Are epistemological beliefs multidimensional? (b) Are the measures of epistemological beliefs correlated? (c) Are the measures of strategy use correlated? (d) Are epistemological beliefs correlated with deep and surface strategy use? (e) How much of the unique variance in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, grade point average (GPA), and course grade is accounted for by epistemological beliefs and strategy use? (f) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of mature epistemological beliefs? and (g) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of deep strategies? Participants (N = 518) were recruited from two sections of an introductory biology course. All participants completed five assessments including the Epistemological Questionnaire, the Epistemological Scenario, the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory, two strategy checklists, and an open-ended questionnaire. The factor analysis, which was used to answer the first question, indicated no clear loading of the hypothesized dimensions underlying epistemological beliefs as measured by the Epistemological Questionnaire. However, the factor analysis of the Epistemological Scenario indicated four factors underlying epistemological beliefs (i.e., certain knowledge, innate ability, quick learning, and simple knowledge). In addition, the correlation analyses, which were used to answer the second, third, and fourth questions, indicated a significant relationship between epistemological beliefs and strategy use. The multiple regression commonality analysis, which was used to answer the fifth
Loehr, John Francis
The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.
Full Text Available This longitudinal study reports the results of a replication of Tutorials in Introductory Physics in high schools of a Latin-American country. The main objective of this study was to examine the suitability of Tutorials for local science education reform. Conceptual learning of simple resistive electric circuits was determined by the application of the single-response multiple-choice test “Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric Circuits Concepts Test” (DIRECT to high school classes taught with Tutorials and traditional instruction. The study included state and privately run schools of different socioeconomic profiles, without formal laboratory space and equipment, in classes of mixed-gender and female-only students, taught by novice and experienced instructors. Results systematically show that student learning is significantly higher in the Tutorials classes compared with traditional teaching for all of the studied conditions. The results also show that long-term learning (one year after instruction in the Tutorials classes is highly satisfactory, very similar to the performance of the samples of college students used to develop the test DIRECT. On the contrary, students following traditional instruction returned one year after instruction to the poor performance (<20% shown before instruction, a result compatible with the very low level of conceptual knowledge of basic physics recently determined by a systematic study of first-year students attending seven universities in Spain and four Latin-American countries. Some replication and adaptation problems and difficulties of this experience are noted, as well as recommendations for successful use of Tutorials in high schools of similar educational systems.
Heid, Peter F.
Starting the school year in an introductory high school chemistry class can be a challenge. The topic and approach is new to the students; many of the early chapters in the texts can be a bit tedious; and for many students the activities are uninspiring. My goal in the first few weeks of school is to hook the students on chemistry by getting them…
Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.
Examines the extent to which a high school physics course prepares students for college physics success. In this study of 1,933 introductory college physics students, demographic and schooling factors account for a large fraction of the variation in college physics grades at 18 colleges and universities from around the nation. (Author/SAH)
This study explores how students’ grades in introductory college physics are influenced by the pedagogy used in their high school physics classes. The success of college science professors is often judged on the basis of the success of their students. This disregards the 18+ years of experiences with which students come into their physics classroom. This study aims to answer the question of what pedagogy best prepares students for introductory college physics. This quantitative study analyzes...
Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.
This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Jackson, Christopher; Campbell, Erin; Gilley, Jade; Ciarelli, Brock
The Lawrence King murder and other tragedies surrounding transgender youth have prompted a national discussion about the need for schools to be more supportive and inclusive of transgender students. In this multi-authored reflection, the authors describe a series of three introductory activities in an undergraduate educational studies course aimed…
The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.
Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…
Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara
Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…
Peter K. Smith
Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.
Hazari, Zahra Sana
The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family
For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the âﾜIntroduction to Accelerator Physicsâ course was held in Zakopane, Poland.Â This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America.
The incoming President of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) traditionally outlines the theme for their presidency during their inaugural address. This address is given by incoming President of the NASN, Beth Mattey, who discusses previous themes that supported the mission of NASN, but changed every two years with each new president.…
South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group…
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...
Loehr, John F.; Almarode, John T.; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.
In a climate where increasing numbers of students are encouraged to pursue post-secondary education, the level of preparedness students have for college-level coursework is not far from the minds of all educators, especially high school teachers. Specifically within the biological sciences, introductory biology classes often serve as the…
Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.
Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…
Collins, Traci P.
School counselors are a well-positioned resource to reach the significant number of children and adolescents with mental health problems. In this special school counseling issue of "The Professional Counselor," some articles focus on systemic, top-down advocacy efforts as the point of intervention for addressing child and adolescent…
Austin, Sheila M.; Reynolds, Glenda P.; Barnes, Shirley L.
School bullying remains a serious issue although it has been the subject of national news, government agencies, schools and community organizations since the school shootings at Columbine. School administrators must implement school policies concerning bullying and harassment. The authors describe how administrators can develop a school-wide…
Full Text Available South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group interviews with teachers based atfive schools, this paper shows dominant teaching views which contribute to homophobia, although this is not the only view. Informed by theoretical framings that seek to uncover heterosexual domination, the analysis shows three interrelated discursive constructions through which homophobia is both produced and resisted by teachers. Silencing homosexuality, denying its existence in the curriculum, and religious prohibitions were found to be dominant. It must be understood however that teachers are working in a context without any intervention and support. Their views also show potentialfor working against the climate of homophobia. Recommendations for such work are indicated in the conclusion of the paper.
Crockett, G. V.
Describes course format, materials development, and evaluation of an introductory economics course which stressed problem solving techniques and conceptual skills instead of rote memorization of factual content. For journal availability, see SO 506 029. (AV)
Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona
While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.
This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering
Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Cassel, Christine K
Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students. First, medical schools should offer more opportunities and dedicated time for creative work. Engaging with diverse challenges promotes intellectual curiosity and can help students maintain perspective. Second, schools should provide more explicit training in resiliency and the management of stressful situations. Many business programs include formal training in how to cope with conflict and how to make high-stakes decisions whereas medical students are typically expected to learn those skills on the job. Finally, medical schools should provide better guidance on practical career considerations like income, lifestyle, and financial skills. Whether in medicine or business, students benefit from open discussions about their personal and professional goals. Medical schools must ensure students have an outlet for those conversations.
Reinbergs, Erik J.; Fefer, Sarah A.
Hundreds of thousands of children are confronted with traumatic experiences each year in the United States. As trauma-informed care begins to take hold in schools, school mental health providers (e.g., school psychologists, counselors, and social workers) desire concrete service-delivery options for students affected by trauma. This article…
Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…
Persistently low-achieving public schools around the country have received $5.8 billion from the federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) program, in addition to districts and state funds, and other supplementary federal funds. Despite all of these sources of funding, most of the schools receiving them have failed to make a dramatic difference in…
Qian, Yizhou; Lehman, James D.
The demand for computing professionals in the workplace has led to increased attention to computer science education, and introductory computer science courses have been introduced at different levels of education. This study investigated the relationship between gender, academic performance in non-programming subjects, and programming learning…
Spengler, John O.; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Carroll, Michael S.
The shared use of school recreational facilities holds the potential to offer activity opportunities for many people, especially those in low-income, minority, and under-resourced communities. School facilities are usually easily accessible and offer safe, free or low cost, and convenient recreation and sport opportunities. However, a number of…
Olsen, Tore Vincents
This article evaluates a decentralized Danish model for dealing with cultural and religious diversity at individual schools. This evaluation is based upon normative theories of toleration, recognition and domination and examines whether the model implies compromise with the (liberal) educational...... values stipulated in the national legislation. The model, reconstructed from government publications, is based on reaching accommodation through dialogue between school staff and parents/students, with the pragmatic aim of facilitating the participation of students in everyday school activities....... The model is noteworthy because it appears to break with the widespread ‘retreat from multiculturalism’ predicated on the defence of liberal values, and because properly dealing with diversity at schools is important for ensuring students’ well-being and academic success....
Ansary, Nadia S.; Elias, Maurice J.; Greene, Michael B.; Green, Stuart
The authors quantify and unpack the prevalence and effects of bullying on children and adolescents before prescribing provisos for schools to consider when planning preventive and responsive approaches to bullying.
Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M
Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue.
Fredrick, L. Denise
The focus of this study was to investigate college students' perception of high school and college introductory science learning experiences related to persistence in science as a major area of study in college. The study included students' perceptions of the following areas of science education: (1) teacher interpersonal relationship with students, (2) teacher personality styles, (3) teacher knowledge of the content, (4) instructional methods, and (5) science course content. A survey research design was employed in the investigative study to collect and analyze data. One hundred ninety two students participated in the research study. A survey instrument entitled Science Education Perception Survey was used to collect data. The researcher sought to reject or support three null hypotheses as related to participants' perceptions of high school and college introductory science education experiences. Using binomial regression analysis, this study analyzed differences between students persisting in science and students not persisting in science as a major. The quantitative research indicated that significant differences exist between persistence in science as a major and high school science teacher traits and college introductory science instructional methods. Although these variables were found to be significant predictors, the percent variance was low and should be considered closely before concluded these as strong predictors of persistence. Major findings of the qualitative component indicated that students perceived that: (a) interest in high school science course content and high school science teacher personality and interpersonal relationships had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (b) interest in college introductory science course content had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (c) students recalled laboratory activities and overall good teaching as most meaningful to their high school science
Sielke, Catherine C.
Between 1994 and 1998, capital outlay funding bills for school facilities, tax bases, and taxation bills experienced the greatest growth in state legislative activity. This article discusses the reasons for increased funding activity, various state-aid mechanisms to fund capital outlay, and future capital funding directions. (MLH)
Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas
The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…
Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.
School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.
Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and
Francisco Savall Alemany
Full Text Available The effectiveness of the problem based teaching on the science learning has been highlighted by the didactic research. This teaching model is characterized by organizing the units around problems and by proposing a research plan to find a solution which requires concepts and models to be introduced in a functional way, as possible solutions to the problem. In this article we present a problem based unit for teaching quantum physics in introductory physics courses and we analyze in detail the teaching strategy that we follow to build a model to explain the emission and absorption of radiation.
Dovemark, Marianne; Arreman, Inger Erixon
Sweden has, like most countries, transformed its educational system with the aim of increasing the economic productivity of its citizens. Nowadays, it has one of the world's most market-oriented school systems, including few hindrances for new free-school actors. Swedish students have thus become commodities in a competitive school market. The aim…
Kiefer, Friedemann; Schulte-Merker, Stefan
This introductory section briefly highlights the subsequent chapters in the context of recent findings and open questions in lymphatic vessel biology. It aims to provide a quick overview and orientation in the contents of this monograph collection.
Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex
In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…
Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2012
On 31 July 2012 the Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth, Peter Garrett convened the "National Forum: How schools and parents can work together to address bullying" at Parliament House. The Forum brought together principals, parents groups, young people, as well as experts in education, child welfare, psychology and…
Chenneville, Tiffany; St. John Walsh, Audra
This paper describes a "mindful rational living" approach, which incorporates mindfulness techniques with rational emotive behavioral therapy strategies for addressing HIV in the school setting. The utility of this approach for attending to the physical, mental, and psychosocial aspects of school-based HIV prevention and treatment will…
Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.
The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.
DePaul, Jillian; Walsh, Mary E.; Dam, Uma C.
Issues of sexual orientation are relevant to multiple levels of the school community, including students, school professionals, and schools as institutions. School counselors, with their developmental training, systems perspective, and commitment to diversity, are uniquely positioned to be leaders in efforts not only to provide support for…
Sílvia Ester Orr ú
The present article discusses the dangers of overvaluing diagnosis as an iatrogenic factor thatleads to school failure of children diagnosed as autistic. Our main goals are: 1) to discussdiagnosis as iatrogenesis that leads to the materialization of autistic symptoms in the child 2)to reflect on the danger of overvaluing the diagnosis which results in deficit and disease,overshadowing the individual and reifying him as such in society; and 3) to highlight theconsequences of the reification of...
Bahri, Ujjal Singh; Walia, Paramjit Singh
This introductory text in Punjabi (also spelled Panjabi) is intended primarily for those whose mother tongue is not Punjabi but are native speakers of other Indian languages. Some familiarity with the Punjabi cultural items is presupposed. The non-Indian may, however, also be able to use this text with profit since the lessons are graded. The…
Mead, C.; Horodyskyj, L.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.
In this study, we explore how data provided by an online learning environment can provide fine-grained behavioral context for the performance gender gap commonly observed in introductory college science courses. Previous studies reported that women earn lower grades than men in such courses, often ascribed to reduced engagement and resilience driven by sociocultural causes, such as stereotype threat. This may be exacerbated in courses graded primarily based on high-stakes exams. Here, we use student data (n = 1121) from Habitable Worlds, an online laboratory science course, to identify behavioral differences between men and women. In Habitable Worlds, students earn points from 30 "trainings," which are scored on completion, and 30 "applications," which are scored on correctness. The lack of high-stakes cumulative exams represents a valuable contrast with typical science courses in which gender gaps have been reported. Our data indicate that a gender gap exists even for these low-stakes assessments. Results of a generalized linear model show that course success among women is much more strongly predicted by training scores than by application scores, while those factors have roughly equal predictive value among men. Predicted success among women is also modulated by the total number of attempts made on questions throughout the course, where more attempts implies lower success (holding other factors constant). This relationship is non-significant for men. Our interpretation of these model results is that obstacles such as stereotype threat represent a tax for women on effort and engagement, such that equivalent effort yields lesser success than for men. Thus, the women who do succeed differ sharply from lower performing women on indicators of effort. Future work should build on this result both as an indicator of conditions under which women are more likely to succeed and as a way to more quickly identify students who may struggle.
Rubia-Mar Nunes Pinto
Full Text Available The text goal is to approach, as discourse of modernity in Goiás state, the conformation of the architectural and urban materiality of schools of the capital, Goiânia, at the moment the city was planned, built and occupied. We used cartographic, textual, iconographic and oral sources to analyze the urban fabric of the capital city and to find space, address and architecture of the schools. The theoretical dialogue is established with historians of the brazilian education that deal with relations between the urban and schools and the authors engaged in demonstrate how the discourse constitutes meanings about the city. The findings point to the role of schools in the project of modernity that was under way in Goiás and to the relevance of school materiality in the making of the urban culture of Goiânia.
Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa J.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide insight to the multiple ways that school leaders resist, avoid, or block LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, queer, and questioning) professional development for their staff and, thus, resist the conversations around school responsibility to these students and families. Research…
Stauffer, Sarah D.; Mason, Erin C. M.
Purpose: Given the preponderance of education reform since the No Child Left Behind Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2001), reform efforts have shaped the nature of the work and culture in schools. The emphasis on standardized testing to determine schools' status and student performance, among other factors, has generated stress, particularly…
This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…
Chan, Tak C.
Standard 4 of the Educational Leadership Constituency Council (ELCC) Standards addresses school diversity issues and specifies requirements that all educational leadership programs need to meet. In response, all educational leadership programs in Georgia referenced ELCC Standards and have worked to foster diversity as a priority in their programs.…
Gunam D. Singh
Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.
Mayeza, Emmanuel; Bhana, Deevia
This paper explores how teachers in a poor township primary school in South Africa construct meaning regarding gender violence among children, and how they talk about addressing that violence. The paper argues that major influences on the endemic violence include complex societal structures that are inscribed with cultures of violent…
Rosvall, Per-Åke; Nilsson, Stefan
There has been an increase of reports describing mental health problems in adolescents, especially girls. School nurses play an important role in supporting young people with health problems. Few studies have considered how the nurses' gender norms may influence their discussions. To investigate this issue, semi-structured interviews focusing on school nurses' work with students who have mental health problems were conducted. Transcripts of interviews with Swedish school nurses (n = 15) from the Help overcoming pain early project (HOPE) were analysed using theories on gender as a theoretical framework and then organised into themes related to the school nurses' provision of contact and intervention. The interviewees were all women, aged between 42-63 years, who had worked as nurses for 13-45 years, and as school nurses for 2-28 years. Five worked in upper secondary schools (for students aged 16-19) and 10 in secondary schools (for students aged 12-16). The results show that school nurses more commonly associated mental health problems with girls. When the school nurses discussed students that were difficult to reach, boys in particular were mentioned. However, very few nurses mentioned specific intervention to address students' mental health problems, and all of the mentioned interventions were focused on girls. Some of the school nurses reported that it was more difficult to initiate a health dialogue with boys, yet none of the nurses had organized interventions for the boys. We conclude that generalisations can sometimes be analytically helpful, facilitating, for instance, the identification of problems in school nurses' work methods and interventions. However, the most important conclusion from our research, which applied a design that is not commonly used, is that more varied approaches, as well as a greater awareness of potential gender stereotype pitfalls, are necessary to meet the needs of diverse student groups.
Promotoras, Hispanic community health workers, are frequently employed to promote health behavioral change with culturally bound Hispanic lifestyle behaviors. Peer health mentors have been used in schools to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviors among students. This study investi...
Force, Christina Marie
Cyberbullying affects almost half of the teenagers in America (National Crime Prevention Council [NCPC], 2010). The effects of cyberbullying can be detrimental to teens and may include withdrawal from school activities, illness, depression, eating disorders, or suicidal ideations (Dehue, Bolman, & Vollink, 2008; Mason, 2008). In order to…
Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney
To aid secondary school and college level economics teachers as they select textbooks for introductory economics courses, this article recounts how teachers can use the Flesch Reading Ease Test to measure readability. Data are presented on application of the Flesch Reading Ease Test to 15 introductory economics textbooks. (Author/DB)
Tate, Bettina Polite
This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…
Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Burford, James
To evaluate the potential of a 60-minute sexuality diversity workshop to address bullying in secondary schools. Students completed pre- and post-workshop questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise results with pre- to immediate post-workshop changes compared using t-tests. Thematic analysis was used to analyse open-ended questionnaire responses. We had 229 students (mean age 13.7 years) attending 10 workshops participate in the study. Three-quarters of students thought the workshop would reduce bullying in schools, and over 95% of the participants thought that other secondary schools should offer the workshop. There was a significant increase in valuing (p bullying/mocking' of sexuality-diverse students; however, many individual students reported a desire to be supportive of their sexuality-diverse peers. Sexuality-based bullying is commonplace in secondary schools. This form of bullying is associated with depression and suicide attempts. Reducing sexuality-based bullying is very likely to have a positive impact on the mental health of young people. Brief workshops, as a part of a wider suite of interventions, have some potential to create safer school environments. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey
Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…
Provides overview of Assessing IAQ by downloading EPA's School Assessment Mobile App. “One-stop shop” for accessing guidance from EPA’s IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit with proven strategies for specifically addressing important IAQ issues.
Santiago, Marisol Mercado
Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan
Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe. Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.
Sarmiento, Kelly; Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne
In 2013, the National Academy of Sciences emphasized the need to develop, implement, and evaluate effective large-scale educational strategies to improve the culture of concussion in youth and high school sports. In support of this recommendation, in this article we summarize research on factors that contribute to the culture of concussion. We conducted the literature search using 7 electronic databases. We used a scoping review method to identify studies that addressed knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, use of educational resources, and interventions related to concussion among young athletes, coaches, and parents. Of the 33 articles identified, most focused on concussion education (N = 15), followed by knowledge (N = 13), behaviors (N = 13), and attitudes (N = 5). Three studies addressed multiple study populations. The rapid spread of concussion education and awareness efforts has outpaced research on effective strategies to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that contribute to the culture of concussion. Further research is critical to inform the development and implementation of large-scale educational efforts. This research should incorporate rigorous study designs; be inclusive of diverse ages, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnic groups; and examine opportunities to improve behavioral outcomes around concussion prevention, reporting, and management. © 2017, American School Health Association.
The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...
Full Text Available Introductory Comments The sixth issue (not just in the Thematic Section is devoted to the borders of civilization in our memory, in culture, in art, in literature, in the arrangement of political objectives. Both their demarcation and their crossing is a matter of the objectives we can and want to set ourselves in the context of the order that exists and into which we try to fit, transforming it or levelling. The value of this survey of “images of borders” is its setting in such varied material, owing to which the theoretical speculations gain a representative illustration and, at the same time, a guarantee of being rooted, even if it is only a “contact zone”. Wprowadzenie Szósty numer (nie tylko sekcja tematyczna jest poświęcony kwestii granic cywilizacji w naszej pamięci, kulturze, sztuce, literaturze, w definiowaniu celów politycznych. Zarówno ich wyznaczanie, jak i przekraczanie, jest kwestią celów, jakie możemy i chcemy postawić sobie w kontekście istniejącego ładu, w który staramy się wpisać, przekształcając go lub dostosowując się do niego. Wartością niniejszego przeglądu "obrazów granic" jest przedstawienie ich poprzez tak zróżnicowany materiał, dzięki czemu rozważania teoretyczne zyskują reprezentatywną ilustrację, a zarazem gwarancję zakorzenienia, nawet jeśli będzie to tylko "sfera kontaktu".
Havlik, Stacey A.; Rowley, Patrick; Puckett, Jessica; Wilson, George; Neasen, Erin
This qualitative study explored the experiences of 23 school counselors in addressing the needs of students experiencing homelessness. Phenomenological analysis revealed two overarching themes: (a) school counselors as the first line of support and (b) the desire to help while feeling helpless. Findings suggest that participants feel underprepared…
Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.
This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…
Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.
Ferraro, John R
Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.
Jones, Joseph R.
This article discusses the role multicultural education can play in addressing homophobia in K-12 schools. The author explores the lack of multiculturalism courses in undergraduate teacher education programs. To address the lack of multiculturalism courses, three instructional activities are offered that faculty in teacher education programs can…
Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.
A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…
Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…
This paper is an introduction to the Tau Charm Factory workshop. To establish a firm scientific basis for future Tau Charm Factory plans one has to address the following two questions: (1) To what extent can and will work at other machines cover work that a Tau Charm Factory could do? Conversely (2) What are the required minimum parameters of a Tau Charm Factory which can do unique physics five years hence and beyond? This workshop has been organized to generate some preliminary answers in response to these two questions. Thus this Workshop is neither simply a scientific Workshop on the one hand or a planning session for specific machines on the other; rather it is something in between. During the workshop, specific plans or proposals for a Tau Charm Factory will be presented, but no attempt will be made to arrive at a consensus in response to such plans
Isasi, Carmen R; Soroudi, Nafisseh; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
This study evaluated the feasibility of using the youth Weight, Activity, Variety, and Excess (WAVE) screener in a classroom setting for assessing student weight control intentions and the extent to which they used the WAVE strategies to control their weight. The Youth WAVE Screener was administered to fifth-grade students in an inner-city school located in the Bronx, New York. The study was conducted in part to increase student awareness of snack foods and sugary beverages in relation to weight. Of the 169 students who completed the survey, 45.5% (n = 77) were trying to lose weight. Students who were trying to lose weight were more likely to have low-fat dairy products, less likely to have sugary beverages, and less likely to eat junk foods than those who were not trying to lose weight. Students who reported exercising 3 times weekly were more likely to report healthier dietary patterns and less sedentary behaviors than were students who exercise less often. Feedback and dialogue with fifth graders addressed the relationship between TV viewing and eating behavior, advertisement, availability, and preferences of fruits and vegetables. The Youth WAVE Screener can be used to quickly identify children who are concerned about their weight as well as those with dietary and physical activity patterns that may increase the risk of obesity. Diabetes educators can use this screener to start a dialogue with children about their weight-related behaviors.
Full Text Available Background: Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng.Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding.Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.
Mosome, Connie; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris
Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was 'What are the adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?' Data were analysed by means of open coding. The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.
searches, advertising , real estate, travel, navigation, insurance, and government requirements. 66...School lockdown planning for educators • Active Shooter issues • Command Post Operations • School alerts & colour coding • Sheltering Areas
Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such, this study surveyed a sample of 1691 Australian school staff by utilizing Generation Next seminars which are attended by professionals working with young people. The self-completed survey identified that, despite elevated contact with students relative to other school staff, teachers reported the least role importance and legitimacy of all school staff. Further, teachers reported the lowest level of staff drug education training, which was an important predictor of an increased feeling of role importance and legitimacy among school staff.
Brown, Timothy; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Bore, Samuel; Simpson, Chris
School counselors frequently face ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas often involve relationships with principals, parents, and other stakeholders. School counselors may confront complex ethical issues involving confidentiality, student safety, parental rights,and social media. The American School Counselor Association recommends following an ethical…
Jackson, Shelley A.; Holt, Mary Louise; Nelson, Kaye W.
This study examined the attributions made by school counselors about responsibility for the causes of and solutions to students' problems. A total of 433 school counselors completed an instrument measuring attributions of responsibility and controllability of student problems. The hypothesis was supported that school counselors' attribution styles…
Huerta, Luis A.; Zuckerman, Andrew
This article presents a conceptual framework derived from institutional theory in sociology that offers two competing policy contexts in which charter schools operate--a bureaucratic frame versus a decentralized frame. An analysis of evolving charter school types based on three underlying theories of action is considered. As charter school leaders…
Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian
New US Department of Agriculture regulations have altered what foods schools offer for lunch, but schools cannot require students to eat specific foods. An intervention using the behavioral science principle known as "libertarian paternalism" led junior-senior high school students to eat more fruits and vegetables by making these foods more convenient, attractive, and normative. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Orobko, Angela Kowitz
Bullying incidents in schools are getting more attention since the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999 in Littleton, Colorado. Many national and state policies have been enacted since that fateful day. In Virginia, legislation passed by the 1999 General Assembly (section 22.1-208.01) required local school boards to establish a…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding. Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.
Harlow, Jason J.?B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew
We have studied the correlation of student performance in a large first year university physics course with their reasons for taking the course and whether or not the student took a senior-level high school physics course. Performance was measured both by the Force Concept Inventory and by the grade on the final examination. Students who took the…
Tai, Robert H.
Current science educational practice is coming under heavy criticism based on the dismaying results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1998, the latest in a series of large scale surveys; and from research showing the appallingly low representation of females in science-related fields. These critical evaluations serve to draw attention to science literacy in general and lack of persistence among females in particular, two issues that relate closely to the "preparation for future study" goal held by many high school science teachers. In other words, these teachers often seek to promote future success and to prevent future failure in their students' academic careers. This thesis studies the connection between the teaching practices recommended by reformers and researchers for high school teachers, and their students' subsequent college physics performance. The teaching practices studied were: laboratory experiences, class discussion experiences, content coverage, and reliance on textbooks. This study analyzed a survey of 1500 students from 16 different lecture-format college physics courses at 14 different universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study accounted for course-level variables (Calculus-based/Non-calculus course type, professor's gender, and university selectivity). This study controlled for the student's parents education, high school science/mathematics achievement, high school calculus background, and racial background. In addition, the interactions between gender and both pedagogical/curricular and course-level variables were analyzed. The results indicated that teaching fewer topics in greater depth in high school physics appeared to be helpful to college physics students. An interaction between college course type and content coverage showed that students in Calculus-based physics reaped even greater benefits from a depth-oriented curriculum. Also students with fewer labs per month in high school physics
Kaufman, Julia H.; Seelam, Rachana; Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Osilla, Karen Chan; Stein, Bradley D.
Reports results of a survey of K–12 principals to take inventory of student mental health and wellness needs and the types of programs schools are most often implementing to help students in California's public schools.
Jason J. B. Harlow; David M. Harrison; Andrew Meyertholen
We have studied the correlation of student performance in a large first year university physics course with their reasons for taking the course and whether or not the student took a senior-level high school physics course. Performance was measured both by the Force Concept Inventory and by the grade on the final examination. Students who took the course primarily for their own interest outperformed students who took the course primarily because it was required, both on the Force Concept Inven...
Bowler, D. R.; Alfe, D.
of matter under extreme conditions, as in the Earth's core. A further powerful development has been his input to linear-scaling quantum techniques for the properties of very large complex systems. In recent years, his attention has shifted towards increasing accuracy, touching areas such as quantum Monte Carlo and hierarchical quantum chemical techniques. In this journal issue, we have papers which both reflect topics from the workshop and address a number of areas which are directly in Mike's interests or which have been influenced by his work or assistance. There are papers addressing accuracy in quantum simulations [1-5], methods for applying quantum techniques to large systems [6, 7] and applications of quantum simulations to important problems [8-10]. We also have a viewpoint on magnetism in oxides and carbon , prompted by Mike's innovative work on oxides. References  Nolan S J, Bygrave P J, Allan N L and Manby F R 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074201  Badinski A, Haynes P D, Trail J R and Needs R J 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074202  Klimeš J, Bowler D R and Michaelides A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074203  Baroni S, Gebauer R, Malcιoğlu O B, Saad Y, Umari P and Xian J 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074204  Toton D, Lorenz C D, Rompotis N, Martsinovich N and Kantorovich L 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074205  Fujiwara T, Hoshi T, Yamamoto S, Sogabe T and Zhang S-L 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074206  Bowler D R and Miyazari T 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074207  Er S, van Setten M J, de Wijs G A and Brocks G 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074208  Pan D, Liu L-M, Tribello G A, Slater B, Michaelides A and Wang E 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074209  Choudhury R, Gattinoni C, Makov G and De Vita A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074210  Stoneham M 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074211
Demanchick, Stephen P.; Rangan, Malathi; Douthit, Kathryn
The range of management strategies for school counselors dealing with conduct disorder in elementary school children can be expanded through an integration of several of the principles of the ASCA National Model[R]. This paper discusses ways the counselor can use the model to assist struggling children, teachers, administrators, and families as…
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010
One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…
Belser, Christopher T.; Morris, Jessica A.; Hasselbeck, Jennifer M.
The need for school-based interventions targeting the childhood obesity epidemic has been well documented. The risk factors associated with childhood obesity are physical, mental, psychosocial, academic, and economic. With training in developing comprehensive programs and interventions, professional school counselors are positioned to assist…
Schroeder, Krista; Malone, Susan Kohl; McCabe, Ellen; Lipman, Terri
Social determinants of health (SDOH), the conditions in which children are born, grow, live, work or attend school, and age, impact child health and contribute to health disparities. School nurses must consider these factors as part of their clinical practice because they significantly and directly influence child well-being. We provide clinical…
Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom
Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.
Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Magner, Elizabeth
The World Health Organization estimates that approximately one in five young people under the age of 18 experiences some form of developmental, emotional or behavioural problem, and one in eight experiences a mental disorder. Because research shows that half of adult mental disorders begin before the age of 14 and that early intervention can prevent and reduce more serious consequences later in life, it is critical to expand the role of mental health professionals with schools worldwide. Schools have the potential to affect the mental health of millions of young people, as well as those who work in schools. Research indicates that programmes promoting mental health are among the most effective of health promoting school efforts. This paper discusses the health promoting schools framework, reviews effective strategies for promoting mental health in schools, and provides examples from Zhejiang Province, China. This article also discusses the key roles that mental health professionals can play in promoting mental health through schools. As advocates, policy makers, researchers and teachers, mental health professionals can bridge the sectors of education, mental health and public health. Developing common frameworks and interdisciplinary training will create a foundation of shared understanding to achieve this goal.
Jones, Joseph R.
Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…
Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.
This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…
While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.
Bergman, Jacqueline J.; Linnell, Jessica D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Ginsburg, David C.; Brian, Kelley M.; Carter, Rosemary; Donohue, Susan; Klisch, Shannon; Lawry-Hall, Suzanne; Pressman, Jona; Soule, Katherine; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
We conducted a process evaluation of the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a multicomponent school-based nutrition program, when implemented in partnership with University of California (UC) CalFresh and UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE). There were positive impacts on participating students, but results varied across counties, possibly due to…
Winkel, S.; Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K.; Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A.
The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines
Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya
Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…
Sarmiento, Kelly; Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne
Background: In 2013, the National Academy of Sciences emphasized the need to develop, implement, and evaluate effective large-scale educational strategies to improve the culture of concussion in youth and high school sports. In support of this recommendation, in this article we summarize research on factors that contribute to the culture of…
This study investigated the identification and subsequent development or modification of students´ ideas about scientific phenomena by teaching by concept cartoons© method. We found out ideas of students of the fourth grade of primary school by conceptual tasks which were parts of quasi-experiment (pretest and posttest design). For triangulation…
Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III
This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…
Winkel, S. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)
The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.
Falit, Benjamin P; Halperin, Edward C; Loeffler, Jay S
In 2008, the authors published a review that highlighted an emerging trend for medical schools to change their names to those of wealthy donors. Since 2008, the names of ten benefactors have been added to the medical schools receiving their gifts. Twenty-three of the 141 U.S. medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education are currently named after donors. Large donations have the potential to positively affect all stakeholders by improving the resources that are available for research, teaching, and clinical care, but the rapid increase in the naming of medical schools after wealthy benefactors raises important concerns for those same stakeholders. In this perspective, the authors explore such concerns and identify mitigating strategies that institutions facing these issues in the future can use to ensure that the benefit associated with a gift outweighs any adverse impact. The authors argue for a strong presumption of impropriety when a donor possesses a conflict of interest with the potential to affect clinicians' judgment. They go on to assess how donors' control of funds may have an impact on institutional mission and research agenda, and analyze the right of an organization to remove a benefactor's name for alleged wrongdoing. The perspective considers how renaming may negatively affect brand recognition and the associated impact on students, residents, faculty, and alumni. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of taxpayer-funded organizations and the concern that educational renaming will lead to a slippery slope in which other public goods are effectively purchased by wealthy donors.
Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Gustafson, Jenny R.
The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…
Belland, Brian R.; Gu, Jiangyue; Kim, Nam Ju; Turner, David J.
Science educators increasingly call for students to address authentic scientific problems in science class. One form of authentic science problem--socioscientific issue--requires that students engage in complex reasoning by considering both scientific and social implications of problems. Computer-based scaffolding can support this process by…
Murphy, William P; Quesal, Robert W
This article outlines basic principles for helping school-age children who stutter to deal with bullying. Bullying may affect children's school performance and feelings of self-worth and lead to depression and feelings of helplessness and loneliness. Bullying can also exacerbate stuttering behavior, increase negative emotions and negative thoughts, and reduce therapy progress. A variety of techniques can be implemented as part of the overall treatment process to help children deal with bullying. These techniques can improve children's overall success in treatment by helping them develop socially appropriate responses to bullying, reduce or prevent negative emotion that may result from stuttering, and feel more comfortable in applying speech management skills learned in treatment.
Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice
This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…
Porter, Mahlone E.; Stodden, Robert A.
Curriculum-based vocational assessment procedures as implemented in the United States Department of Defense Dependents Schools in Germany are assessing a match of handicapped students' interests and strengths in terms of career and vocational instructional options. The model is described, with emphasis on project planning and design and…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bryn Austin, S.; Suh, Young; Wakefield, Dorothy B.
Background: Weight-related bullying is prevalent among youth and associated with adverse health consequences, including increased risk for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, which are risk factors for eating disorders. Although concerns about these problems have stimulated calls for broader intervention efforts in schools,…
Full Text Available HPV immunisation of adolescent girls is expected to have a significant impact in the reduction of cervical cancer. UK The HPV immunisation programme is primarily delivered by school nurses. We examine the role of school nurses in delivering the HPV immunisation programme and their impact on minimising health inequalities in vaccine uptake.A rapid evidence assessment (REA and semi-structured interviews with health professionals were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. 80 health professionals from across the UK are interviewed, primarily school nurses and HPV immunisation programme coordinators. The REA identified 2,795 articles and after analysis and hand searches, 34 relevant articles were identified and analysed. Interviews revealed that health inequalities in HPV vaccination uptake were mainly related to income and other social factors in contrast to published research which emphasises potential inequalities related to ethnicity and/or religion. Most school nurses interviewed understood local health inequalities and made particular efforts to target girls who did not attend or missed doses. Interviews also revealed maintaining accurate and consistent records influenced both school nurses' understanding and efforts to target inequalities in HPV vaccination uptake.Despite high uptake in the UK, some girls remain at risk of not being vaccinated with all three doses. School nurses played a key role in reducing health inequalities in the delivery of the HPV programme. Other studies identified religious beliefs and ethnicity as potentially influencing HPV vaccination uptake but interviews for this research found this appeared not to have occurred. Instead school nurses stated girls who were more likely to be missed were those not in education. Improving understanding of the delivery processes of immunisation programmes and this impact on health inequalities can help to inform solutions to increase uptake and address health inequalities
Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology courses is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. I will present material developed to teach electrostatic screening in solutions and the function of nerve cells where entropic effects act to counterbalance electrostatic attraction. These ideas are taught in an introductory, calculus-based physics course to biomedical engineers using SCALEUP pedagogy. Results of student mastering of complex problems that cross disciplinary boundaries between biology and physics, as well as the challenges that they face in learning this material will be presented.
Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Moore, Justin B; Webster, Collin
To evaluate a community partnership between after-school programs (ASPs) and grocery stores to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit or vegetable (FV) daily while eliminating sugar-based foods and beverages. A single-group, pretest with multiple posttest design (spring, 2011-2013) in 4 large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/d was used, along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. At baseline, FV, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts were served 0.1 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 2.0, and 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk. By spring, 2013, FV increased to 5.0 ± 0.0 d/wk, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. A total of 84% of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000-$3,000 savings over a standard 180-day school year. This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The time lag between the progresses in the area of molecular biology reached in the last years and the schools science curricula can be reduced through initiatives of the university regarding the dissemina- tion of sciences. Inside of this context, one of the major objectives of the CBME has been the scientific education and dissemination on Molecular Biosciences. Among the strategies organized to promote the dissemination of this area, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME developed a set of playful activities for students from public and private elementary schools (7th and 8th grades. As a first step science teachers were interviewed in order to indicate which topics related to molecular bio- sciences they usually include in their curricula planning. The approach considered in the elaboration of the set of activities was the construction of knowledge of the concepts related to topics as cell types, their structures and organelles, and the importance of the nucleus and DNA. The set was offered to170 students. Students from private schools were evaluated by their performance through the classes, which were registered by the notes of the instructors. Students from public schools were evaluated through questionnaires containing basic concepts on the theme applied before (pre-test and after (post-test the set of activities in order to measure, respectively, the previous and acquired knowledge. The programming accomplished at the public school was partially modified due to the absence of a laboratory, microscopes and a room of computers, without, however, to alter the objectives and content of the activities. The comparative analysis of the pre- and post-tests revealed that, in this latter, there was an increase of the average percentage of correct answers and an
Stacy, Sara T; Cartwright, Macey; Arwood, Zjanya; Canfield, James P; Kloos, Heidi
Students rarely practice math outside of school requirements, which we refer to as the "math-practice gap". This gap might be the reason why students struggle with math, making it urgent to develop means by which to address it. In the current paper, we propose that math apps offer a viable solution to the math-practice gap: Online apps can provide access to a large number of problems, tied to immediate feedback, and delivered in an engaging way. To substantiate this conversation, we looked at whether tablets are sufficiently engaging to motivate children's informal math practice. Our approach was to partner with education agencies via a community-based participatory research design. The three participating education agencies serve elementary-school students from low-SES communities, allowing us to look at tablet use by children who are unlikely to have extensive access to online math enrichment programs. At the same time, the agencies differed in several structural details, including whether our intervention took place during school time, after school, or during the summer. This allowed us to shed light on tablet feasibility under different organizational constraints. Our findings show that tablet-based math practice is engaging for young children, independent of the setting, the student's age, or the math concept that was tackled. At the same time, we found that student engagement was a function of the presence of caring adults to facilitate their online math practice.
C.C.P. da Silva
Full Text Available Studies demonstrate that a good strategy in education is the use of games in the school atmosphere, intensifying the teaching and learning process. The game as educational tool motivates the students in an emotional, motor, social and cognitive way, helping them to create mental outlines, to develop the reasoning and in the construction of the knowledge. In this context, the dissemination team of the Centre for Structural Molecular Biotechnology (CBME, in partnership with the Centre for Scientific and Cultural Dissemination (CDCC-USP, developed a board game entitled Synthesizing Proteins, in order to help the learning and the comprehension of the transcription and translation processes, and of the synthesis of proteins, using examples of human proteins. The game was applied and evaluated in a systematic way, in order to validate it as an educational tool of teaching-learning as well as to correctly disseminate it. The CBME dissemination team planned activities like workshops, where the game was applied for high school students of public and private schools of São Carlos city (SP. As evaluation tool a questionnaire was elaborated containing questions regarding the concepts involved in the proteins synthesis process. This questionnaire was applied before (pre-test and two weeks after the end of the activity (post-test, in order to check the previous and the acquired knowledge of the students after the manipulation of the educational material. Analyzing the results of these pre- and post-tests, it was observed that, although most of the students has presented difficulties regarding the nomenclature and the details of the biochemical processes, these students were able to understand satisfactorily the following aspects: DNA is located in the nucleus of animal cells; the proteins are constituted of amino acids; the dynamics of the molecules of DNA, RNA and proteins during the interactions
DiBiase, D.; Baker, T.
According to the National Research Council (2006), geographic information systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for expanding students' abilities to think spatially, a critical skill for future STEM professionals. However, educators in mainstream subjects in U.S. education have struggled for decades to use GIS effectively in classrooms. GeoInquiries are no cost, standards-based (NGSS or AP), Creative Commons-licensed instructional activities that guide inquiry around map-based concepts found in key subjects like Earth and environmental science. Web maps developed for GeoInquiries expand upon printed maps in leading textbooks by taking advantage of 21st GIS capabilities. GeoInquiry collections consist of 15 activities, each chosen to offer a map-based activity every few weeks throughout the school year. GeoInquiries use a common inquiry instructional framework, learned by many educators during their teacher preparation coursework. GeoInquiries are instructionally flexible - acting as much like building blocks for crafting custom activities as finished instructional materials. Over a half million geoinquiries will be accessed in the next twelve months - serving an anticipated 15 million students. After a generation of outreach to the educators, GIS is finally finding its way the mainstream.
Kolmogorov, A N; Silverman, Richard A
Self-contained and comprehensive, this elementary introduction to real and functional analysis is readily accessible to those with background in advanced calculus. It covers basic concepts and introductory principles in set theory, metric spaces, topological and linear spaces, linear functionals and linear operators, and much more. 350 problems. 1970 edition.
Arai, Hiroko; Fujikawa, Takashi
An introductory review is presented on the basis of many-body scattering theory. Some fundamental aspects of photoemission theory are discussed in detail. A few applications are also discussed; photoelectron diffraction, depth distribution function and multi-atom resonant photoemission are also discussed briefly. (author)
Purpose. This study described the knowledge, skills, behaviors, and strategies associated with emotional intelligence (EI) that elementary school principals used to address conflict in their organizations. This study also determined the impact EI had on elementary school principals' perceptions of their ability to lead their organizations. This…
Parrish, Alan R; Daniels, Dennis E; Hester, R Kelly; Colenda, Christopher C
Imperative to increasing diversity in the physician workforce is increasing the pool of qualified underrepresented minority applicants to medical schools. With this goal in mind, the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (A&M College of Medicine) has partnered with Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), a historically black college and university that is a component of the Texas A&M university system, to develop the undergraduate medical academy (UMA). The UMA was established by legislative mandate in 2003 and is a state-funded program. The authors describe the development of partnership between the A&M College of Medicine and PVAMU, focusing on the key attributes that have been identified for success. The administrative structure of the UMA ensures that the presidents of the two institutions collaborate to address issues of program oversight and facilitates a direct relationship between the dean and associate dean for academic affairs of A&M College of Medicine and the director of the UMA to define the program objectives and structure. The authors delineate the admission process to the UMA, as well as the academic requirements of the program. Students attend lecture series during the academic year and participate in summer programs on the A&M College of Medicine campus in addition to receiving intensive academic counseling and opportunities for tutoring in several subjects. The authors also describe the initial success in medical school admissions for UMA students. This partnership provides a model blueprint that can be adopted and adapted by other medical schools focused on increasing diversity in medicine.
Blitz, Mark H.
Charter school research has examined the relationship between charter school mission and issues of school accountability. However, there is a lack of research focusing on how charter school leaders frame and solve problems regarding multiple accountability demands. Given this gap, I investigate the question: How do charter school leaders…
Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...
Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap
This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist
Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology
Jones, Steven R., Ed.
This is the report of a conference held in March 1980, for the purposes of sharing, among black educators, experiences with successful education programs and devising strategies for improving ineffective schools. The introductory addresses by Shirley Chisholm and Augustus F. Hawkins are summarized, as are the presentations of John Algee, Mary…
Brahmia, Suzanne M.
Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in
Green, Preston C., III.
Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…
Holbrow, Charles H; Amato, Joseph C; Galvez, Enrique; Parks, M. Elizabeth
Modern Introductory Physics, 2nd Edition, by Charles H. Holbrow, James N. Lloyd, Joseph C. Amato, Enrique Galvez, and Beth Parks, is a successful innovative text for teaching introductory college and university physics. It is thematically organized to emphasize the physics that answers the fundamental question: Why do we believe in atoms and their properties? The book provides a sound introduction to basic physical concepts with particular attention to the nineteenth- and twentieth-century physics underlying our modern ideas of atoms and their structure. After a review of basic Newtonian mechanics, the book discusses early physical evidence that matter is made of atoms. With a simple model of the atom Newtonian mechanics can explain the ideal gas laws, temperature, and viscosity. Basic concepts of electricity and magnetism are introduced along with a more complicated model of the atom to account for the observed electrical properties of atoms. The physics of waves---particularly light and x-rays---an...
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Hopper, K. Megan; Huxford, John
This study explores how introductory news writing textbooks address issues surrounding emotional labor and its consequences, both for journalists and for those they interview. Eighteen of the highest-selling introductory news-writing textbooks were selected for qualitative analysis. Results showed the term and concept of emotional labor--the…
Vanneste, Yvonne; van de Loo, Marlou; Feron, Frans; Rots-de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien
Reducing school absenteeism benefits the health and educational opportunities of young people. The Dutch intervention Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (abbreviated as MASS) was developed to address school absenteeism due to sickness reporting, also called medical absenteeism. This study is part of a research project on the effectiveness of MASS and explores factors that influence the implementation and dissemination of the intervention, from schools' perspectives. The research questions include reasons schools have to implement MASS, their experiences in the implementation of MASS and their views on what is needed to ensure sustainable implementation. A qualitative research method was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine principals and eight special education needs coordinators, working in nine secondary schools that apply MASS. Inductive content analysis was carried out. The main reasons for schools to address medical absenteeism were their concerns about students' well-being and future prospects and their wish to share these concerns with students' parents. Participants also mentioned the wish to raise the threshold for reporting sick. According to the participants, MASS makes it easier for teachers to enter into conversation with students and their parents about medical absence. MASS prevents damage to the relationship with parents and medical problems being missed. In implementing MASS the main obstacles are teachers' dialogue about medical absence with students and their parents, teachers' follow-up of the feedback of the youth health care physicians (YHCPs), and correct registration. The participants were convinced that MASS also improves collaboration with parents regarding the optimization of care for students. MASS allows schools to identify students at risk of dropout at an early stage and to optimise guidance of these students. The intervention matches schools' need to address medical absenteeism by providing a clear framework
Describes use of Nigerian author, Chinua Achebe's novel, "Things Fall Apart," in an introductory geography course at the secondary school or college level. Provides a summary of the book's story, which deals with the impact of colonialism and Christianity on the culture of eastern Nigeria. Includes recommended instructional strategies…
Leroy, Zanie C.; Wallin, Robin; Lee, Sarah
Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for…
Gray, Nancy L.; Gardiner, Mary E.
The purpose of the study was to examine educator-peer social relationships within the context of the organization and to consider the role of the school administrator in establishing collegial and caring relationships. The study was a critical collective case study of six educators--administrators and teachers--in U.S. schools. Through interviews,…
Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William
Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016
The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) recognizes that significant numbers of students require supports to successfully meet challenging state academic standards. This brief (1) analyzes the act to assess how it addresses the nature and scope of supports to address barriers to learning and re-engage disconnected students and (2)…
Yow, Donald M.
Addressing the need for an introductory atmospheric science course for nonscience majors, a course was developed that provides a general understanding of atmospheric processes by examining how meteorological events are portrayed in movies. The course also uses films to study the causes of, impacts associated with, and potential adaptations to…
Malik, Sohail Iqbal; Coldwell-Neilson, Jo
High failure and drop-out rates from introductory programming courses continue to be of significant concern to computer science disciplines despite extensive research attempting to address the issue. In this study, we include the three entities of the didactic triangle, instructors, students and curriculum, to explore the learning difficulties…
Mundfrom, Daniel J.; Shaw, Dale G.; Thomas, Ann; Young, Suzanne; Moore, Alan D.
This study addresses the question, "What should graduate students know about research and statistics after completing an initial course?" Individuals who teach such courses at various Carnegie classifications of institutions were surveyed about the specific characteristics of an introductory graduate research course at their own institutions to…
Wagaman, John C.
This article describes four semesters of introductory statistics courses that incorporate service learning and gardening into the curriculum with applications of the binomial distribution, least squares regression and hypothesis testing. The activities span multiple semesters and are iterative in nature.
Hilgoe, Ellen; Brinkley, Jason; Hattingh, Johannes; Bernhardt, Robert
Since its establishment in 1996, the North Carolina Early Mathematics Placement Testing (NC EMPT) Program has provided a low stakes reality check of readiness for college-level mathematics to more than 600,000 high school students statewide. The program strives to help reduce the percentage of incoming college freshmen requiring mathematics…
Metraglia, Riccardo; Villa, Valerio; Baronio, Gabriele; Adamini, Riccardo
Today's students enter engineering colleges with different technical backgrounds and prior graphics experience. This may due to their high school of provenience, which can be technical or non-technical. The prior experience affects students' ability in learning and hence their motivation and self-efficacy beliefs. This study intended to evaluate…
We describe an effort to develop and to implement a college-level introductory physics (mechanics) MOOC that offers bona fide laboratory experiences. We also discuss efforts to use MOOC curricular materials to ``flip'' the classroom in a large lecture introductory physics course offered on-campus at Georgia Tech. Preliminary results of assessments and surveys from both MOOC and on-campus students will be presented.
Most students entering our introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors arrive not merely lacking scientific facts-they also have misconceptions about the nature of science, and many have a handicapping ``science anxiety'' (in addition to math anxiety). So I have added a ``current science'' requirement to our introductory course. Each student must compile a file of five astronomy news articles taken from readily available sources.
Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.
Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…
Wolfe, Douglas A
This textbook is designed to give an engaging introduction to statistics and the art of data analysis. The unique scope includes, but also goes beyond, classical methodology associated with the normal distribution. What if the normal model is not valid for a particular data set? This cutting-edge approach provides the alternatives. It is an introduction to the world and possibilities of statistics that uses exercises, computer analyses, and simulations throughout the core lessons. These elementary statistical methods are intuitive. Counting and ranking features prominently in the text. Nonparametric methods, for instance, are often based on counts and ranks and are very easy to integrate into an introductory course. The ease of computation with advanced calculators and statistical software, both of which factor into this text, allows important techniques to be introduced earlier in the study of statistics. This book's novel scope also includes measuring symmetry with Walsh averages, finding a nonp...
Fredman, Amy J.; Schultz, Nicole J.; Hoffman, Mary F.
Scholars have become more attentive to lesbian/gay/bisexual/transsexual/queer/questioning (LGBTQ) topics as queer perspectives become increasingly prevalent in middle and high school environments. This study examines how educators navigate social and academic environments in order to incorporate inclusive pedagogical practices and cultivate safe…
Jones, Joseph R.
This article examines how one group of teachers discussed their perceptions of homophobia in their schools. A qualitative study was conducted that utilized the following: individual and group interviews, participant reflective journals, professional development sessions, and a research journal. The study illuminated how the role of hegemonic…
"Newsweek" ran an article on "The Homosexual Teacher" in December 1978. At the end of a tumultuous two-year period framed by Anita Bryant's anti-gay campaign in South Florida and John Briggs' proposition to bar gay and lesbian educators from working in California public schools, reporters concluded, "Most homosexual…
Trach, Jessica; Lee, Matthew; Hymel, Shelley
A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student's emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been…
Currently in Kenya, secondary school government bursaries are administered through committees set up at the level of parliamentary constituencies. However, there is widespread consensus that this system is not functioning adequately, as the process is often haphazard and funds are often spread too thinly across students. The Ministry of Education…
Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea
Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…
Danby, Gillian; Hamilton, Paula
The enthusiasm regarding the school as a place for mental health promotion is powered by a large body of research demonstrating the links between mental health and well-being, academic success and future life opportunities. Despite on-going commitment to mental well-being in the U.K., statistics suggest mental health issues are increasing among…
Nellis, Leah M.; Sickman, Linda Sue; Newman, Daniel S.; Harman, Deborah R.
With the increase in schoolwide practices to improve reading instruction for all students and provide supplemental interventions for struggling readers, the need for collaboration among education professionals has become increasingly important. This article focuses on the expanding opportunities for collaboration between school psychologists and…
Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina
This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Collins, Kathleen M.; Green, Preston C., III; Nelson, Steven L.; Madahar, Santosh
This article takes up the question of equity, access, and cyber charter schools from the perspective of disability studies in education (DSE). DSE positions inclusion and educational access as social justice concerns. In doing so, we assert the importance of making visible the social justice implications of the current laws that impact cyber…
Pellas, Nikolaos; Peroutseas, Efstratios
Students in secondary education strive hard enough to understand basic programming concepts. With all that is known regarding the benefits of programming, little is the published evidence showing how high school students can learn basic programming concepts following innovative instructional formats correctly with the respect to gain/enhance their computational thinking skills. This distinction has caused lack of their motivation and interest in Computer Science courses. This case study presents the opinions of twenty-eight (n = 28) high school students who participated voluntarily in a 3D-game-like environment created in Second Life. This environment was combined with the 2D programming environment of Scratch4SL for the implementation of programming concepts (i.e. sequence and concurrent programming commands) in a blended instructional format. An instructional framework based on Papert's theory of Constructionism to assist students how to coordinate or manage better the learning material in collaborative practice-based learning activities is also proposed. By conducting a mixed-method research, before and after finishing several learning tasks, students' participation in focus group (qualitative data) and their motivation based on their experiences (quantitative data) are measured. Findings indicated that an instructional design framework based on Constructionism for acquiring or empowering students' social, cognitive, higher order and computational thinking skills is meaningful. Educational implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Hock, Michael F.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.
In this article, we discuss research supporting the Strategic Instruction Model's™ (SIM) effort to address higher order reasoning and thinking skills in two lines of programmatic research. We review the extant body of evidence supporting the two lines of the SIM library, the Content Enhancement Routines and a comprehensive reading program, and the…
Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Allen, Justin P.
Students with developmental disabilities have been found to exhibit higher rates of problem behavior in the classroom than their typically developing peers. Effectively addressing these students' behavior concerns requires the identification of interventions that can be implemented in an educational setting. Furthermore, matching intervention…
Hubbard, Gill; Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G
Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help-seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho-educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help-seeking barriers. This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50-min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help-seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self-efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6-month follow-up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2-week follow-up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help-seeking were observed. School-based brief psycho-educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Papadakis, Stamatios; Kalogiannakis, Michail; Orfanakis, Vasileios; Zaranis, Nicholas
Teaching programming is a complex task. The task is even more challenging for introductory modules. There is an ongoing debate in the teaching community over the best approach to teaching introductory programming. Visual block-based programming environments allow school students to create their own programs in ways that are more accessible than in…
Richter, N.; Vachula, R. S.; Pascuzzo, A.; Prilipko Huber, O.
In contrast to middle and high school students, elementary school students in Rhode Island (RI) have no access to dedicated science teachers, resulting in uneven quality and scope of science teaching across the state. In an attempt to improve science education in local public elementary schools, the Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences (DEEPS) at Brown University initiated a student-driven science-teaching program that was supported by a NSF K-12 grant from 2007 to 2014. The program led to the development of an extensive in-house lesson plan database and supported student-led outreach and teaching in several elementary and middle school classrooms. After funding was terminated, the program continued on a volunteer basis, providing year-round science teaching for several second-grade classrooms. During the 2016-2017 academic year, New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were introduced in RI public schools, and it became apparent that our outreach efforts required adaptation to be more efficient and relevant for both elementary school students and teachers. To meet these new needs, DEEPS, in collaboration with the Providence Public School District, created an intensive summer re-design program involving both graduate and undergraduate students. Three multi-lesson units were developed in collaboration with volunteer public school teachers to specifically address NGSS goals for earth science teaching in 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades. In the 2017-2018 academic year DEEPS students will co-teach the science lessons with the public school teachers in two local elementary schools. At the end of the next academic year all lesson plans and activities will be made publically available through a newly designed DEEPS outreach website. We herein detail our efforts to create and implement new educational modules with the goals of: (1) empowering teachers to instruct science, (2) engaging students and fostering lasting STEM interest and competency, (3) optimizing
Williams, H. Thomas
Contends that the large vocabulary used for precise purposes in physics contains many words that have related but potentially confusing meanings in everyday usage. Analyzes the treatment of Newton's Laws of Motion in several well-known introductory textbooks for evidence of inconsistent language use. Makes teaching suggestions. (Contains 11…
Koppelman, Herman; van Dijk, Betsy
Abstraction is viewed as a key concept in computer science. It is not only an important concept but also one that is difficult to master. This paper focuses on the problems that novices experience when they first encounter this concept. Three assignments from introductory courses are analyzed, to
Bare, John K.
A microcomputer was used successfully to replicate Sternberg's 1966 study of retrieval from short-term memory and Sperling's 1960 study on sensory or iconic memory. Computers with a capacity for measuring reaction time are useful in the laboratory for introductory psychology courses. (SR)
Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard
It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses...
Kong, M.G.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Morfill, G.; Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; Dijk, van J.; Zimmermann, J.L.
This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry,
Witmer, Jeffrey A.
Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.
Inquiry-based pedagogies have a strong presence in proof-based undergraduate mathematics courses, but can be difficult to implement in courses that are large, procedural, or highly computational. An introductory course in statistics would thus seem an unlikely candidate for an inquiry-based approach, as these courses typically steer well clear of…
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.
Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science…
Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James
The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly…
Kim, Dae Mann
This introductory textbook covers fundamental quantum mechanics from an application perspective, considering optoelectronic devices, biological sensors and molecular imagers as well as solar cells and field effect transistors. The book provides a brief review of classical and statistical mechanics and electromagnetism, and then turns to the quantum treatment of atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds. Aiming at senior undergraduate and graduate students in nanotechnology related areas like physics, materials science, and engineering, the book could be used at schools that offer interdisciplinary but focused training for future workers in the semiconductor industry and for the increasing number of related nanotechnology firms, and even practicing people could use it when they need to learn related concepts. The author is Professor Dae Mann Kim from the Korea Institute for Advanced Study who has been teaching Quantum Mechanics to engineering, material science and physics students for over 25 years in USA and Asia.
Full Text Available "Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2 to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.
Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.
"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.
Bagby, Richard J
Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts.* Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory* Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students* A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus* Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use* Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions* Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus
Swaminathan, M S
This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.
Good evening and thank you - Director Spradling, members of the faculty, alumni, family and friends of this graduating class, and especially the graduates of the American International School Vienna Class of 2003. Let me begin by thanking you for the invitation to share this important occasion with you. In my work, I frequently speak with diplomats and statesmen about how we can make our world a better place for 'future generations' - but I don't often get an opportunity like this one: to speak directly to you - the generation that holds the future in its hands. And I feel particularly fortunate to be speaking to such an international graduating class. As an Egyptian educated in the US, working in Vienna, with my children living in London, and an entire career devoted to international co-operation, I can tell you that I consider myself primarily a global citizen. And for me, thinking globally is now almost a must. This is because the world we live in has become highly interdependent. Many aspects of our modern life - Internet communication, the global marketplace, global warming, even the fights against disease and terrorism - point to the fact that the human race has entered a new era - a global era - and there is no turning back. To members of your generation, this might not seem like news. To your parents, the Internet feels like a new way of life (in fact - speaking for your parents, or perhaps your grandparents, we can still remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make
Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and
Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene
Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships
This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components
By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.
This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr
Henderson, Emily J
The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.
Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent
Prior work has characterized the gender gaps present in college-level introductory physics courses. Such work has also shown that research-based interactive engagement techniques can reduce or eliminate these gender gaps. In this paper, we study the gender gaps (and lack thereof) in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the Colorado School of Mines. We present eight semesters' worth of data, totaling 2577 students, with four semesters preceding a transition to Studio physics, and four following. We examine gender gaps in course grades, DFW (D grade, fail, or withdrawal) rates, and normalized gains on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), and consider factors such as student ACT scores and grades in prior math classes. We find little or no gap in male/female course grades and DFW rates, but substantial gaps in CSEM gains that are reduced somewhat by the transition to Studio physics.
of very specific and quantitative predictions were put forward which were aimed at direct experimental tests of the developed concepts . Experimentally, wetting phenomena proved to be a rather difficult field of research. While contact angles seem quite easy to measure, deeper insight can only be gained by assessing the physical properties of minute amounts of material, as provided by the molecularly thin wetting layers. At the same time, the variations in the chemical potential relevant for studying wetting transitions are very small, such that system stability sometimes poses hard to solve practical problems. As a consequence, layering transitions in cryogenic systems were among the first to be thoroughly studied  experimentally, since they require comparably moderate stability. First-order wetting transitions were not observed experimentally before the early nineties, either in (cryogenic) quantum systems [11,12] or in binary liquid mixtures [13,14]. The first observation of critical wetting, a continuous wetting transition, in 1996  was a major breakthrough . In the meantime, a detailed seminal paper by Pierre Gilles de Gennes published in 1985  had spurred a large number of new research projects which were directed to wetting phenomena other than those related to phase transitions. More attention was paid to non-equilibrium physics, as it is at work when oil spreads over a surface, or a liquid coating beads off (`dewets') from its support and forms a pattern of many individual droplets. This turned out to be an extremely fruitful field of research, and was more readily complemented by experimental efforts than was the case with wetting transitions. It was encouraging to find effects analogous to layering (as mentioned above) in more common systems such as oil films spreading on a solid support [18,19]. Long standing riddles such as the divergence of dissipation at a moving contact line were now addressed both theoretically and experimentally
In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market
The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years
The second edition of a bestselling textbook, Using R for Introductory Statistics guides students through the basics of R, helping them overcome the sometimes steep learning curve. The author does this by breaking the material down into small, task-oriented steps. The second edition maintains the features that made the first edition so popular, while updating data, examples, and changes to R in line with the current version.See What's New in the Second Edition:Increased emphasis on more idiomatic R provides a grounding in the functionality of base R.Discussions of the use of RStudio helps new
Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the
DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs
Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
In this study, we examine introductory physics students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the…
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Landrum, R. Eric; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Almost 2 million students enroll in introductory psychology each year in the United States, making it the second most popular undergraduate course in the nation. Introductory psychology not only serves as a prerequisite for other courses in the discipline but for some students this course provides their only exposure to psychological science.…
Full Text Available Students� attitude, including perceived usefulness, is generally associated with academic success. The related research in statistics education has focused almost exclusively on the role of attitude in explaining and predicting academic learning outcomes, hence there is a paucity of research evidence on how attitude (particularly perceived usefulness impacts students� intentions to use and stay engaged in statistics beyond the introductory course. This study explored the relationship between college students� perception of the usefulness of an introductory statistics course, their beliefs about where statistics will be most useful, and their intentions to take another statistics course. A cross-sectional study of 106 students was conducted. The mean rating for usefulness was 4.7 (out of 7, with no statistically significant differences based on gender and age. Sixty-four percent reported that they would consider taking another statistics course, and this subgroup rated the course as more useful (p = .01. The majority (67% reported that statistics would be most useful for either graduate school or research, whereas 14% indicated their job, and 19% were undecided. The �undecided� students had the lowest mean rating for usefulness of the course (p = .001. Addressing data, in the context of real-world problem-solving and decision-making, could facilitate students to better appreciate the usefulness and practicality of statistics. Qualitative research methods could help to elucidate these findings.
Perry, Jonathan; Bassichis, William
Introductory physics forms a major part of the foundational knowledge of engineering majors, independent of discipline and institution. While the content of introductory physics courses is consistent from institution to institution, the manner in which it is taught can vary greatly due to professor, textbook, instructional method, and overall course design. This work attempts to examine variations in student success, as measured by overall academic performance in an engineering major, and matriculation rates, based on the type of introductory physics a student took while enrolled in an engineering degree at Texas A&M University. Specific options for introductory physics at Texas A&M University include two calculus based physics courses, one traditional (UP), and one more mathematically rigorous (DP), transfer credit, and high school (AP or dual) credit. In order to examine the impact of introductory physics on a student's degree progression, data mining analyses are performed on a data set of relatively comprehensive academic records for all students enrolled as an engineering major for a minimum of one academic term. Student data has been collected for years of entering freshman beginning in 1990 and ending in 2010. Correlations will be examined between freshman level courses, including introductory physics, and follow on engineering courses, matriculation rates, and time to graduation.
Sallee, Mariel; Boske, Christa
This case is based on real-life experiences of community school members within Horner School--an inner-city public school. Specifically, the case explores challenges faced by Cathleen, a 1st-year, White, female principal, who was hired by central office to "revamp a charter school" to promote a quality education for all children. The case raises…
Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology textbooks is dominant contribution of the entropy in driving important biological processes towards equilibrium. From diffusion to cell-membrane formation, to electrostatic binding in protein folding, to the functioning of nerve cells, entropic effects often act to counterbalance deterministic forces such as electrostatic attraction and in so doing, allow for effective molecular signaling. A small group of biology, biophysics and computer science faculty have worked together for the past five years to develop curricular modules (based on SCALEUP pedagogy) that enable students to create models of stochastic and deterministic processes. Our students are first-year engineering and science students in the calculus-based physics course and they are not expected to know biology beyond the high-school level. In our class, they learn to reduce seemingly complex biological processes and structures to be described by tractable models that include deterministic processes and simple probabilistic inference. The students test these models in simulations and in laboratory experiments that are biologically relevant. The students are challenged to bridge the gap between statistical parameterization of their data (mean and standard deviation) and simple model-building by inference. This allows the students to quantitatively describe realistic cellular processes such as diffusion, ionic transport, and ligand-receptor binding. Moreover, the students confront ``random'' forces and traditional forces in problems, simulations, and in laboratory exploration throughout the year-long course as they move from traditional kinematics through thermodynamics to electrostatic interactions. This talk
Gorain, Ganesh C
Introductory Course on DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS provides an excellent exposition of the fundamentals of ordinary and partial differential equations and is ideally suited for a first course of undergraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. The aim of this book is to present the elementary theories of differential equations in the forms suitable for use of those students whose main interest in the subject are based on simple mathematical ideas. KEY FEATURES: Discusses the subject in a systematic manner without sacrificing mathematical rigour. A variety of exercises drill the students in problem solving in view of the mathematical theories explained in the book. Worked out examples illustrated according to the theories developed in the book with possible alternatives. Exhaustive collection of problems and the simplicity of presentation differentiate this book from several others. Material contained will help teachers as well as aspiring students of different competitive examinations.
Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James
The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly relevant application of modern physics, especially with so many of our students planning to pursue a career in medicine. This article provides an overview of the physics of MRI and gives advice on how physics teachers can introduce this topic. Also included are some demonstration activities and a discussion of a desktop MRI apparatus that may be used by students in the lab or as a demo.
Keohane, Jonathan W.; Bartlett, J. L.; Foy, J. P.
We present a collection of short lecture-tutorial (or homework) activities, designed to be both quantitative and accessible to the introductory astronomy student. Each of these involves interpreting some real data, solving a problem using ratios and proportionalities, and making a conclusion based on the calculation. Selected titles include: "The Mass of Neptune” "The Temperature on Titan” "Rocks in the Early Solar System” "Comets Hitting Planets” "Ages of Meteorites” "How Flat are Saturn's Rings?” "Tides of the Sun and Moon on the Earth” "The Gliese 581 Solar System"; "Buckets in the Rain” "How Hot, Bright and Big is Betelgeuse?” "Bombs and the Sun” "What Forms Stars?” "Lifetimes of Cars and Stars” "The Mass of the Milky” "How Old is the Universe?” "Is The Universe Speeding up or Slowing Down?"
Douma, Elaine L.
Intended for use in a comprehensive senior high school, this curriculum guide for an introductory laboratory course focuses on the development of abilities, attitudes, and personal qualities which would lead to job success at the entry level in the food service industry, including in the areas of cooking, waitressing, supermarkets, and similar…
Poh, Wei Beng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing
A history-infused lesson package developed by a team of teachers in a professional learning community was used to teach introductory calculus in a secondary school. First, we report a quasi-experimental design that showed that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than students in the control group. Second, we report on…
Zimmer, Robert; Koernig, Stephen K.; Greene, Scott
For almost three decades, the AACSB and business leaders have sought increased emphasis on internationalizing students' perspectives. Recent studies demonstrate mixed results in the extent to which business schools have globalized their curricula. With decreasing student interest in the marketing major, Introductory Marketing emerges as a critical…
Evans, Heather K.
In this article, the author addresses both the costs and benefits of implementing clickers into an introductory political science course. Comparing student responses to a mid-semester survey in both a clicker and non-clicker course, the results show that students have higher satisfaction of the course and instructor, higher exam scores, and feel…
Correll, N.; Wing, R.; Coleman, D.
This paper describes a one-year introductory robotics course sequence focusing on computational aspects of robotics for third- and fourth-year students. The key challenges this curriculum addresses are "scalability," i.e., how to teach a robotics class with a limited amount of hardware to a large audience, "student assessment,"…
Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth
In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…
Full Text Available . It seeks to offer a better introductory understanding to the field of network warfare. This paper addresses the requirements for a network warfare capability and will look at the high-level approach, constraints, focus areas, levels, techniques...
Spiller, Lisa D.; Scovotti, Carol
This study investigates the extent to which educators address direct and interactive marketing concepts in undergraduate introductory marketing courses. As practitioners seek more accountability from their marketing efforts, so too must academia respond with more relevant content. Results from textbook content analysis suggest that direct and…
Takacs, C. Helen
Business managers are increasingly engaged with climate change issues, but pedagogy on climate change in the business curriculum is in its infancy. The author addresses the need for greater integration of climate change knowledge in the business curriculum by describing a teaching module for an undergraduate introductory business course and…
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2015
The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) has taken an active role in addressing both youth and teacher mental health issues in recent years, and will continue to do so. The BCTF is a participant in the British Columbia (BC) School-Based Mental Health Collaborative, has a web page with resources to support teachers in understanding mental…
In this diploma thesis we try to find the answer to why students experience difficulties in introductory programming. We ask ourselves what causes most problems while trying to understand concepts in introductory programming, generating code and designing algorithms. In the first section we introduce programming language Python as the first programming language being taught to students. We compare it with programming language Pascal and stress the advantages of Python that seem important ...
Efthimiou, C. J.; Llewellyn, R. A.
All introductory physics textbooks, with or without calculus, cover the addition of both resistances and capacitances in series and in parallel as discrete summations. However, none includes problems that involve continuous versions of resistors in parallel or capacitors in series. This paper introduces a method for solving the continuous problems that is logical, straightforward, and within the mathematical preparation of students at the introductory level.
Kong, M G; Kroesen, G; Van Dijk, J; Morfill, G; Nosenko, T; Shimizu, T; Zimmermann, J L
This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology-an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research-is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene-helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non-equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.
These proceedings collate lectures given at the twenty-eighth specialized course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel du Parc, Baden, Switzerland from 7 - 14 May 2014, in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute. Following introductory lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered components and topologies of the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Issues of design, control and exploitation in a sometimes-hostile environment were addressed. Site visits to ABB and PSI provided an insight into state-of-the-art power converter production and operation, while topical seminars completed the programme.
Ramón S. Barthelemy
Full Text Available Understanding course climate is important for improving students’ experiences and increasing the likelihood of their persistence in STEM fields. This study presents climate survey results from 523 students taking introductory biology at the University of Michigan. Principal component analysis revealed that a student’s climate experience is comprised of five main elements: comfort, school avoidance, relationship to course, academic stress, and discomfort. Of these climate factors, comfort, school avoidance, and relationship to course were significant predictors of course satisfaction, and academic stress was a significant predictor of persistence. The results indicated the importance of a positive climate that is facilitated by the instructor in order to promote a positive student experience. Climate may be an important metric for institutions to track across time and course.
Dunbar, R. W.; Egger, A. E.; Schwartz, J. K.
As we bring new research-based learning approaches, curricular innovations, and student engagement practices into the introductory science classroom, expectations of teaching assistants (TAs) should have, and have, changed. Similarly, the 21st century teaching assistant has different expectations of us. Maintaining relevance in this context means bringing TAs into an integrated teaching team that supports effective learning for students and provides structured professional development opportunities for TAs. A number of support efforts on our campus, with counterparts at many other universities, seek to optimize the instructional impact of faculty and teaching assistants, thus opening the door to enhanced student engagement (e.g. the quality of effort students put forth, their persistence in science and/or engineering courses, and their perception of scientific relevance in everyday life). Among these efforts, School of Earth Sciences course development TAs work 1:1 in advance of the term with introductory course faculty to design exercises and course materials that meet clearly articulated student learning goals or pedagogical challenges. Throughout the process, TAs are mentored by the faculty as well as science pedagogy experts. Initially funded by a major teaching award, the School is now moving to institutionalize this successful program which has broadened the definition of the TA role. Another area of optimization, reflecting Shulman's concept of pedagogical content knowledge, is our campus mandate that TA development take place within a departmental, as well as general, context. Both Chemistry and Physics expect introductory course TAs to lead interactive, guided-inquiry or tutorial-style sections. Integrating these sections with lecture and positively reinforcing course goals requires TA buy-in and a set of pedagogical facilitation skills cultivated through course-specific training and active mentoring while teaching. To better support the mentoring process
Houlston, Catherine; Smith, Peter K
A variety of peer support schemes are now widely used in schools, notably to reduce bullying. However, there has been little systematic investigation of the impact and effectiveness of these approaches. To assess the impact of a peer counselling scheme on peer counsellors and the school community. The research was conducted in a North London all-girls state secondary school. Data were collected from all lower school classes (years 7, 8, and 9) and some staff members, in addition to year 10 peer counsellors and an age equivalent comparison group. A detailed 1-year longitudinal study combined qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment. Peer counsellors benefited from their involvement through an acquisition of transferable communication and interpersonal skills, and, compared to age-matched control pupils, had increased social self-esteem. There were no reductions in self-reported bullying and victimization, but in general pupils believed that there was less bullying in school and that the school was doing more about bullying, with year 7 students showing the most positive changes. Peer-counselling schemes can improve self-esteem of peer supporters, and also impact positively on perceptions of bullying in the school; but impact on actual experiences of bullying is less clear, and there may be problems with the acceptance and use of such programmes by older students.
Alexandre Fagundes Faria
Full Text Available In Science Education, notably in Physics Teaching, there are research based instructional strategies that are renown by their potential to promote conceptual development. It is likely that many of these strategies lead to more elaborate learning; promoting, for instance, scientific thinking development. Scientific thinking might be construed as the sum of domain-specific knowledge and domain-general strategies. Here is reported an investigation of domain-general strategies used by students on tasks proposed in a Newtonian Dynamics activity inspired by “Tutorials in Introductory Physics”. Nineteen volunteers, aged 15-17, participated; all were students in electronics or computer science from a Brazilian vocational high school. The school activities proposed to the students have been regularly used in the Physics course for seven years. Therefore, there was no special interventions prepared with research purposes. Data collection involved audio and video recordings of students’ teamwork; field notes; and photographs of student’s notebooks and of posters teams presented in classes. Data analysis was based on categorization of domain-general strategies used by students. We found that students used four domain-general strategies on the proposed tasks: evidence-based reasoning, assessment of the reasoning line, reason based on operational definition and hypothetic-deductive reasoning. These findings suggest that activities inspired by the “Tutorials in Introductory Physics” favor the learning of scientific concepts plus further – and yet more elaborate – learning. These results place a demand on the field of Science Education to refine the strategies of data collection and data analysis as a way to identify the use of other domain-general strategies by students in similar contexts, as well as the expansion of research to other schools contexts.
The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)
Cervato, C.; Jach, J. Y.; Ridky, R.
Introductory Earth science courses are undergoing pedagogical changes in universities across the country and are focusing more than ever on the non-science majors. Increasing enrollment of non-science majors in these introductory Earth science courses demands a new look at what is being taught and how the content can be objectively chosen. Assessing the content and effectiveness of these courses requires a quantitative investigation of introductory Earth science topics and their relevance to current issues and concerns. Relevance of Earth science topics can be linked to improved students' attitude toward science and a deeper understanding of concepts. We have used the Internet based national news search-engine LexisNexis Academic Universe (http://www.lexisnexis.org/) to select the occurrence of Earth science terms over the last 12 months, five and ten years both regionally and nationally. This database of term occurrences is being used to examine how Earth sciences have evolved in the news through the last 10 years and is also compared with textbook contents and course syllabi from randomly selected introductory earth science courses across the nation. These data constitute the quantitative foundation for this study and are being used to evaluate the relevance of introductory earth science course content. The relevance of introductory course content and current real-world issues to student attitudes is a crucial factor when considering changes in course curricula and pedagogy. We have examined students' conception of the nature of science and attitudes towards science and learning science using a Likert-scale assessment instrument in the fall 2002 Geology 100 classes at Iowa State University. A pre-test and post-test were administered to see if the students' attitudes changed during the semester using as reference a control group comprised of geoscience undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty. The results of the attitude survey have been analyzed in terms
Barsoum, Mark J.; Sellers, Patrick J.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Paradise, Christopher J.
We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (information, evolution, cells, emergent properties, homeostasis), addressing each at five levels of organization (molecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecological systems). We compared our course outcomes with two sections that used a traditional textbook and were taught by different instructors. On data interpretation assessments administered periodically during the semester, our students performed better than students in the traditional sections (p = 0.046) and exhibited greater improvement over the course of the semester (p = 0.015). On factual content assessments, our students performed similarly to students in the other sections (p = 0.737). Pre- and postsemester assessment of disciplinary perceptions and self-appraisal indicate that our students acquired a more accurate perception of biology as a discipline and may have developed a more realistic evaluation of their scientific abilities than did the control students (p < 0.05). We conclude that ICB improves critical thinking, metacognition, and disciplinary perceptions without compromising content knowledge in introductory biology. PMID:23463233
Stoesz, Brenda M.; Shooshtari, Shahin; Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; Douglas, Joyce
Members of a knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) research team assessed the training needs of the teaching staff at a school for individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD). In response to this need, KTE researchers retrieved peer-reviewed articles for training staff working with individuals with IDD who exhibit challenging…
Barbarick, K. A.
Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…
Starting in the 1990’s, the International Potato Center (CIP)’s integrated pest management team for potato late blight (IPM-LB) realized the importance of addressing the management of this complex potato disease by combining crop protection and management sciences, with social and behavioral science...
Ritter, Michael E.
Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an…
... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The...
Cutler, David M.
Health care is one of the economy's biggest industries, so it is natural that the health care industry should play some role in the teaching of introductory economics. There are many ways that health care can appear in such a context: in the teaching of microeconomics, as a macroeconomic issue, to learn about social welfare, and even to learn how…
Full Text Available In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem) which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting. Ranjana Y Abhang. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 63-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.
One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…
One challenge for the introductory physics teacher is incorporating calculus techniques into the laboratory setting. It can be difficult to strike a balance between presenting an experimental task for which calculus is essential and making the mathematics accessible to learners who may be apprehensive about applying it. One-dimensional kinematics…
Pfannkuch, Maxine; Regan, Matt; Wild, Chris; Budgett, Stephanie; Forbes, Sharleen; Harraway, John; Parsonage, Ross
This article sets out some of the rationale and arguments for making major changes to the teaching and learning of statistical inference in introductory courses at our universities by changing from a norm-based, mathematical approach to more conceptually accessible computer-based approaches. The core problem of the inferential argument with its…
English, Thomas C.; Lind, David A.
Discusses the use of an integrated circuit operational amplifier in an introductory electronics laboratory course for undergraduate science majors. The advantages of this approach and the implications for scientific instrumentation are identified. Describes a number of experiments suitable for the undergraduate laboratory. (Author/DF)
The Macroeconomic model (Macromod) is a computer assisted instruction simulation model designed for introductory economics courses. An evaluation of its utilization at a community college indicates that it yielded a 10 percent to 13 percent greater economic comprehension than lecture classes and that it met with high student approval. (DC)
Reports research which tests the Stigler Hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that students who have taken introductory economics courses and those who have not show little difference in test performance five years after completing college. Results of the author's research illustrate that economics students do retain some knowledge of economics…
Tinari, Frank D.
Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)
A questionnaire was developed to determine the content, mode of instruction, approach, and textbook selection of instructors of introductory economics courses. The survey was distributed in 1974 to 143 economics instructors at two- and four-year colleges in Illinois. Results are presented here, and recommendations are made. (Author/NHM)
Muller, Rainer; Wiesner, Hartmut
Presents a new research-based course on quantum mechanics in which the conceptual issues of quantum mechanics are taught at an introductory level. Involves students in the discovery of how quantum phenomena deviate from classical everyday experiences. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/YDS)
... one place general interpretations of the Administrator which will provide “a practical guide to... CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 782.0 Introductory statement. (a) Since the enactment of the Fair... seek to apply it.” (Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134) (b) The interpretations contained in this...
... such interpretations of this Act “provide a practical guide to employers and employees as to how the... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations § 531.25 Introductory statement. (a... responsibilities of administration and enforcement (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). In order that these positions...
... AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.1 Introductory statement. (a) The Occupational Safety and Health... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... general application designed to regulate employment conditions relating to occupational safety and health...
Caves, Roger W.
This introductory text presents a collection of articles from urban-studies journals to introduce undergraduate students to the interdisciplinary field of urban studies. The book is divided into 9 parts as follows: Part 1: Cities and Urbanism; part 2: Urban History; part 3: Urban Policy; part 4: Economic Development; part 5: Community Services and…
Snider, Brent R.; Eliasson, Janice B.
This teaching brief describes a 30-minute game where student groups compete in-class in an introductory time-series forecasting exercise. The students are challenged to "beat the instructor" who competes using forecasting techniques that will be subsequently taught. All forecasts are graphed prior to revealing the randomly generated…
Carroll, Michael P.
A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…
Wirth, Frederick H.
An introductory Natural Science course with a focus on the laboratory is described. The main function of the course is getting students prepared for required individual projects in science. A copy of the syllabus, a description of laboratory experiments, and the context of the course are included. (KR)
Schmind, Kendra K.; Blankenship, Erin E.; Kerby. April T.; Green, Jennifer L.; Smith, Wendy M.
The statistical preparation of in-service teachers, particularly middle school teachers, has been an area of concern for several years. This paper discusses the creation and delivery of an introductory statistics course as part of a master's degree program for in-service mathematics teachers. The initial course development took place before the…
O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter
The main areas of difficulty experienced by those teaching and learning organic chemistry at high school and introductory university level in Ireland have been identified, and the findings support previous studies in Ireland and globally. Using these findings and insights from chemistry education research (CER), the Organic Chemistry in Action!…
Matsumura, Mina; Nakayama, Takuto; Sozu, Takashi
A survey of introductory statistics courses at Japanese medical schools was published as a report in 2014. To obtain a complete understanding of the way in which statistics is taught at the university level in Japan, it is important to extend this survey to related fields, including pharmacy, dentistry, and nursing. The current study investigates the introductory statistics courses offered by faculties of pharmaceutical sciences (six-year programs) at Japanese universities, comparing the features of these courses with those studied in the survey of medical schools. We collected relevant data from the online syllabi of statistics courses published on the websites of 71 universities. The survey items included basic course information (for example, the course names, the targeted student grades, the number of credits, and course classification), textbooks, handouts, the doctoral subject and employment status of each lecturer, and course contents. The period surveyed was July-September 2015. We found that these 71 universities offered a total of 128 statistics courses. There were 67 course names, the most common of which was "biostatistics (iryou toukeigaku)." About half of the courses were designed for first- or second-year students. Students earned fewer than two credits. There were 62 different types of textbooks. The lecturers held doctoral degrees in 18 different subjects, the most common being a doctorate in pharmacy or science. Some course content differed, reflecting the lecturers' academic specialties. The content of introductory statistics courses taught in pharmaceutical science programs also differed slightly from the equivalent content taught in medical schools.
Maria Eunice Ribeiro Marcondes
Full Text Available This text is a part of the work that was developed based on the chemical kinetic theme and the target was how the scientific knowledge in this subject was used for high school textbooks, identifying the possible ideas about science related to these books. For that, based on the research developed by Níaz (1994 that used categories to represent the philosophical perspectives: the empirical/inductive and the rationalist, verifying which and how the concepts of science was inserted in the 20 Brazilians textbooks, edited in the period from 1929 to 2004.
This presentation is primarily addressed to resident physicians in nuclear medicine, as well as residents in radiology, pathology, and internal medicine. Topics covered include: basic review; nuclides and radioactive processes; radioactivity-law of decay, half-life, and statistics; production of radionuclides; radiopharmaceuticals; interaction of high-energy radiation with matter; radiation dosimetry; detection of high-energy radiation; in-vitro radiation detection; in-vivo radiation detection using external detectors; detectability or final contrast in a scan; resolution and sensitivity of a scanner; special techniques and instruments; therapeutic uses of radionuclides; biological effects of radiation; and safe handling of radionuclides
Blum, J D
This section of the Annals of Health Law represents a compilation of materials concerning the state regulation of managed care. The following materials were first presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Schools ("AALS"), Section on Law, Medicine and Health Care in January 1999. Chairman John Blum introduces the subject and questions the dual role assumed by state and federal authorities in regulating managed care.
Teresa L Larkin
Full Text Available Introductory physics courses are an important rung on the curricular ladder in STEM. These courses help to strengthen students critical thinking and problem solving skills while simultaneously introducing them to many topics they will explore in more detail in later courses in physics and engineering. For these reasons, introductory physics is a required element on the curricular ladder. Most often, introductory physics is offered as a two-semester sequence with basic mechanics being taught in the first semester and electricity and magnetism in the second. In fact, this curricular sequence has not been altered in decades. Is there a reason for this? There are many other enduring questions that arise pertaining to these foundation courses in physics. These questions include: Does taking the introductory course sequence “out of order” have an impact on student learning in physics? What topics should be taught? When should these topics be taught? What topics could be left out? The list of questions is essentially endless. This paper will address some of these questions in part, through a brief discussion on student learning in a second-semester algebra-based physics course. Connections will also be made to the broader curricular ladder in STEM. To this end, an illustration that makes connections to an engineering statics course will be presented. This discussion will conclude by presenting some broader implications for the larger STEM communities.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
This report presents findings of a study, conducted by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO), that investigated programs used by schools to curb violence. Specifically, the study examined four promising school-based violence-prevention programs. Data were obtained from: (1) interviews with violence-prevention program directors, federal…
In reaction to misuses and misinterpretations of p-values and confidence intervals, a social science journal editor banned p-values from its pages. This study aimed to show that education could address misuse and abuse. This study examines inference-related learning outcomes for social science students in an introductory course supplemented with…
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Oh Hyun J
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1 increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2 improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3 improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4 impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5 encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day, excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of rd-5th grade children (n = 403. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046
Eisenmann, Joey C; Alaimo, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Karin; Paek, Hye-Jin; Carlson, Joseph J; Hayes, Heather; Thompson, Tracy; Kelleher, Deanne; Oh, Hyun J; Orth, Julie; Randall, Sue; Mayfield, Kellie; Holmes, Denise
This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046.
Rege, Saumitra V.; Misto, Kara; Dollase, Richard; George, Paul
Objective. To evaluate healthcare students’ perceptions of an introductory interprofessional exercise and their team dynamics. Design. A workshop was developed, combining second-year medical students, fourth-year nursing students, and third-year pharmacy students to work as an interdisciplinary team. The teams alternated between working together on patient cases focusing on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and on the evaluation of standardized pneumonia patients. Teams were given the patients' health information and no other instructions. A faculty member and the standardized patient evaluated the students using a teamwork global rating scale. Assessment. Student survey results showed a positive response to interprofessional teamwork. The faculty members and standardized patients reported that the students worked as a cohesive unit and demonstrated good team communication. Conclusions. This introductory interprofessional experience had a positive impact on the students’ understanding of collaboration and teamwork. This type of experience will help students foster future collaborations as healthcare providers. PMID:23129853
Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.
Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris
Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative
Philosophy of medicine, narrowly defined as ontology and epistemology of medicine, is a well developed research field, yet education in this field is less well developed. The aim of this paper is to present an educational development in philosophy of medicine-an introductory course in philosophy of medicine. Central features of the course are described. Participants (medical undergraduate students) scored high on average. The conclusion is that further such educational ventures in philosophy of medicine should be developed and implemented.
Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah
Our previous research showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques in the introductory physics course, the gap in performance between males and females on a mechanics conceptual learning survey persisted from pre- to post-test, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work. Follow-up studies identified correlations between student performance on the conceptual learning survey and students' prior physics and math knowledge and their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. The results indicate that the gender gap at our institution is predominantly associated with differences in males' and females' previous physics and math knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Our current work extends these results in two ways: 1) we look at the gender gap in the second semester of the introductory sequence and find results similar to those in the first semester course and 2) we identify ways in which males and females differentially experience several aspects of the introductory course.  Pollock, et al, Phys Rev: ST: PER 3, 010107.  Lorenzo, et al, Am J Phys 74, 118.  Kost, et al, PERC Proceedings 2008.
Lee, Albert H.
Many educators understand that lectures are cost effective but not learning efficient, so continue to search for ways to increase active student participation in this traditionally passive learning environment. In-class polling systems, or "clickers", are inexpensive and reliable tools allowing students to actively participate in lectures by answering multiple-choice questions. Students assess their learning in real time by observing instant polling summaries displayed in front of them. This in turn motivates additional discussions which increase the opportunity for active learning. We wanted to develop a comprehensive clicker methodology that creates an active lecture environment for a broad spectrum of students taking introductory physics courses. We wanted our methodology to incorporate many findings of contemporary learning science. It is recognized that learning requires active construction; students need to be actively involved in their own learning process. Learning also depends on preexisting knowledge; students construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe. Learning is context dependent; students who have learned to apply a concept in one context may not be able to recognize and apply the same concept in a different context, even when both contexts are considered to be isomorphic by experts. On this basis, we developed question sequences, each involving the same concept but having different contexts. Answer choices are designed to address students preexisting knowledge. These sequences are used with the clickers to promote active discussions and multiple assessments. We have created, validated, and evaluated sequences sufficient in number to populate all of introductory physics courses. Our research has found that using clickers with our question sequences significantly improved student conceptual understanding. Our research has also found how to best measure student conceptual gain using research-based instruments
Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.
A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid
Renato José de Oliveira
Full Text Available Este artigo discute o trabalho com a ética na escola (ensinos fundamental e médio a partir de uma crítica ao modelo de racionalidade demonstrativa, predominante desde o advento da modernidade. Como alternativa, apresenta outro modelo, a racionalidade argumentativa, discutida com base nas abordagens feitas por Chaïm Perelman, Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca e Michel Meyer. Os dois primeiros autores formularam uma teoria da argumentação cujo objetivo é subsidiar os raciocínios próprios das ciências humanas e sociais, áreas do conhecimento nas quais procedimentos típicos da racionalidade demonstrativa, como a dedução e o cálculo, não se aplicam. Já Meyer salienta a natureza problematizadora da racionalidade argumentativa, situando a retórica como meio de negociar as distâncias existentes entre os indivíduos a propósito de determinadas questões. Esse quadro teórico é complementado pela filosofia do pluralismo, apontada por Perelman como contraponto às visões de mundo alicerçadas sobre concepções unitárias da verdade, denominadas monismos. Nos marcos desses referenciais, a concepção ética universalista de Immanuel Kant e o relativismo proposto pela ética da estética defendida por Michel Maffesoli são discutidos. Em um segundo tópico, a ética na educação escolar é problematizada tendo em vista a seguinte questão: como formar o caráter do aluno sem recair em algum tipo de doutrinação? Na medida em que ética e moral dizem respeito a essa questão, discutimos como os dois termos vêm sendo compreendidos e propomos tomá-los como instâncias intercambiáveis. As conclusões que apresentamos com base nessas discussões não objetivam solucionar os problemas inerentes aos hábitos e às atitudes dos discentes, mas colocam-se como contribuições para a reflexão dos docentes acerca de suas práticas pedagógicas.This article discusses the work on ethics in school (primary and secondary education with basis on a critique
Full Text Available Social Science Education as a subject field in schools is an intrinsic pluridisciplinary feature, whatever disciplines are included, however it may be organised and wherever it may be institutionalised. Civic education, economic education, social education and historical education each comprise several academic disciplines even if they are thought to be completely independent subjects. From the start on, disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity are on the agenda for any subject related to social science education and are one of its main problems. For these introductory remarks interdisciplinarity can be simply defined as relating two or more academic disciplines or school subjects to each other if this is done in a purposeful, systematic, explicit and reflective way. The overarching goal is to improve education that is to enhance students' understandings of the worlds and their abilities to act within and towards them. A relationship between disciplines or subjects which misses one or more of the four characteristics can be called pluridisciplinary or multidisciplinary (cf. Audigier 2006. In the following I first want to discuss some aspects of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity at schools and at universities and the weakness of interdisciplinarity. I sketch some social science based ideas on the interrelationship between the subject structure of the academic world and the world of schools (3. and of some tendency to commonalities or even unification of social sciences and related competencies (4.. I conclude with some remarks on different kinds of knowledge (5.. Last but not least, I'll give an overview on the papers in this issue of the Journal of Social Science Education (6..
Murray, Peter; Haux, Reinhold; Lorenzi, Nancy
The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) is the only organization in health and biomedical informatics which is fully international in scope, bridging the academic, health practice, education, and health industry worlds through conferences, working groups, special interest groups and publications. Authored by the IMIA Interim Vice President for Strategic Planning Implementation and co-authored by the current IMIA President and the IMIA Past-President, the intention of this paper is to introduce IMIA's current strategic planning process and to set this process in relation to 'eHealth: Combining Health Telematics, Telemedicine, Biomedical Engineering and Bioinformatics to the Edge', the theme of this conference. From the viewpoint of an international organization such as IMIA, an eHealth strategy needs to be considered in a comprehensive way, including broadly stimulating high-quality health and biomedical informatics research and education, as well as providing support to bridging outcomes towards a new practice of health care in a changing world.
MacDonald, R.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.
The NAGT professional development program "On the Cutting Edge" recently surveyed 7000 geoscience faculty in the United States to develop a snapshot of current instructional practices in undergraduate geoscience courses, faculty strategies for learning new content and new teaching approaches, and faculty involvement in the geoscience education community. Over 2200 faculty responded to the survey which was conducted by the American Institute of Physics. Results for introductory courses (814 responses) indicate that lecture is the most common teaching strategy used in courses of all sizes. Many faculty incorporate some interactive activities in their courses. Most commonly, they use questioning, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class exercises. Less common, but not rare, are small group discussion or think-pair-share and classroom debates or role-playing. Activities involving problem solving, using quantitative skills, working with data and primarily literature, and structured collaboration are incorporated by many faculty in introductory courses, suggesting efforts to teach the process of science. Activities in which students address a problem of national or local interest, analyze their own data, or address problems of their own design are less common but not rare. Field experiences are common but not ubiquitous for students in introductory courses. A wide variety of assessment strategies are used in introductory courses of all sizes, including exams, quizzes, problem sets, papers, oral presentations, and portfolios. While papers are used for assessment more extensively in small classes, a significant number of faculty use papers in large classes (greater than 81 students). A majority of faculty use rubrics in grading. Faculty report that in the past two years, approximately one-third have made changes in the content of their introductory courses while just under half have changed the teaching methods they use. While faculty learn about both new content and
E. M. Cutrim
Full Text Available Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV. The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement, suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Bruce, Peter C
Concise, thoroughly class-tested primer that features basic statistical concepts in the concepts in the context of analytics, resampling, and the bootstrapA uniquely developed presentation of key statistical topics, Introductory Statistics and Analytics: A Resampling Perspective provides an accessible approach to statistical analytics, resampling, and the bootstrap for readers with various levels of exposure to basic probability and statistics. Originally class-tested at one of the first online learning companies in the discipline, www.statistics.com, the book primarily focuses on application
Maroto, J A; Perez-Munuzuri, V; Romero-Cano, M S
We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics
Praise for the First Edition ""Stahl offers the solvability of equations from the historical point of view...one of the best books available to support a one-semester introduction to abstract algebra.""-CHOICE Introductory Modern Algebra: A Historical Approach, Second Edition presents the evolution of algebra and provides readers with the opportunity to view modern algebra as a consistent movement from concrete problems to abstract principles. With a few pertinent excerpts from the writings of some of the greatest mathematicians, the Second Edition uniquely facilitates the understanding of pi
Bagnuls, C.; Bervillier, C.
We critically review the use of the exact renormalization group equations (ERGE) in the framework of the scalar theory. We lay emphasis on the existence of different versions of the ERGE and on an approximation method to solve it: the derivative expansion. The leading order of this expansion appears as an excellent textbook example to underline the nonperturbative features of the Wilson renormalization group theory. We limit ourselves to the consideration of the scalar field (this is why it is an introductory review) but the reader will find (at the end of the review) a set of references to existing studies on more complex systems.
Welkowitz, Joan; Cohen, Jacob
Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences provides an introduction to statistical concepts and principles. This book emphasizes the robustness of parametric procedures wherein such significant tests as t and F yield accurate results even if such assumptions as equal population variances and normal population distributions are not well met.Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale upon which much of behavioral science research is based, namely, drawing inferences about a population based on data obtained from a samp
Maroto, J A [Group of Physics and Chemistry of Linares, Escuela Politecnica Superior, St Alfonso X El Sabio, 28, University of Jaen, E-23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Munuzuri, V [Group of Nonlinear Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Cano, M S [Group of Complex Fluids Physics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Almeria, E-04120 Almeria (Spain)
We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics.
Narahari Achar, B. N.
It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.
Cohen, Barry H; Lea, R Brooke
A comprehensive and user-friendly introduction to statistics for behavioral science students-revised and updated Refined over seven editions by master teachers, this book gives instructors and students alike clear examples and carefully crafted exercises to support the teaching and learning of statistics for both manipulating and consuming data. One of the most popular and respected statistics texts in the behavioral sciences, the Seventh Edition of Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences has been fully revised. The new edition presents all the topics students in the behavioral s
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.
It is important to assess periodically how introductory textbooks portray our discipline because introductory psychology is the most popular psychology course, almost all teachers use textbooks for it, and textbooks play a major role in defining the course for students. To do so, past studies have used textbook citation analyses. We analyzed…
Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.
We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…
Griggs, Richard A.; Proctor, Derrick L.
Given the many changes in the introductory psychology textbook market in the past 2 decades and the lack of a recent citation study of introductory texts, we conducted a citation analysis of a stratified random sample of current texts. To provide a more comprehensive picture of current citation emphases, we extended our analysis to the top 60…
DeMoss, Michelle; Nicholson, Carolyn Y.
In this study, the authors examined whether introductory marketing textbooks contain the information that is needed to educate future business leaders about the important role of environmentally sustainable practices. We content-analyzed the 21 current introductory marketing textbooks for coverage of these practices. The results showed limited,…
Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for Researchers and Development Practitioners. Couverture du livre Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for. Auteur(s):. Alison Mathie et Anne Carnozzi. Maison(s) d'édition: CRDI. 15 janvier 2005. ISBN :.
Levine, David M.; Stephan, David F.
Introductory business statistics students often receive little guidance on how to apply the methods they learn to further business objectives they may one day face. And those students may fail to see the continuity among the topics taught in an introductory course if they learn those methods outside a context that provides a unifying framework.…
Woodard, Roger; McGowan, Herle
In 2005, the "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education" (GAISE) college report described several recommendations for teaching introductory statistics. This paper discusses how a large multi-section introductory course was redesigned in order to implement these recommendations. The experience described discusses…
Brooks, Gordon P.; Raffle, Holly
All introductory statistics students must master certain basic descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations and correlations. Students must also gain insight into such complex concepts as the central limit theorem and standard error. This article introduces and describes the Friendly Introductory Statistics Help (FISH) computer…
King, Gail Hoover; McConnell, Cheryl
Teaching introductory accounting courses can be both challenging and rewarding. In introductory financial and managerial accounting, students struggle with the unfamiliar terminology and concepts. However, managerial accounting offers distinct challenges in that managerial accounting reports used for decision-making are not publically available,…
Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina
The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…
Griggs, Richard A., Ed.; Jackson, Sherri L., Ed.
This book follows in the footsteps of the first three volumes in the "Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology" series. In the prefaces to these volumes, the various editors all stressed two major points relevant to the development of this series. These comments also apply to this book. First, introductory psychology is one of the most…
Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Thakur, Saikat Chakraborty
We all know that we must improve the quality of teaching in science at all levels. Not only physicists but also many students from other areas of study take the introductory physics courses in college. Physics introductory laboratories (labs) can be one of the best tools to help these students understand applications of scientific principles that…
Greenwood, Nancy A.
Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Williams, Peggy E.; Counce, David A.; Crawley, Lindsey R.
A method for the synthesis of ibuprofen in introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses is reported. This experiment requires two 3-h lab sessions. All of the reactions and techniques are a standard part of any introductory organic chemistry course. In the first lab session, students reduce p-isobutylacetophenone to an alcohol and then…
Kruse, S.; Bank, C. G.; Esmaeili, S.; Jazayeri, S.; Liu, S.; Stoikopoulos, N.
The Software for Introductory Geophysics Toolkit (SIGKit) affords students the opportunity to create model data and perform simple processing of field data for various geophysical methods. SIGkit provides a graphical user interface built with the MATLAB programming language, but can run even without a MATLAB installation. At this time SIGkit allows students to pick first arrivals and match a two-layer model to seismic refraction data; grid total-field magnetic data, extract a profile, and compare this to a synthetic profile; and perform simple processing steps (subtraction of a mean trace, hyperbola fit) to ground-penetrating radar data. We also have preliminary tools for gravity, resistivity, and EM data representation and analysis. SIGkit is being built by students for students, and the intent of the toolkit is to provide an intuitive interface for simple data analysis and understanding of the methods, and act as an entrance to more sophisticated software. The toolkit has been used in introductory courses as well as field courses. First reactions from students are positive. Think-aloud observations of students using the toolkit have helped identify problems and helped shape it. We are planning to compare the learning outcomes of students who have used the toolkit in a field course to students in a previous course to test its effectiveness.
Brasfield, David W.
Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)
Margarita María Cano Echeverry; Jorge Enrique Vargas González
La presente investigación, tuvo como objetivo, dar cuenta sobre las políticas públicas que atienden el fenómeno del Acoso Escolar. Legislación internacional y nacional que orienta las intervenciones para prevenir y atender el acoso escolar. Y las acciones que se realizan en Pereira, Colombia, para prevenirlo y mitigarlo.Revisión de bases de datos de organismos internacionales, nacionales, regionales y locales, así mismo con informes suministrados por investigaciones e intervenciones relaciona...
Margarita María Cano Echeverry
Full Text Available La presente investigación, tuvo como objetivo, dar cuenta sobre las políticas públicas que atienden el fenómeno del Acoso Escolar. Legislación internacional y nacional que orienta las intervenciones para prevenir y atender el acoso escolar. Y las acciones que se realizan en Pereira, Colombia, para prevenirlo y mitigarlo.Revisión de bases de datos de organismos internacionales, nacionales, regionales y locales, así mismo con informes suministrados por investigaciones e intervenciones relacionadas con el tema del Acoso Escolar permitió el análisis de la información. categorías emergentes y tópicos son analizados a partir de las políticas públicas que se vienen desarrollando con el fin de prevenir, atender y mitigar el fenómeno del Acoso Escolar.
Carolina Roig Catini
Full Text Available This article consists of an introductory exposition to the Marxist critique of law that, as we aim to demonstrate, provides relevant conceptual contributions to critical reflection on the specifically capitalistic social relations of education. It is an analysis of the fundamental concepts that circumscribe the social function of massive education in capitalism, under hegemony of the school form: workforce and subject of law. The mercantile social nexus, under the aegis of the blind and automatic movement of capital accumulation foresees not only the generalization of the worker "free" from the means of production, but also the universalization of the law-form, which conceals the economic subordination under the mask of equality between private owners. In the first section we briefly resumed a critical interpretation of the work presented by Karl Marx in Capital, in order to move on to the Marxist critique of law and in the second part, based on Evgène Pachukanis, Walter Benjamin and Bernard Edelman´s studies. Based on this presentation, we extract, by way of conclusion and in a preliminary way, some theoretical consequences for the apprehension of the specifically capitalist way of education. Keywords: Education. Work. Merchandise.
The introductory Astronomy course can be enriched by adding a service learning component to it. This enables students to interact with and educate the general public about matters of outer space. At Slippery Rock University we have incorporated this idea into our Astronomy and Space Science courses. Working in groups, the students do a presentation which is often interdisciplinary. Frequently the department gets requests from schools to do a show specifically tailored to a topic like the solar system or constellations. Such projects are beneficial to students in many ways. They demand a thorough knowledge of the subject matter so as to communicate to the audience in a clear and nontechnical manner. The students also experience first hand the difficulties involved in coordinating a group effort. They learn to take responsibility for their allocated part and how to combine effectively to make the entire show a success. Interacting with various age groups demands a versatility in planning content and public speaking skills not easily available elsewhere in a traditional education. Our planetarium facilities help in attracting diverse audiences from preschoolers to senior citizens. Performance in these shows constitutes twenty five percent of course grade. Feedback from audience groups helps refine future shows by subsequent student cohorts.
Gröber, Sebastian; Klein, Pascal; Kuhn, Jochen
Introductory mechanics physics courses at the transition from school to university are a challenge for students. They are faced with an abrupt and necessary increase of theoretical content and requirements on their conceptual understanding of phyiscs. In order to support this transition we replaced part of the mandatory weekly theory-based paper-and-pencil problems with video analysis problems of equal content and level of difficulty. Video-based problems (VBP) are a new problem format for teaching physics from a linked sequence of theoretical and video-based experimental tasks. Experimental tasks are related to the well-known concept of video motion analysis. This introduction of an experimental part in recitations allows the establishment of theory–experiment interplay as well as connections between physical content and context fields such as nature, technique, everyday life and applied physics by conducting model-and context-related experiments. Furthermore, laws and formulas as predominantly representative forms are extended by the use of diagrams and vectors. In this paper we give general reasons for this approach, describe the structure and added values of VBP, and show that they cover a relevant part of mechanics courses at university. Emphasis is put on theory–experiment interplay as a structural added value of VBP to promote students' construction of knowledge and conceptual understanding. (paper)
Barsoum, Mark J; Sellers, Patrick J; Campbell, A Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J; Paradise, Christopher J
We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (information, evolution, cells, emergent properties, homeostasis), addressing each at five levels of organization (molecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecological systems). We compared our course outcomes with two sections that used a traditional textbook and were taught by different instructors. On data interpretation assessments administered periodically during the semester, our students performed better than students in the traditional sections (p = 0.046) and exhibited greater improvement over the course of the semester (p = 0.015). On factual content assessments, our students performed similarly to students in the other sections (p = 0.737). Pre- and postsemester assessment of disciplinary perceptions and self-appraisal indicate that our students acquired a more accurate perception of biology as a discipline and may have developed a more realistic evaluation of their scientific abilities than did the control students (p biology.
Robert, G.; Merriman, J. D.; Ceylan, G. M.
As an expansion of universal design for learning, IDL provides a framework for opening up and adapting classroom interaction systems, minimizing barriers through promoting perception, engagement, expression, and accommodation for diverse learners. We implemented an introductory-level laboratory for communicating the concept of magma viscosity using the guidelines and principles of IDL. We developed the lab as a mini-implementation project for an IDL course offered by the University of Missouri (MU) Graduate School. The laboratory was subsequently taught during the summer session of Principles of Geology in our Department of Geological Sciences. Traditional geology laboratories rely heavily on visual aids, either physical (rocks and minerals) or representative (idealized cartoons of processes, videos), with very few alternative representations and descriptions made available to the students. Our main focus for this new lab was to diversify the means of representation available to the students (and instructor) to make the lab as equitable and flexible as possible. We considered potential barriers to learning arising from the physical lab environment, from the means of representation, engagement and expression, and tried to minimize them upfront. We centred the laboratory on the link between volcano shape and viscosity as an applied way to convey that viscosity is the resistance to flow. The learning goal was to have the students observe that more viscous eruptives resulted in steeper-sided volcanoes through experimentation. Students built their own volcanoes by erupting lava (foods of various viscosities) onto the Earth's surface (a piece of sturdy cardboard with a hole for the 'vent') through a conduit (pastry bag). Such a hands on lab exercise allows students to gain a tactile and visual, i.e., physical representation of an abstract concept. This specific exercise was supported by other, more traditional, means of representation (e.g., lecture, videos, cartoons, 3D
Jayson M. Nissen
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men’s and women’s physics self-efficacy, which comprises students’ thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women’s self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM. We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students’ feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i an introductory IE physics course, (ii students’ other introductory STEM courses, (iii their non-STEM courses, and (iv their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women’s self-efficacy was not reliably different from men’s. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women’s self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE
The Chern-Simons (CS) form evolved from an obstruction in mathematics into an important object in theoretical physics. In fact, the presence of CS terms in physics is more common than one may think. They are found in the studies of anomalies in quantum field theories and as Lagrangians for gauge fields, including gravity and supergravity. They seem to play an important role in high Tc superconductivity and in recently discovered topological insulators. CS forms are also the natural generalization of the minimal coupling between the electromagnetic field and a point charge when the source is not point-like but an extended fundamental object, a membrane. A cursory review of these ideas is presented at an introductory level.
Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo
The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Kristensen, Jens Thyge; Rischel, Hans
This paper presents an introductory programming course designed to teach programming as an intellectual activity. The course emphasizes understandable concepts which can be useful in designing programs, while the oddities of today's technology are considered of secondary importance. An important...... goal is to fight the trial-and-error approach to programming which is a result of the students battles with horribly designed and documented systems and languages prior to their studies at university. Instead, the authors strive for giving the students a good experience of programming as a systematic......, intellectual activity where the solution of a programming problem can be described in an understandable way. The approach is illustrated by an example which is a commented solution of a problem posed to the students in the course....
Lee, Cherin Ann
The nature of an undergraduate, nonmajors biology laboratory was investigated in this study. Student participants were enrolled in a general education biology laboratory course at the University of Northern Iowa. The researcher's purpose was to gain a characterization of the instructional format and laboratory activities experienced by students. Interpretation of student and instructor responses enabled an insider's view of the biology laboratory. The laboratory period was consistently described by both students and instructors as having three parts, Beginning, Middle, and End, with the End being of special importance for conceptual development. The instructional format of the three instructors differed within the three portions of the laboratory period, ranging from an inquiry-oriented, partial learning cycle to a fairly expository model labeled inform/verify/practice. There was striking similarity in intrasectional student and teacher descriptions of instructional format. Additionally, students experiencing the alternate instructor provided the same characterizations of instructional format as those provided by the instructor's usual students. There were no discernible patterns of instructional format based on sex or reasoning level. In addition to the central role of instructional format, three areas of importance emerged: the social aspects of learning, the collaborative and cooperative nature of laboratory work and learning, and the role of self-efficacy. Theory developed from and grounded in the data showed six factors important in the introductory college biology laboratory: collaborative and cooperative learning, student-student and teacher-student interactions, attitude and self-efficacy, learning process and learning style, effective instructional format, and science content. These factors were found to be similar to factors identified in the literature as important in K-12 science education. These factors were set in the context of schooling and learning
Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.
Amy H. Auchincloss
Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.
Auchincloss, Amy H; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro
There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.
There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)
Orear, Jay; Salpeter, E. E.
Discusses the phenomenon of formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes from dying stars for the purpose of providing college teachers with materials usable in the introductory physics course. (CC)
Students taught. Introductory Technology through team teaching approach performed ... Vocational education differs in both concept and status in different nations of ... completion of the course, can carry out simple daily maintenance of motor.
King, Cynthia M.
Outlines an introductory public relations writing course. Presents course topics and objectives, and assignments designed to meet them. Provides a sample grading rubric and evaluates major public relations writing textbooks. Discusses learning and assessment strategies. (SR)
Everson, Michelle; Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan
This article introduces the recently adopted Guidelines for the Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) and provides two examples of introductory statistics courses that have been redesigned to better align with these guidelines.
Feiner, Susan F.; Morgan, Barbara A.
Reviews widely-used introductory economics textbooks, examining how issues relating to race and gender are treated. Suggests how stereotypical roles could be avoided in the future. Includes a table summarizing data from 21 textbooks. (Author/DH)
Fundamentals of Aerospace Engineering is a text book that provides an introductory, thorough overview of aeronautical engineering, and it is aimed at serving as reference for an undergraduate course on aerospace engineering.
Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.; O'Brien, George E.; Rodriguez, Idaykis; Pamelá, Priscilla
We report the results of a five year evaluation of the reform of introductory calculus-based physics by implementation of Modeling Instruction (MI) at Florida International University (FIU), a Hispanic-serving institution. MI is described in the context of FIU’s overall effort to enhance student participation in physics and science broadly. Our analysis of MI from a “participationist” perspective on learning identifies aspects of MI including conceptually based instruction, culturally sensitive instruction, and cooperative group learning, which are consistent with research on supporting equitable learning and participation by students historically under-represented in physics (i.e., Black, Hispanic, women). This study uses markers of conceptual understanding as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and odds of success as measured by the ratio of students completing introductory physics and earning a passing grade (i.e., C- or better) by students historically under-represented in physics to reflect equity and participation in introductory physics. FCI pre and post scores for students in MI are compared with lecture-format taught students. Modeling Instruction students outperform students taught in lecture-format classes on post instruction FCI (61.9% vs 47.9%, p<0.001 ), where these benefits are seen across both ethnic and gender comparisons. In addition, we report that the odds of success in MI are 6.73 times greater than in lecture instruction. Both odds of success and FCI scores within Modeling Instruction are further disaggregated by ethnicity and by gender to address the question of equity within the treatment. The results of this disaggregation indicate that although ethnically under-represented students enter with lower overall conceptual understanding scores, the gap is not widened during introductory physics but instead is maintained, and the odds of success for under-represented students is not different from majority students. Women
Full Text Available We report the results of a five year evaluation of the reform of introductory calculus-based physics by implementation of Modeling Instruction (MI at Florida International University (FIU, a Hispanic-serving institution. MI is described in the context of FIU’s overall effort to enhance student participation in physics and science broadly. Our analysis of MI from a “participationist” perspective on learning identifies aspects of MI including conceptually based instruction, culturally sensitive instruction, and cooperative group learning, which are consistent with research on supporting equitable learning and participation by students historically under-represented in physics (i.e., Black, Hispanic, women. This study uses markers of conceptual understanding as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI and odds of success as measured by the ratio of students completing introductory physics and earning a passing grade (i.e., C− or better by students historically under-represented in physics to reflect equity and participation in introductory physics. FCI pre and post scores for students in MI are compared with lecture-format taught students. Modeling Instruction students outperform students taught in lecture-format classes on post instruction FCI (61.9% vs 47.9%, p<0.001, where these benefits are seen across both ethnic and gender comparisons. In addition, we report that the odds of success in MI are 6.73 times greater than in lecture instruction. Both odds of success and FCI scores within Modeling Instruction are further disaggregated by ethnicity and by gender to address the question of equity within the treatment. The results of this disaggregation indicate that although ethnically under-represented students enter with lower overall conceptual understanding scores, the gap is not widened during introductory physics but instead is maintained, and the odds of success for under-represented students is not different from majority students
After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.
Kim, Dae Mann
The result of the nano education project run by the Korean Nano Technology Initiative, this has been recommended for use as official textbook by the Korean Nanotechnology Research Society. The author is highly experienced in teaching both physics and engineering in academia and industry, and naturally adopts an interdisciplinary approach here. He is short on formulations but long on applications, allowing students to understand the essential workings of quantum mechanics without spending too much time covering the wide realms of physics. He takes care to provide sufficient technical background and motivation for students to pursue further studies of advanced quantum mechanics and stresses the importance of translating quantum insights into useful and tangible innovations and inventions. As such, this is the only work to cover semiconductor nanotechnology from the perspective of introductory quantum mechanics, with applications including mainstream semiconductor technologies as well as (nano)devices, ranging from photodetectors, laser diodes, and solar cells to transistors and Schottky contacts. Problems are also provided to test the reader's understanding and supplementary material available includes working presentation files, solutions and instructors manuals. (orig.)
Full Text Available Gender differences in student learning in the introductory, calculus-based electricity and magnetism course were assessed by administering the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism pre- and postcourse. As expected, male students outgained females in traditionally taught sections as well as sections that incorporated interactive engagement (IE techniques. In two of the IE course sections, however, the gains of female students were comparable to those of male students. Classroom observations of the course sections involved were made over an extended period. In this paper, we characterize the observed instructor-student interactions using a framework from educational psychology referred to as wise schooling. Results suggest that instructor practices affect differential learning, and that wise schooling techniques may constitute an effective strategy for promoting gender equity in the physics classroom.
Kreutzer, Kimberley; Boudreaux, Andrew
Gender differences in student learning in the introductory, calculus-based electricity and magnetism course were assessed by administering the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism pre- and postcourse. As expected, male students outgained females in traditionally taught sections as well as sections that incorporated interactive engagement (IE) techniques. In two of the IE course sections, however, the gains of female students were comparable to those of male students. Classroom observations of the course sections involved were made over an extended period. In this paper, we characterize the observed instructor-student interactions using a framework from educational psychology referred to as wise schooling. Results suggest that instructor practices affect differential learning, and that wise schooling techniques may constitute an effective strategy for promoting gender equity in the physics classroom.
Gurung, Regan A R; Hackathorn, Jana; Enns, Carolyn; Frantz, Susan; Cacioppo, John T; Loop, Trudy; Freeman, James E
Introductory psychology (Intro Psych) is one of the most popular and frequently taught courses on college campuses, yet educators in psychology have limited knowledge about what is covered in classes around the nation or the extent to which class content reflects the current scope of the discipline. There is no explicit model to guide course content selection for the intro course, which poses substantial challenges for instructors. This article proposes a new model for teaching the intro course that integrates (a) scientific foundations, (b) 5 major domains or pillars of knowledge (biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, and mental and physical health), and (c) cross-cutting themes relevant to all domains (cultural and social diversity, ethics, variations in human functioning, and applications; American Psychological Association, 2014). We advocate for national assessment of the course, a similar introductory course for majors and nonmajors, the inclusion of experiential or laboratory components, and additional training resources for instructors of the intro course. Given the exponential growth of psychological knowledge and applications during the past decades, we caution against attempting to provide exhaustive coverage of all topic areas of psychology in a one-semester course. We conclude by discussing the challenges that lie ahead for the discipline of psychology as it launches this new model for Intro Psych. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Schools K-12, School locations within Sedgwick County. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include school name, class, funding source, address, and parachial status. Published to scschoop.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Schools K-12 dataset current as of 2008. School locations within Sedgwick County. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include...
Smith, Rachel Clara
The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.
Watkins, Jessica Ellen
In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.
Manduca, C.; Tewksbury, B.; Egger, A.; MacDonald, H.; Kirk, K.
Introductory undergraduate courses play a pivotal role in the geosciences. They serve as recruiting grounds for majors and future professionals, provide relevant experiences in geoscience for pre-service teachers, and offer opportunities to influence future policy makers, business people, professionals, and citizens. An introductory course is also typically the only course in geoscience that most of our students will ever take. Because the role of introductory courses is pivotal in geoscience education, a workshop on Teaching Introductory Courses in the 21st Century was held in July 2008 as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty development program. A website was also developed in conjunction with the workshop. One of the central themes of the workshop was the importance of considering the long-term impact a course should have on students. Ideally, courses can be designed with this impact in mind. Approaches include using the local geology to focus the course and illustrate concepts; designing a course for particular audience (such as Geology for Engineers); creating course features that help students understand and interpret geoscience in the news; and developing capstone projects to teach critical thinking and problem solving skills in a geologic context. Workshop participants also explored strategies for designing engaging activities including exploring with Google Earth, using real-world scenarios, connecting with popular media, or making use of campus features on local field trips. In addition, introductory courses can emphasize broad skills such as teaching the process of science, using quantitative reasoning and developing communication skills. Materials from the workshop as well as descriptions of more than 150 introductory courses and 350 introductory-level activities are available on the website: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/index.html.
Boske, Christa A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…
Brennan, Linda L.; Austin, Walter W.
The accreditation standards of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) ask business schools to describe consistent processes that provide for operational consistency and continuous improvement in support of the schools' stated missions. This article addresses the identification of requisite quality…
Full Text Available The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking three introductory physics classes, each with more than a hundred students, to categorize mechanics problems based upon similarity of solution. We compare their categorization with those of physics graduate students and faculty members. To evaluate the effect of problem context on students’ ability to categorize, two sets of problems were developed for categorization. Some problems in one set included those available from the prior study by Chi et al. We find a large overlap between calculus-based introductory students and graduate students with regard to their categorizations that were assessed as “good.” Our findings, which contrast with those of Chi et al., suggest that there is a wide distribution of expertise in mechanics among introductory and graduate students. Although the categorization task is conceptual, introductory students in the calculus-based course performed better than those in the algebra-based course. Qualitative trends in categorization of problems are similar between the non-Chi problems and problems available from the Chi study used in our study although the Chi problems used are more difficult on average.
LaPointe, Richard T.; And Others
A crisis can occur at any time, whether or not a school's staff plans for it. This resource guide is a compilation of user-friendly examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, and forms to help Virginia schools develop and implement a systematic crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the essential…
Tron, Esther O., Comp.
This compendium describes the programs of state financial aid to school districts that were in effect in the 1978-79 school year. The introductory section of the report is an analysis of the situation and contains summary tables. The report for each state consists of two parts. The first part reports features of the state and local systems of…
Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth
We describe restructuring the introductory physics for life science students (IPLS) course to better support these students in using physics to understand their chosen fields. Our courses teach physics using biologically rich contexts. Specifically, we use examples in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding a biological system to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires selecting the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology while maintaining the fundamental disciplinary structure of physics. In addition to stressing the importance of the fundamental principles of physics, an important goal is developing students' quantitative and problem solving skills. Our guiding pedagogical framework is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively when students can articulate why what they are learning matters to them. In this article, we describe our courses, summarize initial assessment data, and identify needs for future research.
Teaching introductory physics is arguably one of the most important things that a physics department does. It is the primary way that students from other science disciplines engage with physics and it is the introduction to physics for majors. Modeling instruction is an active learning strategy for introductory physics built on the premise that science proceeds through the iterative process of model construction, development, deployment, and revision. We describe the role that participating in authentic modeling has in learning and then explore how students engage in this process in the classroom. In this presentation, we provide a theoretical background on models and modeling and describe how these theoretical elements are enacted in the introductory university physics classroom. We provide both quantitative and video data to link the development of a conceptual model to the design of the learning environment and to student outcomes. This work is supported in part by DUE #1140706.
Wise, Paula Sachs
This study indicates that introductory psychology textbooks ignore the role of the psychologist in the schools. Out of 84 textbooks, only 26 described the school psychologist. When 12 students analyzed these available descriptions for five skill types, no coherent images of school psychologists emerged. (AM)
Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Justason, Michael; Meyertholen, Andrew; Wilson, Brian
We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument. We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory (FCI), both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.
Maleyeff, John; Kaminsky, Frank C.
A conflict exists between the way statistics is practiced in contemporary business environments and the way statistics is taught in schools of management. While businesses are embracing programs, such as six sigma and TQM, that bring statistical methods to the forefront of management decision making, students do not graduate with the skills to…
... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES... employee employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity (including any... secondary schools), or in the capacity of an outside sales employee, as such terms are defined and delimited...
Howell, J. Emory
Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory
Ristić Jovan D.
Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .
Textbooks are powerful technologies that are foundational to introductory level courses. In the research site of an introductory economic classroom, the textbook is positioned as having status similar to that of a canonical religious text. This study investigated how student reading and writing can be problematic when introductory level courses…
Griggs, Richard A.
To determine how topical coverage in introductory textbooks may have changed from the 1980s to the present, the author examined topic coverage in full-length and brief introductory textbooks from this time period. Because 98% of the teachers use textbooks for the introductory course and the majority do not assign reading beyond the textbook, the…
Marcketti, Sara B.; Wang, Xinxin; Greder, Kate
At Iowa State University, the introductory textile science course is a required 4-credit class for all undergraduate students enrolled in the Apparel, Merchandising, and Design Program. Frustrated by a perceived gap between students who easily comprehended course material and those who complained and struggled, the instructor implemented an…
Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna
The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…
Broeckelman-Post, Melissa A.; Pyle, Andrew S.
The purpose of this study was to compare student growth in public speaking and hybrid introductory communication skills courses on four outcomes: public speaking anxiety, self-perceived communication competence, intercultural effectiveness, and connected classroom climate. This study also sought to find out whether there were differences in the…
Malone, Marc P.
When students enter the basic public speaking classroom,When students enter the basic public speaking classroom, they are asked to develop an introductory speech. This assignment typically focuses on a speech of self-introduction for which there are several pedagogical underpinnings: it provides an immediate and relatively stress-free speaking…
Towner, Terri L.
Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…
Haley, M. Ryan; Johnson, Marianne F.; Kuennen, Eric W.
Studies have yielded highly mixed results as to differences in male and female student performance in statistics courses; the role that professors play in these differences is even less clear. In this paper, we consider the impact of professor and student gender on student performance in an introductory business statistics course taught by…
Introductory textbooks teach a simple normative story about the importance of maximizing economic surplus that supports common policy claims. There is little defense of the claim that maximizing surplus is normatively important, which is not obvious to non-economists. Difficulties with the claim that society should maximize surplus are generally…
Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…
The author examines the effects of different introductory microeconomics textbooks on student performance in subsequent economics courses (specifically, Intermediate Microeconomics I and Money and Banking). In some cases, the effects are significant and sizeable. There is also evidence of other variables affecting student performance in later…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija
University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…
learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what ... Here, one has to differentiate between an introduction in a book and one in a .... study will analyze, compare and criticize the introductory matter in a set of .... designed for native speakers of English, especially for comprehension and.
Goldsmith, David W.
For the past 5 years I have been teaching my introductory geology class using a case-based method that promotes student engagement and inquiry. This article presents an explanation of how a case-based curriculum differs from a more traditional approach to the material. It also presents a statistical analysis of several years' worth of student…
Budd, D. A.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K. J.; McConnell, D. A.; Vislova, T.
Most research about reformed teaching practices in the college science classroom is based on instructor self-report. This research describes what is happening in some introductory geology courses at multiple institutions across the country using external observers. These observations are quantified using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol…
This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…
Chirdon, William M.
This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon
Twenty-four free-response questions were developed to explore introductory college astronomy students' understanding of gravity in a variety of contexts, including in and around Earth, throughout the solar system, and in hypothetical situations. Questions were separated into three questionnaires, each of which was given to a section of…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam
Explores changes in the introductory psychology textbook market through an analysis of edition, author, length, and content coverage of the volumes that comprise the current market. Finds a higher edition average, a decrease in the number of authors, an increase in text pages, and a focus on developmental psychology and sensation/perception. (CMK)
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
Surveys psychology textbook authors and editors on their perceptions of the introductory psychology textbook market. Finds that the textbook market is divided into three levels according to quality, and that authors and editors are not familiar with most textbooks. Notes that the growth of used book companies has adversely affected the market.…
Lynch, Patrick; S. J.; Mizak, Pat
A growing interest in the communication to students of the mission and identity of a higher education institution prompted this study about the presence of Catholic, Jesuit values in the introductory religious studies course at a faith-based university. To conduct this study a survey instrument was developed, piloted, further refined, and then…
Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei
We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an…
Magalhães, Marcos Nascimento; Magalhães, Maria Cecilia Camargo
In this paper, we report on the impact of four activities and two interviews on the organization of an introductory statistics course attended by future mathematics teachers at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activities were designed to enhance students' learning and collaborative knowledge construction, based on Vygotsky's…
This paper analyses introductory statistics students' verbal and gestural expressions as they interacted with a dynamic sketch (DS) designed using "Sketchpad" software. The DS involved numeric data points built on the number line whose values changed as the points were dragged along the number line. The study is framed on aggregate…
Hall, Megan R.; Rowell, Ginger Holmes
This paper describes 27 National Science Foundation supported grant projects that have innovations designed to improve teaching and learning in introductory statistics courses. The characteristics of these projects are compared with the six recommendations given in the "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)…
van Es, Cindy; Weaver, Michelle M.
The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics or SATS was administered for three consecutive years to students in an Introductory Statistics course at Cornell University. Questions requesting demographic information and expected final course grade were added. Responses were analyzed to investigate possible differences between sexes and racial/ethnic…
Childers, Adam F.
Facebook provides businesses and organizations with copious data that describe how users are interacting with their page. This data affords an excellent opportunity to turn introductory statistics students into consultants to analyze the Facebook data using descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper details a semester-long project that…
Spence, Dianna J.; Bailey, Brad; Sharp, Julia L.
A multi-year study investigated the impact of incorporating student-directed discovery projects into introductory statistics courses. Pilot instructors at institutions across the United States taught statistics implementing student-directed projects with the help of a common set of instructional materials designed to facilitate such projects.…
Doehler, Kirsten; Taylor, Laura
This article is based on the experiences of two statistics professors who have taught students to write and effectively utilize code-based software in a college-level introductory statistics course. Advantages of using software and code-based software in this context are discussed. Suggestions are made on how to ease students into using code with…
This paper shows how the application of simple statistical methods can reveal to students important insights from climate data. While the popular press is filled with contradictory opinions about climate science, teachers can encourage students to use introductory-level statistics to analyze data for themselves on this important issue in public…
Casleton, Emily; Beyler, Amy; Genschel, Ulrike; Wilson, Alyson
Undergraduate students who have just completed an introductory statistics course often lack deep understanding of variability and enthusiasm for the field of statistics. This paper argues that by introducing the commonly underemphasized concept of measurement error, students will have a better chance of attaining both. We further present lecture…
This introductory lesson on teaching economics concepts contains sections on the following: purpose; objectives; time; materials needed; and step-by-step classroom procedures. The focus is on the economic problem of scarcity and opportunity costs. Attached is an original skit, "There's no such thing as a free lunch," and a chart that…
Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.
The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…
Woods, David M.
Cloud computing is a rapidly emerging topic, but should it be included in an introductory IT course? The magnitude of cloud computing use, especially cloud infrastructure, along with students' limited knowledge of the topic support adding cloud content to the IT curriculum. There are several arguments that support including cloud computing in an…
Piccioni, R. G.
Too often, students in introductory courses are left with the impression that Einstein's special theory of relativity comes into play only when the relative speed of two objects is an appreciable fraction of the speed of light ("c"). In fact, relativistic length contraction, along with Coulomb's law, accounts quantitatively for the force on a…
Teixeira, Cláudia; Gomes, Delfina; Borges, Janete
The focus of this paper is an investigation into the approaches to studying of Portuguese students of introductory accounting using the short version of the ASSIST instrument. In doing so, it also examined the impact upon the strategy adopted of the discipline area of students and gender. The results validate the use of the inventory with students…
Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.
Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking…
MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL NAVEED
Full Text Available Programming is the core of computer science and due to this momentousness a special care is taken in designing the curriculum of programming courses. A substantial work has been conducted on the definition of programming courses, yet the introductory programming courses are still facing high attrition, low retention and lack of motivation. This paper introduced a tiny pre-programming language called LPL (Learners Programming Language as a ZPL (Zeroth Programming Language to illuminate novice students about elementary concepts of introductory programming before introducing the first imperative programming course. The overall objective and design philosophy of LPL is based on a hypothesis that the soft introduction of a simple and paradigm specific textual programming can increase the motivation level of novice students and reduce the congenital complexities and hardness of the first programming course and eventually improve the retention rate and may be fruitful in reducing the dropout/failure level. LPL also generates the equivalent high level programs from user source program and eventually very fruitful in understanding the syntax of introductory programming languages. To overcome the inherent complexities of unusual and rigid syntax of introductory programming languages, the LPL provide elementary programming concepts in the form of algorithmic and plain natural language based computational statements. The initial results obtained after the introduction of LPL are very encouraging in motivating novice students and improving the retention rate.
Pool, Richard F.; Turner, Gregory D.; Böttger, S. Anne
In recent years the need for ecological literacy and problem solving has increased, but there is no evidence that this need is reflected by increased ecology coverage at institutions of higher education (IHE) across the United States. Because introductory biology courses may serve to direct student interest toward particular biological categories…
Skolnick, Michael M.; Spooner, David L.
Modern computing systems exploit graphical user interfaces for interaction with users; as a result, introductory computer science courses must begin to teach the principles underlying such interfaces. This paper presents an approach to graphical user interface (GUI) implementation that is simple enough for beginning students to understand, yet…
Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa
Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…
Walvoord, Barbara E.
A study of sixty-six highly effective teachers of introductory theology and religion courses in various types of institutions reveals very complex challenges for instructors. The majority of students have as a goal their own religious and spiritual development. Faculty members' most frequent goal is critical thinking. Students much less frequently…
These introductory remarks deal with the reasons why the EPPO is perceived by some as a controversial body. These reasons are mirrored with the problem identification and the causes thereof. The size of EU fraud and related corruption and money laundering, both at the income and expenditure side, is
McGuinness, Michael J.
An international business simulation game designed for an introductory International Business course. The simulation game allows for student decision making and allows for the ready introduction of many topics which are covered in an International Business course. The simulation game has continued to be improved with student suggestions and has…
Ali, Azad; Smith, David
A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…
Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.
Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…
Podell, Joel; And Others
Describes various methodologies used at the Queensboro Community College, New York, to enrich some of the topics traditionally included in the introductory course such as union management relations, social responsibility and business ethics, internal organization structure, and small business management. (TA)
Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.
Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…
Shulman, Joel I.
Many of the principles of organic polymer chemistry are direct extensions of the information contained in the standard introductory organic chemistry course. Often, however, the discussion of macromolecules is relegated to a chapter at the end of the organic chemistry text and is covered briefly, if at all. Connecting the organic-chemical…
Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.
We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of…
This paper empirically enlists Python plagiarism attacks that have been found on Introductory Programming course assignments for undergraduate students. According to our observation toward 400 plagiarism-suspected cases, there are 35 plagiarism attacks that have been conducted by students. It starts with comment & whitespace modification as…
Cotner, Sehoya; Gallup, Gordon G., Jr.
The typical introductory biology curriculum includes the nature of science, evolution and genetics. Laboratory activities are designed to engage students in typical subject areas ranging from cell biology and physiology, to ecology and evolution. There are few, if any, laboratory classes exploring the biology and evolution of human sexual…
McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart
Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…
Magloughlin, J. F.
For the past several years, I have been creating short videos for use in large-enrollment introductory physical geology classes. The motivation for this project included 1) lack of appropriate depth in existing videos, 2) engagement of non-science students, 3) student indifference to traditional textbooks, 4) a desire to share the visual splendor of geology through virtual field trips, and 5) a desire to meld photography, animation, narration, and videography in self-contained experiences. These (HD) videos are information-intensive but short, allowing a focus on relatively narrow topics from numerous subdisciplines, incorporation into lectures to help create variety while minimally interrupting flow and holding students' attention, and manageable file sizes. Nearly all involve one or more field locations, including sites throughout the western and central continental U.S., as well as Hawaii, Italy, New Zealand, and Scotland. The limited scope of the project and motivations mentioned preclude a comprehensive treatment of geology. Instead, videos address geologic processes, locations, features, and interactions with humans. The videos have been made available via DVD and on-line streaming. Such a project requires an array of video and audio equipment and software, a broad knowledge of geology, very good computing power, adequate time, creativity, a substantial travel budget, liability insurance, elucidation of the separation (or non-separation) between such a project and other responsibilities, and, preferably but not essentially, the support of one's supervisor or academic unit. Involving students in such projects entails risks, but involving necessary technical expertise is virtually unavoidable. In my own courses, some videos are used in class and/or made available on-line as simply another aspect of the educational experience. Student response has been overwhelmingly positive, particularly when expectations of students regarding the content of the videos is made
Mason, Raina; Cooper, Graham
This paper reports on a series of introductory programming workshops, initially targeting female high school students, which utilised Lego Mindstorms robots. Cognitive load theory (CLT) was applied to the instructional design of the workshops, and a controlled experiment was also conducted investigating aspects of the interface. Results indicated that a truncated interface led to better learning by novice programmers as measured by test performance by participants, as well as enhanced shifts in self-efficacy and lowered perception of difficulty. There was also a transfer effect to another programming environment (Alice). It is argued that the results indicate that for novice programmers, the mere presence on-screen of additional (redundant) entities acts as a form of tacit distraction, thus impeding learning. The utility of CLT to analyse, design and deliver aspects of computer programming environments and instructional materials is discussed.
We are all living in the era of globalization, and like it or not, it is going to change the way we practice epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask, and the methods we use to answer them. Increasingly, pubic health problems are being shifted from rich countries to poor countries and from rich to poor populations within Western countries. There is increasing interest and concern about the situation in non-Western populations on the part of Western epidemiologists, with regards to collaborative research, skills transfer, and 'volunteerism' to enable the 'benefits' of Western approaches to epidemiology to be shared by the non-Western world. However, most existing collaborations benefit Western epidemiologists rather than the countries in which the research is conducted. Even when research in non-Western populations is conducted as a genuine collaboration, it can too often 'export failure' from the West. On the other hand, non-Western epidemiologists are increasingly developing new and innovative approaches to health research that are more appropriate to the global public health issues they are addressing. These include recognition of the importance of context and the importance of diversity and local knowledge, and a problem-based approach to addressing the major public health problems using appropriate technology. These debates formed the background for a plenary session on 'International Epidemiology and International Health' at the recent International Epidemiological Association (IEA) meeting in Montreal, and the papers from this session are presented here. The development of a truly global epidemiology can not only better address the public health problems in non-Western populations, but can shed light on the current limitations of epidemiology in addressing the major public health problems in the West.
Prof. Dr. Coskun Can Aktan
Full Text Available Regulation is one the significant economic role and function of the government.There are many types of economic regulations that might be demanded due tovarious reasons. Economists have different view and theories on economicregulations. Public interest theory of regulation explains the rationale ofregulation from the point of view of aiming public interest. Private interesttheories of regulation developed by Chicago and Virginia school of economistssuggests that regulation does not protect the public atlarge but only the interestsof special groups. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literatureconcerning regulation and also review the literature on various rationales foreconomic regulations.
Upton, Brianna; Evans, John; Morrow, Cherilynn; Thoms, Brian
Previous studies have shown that many students have misconceptions about basic concepts in physics. Moreover, it has been concluded that one of the challenges lies in the teaching methodology. To address this, Georgia State University has begun teaching studio algebra-based physics. Although many institutions have implemented studio physics, most have done so in calculus-based sequences. The effectiveness of the studio approach in an algebra-based introductory physics course needs further investigation. A 3-semester study assessing the effectiveness of studio physics in an algebra-based physics sequence has been performed. This study compares the results of student pre- and post-tests using the Force Concept Inventory. Using the results from this assessment tool, we will discuss the effectiveness of the studio approach to teaching physics at GSU.
Chu, I.-Wen Mike; Cronkhite, Jeff
We present a new effort on teaching introductory astronomy addressing the specific challenges facing small colleges including limited resources, changing generational behavior and new technological trends. The approach adopts open source solutions into the developmental learning materials aiming for standardization and wide-scale applicability. In addition we utilize events and resources outside classroom into the learning. Among examples of the development are laboratory exercises based on the planetarium software Stellarium and remediation exercises using Khan Academy instructional videos. As the eventual goal is to move toward greater autonomy the cycles of improvement necessarily require student feedback in an entirely different instructional style based on egalitarian dialogues. We highlight a laboratory exercise on Earth-Moon distance estimation using parallax of the upcoming 2017 solar eclipse to illustrate the "open and out" philosophy. Achievements, limitations and some diagnostics of the current effort are also presented.
Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.
Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.
Research suggests that students benefit from peer interaction and active engagement in the classroom. The quality, nature, effect of these interactions is currently being explored by Physics Education Researchers. Spelman College offers an introductory physics sequence that addresses content and research skills by engaging students in open-ended research projects, a form of Project-Based Learning. Students have been surveyed at regular intervals during the second semester of trigonometry-based course to determine the frequency of interactions in and out of class. These interactions can be with current or past students, tutors, and instructors. This line of inquiry focuses on metrics of Social Network analysis, such as centrality of participants as well as segmentation of groups. Further research will refine and highlight deeper questions regarding student performance in this pedagogy and course sequence.
R. Elisabeth Cornwell
Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.
M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...
Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Daube, Mike; Jones, Sandra C; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Kirby, Gary
This study qualitatively explored Western Australian school leavers' alcohol-related experiences during the Schoolies period to generate insights for the purpose of intervention design. This is in the context of an impending change in the age of Western Australian students completing secondary school which, for the first time, will see around half being of legal age to purchase alcohol. Fifty-four 18-21-year-olds provided reflections via an emailed introspection on their experiences in the immediate post-school period. This provided access to the views of those who chose to attend events and consume large amounts of alcohol, those who attended events but refrained from excessive alcohol consumption, and those who elected to either avoid Schoolies events or engage in alternative celebrations. The data were coded and analysed using NVivo10. Three primary themes were identified that related to the perceived role of alcohol during Schoolies, the range of associated rite-of-passage rituals, and the strategies used by some Leavers to avoid alcohol and its consequences during the Schoolies period. Students and parents constitute important target groups for interventions designed to address alcohol-related harms during Schoolies. In the WA context, legislation on secondary supply and controlled purchase, as recommended by health and police authorities, could reduce harms that are likely to result from the change in the age of school leavers. Suggestions for alternative pastimes to promote to school leavers are provided. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Concussion in High School Sports: Overall Estimate of Occurrence Is Not Available, but Key State Laws and Nationwide Guidelines Address Injury Management. Testimony before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-10-569T
Kohn, Linda T.
Participation in school sports can benefit children but also carries a risk of injury, including concussion. Concussion is a brain injury that can affect memory, speech, and muscle coordination and can cause permanent disability or death. Concussion can be especially serious for children, who are more likely than adults both to sustain a…
Nuffer, Wesley; Botts, Sheila; Franson, Kari; Gilliam, Eric; Knutsen, Randy; Nuffer, Monika; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Saseen, Joseph; Thompson, Megan; Vande Griend, Joseph; Willis, Robert
The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) used the opportunity of curriculum renewal to integrate knowledge and skills learned from didactic courses into the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) occurring simultaneously. This paper describes and evaluates the meaningful application of course content into IPPEs, and evaluates the success using qualitative feedback. Students entering the renewed curriculum starting in fall 2012 were provided a list of pharmacy skills and activities from didactic course directors that reinforced course content for that semester. The skills and activities were to be completed during the students' IPPE visits in the community or health systems settings, depending on the program year and semester. Students successfully completed course assignments during their IPPE course program. Not all activities could be completed as designed, and many required modification, including simulated experiences. Feedback from faculty and preceptor members of the school's experiential education committee demonstrated that these activities were valuable and improved learning of course material, but were challenging to implement. A renewed curriculum that mapped course assignments for completion in experiential settings was successfully established, after some modifications. The program was modified at regular intervals to improve the ability of preceptors to complete these activities in their individual practice environment. A balance between the school providing guidance on what activities students should perform and allowing unstructured independent learning with the preceptor is needed for an optimal experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.
Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.
Lauren E. Kost
Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2. The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.
Steven J. Pollock
Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.
Kautz, Christian Hans
This dissertation reports on an in-depth investigation of student understanding of the ideal gas law. The research and curriculum development were mostly conducted in the context of algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses and a sophomore-level thermal physics course. Research methods included individual demonstration interviews and written questions. Student difficulties with the quantities: pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles were identified. Data suggest that students' incorrect and incomplete microscopic models about gases contribute to the difficulties they have in answering questions posed in macroscopic terms. In addition, evidence for general reasoning difficulties is presented. These research results have guided the development of curriculum to address the student difficulties that have been identified.
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…
IKIGAI: Reflection on Life Goals Optimizes Performance and Happiness : Address delivered in shortened form on the occasion of accepting the appointment of Professor of Behaviour and Performance Management at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University
M.C. Schippers (Michaéla)
textabstractIn her inaugural address, Michaéla discusses the role of self-regulatory behaviors that people can employ in order to live a full-filling life. These behaviors include reflection and personal goal setting, in order to formulate a direction or purpose in life (Ikigai). In the inaugural
Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.
In the physics education research community, a common format for evaluation is pre- and post-tests. In this study, we collect student test data many times throughout a course, allowing for the measurement of the changes of student knowledge with a time resolution on the order of a few days. The data cover the first two quarters (mechanics, E&M) of a calculus-based introductory sequence populated primarily by first- and second-year engineering majors. To avoid the possibility of test-retest effects, separate and quasi-random subpopulations of students are evaluated every week of the quarter on a variety of tasks. Unsurprisingly for a traditional introductory course, there is little change on many conceptual questions. However, the data suggest that some student ideas peak and decay rapidly during a quarter, a pattern consistent with memory research yet unmeasurable by pre-/post-testing.
Beckey, Jacob; Baker, Andrew; Aravind, Vasudeva; Clarion Team
As a part of introductory physics courses, students perform different standard lab experiments. Almost all of these experiments are prone to errors owing to factors like friction, misalignment of equipment, air drag, etc. Usually these types of errors are ignored by students and not much thought is paid to the source of these errors. However, paying attention to these factors that give rise to errors help students make better physics models and understand physical phenomena behind experiments in more detail. In this work, we explore common causes of errors in introductory physics experiment and suggest changes that will mitigate the errors, or suggest models that take the sources of these errors into consideration. This work helps students build better and refined physical models and understand physics concepts in greater detail. We thank Clarion University undergraduate student grant for financial support involving this project.
Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.
Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.
Poduska, Ervin L.; Lunetta, Vincent N.
To what extent should technology and applied physics be included in introductory physics courses? What is the proper balance between pure and applied physics? Should physics teachers devote precious time to socially relevant issues like nuclear power and alternative sources of energy? How much time should be spent, if any, on applications that are more relevant to the student's world like cars, music, television and refrigeration? Does including applications reduce or enhance student understanding of important classical topics? A response to these questions must be based on goals for physics teaching, on knowledge of how students learn and on the nature of the physics discipline. Since there is not enough time to teach everything in an introductory course, priorities must be determined.
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS by Matthew D. Gray September...AND SUBTITLE DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CNS-1111445 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew D. Gray 7...Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude
Howe, James; Sitar, David J.
After presenting at the North Carolina Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers during the fall 2016 meeting, we were encouraged to turn our poster into a paper. This article describes the strengthening of a bright star spectroscopy lab activity for introductory astronomy lab students (AST1002) at Appalachian State University. Explanations of the tools and methods used in the activity are included, particularly the preparation of additional materials using RSpec and calibrated instrument response curves.
Gary Gladding; Tim Stelzer; Michael Scott
The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study, the reliability and validity of scores from multiple-choice exams written for and administered in the large introductory physics courses at the Unive...
These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS '96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs
International audience; Prior formative assessment research has shown positive achievement gains when classes using formative assessment are compared to classes that do not. However, little is known about what, if any, benefits of formative assessment occur within a class. The purpose of this study was to investigate the achievement of the students in introductory calculus using formative assessment at the two different participation levels observed in class. Although there was no significant...
Planinsic, Gorazd; Lindell, Anssi; Remskar, Maja
We present three experimental themes and one discussion theme that proved to be suitable for introducing nanoscience through topics that can be integrated into the existing introductory physics or teacher training courses. The experimental themes include two teaching models of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an experiment with an elastic optical grating. They are all based on simple experiments that give also quantitative results and can be explained using basic physics theory.
Planinsic, Gorazd [Faculty for Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lindell, Anssi [Department of Teacher Education, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Remskar, Maja [Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
We present three experimental themes and one discussion theme that proved to be suitable for introducing nanoscience through topics that can be integrated into the existing introductory physics or teacher training courses. The experimental themes include two teaching models of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an experiment with an elastic optical grating. They are all based on simple experiments that give also quantitative results and can be explained using basic physics theory.
Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei
We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an upper-division course in computational neuroscience. We provide a description of each course, detailed syllabi, examples of content, and a brief discussion of the main issues encountered in developing and offering the courses.
Dake, L. S.
Several years ago I had to select a new textbook for my calculus-based introductory physics class. I subscribe to Just-in-Time Teaching methods,1 which require students to read the book before the material is covered in class. Thus, the readability of the text by the students is critical. However, I did not feel that I was the best judge of this…
Jayal, A; Lauria, S; Tucker, A; Swift, S
This paper compares two different approaches of teaching introductory programming by quantitatively analysing the student assessments in a real classroom. The first approach is to emphasise the principles of object-oriented programming and design using Java from the very beginning. The second approach is to first teach the basic programming concepts (loops, branch, and use of libraries) using Python and then move on to oriented programming using Java. Each approach was adopted for one academi...
OKUR , Prof.Dr. Mehmet C.
Teaching object oriented programming has become a rapidly expanding preference at various educational environments. However, teachers usually experience problems when introducing object oriented concepts and programming to beginners. How to teach the fundamentals of object oriented programming at an introductory level course is still a common subject for debate. In this paper, an evaluation of these problems is presented and some possible approaches for improving the quality and success of su...
Blissitt, Andrea Marie
Currently, many undergraduate nursing courses use blended-learning course formats with success; however, little evidence exists that supports the use of blended formats in introductory pathophysiology courses. The purpose of this study was to compare the scores on pre- and posttests and course satisfaction between traditional and blended course formats in an introductory nursing pathophysiology course. This study used a quantitative, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of covariance compared pre- and posttest scores, and a t test for independent samples compared students' reported course satisfaction of the traditional and blended course formats. Results indicated that the differences in posttest scores were not statistically significant between groups. Students in the traditional group reported statistically significantly higher satisfaction ratings than students in the blended group. The results of this study support the need for further research of using blended learning in introductory pathophysiology courses in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing programs. Further investigation into how satisfaction is affected by course formats is needed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Dara B. Duncan
Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.
Arabasi, Sameer; Al-Taani, Hussein
Measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle is a widely used experiment in most introductory physics laboratories. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup that takes advantage of the smartphone’s magnetometer sensor to measure the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle. This set-up will help students visualize the vector nature of the Earth’s magnetic field, especially high school and first year college students who are not quite experienced with vectors. This set-up is affordable and easy to use and could be easily produced by any high school or college physics instructor. (paper)
Arabasi, Sameer; Al-Taani, Hussein
Measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle is a widely used experiment in most introductory physics laboratories. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup that takes advantage of the smartphone’s magnetometer sensor to measure the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle. This set-up will help students visualize the vector nature of the Earth’s magnetic field, especially high school and first year college students who are not quite experienced with vectors. This set-up is affordable and easy to use and could be easily produced by any high school or college physics instructor.
Salehzadeh Einabad, Omid
Introductory physics courses often serve as gatekeepers for many scientific and engineering programs and, increasingly, colleges are relying on large, lecture formats for these courses. Many students, however, leave having learned very little physics and with poor views of the subject. In interactive engagement (IE), classroom activities encourage students to engage with each other and with physics concepts and to be actively involved in their own learning. These methods have been shown to be effective in introductory physics classes with small group recitations. This study examined student learning and views of physics in a large enrollment course that included IE methods with no separate, small-group recitations. In this study, a large, lecture-based course included activities that had students explaining their reasoning both verbally and in writing, revise their ideas about physics concepts, and apply their reasoning to various problems. The questions addressed were: (a) What do students learn about physics concepts and how does student learning in this course compare to that reported in the literature for students in a traditional course?, (b) Do students' views of physics change and how do students' views of physics compare to that reported in the literature for students in a traditional course?, and (c) Which of the instructional strategies contribute to student learning in this course? Data included: pre-post administration of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), classroom exams during the term, pre-post administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS), and student work, interviews, and open-ended surveys. The average normalized gain (=0.32) on the FCI falls within the medium-gain range as reported in the physics education literature, even though the average pre-test score was very low (30%) and this was the instructor's first implementation of IE methods. Students' views of physics remained relatively unchanged by instruction
As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information). Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...
Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.
Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper
Optometric Education, 2000
This report by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry identifies desired attributes of students graduating from schools and colleges of optometry. Introductory information includes information on the report's development and assumptions. Personal and professional attributes are then listed followed by a list of 10 knowledge-area…
This article reports an action research study that examined the Leadership Study Group, one learning activity designed to build knowledge and skills for aspiring school leaders and implemented in a six-credit introductory course for school leader certification. Through analysis of a variety of qualitative data collected over nine semesters, I…
Jennifer M. Wenner
Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website
Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.
Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and
Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned
Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.
THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...
In this article, we discuss the behavior of high-temperature superconductors and how to demonstrate them safely and effectively in the high school or introductory physics classroom. Included here is a discussion of the most relevant physics topics that can be demonstrated, some safety tips, and a bit of the history of superconductors. In an effort…
This study was conducted with the aim of creating a new introductory course emphasizing the development of technological literacy for elementary school pre-service teachers. This study also aimed to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' attitudinal transition toward elementary school technology education (ESTE) and its…
Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues
Patton, Mary Chandler
This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.
Jeffrey T. Olimpo
Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.
Bich Ha, Nguyen
Having grown rapidly during the last two decades, and successfully synthesized the achievements of physics, chemistry, life science as well as information and computational science and technology, nanoscience and nanotechnology have emerged as interdisciplinary fields of modern science and technology with various prospective applications towards environmental protection and the sustainable development of industry, agriculture, public health etc. At the present time, there exist many textbooks, monographs and encyclopedias on nanoscience and nanotechnology. They present to readers the whole process of development from the emergence of new scientific ideas to comprehensive studies of concrete subjects. They are useful for experienced scientists in nanoscience and nanotechnology as well as related scientific disciplines. However, there are very few textbooks on nanoscience and nanotechnology for beginners—senior undergraduate and junior graduate students. Published by Garland Science in August 2011, Introductory Nanoscience: Physical and Chemical Concepts by Masaru Kuno is one of these rare textbooks. The purpose of this book is twofold. In a pedagogical manner the author presents the basic physical and chemical concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Students with a background knowledge in general chemistry and semiclassical quantum physics can easily understand these concepts. On the other hand, by carefully studying the content of this textbook, readers can learn how to derive a large number of formulae and expressions which they will often use in their study as well as in their future research work. A distinguishing feature of the book is the inclusion of a large number of thought problems at the end of each chapter for demonstrating how to calculate the numerical values of almost all physical quantities involved in the theoretical and experimental studies of all subjects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The author has successfully achieved both of the
Harris, D J; Hammond, P
The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d
This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)
Jessica S. Ancker
Full Text Available Introductory statistical concepts are some of the most challenging to convey in quantitative literacy courses. Analogies supplemented by visual illustrations can be highly effective teaching tools. This literature review shows that to exploit the power of analogies, teachers must select analogies familiar to the audience, explicitly link the analog with the target concept, and avert misconceptions by explaining where the analogy fails. We provide guidance for instructors and a series of visual analogies for use in teaching medical and health statistics.
Dake, L. S.
Several years ago I had to select a new textbook for my calculus-based introductory physics class. I subscribe to Just-in-Time Teaching methods, which require students to read the book before the material is covered in class. Thus, the readability of the text by the students is critical. However, I did not feel that I was the best judge of this factor, so I turned the textbook selection into a class project. The students unanimously chose one textbook, which I have now successfully used for three years. The project was decidedly worthwhile, and I gained considerable insight into what students prefer in a textbook.
Amos, Nathaniel R.
This dissertation presents a series of studies pertaining to introductory physics students' abilities to derive physical meaning from symbolic integrals (e.g., the integral of vdt) and their components, namely differentials and differential products (e.g., dt and vdt, respectively). Our studies focus on physical meaning in the form of interpretations (e.g., "the total displacement of an object") and units (e.g., "meters"). Our first pair of studies independently attempted to identify introductory-level mechanics students' common conceptual difficulties with and unproductive interpretations of physics integrals and their components, as well as to estimate the frequencies of these difficulties. Our results confirmed some previously-observed incorrect interpretations, such as the notion that differentials are physically meaningless; however, we also uncovered two new conceptualizations of differentials, the "rate" (differentials are "rates" or "derivatives") and "instantaneous value" (differentials are values of physical variables "at an instant") interpretations, which were exhibited by more than half of our participants at least once. Our next study used linear regression analysis to estimate the strengths of the inter-connections between the abilities to derive physical meaning from each of differentials, differential products, and integrals in both first- and second-semester, calculus-based introductory physics. As part of this study, we also developed a highly reliable, multiple choice assessment designed to measure students' abilities to connect symbolic differentials, differential products, and integrals with their physical interpretations and units. Findings from this study were consistent with statistical mediation via differential products. In particular, students' abilities to extract physical meaning from differentials were seen to be strongly related to their abilities to derive physical meaning from differential products, and similarly differential
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to support a positive campaign against gender violence, or violence against women, by offering an introductory account of its symbolism. First, I set out the case for taking gender and masculinity to be the keys to understanding the symbolism of violence in the conetxt of gender relations. I then use that analysis to bring into focus those cases of violence which are otherwise hidden or unrecognised. Lastly, I offer suggestions as to how the debate may be continued.
Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha
At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics…
Logtenberg, Albert; van Boxtel, Carla; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
This study investigates questions students ask related to an introductory text about a new topic in the history classroom. The effects of a narrative, problematizing, and expository introductory text on the situational interest of students and the number and type of student-generated questions, are compared. Participants are 174 students in higher…
Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane
Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…
Srougi, Melissa C.; Miller, Heather B.
Math skills vary greatly among students enrolled in introductory chemistry courses. Students with weak math skills (algebra and below) tend to perform poorly in introductory chemistry courses, which is correlated with increased attrition rates. Previous research has shown that retention of main ideas in a peer learning environment is greater when…
Moss, Elizabeth; Cervato, Cinzia
As part of a campus-wide effort to transform introductory science courses to be more engaging and more accurately convey the excitement of discovery in science, the curriculum of an introductory physical geology lab course was redesigned. What had been a series of ''cookbook'' lab activities was transformed into a sequence of activities based on…
Hoisch, Thomas D.; Bowie, James I.
In order to guide the formulation of strategies for recruiting undergraduates into the geology program at Northern Arizona University, we surveyed 783 students in introductory geology classes and 23 geology majors in their junior and senior years. Our analysis shows that ~7% of students in the introductory classes are possible candidates for…
Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü
The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…
Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise
We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…
Waller, William H.; Slater, Timothy F.
Over the past 15 years, professional astronomers, their societies, and associated funding agencies have collaborated to improve astronomy teaching and learning at the introductory undergraduate level. Many nonscience majors and preservice teachers enroll in these introductory astronomy courses, thus meriting the focused attention. In this review…
Buskit, William; Cush, David T.
Examines aspects of the introductory psychology textbook market through a publishing house survey. Aspects covered are the current and future number of introductory texts, fewer textbook publishers, custom publishing, changing content, and computer technologies. Discusses the results of the publishers' responses and provides statistical tables of…
Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…
Debb, Scott M.; Debb, Sharon M.
Enrolling in an introductory course in psychology is a staple of many community college students' core curriculum. For those students who plan to pursue social science and humanities-related majors in particular, introductory psychology helps provide a solid base upon which future coursework at all academic levels will be built. The goal of any…
Scott, Amy N.; McNair, Delores E.; Lucas, Jonathan C.; Land, Kirkwood M.
Introductory science, math, and engineering courses often have problems related to student engagement, achievement, and course completion. To begin examining these issues in greater depth, this pilot study compared student engagement, achievement, and course completion in a small and large section of an introductory biology class. Results based on…
Christensen, Jolene; Warnick, Brian K.; Spielmaker, Debra; Tarpley, Rudy S.; Straquadine, Gary S.
This study identified and prioritized the agricultural in-service needs of introductory level career and technical education teachers in Utah. The Utah State Board of Education requires that all seventh grade students complete an introductory career and technical education course as their first formal career exploration experience. One component…
Amstelveen, Raoul H.
The purpose of this study was to design and implement a Classroom Response System, also known as a "clicker," to increase attendance in introductory statistics courses at an undergraduate university. Since 2010, non-attendance had been prevalent in introductory statistics courses. Moreover, non-attendance created undesirable classrooms…
Hldreth, Laura A.; Robison-Cox, Jim; Schmidt, Jade
This study examines the transferability of results from previous studies of simulation-based curriculum in introductory statistics using data from 3,500 students enrolled in an introductory statistics course at Montana State University from fall 2013 through spring 2016. During this time, four different curricula, a traditional curriculum and…
Chen, Qihui; Okediji, Tade O.
In this article, the authors illustrate how incentives can improve student performance in introductory economics courses. They implemented a policy experiment in a large introductory economics class in which they reminded students who scored below an announced cutoff score on the midterm exam about the risk of failing the course. The authors…
Beaudin, Laura; Berdiev, Aziz N.; Kaminaga, Allison Shwachman; Mirmirani, Sam; Tebaldi, Edinaldo
The authors describe a unique approach to enhancing student learning at the introductory economics level that utilizes a multi-section, team-based competition. The competition is structured to supplement learning throughout the entire introductory course. Student teams are presented with current economic issues, trends, or events, and use economic…
This article examines whether first-year students in introductory economics courses get better grades if they have other students in their on-campus residential unit who either are taking the same course or have taken the course in the past. The study uses nine years of data for the introductory economics course at Reed College. The author finds…
Thompson, Meredith M.; Pastorino, Lucia; Lee, Star; Lipton, Paul
Introductory science courses play a critical role in the recruitment and retention of undergraduate science majors. In particular, first-year courses are opportunities to engage students in scientific practices and motivate them to consider scientific careers. We developed an introductory course using a semester-long series of established…
Engleberg, Isa N.; Ward, Susan M.; Disbrow, Lynn M.; Katt, James A.; Myers, Scott A.; O'Keefe, Patricia
In most academic disciplines, there is "one" introductory course that presents an overview of the discipline and introduces fundamental, discipline-specific principles and competencies. However, in Communication Studies, the discipline recognizes and offers multiple course options that may serve as the introductory course. This project…
Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…
Whaley, Arthur L.; Clay, William A. L.; Broussard, Dominique
The present study describes a culturally relevant approach to introductory psychology textbook selection for students attending a historically Black college/university (HBCU). The following multistage procedure was used: (1) a survey of HBCU psychology departments was conducted to ascertain how they selected their introductory psychology…
Nikula, Uolevi; Sajaniemi, Jorma; Tedre, Matti; Wray, Stuart
Students often find that learning to program is hard. Introductory programming courses have high drop-out rates and students do not learn to program well. This paper presents experiences from three educational institutions where introductory programming courses were improved by adopting Python as the first programming language and roles of…