Simmons, Christopher L.
This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J
Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.
Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.
Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer
The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…
Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer
The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…
Lowder, Christopher Michael
The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…
Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams
Based on work with state and local education agencies in dropout prevention for students with disabilities, successful research-based interventions are described along with details of how these interventions have been implemented in middle and high schools across the country. The interventions that have helped students with disabilities graduate…
Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo
This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.
Full Text Available To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks.In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC files (that contain information from birth onwards and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample.One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93 in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74 in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14 in middle childhood and (sickness absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52 in adolescence increased the risks.To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.
Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans
Background To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. Methods In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18–23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. Results One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18–14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. Conclusion To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care
Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans
To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.
Murray, Nancy; Tietjen, Karen
From 2000 to 2011, the number of children out of school worldwide has decreased from 102 million to 57 million--a reduction of almost 50 percent (Millennium Development Goals Report, 2013). However, many children in developing countries do not complete primary or secondary cycles once they enroll; out of the 137 million children who entered first…
Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M
High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a nationally normed behavioral rating scale. We used latent class mixture modeling to identify the trajectories. Participants followed 3 trajectories of aggression (Low, Medium Desisting, and High Desisting) and 5 trajectories of study skills (Low, Average-Low, Decreasing, Increasing, and High). Over three-quarters of the sample were in stable trajectories of study skills over time. Most students in the High Desisting Aggression group were in the Low Study Skills group, and all students in the High Study Skills group were in the Low Aggression group. The overall dropout rate was 17%, but varied dramatically across combined aggression and study skills groups, ranging from 2% to 50%. The results highlight the importance of early prevention that combines academic enhancement and behavioral management for reducing school dropout. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Sherraden, Michael W.
Discusses aspects of the school dropout problem: figures and trends, related youth problems (unemployment, crime and vandalism, drug and alcohol abuse, political alienation, teen pregnancy and childbirth, homicide and suicide), and suggestions for solving the problem. (CT)
Spencer, Amanda Jean Martin
In 2006, as part of the compliance with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Mississippi implemented a state-wide dropout prevention plan. The Mississippi Department of Education through the Office of Dropout Prevention supplied a skeletal format to serve as a guideline for all 152 individual school districts within the state. The school…
Dary, Teri; Pickeral, Terry; Shumer, Rob; Williams, Anderson
This position paper on student engagement is organized in response to major questions on how student engagement aligns with dropout prevention. Through a set of questions and responses, the "Weaving Student Engagement Into the Core Practices of Schools" position paper on student engagement : (1) defines the term "student…
Rumberger, Russell W.; Addis, Howard; Allensworth, Elaine; Balfanz, Robert; Bruch, Julie; Dillon, Erin; Duardo, Debra; Dynarski, Mark; Furgeson, Joshua; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Place, Kate; Tuttle, Christina
The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations that address the challenges of preventing dropout in secondary schools. This guide synthesizes the best publicly available research and shares practices that are supported by evidence. It is intended to be practical and easy for teachers and school…
... not living with one's mother, smoking cigarettes in the past month, and lower levels of leisure-related intrinsic motivation significantly predicted dropout. Results support comprehensive prevention programmes that target risk behaviour and leisure. Keywords: adolescence; leisure motivation; school dropout; substance use ...
Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.
Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…
Dockery, Donna J.
School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…
Briones, Ernestina M.; Jones, Don; Challoo, Linda
In the United States, seven thousand students drop out of school every day (Alliance for Excellence Education, 2010); that is more than one million per year (Balfanz & Bridgeland, 2014). Administrators, former educators and private entities have taken an interest in the dropout epidemic and have developed numerous dropout prevention and…
The National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been at the forefront of identifying model dropout prevention programs and promoting the use of best practices to increase the graduation rates in schools since 1986. The structure for these varied interventions and solutions takes the form of effective strategies, model…
TOTTEN, W. FRED
THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO HELP PEOPLE LEARN HOW TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS, IT IS THE CENTER OF SERVICE FOR ALL THE PEOPLE OF A COMMUNITY REGARDLESS OF AGE, RACE, RELIGION, ETHNIC BACKGROUND, OR SOCIOECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES. SCHOOL FACILITIES AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL ARE AVAILABLE FOR SERVICE TO PEOPLE AT ALL TIMES OF THE DAY ON ALL DAYS OF…
Wilson, James C.
This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…
Marcotte, Dave E.
Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…
Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S
Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
This document contains, in chronological order, all articles related to dropouts that have appeared in the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) Newsletter from 1986 to 1989. The articles are: (1) "The Prevention and Recovery of Dropouts: An Action Agenda" (Robledo); (2) "Coca Cola Valued Youth Partnership Program Results of Second…
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas
Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...
Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.
Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…
Ferguson, Earl E.; Killingsworth, Jerry
The school dropout problem is discussed, with suggestions for parents on ensuring that their children do not become part of the dropout population, including; monitoring children's school attendance patterns; making sure children understand how important school and attendance is; maintaining close contact with teachers; and helping children…
De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.
In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…
Thompson, John L.; And Others
Project SAIL (Student Advocates Inspire Learning) is a Title IV-C Project located in Hopkins, Minnesota, designed to prevent students from dropping out of school by keeping them successfully involved in the mainstream environment. This study presents a review of other dropout prevention approaches, describes the intervention strategies involved in…
No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko
Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…
Data from a large school district in the southwestern United States were analyzed to investigate relations between student and school characteristics and high school freshman dropout patterns. Application of a multilevel logistic regression model to student dropout data revealed evidence of school-to-school differences in student dropout rates and…
de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.J.
In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to half the level of early school leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their effect at both the individual
Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...
Heers, Marieke; Van Klaveren, Chris; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors determine student dropout. Community schools recognize this and aim to modernize education such that it better accommodates
Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions : These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended.
Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman
The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…
Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A
This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.
Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les
A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…
Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates students' personal needs. As a result these schools cooperate more with external organizations, stimulate parental involvement in the educational process and organize more extracurricular activities. ...
High dropout rates is a critical issue in most of developing countries. Malawi follows this trend of student nonpersistence; in 2013, the primary school dropout rate was approximately 12.2%.This study aims to find the causes of dropout in rural Malawian primary schools. There are two features: data were collected through survival analysis, which has been used to study dropout in developed countries; a multilevel logistic regression was used to classify individual, family, teacher and school f...
Rumberger, Russell W.; And Others
Investigated how family processes influence high school student dropout behavior. Used a sample of 114 dropouts from 1 California high school, 48 of whom were matched to similarly profiled continuing students. Identified factors that explain students' dropout decisions: permissive parenting, negative parental reactions to grades, excessive…
Itzhaki, Yael; Itzhaky, Haya; Yablon, Yaacov B.
Background: While extensive research has been done on high-school dropouts' adjustment, there is little data on dropouts from closed religious communities. Objective: This study examines the contribution of personal and social resources to the adjustment of high school dropouts in Ultraorthodox Jewish communities in Israel. Method: Using a…
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…
Fall, Anna-Maria; Roberts, Greg
Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development…
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
James S. Catterall
Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.
Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca
This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…
Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres
Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.
Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Cosgrove, T J; Bruns, Eric J
To determine the association between use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) and school dropout. Quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis of a retrospective student cohort, with SBHC use as the independent variable. We statistically controlled for dropout risk and used propensity score regression adjustment to control for several factors associated with SBHC use. Integrated database from an urban public school district (academic outcomes) and department of public health (SBHC use). District-enrolled students in their first semester of ninth grade in 2005 (N = 3334), followed up through their anticipated on-time graduation semester of 12th grade in 2009. Students were divided into 4 groups: never used (47%); low use (23%); moderate use (20%); and high users (10%). Time to nongraduation (described as dropout). Low to moderate SBHC use (0.125-2.5 visits per semester) was associated with a 33% reduction in dropout compared with non-SBHC users. The high-use group (>2.5 visits per semester) did not have dropout rates that differed from nonusers. For SBHC users who did drop out, dropout occurred approximately 1 semester later than nonusers. Exploratory analyses revealed that the association between SBHC use and prevention of dropout was greatest for higher-risk students. This study found an association between low to moderate SBHC use and reductions in dropout for high school students in an urban school district, especially for students at higher risk for dropout. This study supports the theory that benefits of SBHCs extend beyond managing physical and mental health needs to include academic outcomes.
Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A
more evidence of a negative side of the quest for improved academic performance. When dropout rates increase, the performance composites in subsequent years increase. Accountability systems need to remove any indirect benefit a school may receive from increasing its dropout rate. Schools should be held accountable for those who drop out of school. Given the personal and social costs of dropping out, accountability systems need to place more emphasis on dropout prevention. Such an emphasis could encompass increasing the dropout age and having the school's performance composite include scores of zero on end-of-grade tests for those who leave school.
GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.
performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find more evidence of a negative side of the quest for improved academic performance. When dropout rates increase, the performance composites in subsequent years increase. Conclusions/recommendations Accountability systems need to remove any indirect benefit a school may receive from increasing its dropout rate. Schools should be held accountable for those who drop out of school. Given the personal and social costs of dropping out, accountability systems need to place more emphasis on dropout prevention. Such an emphasis could encompass increasing the dropout age and having the school’s performance composite include scores of zero on end-of-grade tests for those who leave school. PMID:24013958
Orozco, Steven R.
Aggressive students often struggle in multiple domains of their school functioning and are at increased risk for high school dropout. Research has identified a variety of warning flags which are strong predictors of high school dropout. While it is known that aggressive students exhibit many of these warning flags, there is little research which…
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...
Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun
Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.
Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela
Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706
Tyler, John H; Lofstrom, Magnus
John Tyler and Magnus Lofstrom take a close look at the problems posed when students do not complete high school. The authors begin by discussing the ongoing, sometimes heated, debate over how prevalent the dropout problem is. They note that one important reason for discrepancies in reported dropout rates is whether holders of the General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates. The authors also consider the availability of appropriate student data. The overall national dropout rate appears to be between 22 and 25 percent, but the rate is higher among black and Hispanic students, and it has not changed much in recent decades. Tyler and Lofstrom conclude that schools are apparently doing about as well now as they were forty years ago in terms of graduating students. But the increasingly competitive pressures associated with a global economy make education ever more important in determining personal and national well-being. A student's decision to drop out of school, say the authors, is affected by a number of complex factors and is often the culmination of a long process of disengagement from school. That decision, not surprisingly, carries great cost to both the student and society. Individual costs include lower earnings, higher likelihood of unemployment, and greater likelihood of health problems. Because minority and low-income students are significantly more likely than well-to-do white students to drop out of school, the individual costs fall unevenly across groups. Societal costs include loss of tax revenue, higher spending on public assistance, and higher crime rates. Tyler and Lofstrom go on to survey research on programs designed to reduce the chances of students' dropping out. Although the research base on this question is not strong, they say, close mentoring and monitoring of students appear to be critical components of successful programs. Other dropout-prevention approaches associated with success are family
Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Background School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully...
Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.
The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Dropouts and Democracy (Robert Shumer); (2) 2011 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Service-Learning as Dropout Intervention and More (Michael VanKeulen); and (4) Teacher…
Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C; Leroux, Audrey J; Truscott, Stephen D
High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors associated with dropout for the purpose of better understanding how to prevent it. We used the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 dataset. Participants included 14,106 sophomores across 684 public and private schools. We identified variables of interest based on previous research on dropout and implemented hierarchical generalized linear modeling. In the final model, significant student-level predictors included academic achievement, retention, sex, family socioeconomic status (SES), and extracurricular involvement. Significant school-level predictors included school SES and school size. Race/ethnicity, special education status, born in the United States, English as first language, school urbanicity, and school region did not significantly predict dropout after controlling for the aforementioned predictors. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts within a multitiered intervention model are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg
Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development represents a promising theory for understanding this complex phenomenon. The self-system model acknowledges the interactive and iterative roles of social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and academic achievement as antecedents to the decision to dropout of school. We analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002-2004 in the context of the self-system model, finding that perception of social context (teacher support and parent support) predicts students' self-perceptions (perception of control and identification with school), which in turn predict students' academic and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Further, students' academic and behavioral engagement and achievement in 10th grade were associated with decreased likelihood of dropping out of school in 12th grade. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…
Introduces a collection of papers that address the High/Scope Foundation's approach to risk reduction and dropout prevention. Examines High/Scope's history and describes various High/Scope efforts (e.g., the Michigan School Readiness Program Evaluation, preschool and elementary curriculum development and training, movement and music curriculum…
Borges, Guilherme; Medina Mora-Icaza, María Elena; Benjet, Corina; Lee, Sing; Lane, Michael; Breslau, Joshua
To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.
... the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students With Disabilities [Catalog of Federal Domestic... period enables the currently funded National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities... Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities. The Center was funded under the Technical...
Bucci, John A.; Reitzammer, Ann F.
Teachers' daily interaction is a powerful influence on at-risk students. Effective dropout prevention components include positive instructional environment, enhancement of self-esteem, alternative education, absence monitoring, mentoring, parent involvement, social and health services, teen parent programs, and transition strategies. (SK)
Bridgeland, John M.; Dilulio, John J., Jr.; Balfanz, Robert
To better understand the views of teachers and administrators on the high school dropout problem, focus groups and nationally representative surveys were conducted of high school teachers and principals. A focus group of superintendents and school board members was also included. To help interpret the results, the authors convened a colloquium…
Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.
The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Leading the Way in Dropout Prevention; (2) The 15 Effective Strategies in Action; (3) Technology Changes 1986-2011 (Marty Duckenfield); (4) 25 Years of Research and Support…
Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fujihara, Sho; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Fukuhara, Hiroyuki
Our objective in this study was to find determinants of high-school dropout in a deprived area of Japan using longitudinal data, including socio-demographic and junior high school-period information. We followed 695 students who graduated the junior high school located in a deprived area of Japan between 2002 and 2010 for 3 years after graduation (614 students: follow-up rate, 88.3%). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for high-school dropout, using multiple imputation (MI) to account for non-response at follow-up. The MI model estimated that 18.7% of students dropped out of high school in approximately 3 years. In the covariates-adjusted model, three factors were significantly associated with high-school dropout: ≥10 days of tardy arrival in junior high school (PR 6.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-24.6 for "10-29 days of tardy arrival" and PR 8.01; 95% CI, 2.05-31.3 for "≥30 days of tardy arrival" compared with "0 day of tardy arrival"), daily smoking (PR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.41-2.86) and severe problems, such as abuse and neglect (PR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.39). Among students with ≥30 days of tardy arrival in addition to daily smoking or experience of severe problems, ≥50% high-school dropout rates were observed. Three determinants of high-school dropout were found: smoking, tardy arrival, and experience of severe problems. These factors were correlated and should be treated as warning signs of complex behavioral and academic problems. Parents, educators, and policy makers should work together to implement effective strategies to prevent school dropout.
Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.
Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie
The purpose of this report was to locate the dropout crisis- to determine its scale and scope by identifying the number of high schools with severe dropout problems, detailing the states, cities, and locales where they are concentrated, and establishing who attends them. For this analysis of high schools across the country, two cut-points were…
Makarova, Elena; Herzog, Walter
Actual school dropout among immigrant youth has been addressed in a number of studies, but research on hidden school dropout among immigrant students is rare. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyze hidden school dropout among primary school students with an immigrant background. The analyses were performed using survey data of 1186…
Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropout rates of any student group--about 40%. The outcomes for students who drop out of school are dire but are particularly bleak for students with poor academic, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Helping students earn a high school diploma and gain the skills needed to…
Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Allen, Katherine R.
This study examined the dropout trajectories of racial and linguistic minority students and explored the effects of students' contextual factors on their high school dropout risks. Our motivation was to identify the dropout patterns of Black, Hispanic, and Hispanic English language learner (ELL) students, who have comparatively high dropout rates,…
Jerns, Pamela Renee
The focus of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to address the dropout rate at Sussex Central High School (SCHS) in the Indian River School District (IRSD). Studies conducted for this EPP align with current research--student dropout is a result of culminating school-based factors that include poor attendance and lack of exposure to rigorous…
Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is dropout status determined... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any...
Román Hernández –Dávila
Full Text Available This work offers an exhaustive analysis of different authors and studies– falling under general and methodological criteria – of the reasons responsible for school dropouts, predominantly in vulnerable areas. To do so it is necessary to reflect on the problem with the intention of identifying the contributing factors. In these situations, various elements come into play, ranging from the organization of education systems, application of public policies, social conditions, the individual’s situation, health, the psychological and emotional impact, as well as the cultural patterns that may in compass the minor’s family, student-teacher relationship and school management. As an addition, a series of useful proposals is offered in bringing about change in the educational sector, focused on the reducing of school dropouts. It is assumed that research about dropouts should be undertaken from a qualitative concept, with hermeneutical characteristics, that allow the phenomenon under study to be interpreted reliably. This methodological basis has ethnographic foundations since it requires the reviewing of specific aspects of the socio cultural context present in the factors subject to investigation. Works of this nature should identify the determinants of school dropouts in a specific line of inquiry, describe them, and generate a database that displays the indicators of the causes that create this phenomenon.
Cho, Rosa M.
This study empirically tested 3 mechanisms commonly suggested to disadvantage youths whose mothers are incarcerated in prison. An event history analysis of school dropout was conducted on a sample of 6,008 adolescents in a large city created by merging several Illinois state administrative data. Findings revealed that adolescents are indeed at…
Tas, Ali; Selvitopu, Abdullah; Bora, Veysel; Demirkaya, Yusuf
This study aimed to determine the reasons for dropout for persons who have not completed vocational education programme and left school without a diploma. By using snowball sampling method, 19 persons, willing to participate in the study, were reached. Data were obtained by semi structured interview forms. In data analysis process, inductive…
Research on education in low-income countries rarely focuses on grade repetition. When addressed, repetition is typically presented along with early school dropout as the "wasting" of educational resources. Simplifying grade repetition in this way often fails to recognize significant methodological concerns and also overlooks the unique…
Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Nault-Brière, Frédéric; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Lesage, Alain
Recent reviews concluded that past depression symptoms are not independently associated with high school dropout, a conclusion that could induce schools with high dropout rates and limited resources to consider depression screening, prevention, and treatment as low-priority. Even if past symptoms are not associated with dropout, however, it is possible that recent symptoms are. The goal of this study was to examine this hypothesis. In 12 disadvantaged high schools in Montreal (Canada), all students at least 14 years of age were first screened between 2012 and 2015 (N screened = 6,773). Students who dropped out of school afterward (according to school records) were then invited for interviews about their mental health in the past year. Also interviewed were matched controls with similar risk profiles but who remained in school, along with average not at-risk schoolmates (N interviewed = 545). Interviews were conducted by trained graduate students. Almost one dropout out of four had clinically significant depressive symptoms in the 3 months before leaving school. Adolescents with recent symptoms had an odd of dropping out more than twice as high as their peers without such symptoms (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.14-4.12). In line with previous findings, adolescents who had recovered from earlier symptoms were not particularly at risk. These findings suggest that to improve disadvantaged youths' educational outcomes, investments in comprehensive mental health services are needed in schools struggling with high dropout rates, the very places where adolescents with unmet mental health needs tend to concentrate. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Theunissen, Marie-José; de Man, Inge; Verdonk, Petra; Bosma, Hans; Feron, Frans
As school dropout is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed, we set out to examine whether and how, beyond the well-known effects of sex, gender beliefs and self-reported masculinity and femininity are related to school dropout. The study used a case-control design, consisting of 330 dropout cases and 330 controls still attending school. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23 years, living in the south-east of the Netherlands, were sent a self-administered questionnaire. Separate logistic regression analyses for the male and female participants were used to explore the relation between dropout and gender, controlling for sociodemographic determinants. As indicated by significant curvilinearity, young women were less likely to drop out when they occupied an intermediate positions on the gender variables. Odds of dropout were elevated among highly masculine women (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.1), and, as indicated by significant interactions, also among highly masculine men with strong normative masculine beliefs and in feminine men who simultaneously considered themselves low on masculinity. Beyond sex, gender is important in the explanation of school dropout. To prevent dropout, public health professionals should assess, monitor and intervene on the basis of gender characteristics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Daniel F. McCaffrey; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Bing Han; Phyllis Ellickson
In this study we reconsider the relationship between heavy and persistent marijuana use and high school dropout status using a unique prospective panel study of over 4500 7th grade students from South Dakota who are followed up through high school. Propensity score weighting is used to adjust for baseline differences that are found to exist before marijuana initiation occurs (7th grade). Weighted logistic regression incorporating these propensity score weights is then used to examine the exte...
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther
Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article analyses dropout in three of the four main alternative lower secondary school programmes in Honduras over a three-year period for a cohort of roughly 5,500 students. The results show that these programmes are indeed reaching a vulnerable population in the country, but dropout rates are generally very high - upwards of 50 per cent in some cases - between Grades 7 and 9. Furthermore, even in the control school comparison samples made up of formal lower secondary schools, about 25 per cent of children leave school between Grades 7 and 9. The authors' analysis includes propensity score matching (PSM) methods that make more focused comparisons between students in alternative programmes and control samples. These results show that dropout rates in alternative programmes are not much different than in control schools, and only significant in one programme comparison, when taking into account family background characteristics like socioeconomic status (SES). Multivariate analysis within alternative programme samples finds that attrition is lower in those learning centres which have adopted key features of formal schools, such as university-educated teachers. The results highlight the tremendous variation in the alternative middle school sector in terms of programme features, school quality and student outcomes, as well as the challenges of expanding this sector to meet the growing demand for lower secondary schooling in Honduras.
Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training. PMID:28959788
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training.
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…
... the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students With Disabilities [Catalog of Federal Domestic... would enable the currently funded National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities to... about dropout prevention for students with disabilities, and to develop a series of high-quality...
Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert; Moore, Laura A.; Friant, Rebecca S.
High dropout rates continue to be a silent epidemic afflicting the nation's schools. Although some measurable progress is being made in some school districts and states to raise high school graduation rates, and federal, state, and local policies and practices are changing to meet the dropout challenge, the nation's progress is too slow and the…
Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…
Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae
The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…
Taylor, Geneviève; Lekes, Natasha; Gagnon, Hugo; Kwan, Lisa; Koestner, Richard
In many parts of the world, it is common for secondary school students to be involved in part-time employment. Research shows that working can have a negative impact on school engagement. However, the majority of studies have focused on the amount of time that students spend working rather than on the quality of work experience and its influence on school engagement. This study explored the relation of part-time work and school experiences to dropout intentions among secondary school and junior college students. The study was conceptualized from a self-determination theory perspective (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Participants were 3,248 students from rural and suburban schools in the greater region of Montreal, Canada. Questionnaires were used to assess the number of hours worked, the extent to which work interfered with or facilitated school functioning, autonomy, competence, and relatedness experienced in the work and school domains. School performance and school dropout intentions were also assessed. A curvilinear relation between work hours and dropout intentions was found, reflecting that part-time work began to be associated with higher dropout intentions only when students worked more than 7 hr per week. Analyses also showed that work-school interference was related to dropout intentions, and that this variable served to mediate the relation of employer autonomy support to dropout intentions. These results suggest that both the quantity and the quality of students' part-time work experiences need to be considered when examining the relation of work to school engagement. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide
This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…
The objective of this paper was to investigate the various dimensions of basic school dropouts in rural Ghana using the Asutifi district as a case study. The analysis of data (both quantitative and qualitative) gathered from several stakeholders of basic education in the district, revealed that the causes of school dropout were ...
In view of the increasing cost of education the persistent phenomenon of school dropout has become a constant worry to all stakeholders. The focus of this paper was to assess the trend of basic school dropout in Amansie West, a predominantly rural district in Ghana and to further determine the main causes and policy ...
Wood, Laura; Kiperman, Sarah; Esch, Rachel C.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Truscott, Stephen D.
High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors…
Luyten, H; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H; Derks, A
This study analyses the data from a large-scale longitudinal investigation into the effect of both school and student characteristics on the dropout rate for students in lower secondary education in The Netherlands. Dropout rates were found to vary significantly between schools, but only a single
Dupéré, Véronique; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Crosnoe, Robert; Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel
High school dropout is commonly seen as the result of a long-term process of failure and disengagement. As useful as it is, this view has obscured the heterogeneity of pathways leading to dropout. Research suggests, for instance, that some students leave school not as a result of protracted difficulties but in response to situations that emerge…
Adelman, Melissa A.; Székely, Miguel
School dropout is a growing concern in Central America, and in Latin America as a whole, because of its consequences for economic productivity, the inclusiveness of growth, social cohesion, and increasing youth risks. This paper utilizes more than two decades of household survey data to construct a systematic overview of school dropout at the…
Bridgeland, John M.; Dilulio, John J., Jr.; Balfanz, Robert
Teachers and administrators in public high schools recognize there is a dropout problem, know they are confronted with daunting challenges in classrooms and in schools, and express strong support for reforms to address high dropout rates. Yet, less than one-third of teachers believe that schools should expect all students to meet high academic…
Ajaja, O. Patrick
The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna
For the past 30 years, the dropout rate for students with emotional disturbance has hovered around 50%, a rate substantially higher than the dropout rate for students with other disabilities and the general population. This systematic review evaluated the literature published between 1990 and 2013 on the effectiveness of dropout prevention and…
Chappell, Shanan L.; O'Connor, Patrick; Withington, Cairen; Stegelin, Dolores A.
Almost from the start of the public schools system in America, students have been leaving school without high school diplomas. However, the dropout issue did not rise to the level of significance it has today until the early 1980s, when social pressures, along with business leaders, leveraged their influence on educators to address the dropout…
Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.
Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…
Habibi; Setiawan, Cally
Student dropouts are complex problems in Indonesia. Some of the dropouts living in rural areas have migrated to the large cities. It contributes to the child labor growth which is already one the major problems in Indonesia. Knowledge about the meaning of school from their perspective could be helpful for policy and programs related to dropout…
Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y.C.
Background We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) were analyzed. Group-based trajectory analysis identified obesity trajectories from 6-18 years. School completion information from age 14 into young adulthood was used to calculate school dropout. Chi-square and pairwise comparison tests were used to identify significant associations between obesity trajectories and school dropout. Results Adolescents belonging to an increasing trajectory (adolescent-onset obesity) had a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school compared to those belonging to chronic, decreasing (childhood-only obesity), and non-obese trajectories. This association was particularly salient among white adolescents. Conclusions Obesity onset during early adolescence increased risk of high school dropout. White adolescents were particularly vulnerable. Given that early adolescence is marked by significant biological and social changes, future research should seek to identify the underlying processes linking adolescent-obesity and school dropout to decrease school dropout risk among this vulnerable population. PMID:26331748
Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Shen, Xu; Tian, Xinmei; Liu, Tongliang; Xu, Fang; Tao, Dacheng
Dropout has been proven to be an effective algorithm for training robust deep networks because of its ability to prevent overfitting by avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors. Current explanations of dropout include bagging, naive Bayes, regularization, and sex in evolution. According to the activation patterns of neurons in the human brain, when faced with different situations, the firing rates of neurons are random and continuous, not binary as current dropout does. Inspired by this phenomenon, we extend the traditional binary dropout to continuous dropout. On the one hand, continuous dropout is considerably closer to the activation characteristics of neurons in the human brain than traditional binary dropout. On the other hand, we demonstrate that continuous dropout has the property of avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors, which suggests that we can extract more independent feature detectors for model averaging in the test stage. We introduce the proposed continuous dropout to a feedforward neural network and comprehensively compare it with binary dropout, adaptive dropout, and DropConnect on Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research-10, Street View House Numbers, NORB, and ImageNet large scale visual recognition competition-12. Thorough experiments demonstrate that our method performs better in preventing the co-adaptation of feature detectors and improves test performance.
Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H
School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders.
Lee, Kyung-Gon; Polachek, Solomon W.
This paper analyzes how changes in school expenditures affect dropout rates based on data from 466 school districts in New York during the 2003/04 to the 2007/08 school years. Past traditional regression approaches show mixed results in part because school expenditures are likely endogenous, so that one cannot disentangle cause and effect. The…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.; Fox, Joanna Hornig
The central message of this report is that some states and school districts are raising their high school graduation rates with scalable solutions in the public schools, showing the nation they can end the high school dropout crisis. America made progress not only in suburbs and towns, but also in urban districts and in states across the South.…
O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit
Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Full Text Available Abstract Background School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. Methods/design The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case–control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580. Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data, regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data. Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. Discussion The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.
Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen
Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng
The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.
O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta
Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...... appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting....
Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine
This article provides an overview of school wastage, namely repetition and dropout in primary and secondary schools in Morocco. It describes how this phenomenon has progressed since school was implemented in the 1960s. It shows that the fundamental principles of the education system established in the aftermath of Morocco?s independence in 1956…
Pablo J Chalita
Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.
Wilkins, Julia; Huckabee, Sloan
This paper presents a review of the literature on dropout prevention interventions for students with disabilities. A variety of search methods, including electronic library searches, hand searches of journals, and Internet searches were used to acquire the widest possible set of research studies. To be included in this review, the studies must…
Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg
Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students’ engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development represents a promising theory for understanding this complex phenomenon. The self-system model acknowledges the interactive and iterative roles of social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and academic achievement as antecedents to the decision to dropout of school. We analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002–2004 in the context of the self-system model, finding that perception of social context (teacher support and parent support) predicts students’ self-perceptions (perception of control and identification with school), which in turn predict students’ academic and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Further, students’ academic and behavioral engagement and achievement in 10th grade were associated with decreased likelihood of dropping out of school in 12th grade. PMID:22153483
Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A
A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The
Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.
Background: We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods: Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of…
Aratani, Yumiko; Cooper, Janice L.
This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between running away from home between the ages of 12 and 14 and dropping from high school among youth. Propensity score matching was conducted in estimating the effect of running away on high school dropout while controlling for confounding…
Gedge, Joseph L.
Confronted by a disturbing dropout rate and low student achievement, the Newfoundland (Canada) government is attempting to rationalize organizational restructuring and curriculum reform based on a centralized core academic curriculum aimed at college entrance. This article argues for an expanded, hegemonic curriculum that is organic to the…
Plunk, Andrew D; Agrawal, Arpana; Tate, William F; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A
Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18). We used MLDA changes during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate how underage exposure to permissive MLDA affected high school dropout. MLDA exposure was added to two data sets: (a) the 5% public use microdata samples of the 1990 and 2000 censuses (n = 3,671,075), and (b) a combined data set based on the 1991-1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 16,331). We used logistic regression to model different thresholds of MLDA on high school dropout. We also estimated models conditioned on demographic variables and familial risk of developing alcohol problems. Only the MLDA of 18 predicted high school dropout. Exposure was associated with 4% and 13% higher odds of high school dropout for the census and NLAES/NESARC samples, respectively. We noted greater impact on women (5%-18%), Blacks (5%-19%), and Hispanics (6%). Self-report of parental alcohol problems was associated with 40% higher odds, which equals a 4.14-point increase in dropout rate for that population. The MLDA of 18 likely had a large impact on high school dropout rates, suggesting that the presence of legal-aged peers in a high school setting increased access to alcohol for younger students. Our results also suggest that policy can promote less dangerous drinking behavior even when familial risk of alcohol use disorders is high.
This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Moore, Laura A.
America continues to make progress in meeting its high school dropout challenge. Leaders in education, government, nonprofits and business have awakened to the individual, social and economic costs of the dropout crisis and are working together to solve it. This year, all states, districts, and schools are required by law to calculate high school…
Full Text Available Economic development and social empowerment in Romania are unconcievable in the absence of a modern education system, which needs both economic and financial investments and social, political, cultural measures to increase the inclusion of young people in school system. In this particular context, given that Romania faces a high degree rate of school dropout, and moreover there are few chances that Romania reach its goals, we try in this paper to look inside the real situation. Indeed, school dropout present serious negative consequences both on individual level and for the whole society. Recognising this fact, next step is to investigate and reveal the determining factors for this situation, and we are particularly interested in the economic and systemic factors. Consequently, we present in this paper first a brief literature review on the fenomenon of school dropping out, including reviewing main studies related to factors, effects, causes etc. In the second part, starting from several statistical data provided by INS, EUROSTAT and UNICEF studies, we propose some theoretical models and policy reccomendations in order to decrease the school dropout rate and especially the early school dropout rate.
Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez
Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Methods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed database indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced during adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interventions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.
Dropout is one of the key techniques to prevent the learning from overfitting. It is explained that dropout works as a kind of modified L2 regularization. Here, we shed light on the dropout from Bayesian standpoint. Bayesian interpretation enables us to optimize the dropout rate, which is beneficial for learning of weight parameters and prediction after learning. The experiment result also encourages the optimization of the dropout.
Desrosiers, Lyne; Saint-Jean, Micheline; Breton, Jean-Jacques
The aim of this study was to gain a broader appreciation of processes involved in treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A constructivist grounded theory was chosen using a multiple-case research design with three embedded levels of analysis (adolescent, parent, and care setting). Theoretical sampling and the different stages of analysis specific to grounded theory were performed according to the iterative process of constant comparative analysis. Twelve cases were examined (nine dropouts among adolescents with BPD and for the purpose of falsification, one dropout of suicidal adolescent without BPD and two completed treatments among adolescents with BPD). To document the cases, three groups of informants were recruited (adolescents, parents, and therapists involved in the treatment) and 34 interviews were conducted. Psychological characteristics, perception of mental illness and mental health care, and help-seeking context were the specific treatment dropout vulnerabilities identified in adolescents with BPD and in their parents. However, their disengagement became an issue only when care-setting response--including mitigation of accessibility problems, adaptation of services to needs of adolescents with BPD, preparation for treatment, and concern for clinicians' disposition to treat--was ill-suited to these treatment dropout vulnerabilities. Treatment planning proves to be a key milestone to properly engage adolescents with BPD and their parent. Systematic assessment of treatment dropout vulnerabilities before the intervention plan is laid out could foster better-suited responses of the care setting thus decreasing the incidence of treatment discontinuation in adolescents with BPD. Treatment dropout vulnerabilities specific to adolescents with BPD and their parents can be detected before the beginning of treatment. Premature treatment termination may be prevented if the care setting considers these vulnerabilities at treatment
Can, Ertug; Aktas, Fatma Oya; Arpacioglu, Isil Tuzun
In Turkey, nearly 400.000 higher education students have left university education in the last 3 years. This figure is an indication of a negative situation. Turkey is in the first place in terms of school dropout rates within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). After completing primary and secondary education and passing the necessary…
De Sousa, Semoa C. B.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa
Despite increased government investments in education, West Virginia continues to have one of the nation's highest high school dropout rates and is among the states with the highest unemployment rates. Human capital theory provides the conceptual basis for evaluating the relationship between investment in education and economic development. An…
Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.
A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…
Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu
An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…
Doren, Bonnie; Murray, Christopher; Gau, Jeff M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the unique contributions of a comprehensive set of predictors and the most salient predictors of school dropout among a nationally representative sample of students with learning disabilities (LD). A comprehensive set of theoretically and empirically relevant factors was selected for examination. Analyses…
Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.
This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…
Knaul, Felicia Marie
This chapter, Chapter 2 in "the Economics of Gender in Mexico," uses retrospective household survey data from Mexico to assess the long-term impacts of school dropout and of working early in life, in terms of adult labor market returns. Through these data, it is possible to link adult wages to the ages at which individuals started…
Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid
School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully understood. To investigate the effect of social relations on the association between parental socioeconomic position and school dropout in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv. This prospective study used data from questionnaires in 2004 and 2007 and register data in 2004 and 2010. The study population consisted of 3,054 persons born in 1989. Information on dropout was dichotomised into those who had completed a secondary education/were still attending one and those who had dropped out/had never attended a secondary education. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between parental socioeconomic position and dropout at age 21, taking into account effects of social relations at age 15 and 18. A large proportion of young people were having problems with social relations at age 15 and 18. In general, social relations were strongly related to not completing a secondary education, especially among girls. For instance, 18-year-old girls finding family conflicts difficult to handle had a 2.6-fold increased risk of not completing a secondary education. Young people from low socioeconomic position families had approximately a 3-fold higher risk of not completing a secondary education compared to young people from high position families, and the estimates did not change greatly after adjustment for social relations with family or friends. Poor relations with teachers and classmates at age 18 explained a substantial part of the association between income and dropout among both girls and boys. The study confirmed a social gradient in completion of secondary education. Despite the fact that poor social relations at age 15 and 18 were related to dropout at age 21, social
McFarland, Joel; Cui, Jiashan; Stark, Patrick
This report draws on an array of nationally representative surveys and administrative datasets to present statistics on high school dropout and completion rates. The report includes estimates of the percentage of students who drop out in a given 12-month period (event dropout rates), the percentage of young people in a specified age range who are…
Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan
on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four......BACKGROUND: This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study...... was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. METHODS: The development study was based...
Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Kim, Hesook Suzie
The purpose of this study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health. A literature search was conducted in Eric, PsycInfo, Medline, Scopus, Norart, and Idunn covering the period spanning 2000 to 2015. Sixteen articles were identified for review. These articles were analyzed via thematic analysis. The results indicate that the TSR in upper secondary school is associat...
Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita
The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Childhood substance and conduct disorders mediated the relationship between trauma and school dropout. Likelihood of dropout was decreased for Asians, and increased for African Americans and Latinos, compared to non-Latino Whites as a function of psychiatric disorders and trauma. Timing of U.S. immigration during adolescence increased risk of dropout. PMID:21410919
Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Leventhal, Tama; Archambault, Isabelle; Crosnoe, Robert; Janosz, Michel
Adolescents who drop out of high school experience enduring negative consequences across many domains. Yet, the circumstances triggering their departure are poorly understood. This study examined the precipitating role of recent psychosocial stressors by comparing three groups of Canadian high school students (52% boys; M age = 16.3 years; N = 545): recent dropouts, matched at-risk students who remain in school, and average students. Results indicate that in comparison with the two other groups, dropouts were over three times more likely to have experienced recent acute stressors rated as severe by independent coders. These stressors occurred across a variety of domains. Considering the circumstances in which youth decide to drop out has implications for future research and for policy and practice. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune; Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy
Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible evidence found in the research field comprised by the three review questions to be addressed.The aims of this systematic review can, thus, be summarized like this:Which answers can be offered from r...
Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc
In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.
Mahuteau, S.; Mavromaras, K.
This paper combines the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) micro-level data with its longitudinal continuation, the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth data, to measure the association between individual PISA scores and early school dropouts. We use multilevel modelling to distinguish between student and school…
O'Higgins, Shane Niall; D'Amato, Marcello; Caroleo, Floro Ernesto; Barone, Adriana
Dropping out of school has recently become an issue of major policy concern in Italy. A series of reforms of secondary school objectives, programmes and organizational design have been proposed to adapt the public school system to evolutions in the labour market and to increase overall educational attainment. The aim of the present paper is to gain some insight into the causes of dropping out of school and, more generally, of the factors that induce parents to review their choices about their...
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther
Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article…
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.
Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.
Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune
Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...
Rull, Marvin H.; Moore, Richard O.
One phase of the curriculum demonstration program sponsored jointly by the Quincy Public Schools and Southern Illinois University is the Service Station Training School described within this report. The Service Station Training School was one of several sheltered work stations which were developed to provide preemployment experiences and training…
of teaching and learning in the rural environment was directly linked to the high rate of drop- out. Although some ... tion that leaving school after the completion of basic school ...... There are several ways by which the informal apprenticeship ...
de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.; Thyssen, G.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
This paper reviews the growing literature on early school leaving. We clarify what is at stake with early school leaving, and touch upon underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature. The paper investigates the levels, the methods and models with which the topic has been
Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi
This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary
This fifth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that, for the first time in history, the nation has crossed the 80 percent high school graduation rate threshold and remains on pace, for the second year in a row, to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020. This report highlights key…
Reibnegger, Gilbert; Caluba, Hans-Christian; Ithaler, Daniel; Manhal, Simone; Neges, Heide Maria; Smolle, Josef
Admission to medical studies in Austria since academic year 2005-2006 has been regulated by admission tests. At the Medical University of Graz, an admission test focusing on secondary-school-level knowledge in natural sciences has been used for this purpose. The impact of this important change on dropout rates of female versus male students and older versus younger students is reported. All 2,860 students admitted to the human medicine diploma program at the Medical University of Graz from academic years 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 were included. Nonparametric and semiparametric survival analysis techniques were employed to compare cumulative probability of dropout between demographic groups. Cumulative probability of dropout was significantly reduced in students selected by active admission procedure versus those admitted openly (P students was only 0.145 (95% CI, 0.106-0.198). Among openly admitted students, but not for selected ones, the cumulative probabilities for dropout were higher for females (P students (P dropout hazard is highest during the second year of study. The introduction of admission testing significantly decreased the cumulative probability for dropout. In openly admitted students a significantly higher risk for dropout was found in female students and in older students, whereas no such effects can be detected after admission testing. Future research should focus on the sex dependence, with the aim of improving success rates among female applicants on the admission tests.
Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.
The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…
Full Text Available This study investigated and analysed factors responsible for high dropout rate of learners at selected high schools in King William’s Town District, Province of the Eastern Cape. The aim of the study is provide an understanding into inherent problems of early exit of learners in the education sector, which impede the long-term production of professionals with bright future. The main findings of this study revealed that multiple motives, associated with individual characteristics of dropouts and social problems emanating from their family background and influence of the community, prompted learners to dropout. Moreover, learner dropout is inter alia caused by social factors such as lack of resources, the effect of poverty, orphans at school, the distance between the school and the community, drug abuse, pregnancy and HIV and AIDS prevalence in schools, gangsterism and learning barriers. The results of this research suggest that the government should make resources available with regard to scholar transport, school nurses to provide education awareness programmes in relation to early pregnancies, HIV and AIDS infection to improve attendance rate. The Department of Social Development should provide information with regard to benefits available to orphaned learners. The government should ensure sustainable provision of the school nutrition programme to alleviate hunger and poverty. School management should effectively regulate the behaviour of learners to promote discipline in schools so that substance abuse is eliminated.
Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus
Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…
Many students drop out in the first year after a school transition. Most commonly used indicators of an increased risk for dropout reveal little of the mechanisms that push or pull students out of school. In this study, we look at the association of a set of common risk indicators with students’
DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert
In 2013, the national high school graduation rate hit a record high of 81.4 percent, and for the third year in a row, the nation remained on pace to meet the 90 percent goal by the Class of 2020. This sixth annual update on America's high school dropout challenge shows that these gains have been made possible by raising graduation rates for…
Full Text Available Purpose. Schools are ideal venues for the implementation of healthy behaviors allied to the levels of physical activities as the physical and mental health correlate to psychosocial well-being of scholars. Whereas, this advantage is not reliable with dropout students. Support through psychological studies via time structure unconnected to self-efficacy relative to self-physical activity motivation among this social class, especially with the economic crisis as challenges imposed for Algerian society, concerning the high unemployment rates in line with high school dropouts. Method. This controlled study tested 104 high-school Male adolescent students aged around 17 years for academic years 2015–2016 and those under 18 years for academic years 2016–2017. Built on the ALPHA-Fitness test battery accompanied by questionnaire relevant to their physical and social time for both years. Results. Based on the design, the tests practised and the statistical processes applied within the search limitation, the results support, on one hand, the benefits of school venue as an ideal implementation of health and levels of physical activities and well-being among our scholars, and on the other, we confirmed the leaving school as a negative time trend via dropout students, poorly correlate with times physically and socially inactive. This study inspected that inactive lifestyle relate to body image disorders and disturbances concomitant to energy-expending relative to missing recreational time and sporting endeavours. Conclusions. Leaving school in the Algerian communities is a stress-related biological pathway that links physical disorders and depression virtual to social time structure proceeded to manage the relevant tasks, goals and objectives. Indicated in similar as best when individuals are clear about what it is they are expected to achieve.
Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy
Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Beishuizen, Cathrien R L; Coley, Nicola; Moll van Charante, Eric P; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine
To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. Secondary analysis. One hundred sixteen general practices in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 70 to 78 (N = 2,994). Nurse-led multidomain intervention targeting cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia. The associations between participant baseline sociodemographic (age, sex, education), clinical (medical history, disability, cardiovascular risk), neuropsychiatric (depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15), and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination)) characteristics and dropout from the trial and nonadherence to the trial intervention were explored using multilevel logistic regression models. Older age, poorer cognitive function, more symptoms of depression, and greater disability were the most important determinants of dropout of older people. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was not associated with dropout but was associated with nonadherence. Being overweight was a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas people with high blood pressure or a low level of physical exercise adhered better to the intervention. The association between poorer cognitive function and symptoms of depression and dropout was stronger in the control group than in the intervention group, and vice versa for increased disability. In a large dementia prevention trial with 6-year follow-up, dropout was associated with older age, poorer cognitive function, symptoms of depression, and disability at baseline. These findings can help to guide the design of future dementia prevention trials in older adults. The associations found between cardiovascular risk factors and nonadherence need to be confirmed in other older populations receiving cardiovascular prevention interventions
Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom
In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…
Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.
A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a
Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob
The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…
O'Neill, Lotte; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit
Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised.......Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised....
Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah
The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Beishuizen, Cathrien R. L.; Coley, Nicola; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine
To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. Secondary analysis.
Beishuizen, C.R.; Coley, N.; Charante, E.P.M. van; Gool, W.A. van; Richard, E.; Andrieu, S.
OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. DESIGN:
Full Text Available Here is identified the tendency to reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco prevention work among graduating students of secondary school. This decline may be due to psychological and social reasons. It is shown that risk factors of involving in chemical dependency are meaningfully disclosed in longitudinal studies, whereas the dynamics of personal change during the formation of anti-addictive prevention skills are more fully disclosed in the comparative age sections. The typical phenomena, accompanying the downward trend in prevention, are the growth of problem behavior and the crisis of mass dropout. Such phenomena are so great that they are recognized as a crisis at a state level.
There has been a wealth of research conducted on the national epidemic of high school dropouts spanning several decades. It is estimated that the class of 2009 cost the nation $335 billion in lost wages, taxes and productivity over their lifetimes (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009). The citizenry of the country suffers not only because of…
Gottfried, Michael A.; Plasman, Jay Stratte
While prior studies have examined the efficacy of career and technical education (CTE) courses on high school students' outcomes, there is little knowledge on timing of these courses and a potential link to student outcomes. We asked if the timing of these courses predicted differences in the likelihood of dropout and on-time high school…
Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita
The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…
The assumption that the "purpose" of school foreign language teaching is to serve "instrumental" ends may largely underlie the present adolescent dropout. In this article the author proposes a two-stage foreign language apprenticeship. A two-stage apprenticeship would include a carefully planned diagnostic element, preparing…
Kemp, Suzanne E
Students with and without disabilities are dropping out of school at an alarming rate. However, the precise extent of the problem remains elusive because individual schools, school districts, and state departments of education often use different definitional criteria and calculation methods. In addition, specific reasons why students drop out continues to be speculative and minimal research exists validating current dropout prevention programs for students with and without disabilities. This study examined methods secondary school principals used to calculate dropout rates, reasons they believed students dropped out of school, and what prevention programs were being used for students with and without disabilities. Results indicated that school districts used calculation methods that minimized dropout rates, students with and without disabilities dropped out for similar reasons, and few empirically validated prevention programs were being implemented. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
..., sustainable, and coordinated dropout prevention and reentry programs in schools that serve students in grades...) schools that-- (A) serve students in grades 6 through 12; and (B) have annual school dropout rates that are above the State average annual school dropout rate; or (ii) middle schools that feed students into...
Stark, Patrick; Noel, Amber M.
This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2012, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last four decades (1972-2012), and examines the characteristics of high school…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig
This fourth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that for the first time the nation is on track to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020--if the pace of improvement from 2006 to 2010 is sustained over the next 10 years. The greatest gains have occurred for the students of color and…
Bosma, Hans; Theunissen, Marie-José; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans
There is cumulating evidence that health is compromised through adverse socioeconomic conditions negatively affecting how people think, feel, and behave. Low control beliefs might be a key mechanism. The reversed possibility that low control beliefs might set people on a pathway towards adverse socioeconomic and health-related outcomes is much less examined. A case-control design was used, consisting of 330 cases who dropped out of school in the 2010-2011 school year and 330 controls who still attended school at the end of that year. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23, came from Eindhoven and surrounding areas in the south-east of The Netherlands. A questionnaire asked for current health status, recalled socioeconomic and social background, and recalled control beliefs (mastery and general self-efficacy). Logistic regression analyses were used. Recalls of low mastery and low self-efficacy were strongly related to both dropout and less than good health. Low socioeconomic background was also associated to odds of dropout, but did not confound or moderate the associations of low control beliefs with dropout and health. Odds ratios of dropout and less than good health indicated at least twice the odds of a poor outcome with recalls of low control beliefs. Independent of the socioeconomic background, low control beliefs are related to heightened odds of both poor health and school dropout. Individual differences in control beliefs might thus be as fundamental as socioeconomic conditions in generating life-course socioeconomic and health-related pathways. Although the findings should first be cross-validated in prospective studies, public health professionals working with youth might already start considering early interventions in youth with all too fatalistic and powerless mind-sets.
Hjorth, Cathrine F; Bilgrav, Line; Frandsen, Louise Sjørslev; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Nielsen, Berit; Bøggild, Henrik
Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout). Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16-29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students), the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8-year period (1(st) March 2010-31(th) December 2014). Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753) of the participants, 29 % (n = 468) in females and 19 % (n = 285) in males (p mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5-2.2). Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8-2.3), while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2-2.9). The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1-5.4). Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124) of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.2) and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-4.2). For males in higher education, poor mental health was a predictor of dropout (OR = 5.2, CI = 1.6-17.3), which was not seen females in higher education (OR = 1.2, CI = 0.5-3.1). Poor mental health was significantly associated to
Geiger, Tray J; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
Researchers conducted an evaluation of participants' perceptions of a dropout prevention program - the NBA High School program - involving a National Basketball Association (NBA) team, a high school located in downtown [City], and the College of Education (COE) at the local State University (SU). The program targeted "at-risk" high school students while utilizing student-teachers as tutors and mentors. Researchers utilized mixed methods to assess student, student-teacher, and high school teacher participants' experiences with and opinions of the program. Researchers found (1) students enjoyed the program, especially given the involvement of the student-teachers; (2) students believed the program helped improve their grades; (3) student-teachers enjoyed working with their students, although student-teachers found some of the expectations surrounding their positions and roles as tutors/mentors within the high school to be unclear and frustrating; (4) high school teachers felt significantly better about the program than the student-teachers; and (5) overall, all sets of respondents categorically supported the program and its benefits. Findings indicated that the involvement of mentors or role models matters to students, and clear and organized logistics, planning, and communication are integral for program success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana S
Prior research examining whether depression and anxiety lead to high-school dropout has been limited by a reliance on retrospective reports, the assessment of mental health at a single point in time (often remote from the time of high-school exit), and the omission of important measures of the social and familial environment. The present study addressed these limitations by analyzing 8 waves of longitudinal data from a cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1,057) in the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (2001-2008). Respondents were followed from the age of 15 years through completion of or exit from high school. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess whether the early experience of a distress disorder (indicated by scores dropout, after controlling for household and parental socioeconomic characteristics and for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Adolescents with a prior distress disorder had twice the odds of high-school dropout compared with those without (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.17). This association was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in models including tobacco and alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.74; 1.09, 2.78). These results suggest that improving the mental health of high-school students may promote better educational outcomes.
Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.
The issue of high school dropout has long concerned policy makers, educational professionals, and the general public. In the gifted literature, this concern is no less pressing. Student engagement is becoming an increasingly discussed construct for conceptualizing the dropout phenomenon and designing appropriate interventions to prevent this…
Corry, Michael; Dardick, William; Stella, Julie
As the number of online K-12 educational offerings continues to grow it is important to better understand key indicators of success for students enrolled in these classes. One of those indicators is student dropout rates. This is particularly important for Hispanic or Latino students who traditionally have high dropout rates. The purpose of this…
Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie
The analysis presented in this paper strongly suggests that about half of the high schools in the nation’s 35 largest cities have severe dropout rates. It further shows that high schools with weak promoting power and by implication high dropout rates are found in almost all of the largest cities but they are particularly concentrated in Midwestern and Northern industrial cities and Texas.
Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter
Dropout is a recently introduced algorithm for training neural network by randomly dropping units during training to prevent their co-adaptation. A mathematical analysis of some of the static and dynamic properties of dropout is provided using Bernoulli gating variables, general enough to accommodate dropout on units or connections, and with variable rates. The framework allows a complete analysis of the ensemble averaging properties of dropout in linear networks, which is useful to understand the non-linear case. The ensemble averaging properties of dropout in non-linear logistic networks result from three fundamental equations: (1) the approximation of the expectations of logistic functions by normalized geometric means, for which bounds and estimates are derived; (2) the algebraic equality between normalized geometric means of logistic functions with the logistic of the means, which mathematically characterizes logistic functions; and (3) the linearity of the means with respect to sums, as well as products of independent variables. The results are also extended to other classes of transfer functions, including rectified linear functions. Approximation errors tend to cancel each other and do not accumulate. Dropout can also be connected to stochastic neurons and used to predict firing rates, and to backpropagation by viewing the backward propagation as ensemble averaging in a dropout linear network. Moreover, the convergence properties of dropout can be understood in terms of stochastic gradient descent. Finally, for the regularization properties of dropout, the expectation of the dropout gradient is the gradient of the corresponding approximation ensemble, regularized by an adaptive weight decay term with a propensity for self-consistent variance minimization and sparse representations. PMID:24771879
Holden, E. Todd
More students are deciding to dropout of school prior to graduation. As a result the dropout rate has become a hot topic in education across the United States. The average high school dropout salary is approximately 50% less than the salary of a high school graduate. The social factors are another reason the dropout rate needs to be a high…
Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.
Cathrine F. Hjorth
Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is a key determinant of future employment and income prospects of young people. Poor mental health is common among young people and is related to risk of dropping out of school (dropout. Educational level and gender might play a role in the association, which remains to be studied. Methods Mental health was measured in 3146 Danish inhabitants aged 16–29 years using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and examined across genders and educational levels. For students, educational level at baseline was used; for young people who were not enrolled in school at baseline (non-students, the highest achieved educational level was used. The risk of dropout in students was investigated in administrative registers over a 4.8–year period (1st March 2010–31th December 2014. Odds ratios (OR and 95 % confidence intervals (CI were calculated for mental health and in relation to dropout in logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, parental education, parental income and ethnicity. Results Poor mental health was present in 24 % (n = 753 of the participants, 29 % (n = 468 in females and 19 % (n = 285 in males (p < 0.0001. The prevalence differed from 19 to 39 % across educational levels (p < 0.0001. Females had a statistically significantly higher adjusted risk of poor mental health than males (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.5–2.2. Among the students the lowest risk was found at the elementary level (OR = 1.3, CI = 0.8–2.3, while students in higher education had a statistically significantly higher risk (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.2–2.9. The lowest-educated non-students had the highest OR of poor mental health (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.1–5.4. Dropout occurred in 8 % (n = 124 of the students. Poor mental health was associated to dropout in vocational (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0–3.2 and higher education (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0–4.2. For males in higher
Emilio Blanco Bosco
Full Text Available This paper addresses the return to school among youngsters in Mexico City that had dropped out of school at some point between the beginning of elementary school and the end of upper secondary level. More than a quarter of these youngsters returned to school, which supports the idea that quitting school does not equal to the end of the educational career. There is a significant association between the socioeconomic origin and the probability of an individual returning to school, although weaker (and in the opposite direction than correlation with the probability of dropping out. Complex, non-linear patterns were found between the return and the moment when the drop out occurred, which questions mainstream theories about educational decisions. It was also found that an important proportion of those who returned to school completed upper secondary education, particularly remarkable among youngsters of lower social origins. The evidence supports the idea of considering both the effects of the social structure and the individual agency, and particularly to take into account the actors’ rationality.
Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M
National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12 th -grade students from 1977-2003 were followed for seven years (modal ages 18-25; N =10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background. Substance use during high school predicted a greater likelihood of never attending (for cigarettes, illegal drugs), of graduating from a 2-year rather than a 4-year school (for cigarettes), and of dropping out versus graduating from a 4-year school (for cigarettes, marijuana, and other illegal drugs). High school binge drinking predicted lower college dropout, but only in models also controlling for cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. This study provides a needed overview of adolescent predictors of patterns of college attendance among American young adults over the past three decades.
Burger, Kimberly R.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…
Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A.
Background: A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research…
Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.
The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…
Violet N Pinto
Full Text Available Objective: To study and compare in the children of alcohol-dependent males versus those in a socio-demographically similar control group, the occurrence of school dropouts, and to examine the link between certain factors like parental education and socioeconomic status on school dropout. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based case control study. The participants were 107 family units in both study group (alcohol-dependent male, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age and control group (abstainer/social drinker, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age. It was conducted in an urban slum community in Mumbai. Interview technique was used for data collection. The study was conducted for a period of 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Using software SPSS version 17.0, percentages, Chi-square test. Results and Conclusion: The number of school dropouts was significantly higher (45.31%, P < 0.001 in the children of alcohol-dependent males as compared to 22.47% in the abstainers/social drinkers′ children. In the study group, there was higher number of school dropouts among boys (52.73%, P < 0.05 as compared to girls (35.37%. There was a statistically significant association between parental illiteracy and school dropout in children in both the groups. In the control group, significantly higher number of school dropouts of socioeconomic class IV and V had dropped out as compared to those of socioeconomic class III and II.
Homlong, Lisbeth; Rosvold, Elin O; Haavet, Ole R
To study associations between healthcare seeking in 15-16-year-olds and high school dropout 5 years later. Longitudinal community study. Data from a comprehensive youth health survey conducted in 2000-2004, linked to data from national registries up to 2010. 13 964 10th grade secondary school students in six Norwegian counties. Logistic regression was used to compute ORs for high school dropout. The total proportion of students not completing high school 5 years after registering was 29% (girls 24%, boys 34%). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a higher dropout rate (37/48% and 45/71%), compared with those with no or moderate use. Adolescents referred to mental health services were also more likely to drop out (47/62%). Boys with moderate use of a general practitioner (GP) had a lower dropout rate (30%). A multiple logistic regression analysis, in which we adjusted for selected health indicators and sociodemographic background variables, revealed that seeking help from the youth health clinic and consulting mental health services, were associated with increased level of high school dropout 5 years later. Frequent attenders (≥4 contacts) had the highest odds of dropping out. Yet, boys who saw a GP and girls attending the school health services regularly over the previous year were less likely than their peers to drop out from high school. Adolescents who seek help at certain healthcare services can be at risk of dropping out of high school later. Health workers should pay particular attention to frequent attenders and offer follow-up when needed. However, boys who attended a GP regularly were more likely to continue to high school graduation, which may indicate a protective effect of having a regular and stable relationship with a GP.
Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.
A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…
Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba
This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten
Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan
Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised. This review aimed to systematically and critically review studies dealing with factors found to be associated with dropping out of medical school. A systematic critical literature review of the international peer-reviewed research literature on medical education was performed. A primary search was conducted and subsequently supplemented with ancestry and descendancy searches. The population of interest was medical students and the outcome was dropout. Abstract/title screening and quality assessment were performed by two independent researchers. Studies were assessed on six domains of quality: study participation; study attrition; predictor measurement; measurement of and accounting for confounders; outcome measurement, and analysis. Only studies that accounted for confounding were included in the final analysis. Of 625 studies found, 48 were quality-assessed and 13 of these were eventually included based on their fulfilment of our quality-related criteria. A range of entry qualifications seemed to be associated with greater chances of a student dropping out (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65-4.00). Struggling academically in medical school may be strongly associated with dropout. By contrast, no specific pattern of demographic variables was particularly important in relation to dropout. The effects of socio-economic, psychological and educational variables on dropout were not well investigated. More research into causal models and theory testing, which considers the effects of education, organisation and institution, is necessary if we are to learn more about how we can actively prevent medical student withdrawal. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard
This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....
Reddy, Anugula N.; Sinha, Shantha
Persistently high dropout rates are one of the biggest challenges to fulfilling the right to education in India. This paper attempts to assess the magnitude of the problem of dropout. The paper critically reviews the evidence on some of the commonly cited reasons for dropout, including poverty, limited to access to credit, child labour, and…
This study was undertaken to underscore the extent the variables of school location, students' gender and school section can predict the rate of drop out of secondary school students. Ex post facto design was adopted and all data on students' enrollment, retention and completion were collected from available schools' records for two cohorts of…
Adam, Saeed; Adom, Dickson; Bediako, Asare Baffour
Education is a key to the realization of most of the goals and targets of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Education as a development tool is upheld by most development theorist as essential in the progression of every society. However, in recent times school dropout has become a serious canker in Ghanaian societies, especially in…
Jackson, Cheryl D.
Many youth face the following educational and economic barriers to success: (1) increased high school dropout rates; (2) adolescent pregnancy; (3) chronic unemployment; (4) poverty; (5) drug abuse; (6) suicide; and (7) crime and delinquency. The Atlantic Community College (New Jersey) Youth Corps Program, a successful conservation and service…
Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc
In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. The first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Next, we examined the differential associations between these individual, social, and family factors and high school dropout as a function of students' immigration status. Participants were 2291 students (54.7% with an immigrant background) from ten low-SES schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Individual, social, and family predictors were self-reported by students in secondary one (mean age = 12.34 years), while school dropout status was obtained five or 6 years after students were expected to graduate. Results of logistic regressions with multiple group latent class models showed that first- and second-generation students faced more economic adversity than third-generation-plus students and that they differed from each other and with their native peers in terms of individual, social, and family risk factors. Moreover, 40% of the risk factors considered in this study were differentially associated with first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students' failure to graduate from high school. These results provide insights on immigrant and non-immigrant inner cities' students experiences related to school dropout. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Hakkarainen, Airi M; Holopainen, Leena K; Savolainen, Hannu K
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the role of word reading and mathematical difficulties measured in 9th grade as factors for receiving educational support for learning in upper secondary education in Grades 10 to 12 (from ages 16 to 19) and furthermore as predictors of dropout from upper secondary education within 5 years after compulsory education. In addition, we studied the role of school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 in this prediction. The participants of this study were members of one age group of 16-year-old ninth graders (N = 595, females 302, males 293) in a midsized Finnish city, who were followed for 5 years after completing compulsory education. The path model results, where the effects of gender, educational track, and SES were controlled, showed, first, that students with academic learning difficulties received educational support for learning particularly in the 11th grade. Second, academic learning difficulties directly affected school achievement in the 9th grade, but no longer in the 11th grade. Third, mathematical difficulties directly predicted dropout from upper secondary education, and difficulties in both word reading and mathematics had an indirect effect through school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 on dropout. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Full Text Available Student dropout from school is a serious problem in educational systems all over the world. This paper will provide an overview of the various dropout definitions and their consequences for measuring and monitoring. Since a diversity of factors (individual, familial, school and systematic is connected with student attrition in foreign research, the attempt has been made to systematise their results and provide data regarding similar Serbian studies. Considering the fact that there are no systematic analyses of students’ dropout rate in Serbia, the existing data from primary and secondary schools from a variety of statistical sources will be presented. We conclude that one way to reduce dropout in Serbia is to further develop research interest in the topic, as well as the strategies for monitoring, prevention and intervention.
West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Div. of General and Special Educational Development.
Reported in this document are dropout statistics from the State of West Virginia for the school year 1985-86. This annual survey of the 55 county school systems has been conducted since the 1968-69 school year. Topics surveyed include Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) status, exit interviews, grade at exit, month dropout left…
Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…
DeSisto, Marie C.; Smith, Suzanne
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is a crucial member of the team participating in the prevention of bullying in schools. School nurses are the experts in pediatric health in schools and, therefore, can have an impact on the…
Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R
Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.
Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Holmberg, Teresa; Johansen, Christoffer; Stock, Christiane; Laursen, Bjarne; Zinckernagel, Line; Øllgaard, Anne Louise; Ingholt, Liselotte
The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were selected to either implement the intervention or continue with normal practice for comparison. In the baseline survey conducted 2011-2012, 2,329 students from four intervention schools and 3,371 students from six comparison schools answered a computer-based questionnaire during class, representing 73% and 81% of eligible students, and 22% of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing appropriate evaluation strategies. To address difficulties in implementing settings-based interventions, as highlighted in prior research, the strategy was to involve intervention schools in the development of the intervention. Baseline differences will be included in the effectiveness analysis, so will the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. ISRCTN57822968. Date of registration: 16/01/2013.
Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan; Zinckernagel, Line; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Stock, Christiane; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Rod, Morten Hulvej
This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. The development study was based on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization, importance of the introduction period, physical surroundings and schedules, tobacco and cannabis use and communication about drug use. The program addressing these themes incorporates suggestions that are meant to improve how teachers welcome new students, to enable greater integration of social and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday social practices in which interventions are embedded. Thus, we aimed to create a comprehensive intervention that worked through organizational changes in everyday school practices. Intervention programs must be planned in
Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Hirschman, Charles; Willhoft, Joseph
Retrospective questions on educational attainment in national surveys and censuses tend to over-estimate high school graduation rates by 15 to 20 percentage points relative to administrative records. Administrative data on educational enrollment are, however, only available at the aggregate level (state, school district, and school levels) and the recording of inter-school transfers are generally incomplete. With access to linked individual-level administrative records from a very large “West Coast metropolitan school district” we track patterns of high school attrition and on-time high school graduation of individual students. Even with adjustments for the omission of out-of-district transfers (estimates of omission are presented), the results of this study show that failure in high school, as indexed by retention and attrition, are almost as common as on-time high school graduation. In addition to the usual risk factors of disadvantaged background, we find that the “9th grade shock”—an unpredicted decline in academic performance upon entering high school—is a key mechanism behind the continuing crisis of high school attrition. PMID:23017804
Philip J. Cook; Songman Kang
Based on administrative data for five cohorts of public school children in North Carolina, we demonstrate that those born just after the cut date for starting school are likely to outperform those born just before in reading and math in middle school, and are less likely to be involved in juvenile delinquency. On the other hand, those born after the cut date are more likely to drop out of high school before graduation and commit a felony offense by age 19. We also present suggestive evidence ...
Smith, Jayne E.
This study focused on understanding the perceived process of change, outcomes and influencing factors experienced by high school graduates of Urban Corps of San Diego County (UCO) from a bioecological theory of human development standpoint. UCO is a second chance high school diploma-job training program that offers students free mental health…
Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Petersen, Karen Bjerg
Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them.......Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them....
Dupéré, Véronique; Dion, Eric; Leventhal, Tama; Archambault, Isabelle; Crosnoe, Robert; Janosz, Michel
Adolescents who drop out of high school experience enduring negative consequences across many domains. Yet, the circumstances triggering their departure are poorly understood. This study examined the precipitating role of recent psychosocial stressors by comparing three groups of Canadian high school students (52% boys; M[subscript…
Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S
Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention.
Stetser, Marie C.; Stillwell, Robert
This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for two separate measures of 4-year on-time graduation rates as well as event dropout rates for school year (SY) 2010-11 and SY 2011-12. Specifically this report provides the following: (1) Four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) data reported by…
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.
There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…
Veitch, William Robert.
The notion that all students should finish high school has grown throughout the last century and continues to be an important goal for all educational levels in this new century. Non-completion has been related to all sorts of social, financial, and psychological issues. Many studies have attempted to put together a process that will identify…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Brook, Judith S.
This study examined predictability of inappropriate behavior in a random sample of 452 adolescents. Behaviors examined included dropping out, teen pregnancy, criminal activities and conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse. Found that academic achievement and aspirations, and learning-focused school settings related to…
Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet
This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…
Balfanz, Robert; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary
With more than one million students dropping out of high school each year, Grad Nation is specifically designed to offer solutions and tools for every size community and presents a compelling case for all sectors of society to get involved. The guidebook is part of the Alliance's Dropout Prevention Campaign. The guide brings together the nation's…
Stout, Karen E.; Christenson, Sandra L.
Students' engagement at school has emerged as a critical factor across hundreds of dropout prevention and recovery programs in the United States. By supporting and improving academic, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement, we can mitigate the risk of dropping out. This article describes the history of school dropout, predictors of…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. METHODS: Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. RESULTS: More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.OBJETIVO: Estudiar la repercusión de los trastornos mentales en el fracaso escolar en México. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2001 a mayo del 2002, se evaluaron los diagnósticos y la edad de aparición para cada uno de los 16 trastornos del DSM-IV mediante autoinformes retrospectivos recogidos por medio de la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI. Se empleó el análisis de supervivencia para analizar las asociaciones entre los trastornos del DSM-IV/CIDI de aparición temprana y el subsiguiente abandono escolar o fracaso en el logro de los
Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David
of the factor model set out in Carneiro, Hansen, and Heckman (2003). Specically, we consider the impact of cognitive and non-cognitive ability and the value that parents place on education. Our results support three main conclusions. First, cognitive ability at age 15 has a substantial impact on dropping out....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education......We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...
Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective to establish the personal, economic and social causes and consequences that create school desertion of high school in Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS. The investigation took place in the high school located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, in the academic unit (UA of San Blas and its extensions The Constancia and The Higueras of the Natoches in 2013. A mixed approach was used to analyze qualitative and quantitative information; the studied population was 18 women and 17 men deserters of the school cycle 2011-2012, ten teachers, four directors and twenty non-deserting students. In the results one can see that the principal factor for school desertion was the personnel to be married and not approving classes. The main consequence was economic, highlighting that the poverty cycle is hard to break.
This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…
Bar-Am, Ran; Arar, Osama
This article deals with the problem of student dropout during the first year in a higher education institution. To date, no model on a budget has been developed and tested to prevent dropout among Engineering Students. This case study was conducted among first-year students taking evening classes in two practical engineering colleges in Israel.…
PACER Center, 2006
What can parents do to make sure their children with disabilities stay in school and graduate? Be involved. Research shows that one of the most essential strategies for promoting school completion and achievement is family involvement. When families remain involved in their children's middle and high school education, students are more likely to…
Full Text Available In this research conducted to investigate university students’ tendencies toward and reasons behind dropout, it was found that university students had a high level of tendency towards dropout (45%. This indicated that one out of two students wanted to drop out of school at least once for a reason. As a result, their tendencies toward dropout was due to personal factors as well as those related to family, friends, and school. The personal factors affecting tendency toward dropout were gender, academic performance, school attendance, out-of-school work, boredom at school, and discipline penalty. According to the results, the factors related to school were faculty type, level of satisfaction with administrative and teaching staff as well as with social activities, level of difficulty in the department, and willingness to choose faculty. Furthermore, in this study, a positive relationship was found between dropout tendency and possession of close friends who dropped out of school.
Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Mortensen, Ole Steen
The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health and physical fitness. Prospective study with 14-month follow-up (the duration of the education) in two schools of health and social care in the Region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire, and their physical fitness (balance, back extension endurance, back flexion endurance and sagittal flexibility) was assessed at baseline. Dropout was defined as failure to complete NA education. A total of 790 subjects, 87% of those invited, completed the questionnaire; 612 subjects also completed the physical tests and were included in the present study and 500 (83%) were women. Recent LBP was not an independent predictor of school dropout. However, only among women who had LBP were other factors (a history of previous exposure to heavy physical workload, a low mental health score and failure to pass the back extension endurance test) associated with risk of dropout, OR (95% CI)=2.5 (1.2-5.3). Among men, only low height was significantly associated with dropout risk. A recent LBP history was not an independent single predictor of dropout from NA education but was a risk factor in combination with other factors.
studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project...
West, Thomas C.
Each school year, roughly a thousand students drop out of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). However, unlike other large, urban school districts where students who drop out skip school and are suspended often (Balfanz & Byrnes, 2010), students who drop out of MCPS are present in school; they just are not doing well…
Rumberger, Russell W.
One of the most important indicators of educational performance is the high school dropout rate. Reducing dropout rates and improving high school graduation rates are important goals for both educators and policymakers. Yet there is a great deal of controversy about how best to measure dropout and graduation rates. This issue of EL Facts provides estimates of dropout rates for language minority students, racial and ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups.
Lovitt, Thomas C.
Like its two predecessors, "Preventing School Dropouts" [C1991] and "Preventing School Failure" [C2000], this third edition is a book about teaching. Although primarily written for teachers, tutors and parents may also find this book helpful. It is a collection of carefully selected teaching techniques aimed at helping young adults learn important…
Dicksteen, Lisa Napell
The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) National Center for Education Statistics defines dropouts as "16- through 21-year-olds who are not enrolled in school and have not earned a high school credential (either a diploma or an equivalency credential such as a General Education Development (GED) certificate)." According to the feds, the…
Pâmela Ferreira Todendi
Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.
pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming
Simonds, Thomas Andrew
Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…
Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads
INTRODUCTION: The dropout level from the Danish medical schools is high, but we have only little insight into this problem. The purpose of this study was to qualify the ongoing discussions concerning dropout. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, relevant variables were...... extracted from the established database of Aarhus University for the 639 students initiating medicine studies between 1 January 1999 and 31December 2000. A multivariate pre-admission and post-admission model was examined. RESULTS: Of the 639 medical students, 20% dropped out. Most students dropped out...... during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout...
Education Week, 2013
The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that…
Sayegh, Caitlin S; Huey, Stanley J; Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
This study tested the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for improving retention at a "second chance" program in the United States for unemployed young adults who had not graduated high school (ages 18-24; 60% male). We investigated how Motivational Interviewing effects might be mediated by change talk (i.e., arguments for change) and moderated by preference for consistency (PFC). Participants (N = 100) were randomly assigned to (1) Motivational Interviewing designed to elicit change talk, (2) placebo counseling designed not to elicit change talk, or (3) no additional treatment. Motivational Interviewing sessions increased change talk, but did not increase program retention or diploma earning. PFC was a significant moderator of Motivational Interviewing's impact on program retention; Motivational Interviewing was most effective at increasing 8 week retention for high PFC participants, and least effective for low PFC participants. These results suggest that Motivational Interviewing could be a useful tool for improving retention in education and employment programs, but clinicians should be attentive to how participant characteristics might enhance or diminish Motivational Interviewing effects. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Center for Promise, 2016
The number of young people who leave school before graduation continues to be a problem in the United States, with approximately 485,000 young people leaving school each year. Not graduating translates to substantial individual and societal economic, civic, and social costs. Understanding the factors that lead young people to leave school can have…
McFarland, Joel; Stark, Patrick; Cui, Jiashan
Dropping out of high school is related to a number of negative outcomes. For example, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who had not completed high school was roughly $26,000 in 2013. By comparison, the median income of persons ages 18 through 67 who completed their education with at least a high school credential (i.e., a regular…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig
This 2012 report shows that high school graduation rates continue to improve nationally and across many states and school districts, with 12 states accounting for the majority of new graduates over the last decade. Tennessee and New York continue to lead the nation with double-digit gains in high school graduation rates over the same period. The…
The Influence of the Trainer's Motivation and Cooperative Learning towards the Improvement of the Youth School Dropouts' Vocational Competences: "A Case Study of Life Skills Training at the Center for Social Empowerment of Youths ("Balai Pemberdayaan Sosial Bina Remaja") in the West Java Province"
The fact that there are many children and youths dropping out of school in Indonesia cannot be denied. The number of dropouts in elementary schools, junior, and senior high schools, and combined with those abandoning school before finishing their higher education program each year remains high. To mitigate this situation, there has been an…
This master‟s thesis is about cyber-bullying prevention in primary school. My reason for choosing this issue was a desire to get a greater insight into cyber-bullying as a phenomenon. In addition, I found it interesting to find how the principals can work systematically for prevention and reduction of cyber-bullying incidents in schools, with the purpose of offering pupils a good psycho-social environment as enshrined in the Education Act, Section 9a-3. My attention was focused on understa...
The District conducts two kinds of dropout analyses every year in Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The "cross-sectional" analysis of student dropouts examines dropout rates among students enrolled in various grades at one point in time. A "longitudinal" analysis, also conducted annually, tracks a group of students in the same…
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…
Crosta, Peter M.
For colleges to develop effective dropout prevention strategies, it is necessary to have a clear picture of who these early dropouts are. This report identifies distinguishing characteristics of this group by analyzing six years of transcript data on 14,429 first-time college students who in 2005 and 2006 enrolled at one of five community colleges…
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles
Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…
Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig
In 2010, the authors shared a Civic Marshall Plan to create a Grad Nation. Through that first report and subsequent update, they saw hopeful signs of progress in boosting high school graduation rates in communities across the country. This 2012 report shows that high school graduation rates continue to improve nationally and across many states and…
Lovelace, Matthew D.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James J.
Early warning systems use school record data--such as attendance rate, behavior records, and course performance--to identify students at risk of dropping out. These are useful predictors of graduation-related outcomes, in large part because they indicate a student's level of engagement with school. However, these data do not indicate how invested…
Zachry, Elizabeth M.
This literature review examines current practice in reporting school dropout rates and the impact that school dropout may have on adult education programs and policies. First, I investigate the five dropout estimates commonly reported by the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE), examining how these measures vary in their estimation of school…
Blout, JoAnn D.; Rose, Kathleen C.; Suessmann, Mary; Coleman, Kara; Selekman, Janice
Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, healthcare providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs. The…
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005
This paper provides a background and discussion regarding the need for school policy and procedures to prevent bullying, intimidation and harassment in schools. The paper is intended to focus discussion on the responsibility of school boards, administrators and staff in making the school environment a safe place for all students. In so doing,…
KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill
Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…
Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads; Eika, Berit
The dropout level from the Danish medical schools is high, but we have only little insight into this problem. The purpose of this study was to qualify the ongoing discussions concerning dropout. In this retrospective cohort study, relevant variables were extracted from the established database of Aarhus University for the 639 students initiating medicine studies between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2000. A multivariate pre-admission and post-admission model was examined. Of the 639 medical students, 20% dropped out. Most students dropped out during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout. The dropout rate has been decreasing during the past decade. Young people considering studying medicine could be advised to choose natural science subjects in high school, and a number of research questions concerning preparedness for medical school are worth pursuing. Leave or very low grades during the first and second study years might serve as red flags to supervisors. Study research was funded by Aarhus University. Not relevant, register-based research with no biological human material cannot be notified to the Danish Committee System. The Danish Data Protection Agency allows schools to conduct anonymized, non-sensitive, educational analyses without notification.
Research has demonstrated that a positive school climate is an essential part of violence prevention. Many factors influence the association between school climate and behavioral outcomes. Positive school climate alone cannot prevent all variables that may contribute to the expression of aggression. Nevertheless, positive school climates influence…
Ong, C.; de Witte, K.
This paper investigates the influence of ethnic composition and school mobility at the primary school-level on the propensity to drop out of high school. Using rich school and neighbourhood administrative data, we observe that (i) frequent school movers have a 2.6 times higher likelihood of early
The focus of this study is to add to the outcome research on effective school counseling interventions and to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention with students identified as having drop out potential in the 9th grade. This study analyzed two years of pre-existing, non-identifiable…
Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an
Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.
While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an
Thomas, R; Perera, R
Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and
This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Cameron, Lisa A.
This paper uses regression and matching techniques to evaluate Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Programme. The scholarships program was developed to try to prevent large numbers of children from dropping out of school as a result of the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their…
Stueve, Ann; Dash, Kimberly; O'Donnell, Lydia; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Slaby, Ronald G; Link, Bruce G
Public concerns about school shootings and safety draw attention to the role bystanders can play in preventing school violence. Although school violence prevention plans are often required, there is little guidance about whether these should address the roles of bystanders and what actions bystanders should take in different circumstances, from more common instances of bullying and fighting to rare, but potentially lethal, threats and use of weapons. Literature pertaining to bystanders is reviewed and applied to the school setting. The definition of bystander is expanded, including parents, teachers, and other school staff as well as youths and those who have information about potential violence as well as those who witness its occurrence. Barriers preventing bystanders from taking positive actions are discussed. The authors call on health promotion researchers and practitioners to work with school communities to identify norms, attitudes, and outcome expectancies that shape bystander behaviors to inform prevention efforts.
De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.
One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…
Poernomo, Alvin; Kang, Dae-Ki
Training a deep neural network with a large number of parameters often leads to overfitting problem. Recently, Dropout has been introduced as a simple, yet effective regularization approach to combat overfitting in such models. Although Dropout has shown remarkable results on many deep neural network cases, its actual effect on CNN has not been thoroughly explored. Moreover, training a Dropout model will significantly increase the training time as it takes longer time to converge than a non-Dropout model with the same architecture. To deal with these issues, we address Biased Dropout and Crossmap Dropout, two novel approaches of Dropout extension based on the behavior of hidden units in CNN model. Biased Dropout divides the hidden units in a certain layer into two groups based on their magnitude and applies different Dropout rate to each group appropriately. Hidden units with higher activation value, which give more contributions to the network final performance, will be retained by a lower Dropout rate, while units with lower activation value will be exposed to a higher Dropout rate to compensate the previous part. The second approach is Crossmap Dropout, which is an extension of the regular Dropout in convolution layer. Each feature map in a convolution layer has a strong correlation between each other, particularly in every identical pixel location in each feature map. Crossmap Dropout tries to maintain this important correlation yet at the same time break the correlation between each adjacent pixel with respect to all feature maps by applying the same Dropout mask to all feature maps, so that all pixels or units in equivalent positions in each feature map will be either dropped or active during training. Our experiment with various benchmark datasets shows that our approaches provide better generalization than the regular Dropout. Moreover, our Biased Dropout takes faster time to converge during training phase, suggesting that assigning noise appropriately in
Martens, Ute; Rempel, Irene; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Teufel, Martin
Dropouts result in far-reaching consequences for the individual patient, fellow patients, therapists, and the clinic. This study was aimed at early identification of patients with a dropout risk. Data from patients of the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy of the Medical University Clinic of Tübingen (Germany) were analyzed retrospectively in a case-control study (matched). Differences in the results of various questionnaires (SCL-90-R, IIP-D, SF-36) regarding reasons for dropout and sociodemographic data were analyzed. A total of 59 dropouts, 50 females and 9 males, were included. They were split into 28 early dropouts and 31 late dropouts. The data were compared between early and late dropouts and control group. Early dropouts were significantly younger than late dropouts; they tended to live with their parents or on their own, and suffered more frequently from eating disorders. Late dropouts lived together with partners and suffered from somatoform disorders more frequently than early dropouts. The reasons given for dropout did not differ between the groups. No differences between dropouts and the controls were found with respect to psychopathology (SCL- 90-R) and quality of life (SF-36). Late dropouts did show significantly lower scores on the scale "autocracy/dominance" than the controls (IIP). Therapy dropout is a multifactorial occurrence. It is generally not predictable, though it may be predicted with different instruments on the basis of a diagnosis, especially with respect to interpersonal behavior patterns. In further studies, targeted interventions should be developed and tested which enable procedures to minimize the risk of dropout and to achieve complete treatment according to patients' intentions.
Burns, Matthew K.
The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…
In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…
Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to identify individual and familial factors students cite as the reasons for dropping out of school or being at the risk of doing so. We interviewed a total of twelve students who dropped out of school or are at the risk of dropping out of primary (six students or secondary school (six students and four parents. A semi-structured interview was used. We singled out four categories of students, determined by their perception of the reasons for dropping out of school. Those categories included: underage pregnancy, assuming a parental role, problematic behaviour (thefts, fights and weak motivation for school and learning. It seems justified to look for a typology of dropout cases since each of the selected groups of students requires specific preventive measures in order to secure continuation of their education. Furthermore, research has shown that, when it comes to their children dropping out of school, parents tend to blame the child’s character traits they deem unchangeable. The failure of school staff to help the child further encourages this belief in parents.
Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth
Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.
Clarke, J L; Pallan, M J; Lancashire, E R; Adab, P
Schools are seen as important contributors to obesity prevention, yet face barriers in fulfilling this function. This qualitative study investigates headteacher views on the primary school role in preventing obesity. Semi-structured interviews were held with 22 headteachers from ethnically and socio-economically diverse schools in the West Midlands, UK. Data analysis was conducted using the framework approach. Two over-arching categories were identified: 'School roles and responsibilities' and 'Influencing factors'. Participants agreed that although schools contribute towards obesity prevention in many ways, a moral responsibility to support children's holistic development was the principal motivator, rather than preventing obesity per se. The perceived impact on learning was a key driver for promoting health. Parents were believed to have the main responsibility for preventing obesity, but barriers were identified. Whilst headteachers recognized the advantageous position of schools in offering support to parents, opinion varied on the degree to which schools could and should take on this role. Headteachers serving more deprived areas reported adopting certain responsibilities that elsewhere were fulfilled by parents, and were more likely to view working with families on healthy lifestyles as an important school function. Several factors were perceived as barriers to schools doing more to prevent obesity, including academic pressure, access to expert support and space. In conclusion, school leaders need more support, through resources and government policy, to enable them to maximize their role in obesity prevention. Additionally, school-based obesity prevention should be an integral part of the education agenda rather than bolt-on initiatives. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.
Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-33 ISSN 1805-8698 Grant - others:SVV(CZ) 260034 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : drop-out * peak height * DNA interpretation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ijbh.org/ijbh2014-1.pdf
Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc
Background: In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. Aims: The first aim of…
Sparks, Sarah D.
The use of analytic tools to predict student performance is exploding in higher education, and experts say the tools show even more promise for K-12 schools, in everything from teacher placement to dropout prevention. Use of such statistical techniques is hindered in precollegiate schools, however, by a lack of researchers trained to help…
Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Methods: Primarily…
Casebeer, Cindy M.
School bullying is a serious problem. It is associated with negative effects for bullies, targets, and bystanders. Bullying is related to school shootings, student suicides, and poor academic outcomes. Yet, this issue cannot be solved by way of simple, one-size-fits-all solutions. Instead, school bullying is a complex, systemic issue that requires…
Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer
While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…
Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred
Schools and kindergartens are particularly suitable for the implementation of violence prevention programs. Many German schools and kindergartens have securely established the violence prevention curriculum Faustlos. The Faustlos programs for kindergartens and elementary schools are now complemented with the version for middle schools. As the kindergarten- and elementary school versions the middle school program too focuses on the theoretically profound, age group-tailored promotion of empathy, impulse control and anger management. These dimensions are subdivided into the five themes "understanding the problem" "training for empathy"; "anger management", "problem solving" and "applying skills" and taught stepwise, highly structured and based on several video sequences in 31 lessons. US-American evaluation studies proof the effectiveness and the violence prevention potential of the program. With the curriculum for middle schools a comprehensive Faustlos program package is now made available to sustainably promote core violence prevention competences of children and adolescents on a developmentally appropriate level and with a consistent didactic approach.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
For the last ten years drop out of vocational education has increased strongly in Denmark. Only half of the students, who take up a vocational programme on upper secondary level, complete it. Like in other European countries the low completion rates has caused considerable alarm on the political...... level (Lamb and Markussen 2011). Continuing high dropout rates will make it very hard for the government to reach its target for educational completion, and the government has launched a series of measures to increase retention including the obligation for all colleges to make plans for retention...... and monitor the progress in achieving the goals. The questions addressed in this paper are why and how dropout in VET takes place. The objective is to provide more detailed and qualified knowledge of the complex processes of dropping out....
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille
prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...
Vagnby, Bo Hellisen
An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...
Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…
The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people.
Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.
Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott
Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
The Ministry of Education in Chile has adopted a policy that guarantees the right of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be educated. The document, "Educational policy and sexuality," recommends incorporating sex education and AIDS prevention into the school curriculum. In San Bernardo, where one child was not accepted at school, a project, "Education for prevention and non-discrimination," was announced by municipal authorities. Students in public and private schools in the country have been trained as monitors who, in the school environment, educate other children about AIDS. In Santiago, seminars that cover fear of AIDS have begun for teachers, many of whom are afraid. Working groups are being considered for development and communication of prevention strategies in schools.
Pihl, Patricia; Grytnes, Regine; Andersen, Lars Peter S
Research has shown that employees in special education settings are at high risk for work-related threats and violence. Previous research has not yet been able to identify the essential components of training programs that offer protection from work-related threats and violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how employees in special education schools deal with prevention of work-related threats and violence. Group interviews were conducted with 14 employees working at 5 special education schools. Results show that employees use a wide range of prevention strategies drawing on specific violence prevention techniques as well as professional pedagogical approaches. We propose that the prevention of threats and violence in special education schools can be understood as an integrated pedagogical practice operating on three interrelated levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Lessard, Anne; Butler-Kisber, Lynn; Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane
The authors focused on high school students who were at risk of dropping out and examined why some of these students persevered and graduated while others ended up dropping out of school. Sixty resilient students and 80 dropouts participated in the study. Our results indicate that although learning difficulties were shared by participants, 4 types…
Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique
The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Mingjie Tan; Peiji Shao
The high rate of dropout is a serious problem in E-learning program. Thus it has received extensive concern from the education administrators and researchers. Predicting the potential dropout students is a workable solution to prevent dropout. Based on the analysis of related literature, this study selected student’s personal characteristic and academic performance as input attributions. Prediction models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Decision Tree (DT) and Bayesian Ne...
Samuels, Christina A.
The number of sports-related concussions reported by young athletes is on the rise, prompting awareness campaigns from athletic and medical groups, as well as proposed federal legislation to set minimum standards for concussion management in public schools. Concussions are caused by a jolt to the body or a blow to the head that causes the head to…
Heath, Melissa Allen; Moulton, Emily; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Brown, Alec
The consequences of bullying are both widespread and severe. It disrupts learning, threatens school safety, and poses long-term emotional repercussions for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Although multiple strategies have targeted bullying, bullying must be understood within a social contextual framework beyond the bully-victim dyad. Davis and…
Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh
This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity.
Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick
Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in
After her son died by suicide, Theodora Schiro vowed to raise awareness and teach others about depression and suicide. In this article, Schiro (a former teacher and principal) explains how educators can detect warning signs, devise preventative programs, and fight the stigma associated with suicide.
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Robertson, Janna Siegel; Smith, Robert W.; Rinka, Jason
The researchers surveyed 23 North Carolina high schools that had markedly improved their graduation rates over the past five years. The administrators reported on the dropout prevention practices and programs to which they attributed their improved graduation rates. The majority of schools reported policy changes, especially with suspension. The…
Christine M.W. Totura
Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.
Gardner, Lauren A; Magee, Christopher A; Vella, Stewart A
Dropout from organized youth sport has significant adverse health implications. Enjoyment and behavioral intentions have consistently been linked with participation and dropout; however, few studies have investigated these links using a prospective design. This study explored whether enjoyment and intentions to continue predicted dropout behavior at 1-year follow-up. Questionnaires were completed by 327 regular sport participants (mean age = 13.01 y at baseline). After 1 year, 247 individuals (75.5%) continued participating in their main sport and 26 individuals (8%) dropped out. A hierarchical logistic regression model estimated the probability of dropout. In step 1, the following covariates were included: age, sex, competition level, perceived competence, parental support, coach-athlete relationship, friendship quality, and peer acceptance. In step 2, enjoyment and intentions to continue were included. Step 1 indicated that age, parental support, coach-athlete relationship quality, and peer acceptance were significantly associated with dropout. Step 2 explained further variance in dropout, with both enjoyment and intentions inversely associated with dropout. Peer acceptance was the only covariate to remain significantly associated with dropout in step 2. Findings support the use of enjoyment and behavioral intentions as indicators of sport participation/dropout behavior and may aid the development of interventions aimed at preventing future dropout.
Examining the data broken down by gender, the correlations were higher and statistically significant in males than in females. GT-based data for drop-out resulted best modeled by an ARMA(1,0 model. Considering the cross correlation of Canadian regions, all of them resulted statistically significant at lag 0, apart from for New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and the Prince Edward island. A number or cross-correlations resulted statistically significant also at lag −1 (namely, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan.
Bennett, Kelly Ann
I investigated fifteen junior high counselors' understandings about student dropout, particularly about identification of and interventions for students at risk for dropping out of school. As an educator, I desired to research the phenomenon of student dropout to understand how to better reach these types of students. Research is available…
Uekawa, Kazuaki; Merola, Stacey; Fernandez, Felix; Porowski, Allan
This Technical Brief presents an historical analysis of key indicators of dropout for Delaware students in grades 9-12. Cut points for key risk indicators of high school dropout for the State of Delaware are provided. Using data provided by the Delaware Department of Education (DDOE), relationships between student dropout and several student…
Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.
Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan
One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…
Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo
School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.
The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…
Crawford, Diane Lynn
This case study was initiated to explore how 6 fourth-grade student mediators implemented an inner-city elementary school's violence prevention program based on peer mediation in the context of psychosocial theory. The participants were trained in conflict resolution to intervene with disputants who experienced unresolved disagreements. To…
Burgos-Garcia, Antonio; Alonso-Morillejo, Enrique; Pozo-Munoz, Carmen
The assessment of needs plays a relevant role in the training for preventing of risks at work into school, as it is a scientific procedure to identify and prioritise problems existing within an educative context. This type of assessment is the starting point for a subsequent planning of the educative interventions that will enable pupils and…
Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…
Yalowitz, Jeffrey S.; Schroer, Michael A.; Dickson, John E., Jr.
This final report describes work performed by SRS Technologies for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center under Contract NAS8-39077, entitled 'Integrated Receiver-Decoder Dropout Study'. The purpose of the study was to determine causes of signal fading effects on ultra-high-frequency (UHF) range safety transmissions to the Space Shuttle during flyout. Of particular interest were deep fades observed at the External Tank (ET) Integrated Receiver-Decoder (IRD) during the flyout interval between solid rocket booster separation and ET separation. Analytical and simulation methods were employed in this study to assess observations captured in flight telemetry data records. Conclusions based on the study are presented in this report, and recommendations are given for future experimental validation of the results.
Crepeau-Hobson, M. Franci; Filaccio, Marylynne; Gottfried, Linda
The authors examined changes in mental health services and violence prevention strategies in public high schools since the shootings at Columbine High School. Surveys were mailed to school mental health professionals at public high schools in Colorado. Respondents included school counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, principals,…
Bender, C. J. Gerda; Emslie, Annemarie
The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people. Empirical evidence indicates…
In this book, David Capuzzi, a renowned expert on suicide, encourages suicide prevention in schools through the use of a clear and effective crisis management plan designed to identify and serve at-risk youth. His concise, step-by-step framework provides essential information for school counselors, administrators, and faculty on suicide…
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary
This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…
Graham, Ben; Reizenstein, Jeremy; Robinson, Leigh
Dropout is a popular technique for regularizing artificial neural networks. Dropout networks are generally trained by minibatch gradient descent with a dropout mask turning off some of the units---a different pattern of dropout is applied to every sample in the minibatch. We explore a very simple alternative to the dropout mask. Instead of masking dropped out units by setting them to zero, we perform matrix multiplication using a submatrix of the weight matrix---unneeded hidden units are neve...
Bayer, Jaroslav; Bydzovska, Hana; Geryk, Jan; Obsivac, Tomas; Popelinsky, Lubomir
This paper focuses on predicting drop-outs and school failures when student data has been enriched with data derived from students social behaviour. These data describe social dependencies gathered from e-mail and discussion board conversations, among other sources. We describe an extraction of new features from both student data and behaviour…
Utilizing multiple data sources from the year 1997–2007, this study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... Center for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North–West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn
Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.
Vaca, Federico E
Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].
Background: Immunization against childhood diseases is one of the most important ways of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality. Aims: The objective of this study is to review the dropout rates of immunization of children in a health center using a single dose of diphtheria‑pertussis‑tetanus (DPT1) and three doses of ...
Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.
Colbert, Robert D.
High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…
Viriam Leiva Díaz
Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders
Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C
Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.
Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.
A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…
Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert
The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to examine the root causes leading to student dropout at a Greek distance education university. Data was gathered from two different courses – an undergraduate course leading to a Bachelors degree in Informatics (characterized by high dropout rates, and a postgraduate course leading to a Masters degree in education (characterized by low dropout rates. A comparative analysis of these two different courses revealed important similarities in dropout percentages and the reasons cited by students for dropping out. Our analysis also revealed important differences as well. This paper presents the results of a survey designed to investigate the relationship between dropout with intrinsic (student-related factors such as sickness, work/ school conflict etc., and extrinsic (institutional-related factors such as study methods and materials, educational approach, and tutor influence.
Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.
This report is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Based on an assessment of the school's violence prevention approach using qualitative and quantitative data from…
Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K
Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Jonathan Jacob Doll
Full Text Available Research on school dropout extends from early 20th-century pioneers until now, marking trends of causes and prevention. However, specific dropout causes reported by students from several nationally representative studies have never been examined together, which, if done, could lead to a better understanding of the dropout problem. Push, pull, and falling out factors provide a framework for understanding dropouts. Push factors include school-consequence on attendance or discipline. Pull factors include out-of-school enticements like jobs and family. Finally, falling out factors refer to disengagement in students not caused by school or outside pulling factors. Since 1966, most nationally representative studies depicted pull factors as ranking the highest. Also, administrators in one study corroborated pull out factors for younger dropouts, not older ones, while most recent research cites push factors as highest overall. One rationale for this change is a response to rising standards from No Child Left Behind (NCLB, which can be ultimately tested only by future dropout research.
Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Change from within. How communities can be involved in preventing children from dropping out of schoolIn this article, based on a social work graduation project carried out at a primary school in Douglas, Northern Cape, South Africa, the issue of young children dropping out of primary education is outlined, as well as its causes. Solutions that address the direct causes seem hard to find. Such solutions should address deep-rooted assumptions and a lack of awareness of the importance of education on the part of many individuals, it is suggested. The author proposes that social workers seek to involve the community in solving their own problems, such as drop-outs. A bottom-up approach should be used to change incorrect assumptions about education and the importance of education should be emphasized. An example is given of how empowering and educating the right people to take responsibly for their community can benefit that community and also help relieve social workers of their massive workloads, which is a significant problem in South Africa.Verandering van binnenuit. Hoe de gemeenschap betrokken kan worden in het voorkomen van schooluitval bij kinderenIn dit artikel, gebaseerd op een Social work afstudeeronderzoek op een basisschool in Douglas, Noord Kaap, Zuid Afrika, wordt uitleg geven over (de oorzaken van het probleem van kinderen die het primaire onderwijs vroegtijdig verlaten. Eventuele directe oplossingen voor dit probleem lijken moeilijk te vinden. Diepgewortelde aannames en onwetendheid wat betreft het belang van educatie zullen moeten worden aangepakt. De auteur vindt dat Social workers meer moeten proberen de gemeenschap te betrekken bij het oplossen van problemen die de hele gemeenschap aangaan, zoals de schooluitval. Een “bottom-up” aanpak kan nuttig zijn in het veranderen van verkeerde aannames en onwetendheid over (het belang van educatie. Er wordt een voorbeeld gegeven waarin duidelijk wordt hoe je door “empowerment” en
Gomez, Diane Diaz
The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…
Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Hulya; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Akyazı, Senem; Yıldızhan, Eren; Kılıc, Kasım Candas; Basyigit, Sehnaz; Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Akyuz, Fatma; Gokce, Esra; Bag, Sevda; Kurt, Erhan; Oral, Esat Timucin
Dropout is a common problem in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorders (BD). The aim of the present study is to investigate illness perceptions of dropout patients with BD. A cross sectional study was done on the participants who attended the Mood Disorder Outpatient Clinic at least 3 times from January 2003 through June 2008, and then failed to attend clinic till to the last one year, 2009, determined as dropout. Thirty-nine dropout patients and 39 attendent patients with BD were recruited for this study. A sociodemographic form and brief illness perception questionnaire were used to capture data. The main reasons of patients with BD for dropout were difficulties of transport (31%), to visit another doctor (26%), giving up drugs (13%) and low education level (59%) is significant for dropout patients. The dropout patients reported that their illness did not critically influence their lives, their treatment had failed to control their illnesses, they had no symptoms, and that their illness did not emotionally affect them. In conclusion, the nonattendance of patients with serious mental illness can result in non-compliance of therapeutic drug regimens, and a recurrence of the appearance symptoms. The perception of illness in dropout patients with BD may be important for understanding and preventing nonattendance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Haan, Anna M; Boon, Albert E; de Jong, Joop T V M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
A large proportion of treatments in youth mental health care are prematurely terminated by the patient. Treatment dropout can have severe consequences. Since ethnic minority youth are treated less often for mental disorders than other youth, it is important to analyse their risk for dropout and to determine if there are ethnicity-specific determinants. This review aimed to provide an overview of the findings from empirical studies on child and adolescent therapy dropout by ethnic minority and to determine if there were ethnicity-specific dropout determinants. An extensive literature search was performed to locate relevant journal articles. Identified articles were inspected for relevant references and these articles were then included in the meta-analysis. A total of 27 studies were accepted for analysis. The results showed that ethnic minority patients have a higher risk of treatment dropout than ethnic majority patients and that dropout rates are ethnically specific. Several differences in dropout predictors among the ethnic groups were found. In spite of diverse results, review limitations, and the lack of several key variables in the available research, some clinical recommendations are made. The review indicates that to prevent dropout, therapists should pay attention to variables such as ethnic background, therapist-patient ethnic match, and the quality of the therapeutic relationship.
Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.
Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a
Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…
Full Text Available Este texto tiene como objetivo exponer panorámicamente un recuento del surgimiento histórico de la educación media en Argentina, para avanzar luego en la evolución de la expansión matricular hasta la actualidad, contemplando los rasgos fundamentales de la misma. A partir de allí, se expondrán factores incidentes en la problemática del abandono escolar, prestando énfasis a las características de la modalidad técnica. Se retomarán puntos centrales de un debate escasamente explorado que es aquel que aborda la intersección específica entre abandono escolar y los estudiantes de modalidad técnica. Se subraya que las condiciones del mercado laboral actual, como la amplitud de la precarización, el avance del sector servicios y la estrechez en materia de industrialización tornan aún más acuciante el contorno de discusiones sobre esta problemática. Este panorama marcha en paralelo a cambios de envergadura en el sistema educativo nacional, enmarcados en sucesivas modificaciones a las normativas jurídicas que lo orientan.This text aims to expose panoramically a recount of the historical emergence of secondary education in Argentina, to advance later in the evolution of the expansion currently watching enrolling until the fundamental features of it. From there, it will expose the factors which affect the dropout problem giving particular emphasis to the characteristics of the technical arrangement. Focal points will resume in a little explored that debate is one that addresses the specific intersection between ESL students and technical arrangement. It emphasizes that current labor market conditions, as the amplitude of the precarious, the advance of the service sector and the narrowness in industrialization becomes even more pressing the outline of discussions on this issue. Panorama marching in parallel with major changes in the national education system, surrounded by successive amendments to legal regulations that guide the system.
Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen
Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Public school administrators ( N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.
Oduro, Beth Cathrine Fagerlid
This study takes a closer look at the issue of late enrolment and early drop out in a rural area in Eastern Region in Ghana. Children enrolling in school later than the recommended age of six, is a persistent problem in Ghana in spite of a fee free public school. Using qualitative methodology through household interviews in two villages, interviews with teachers and staff at Ghana Educational Service, a registration scheme and diaries the study seeks to unravel some of the stor...
Education for disaster prevention has become more and more important since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. More than 18 thousand people were killed or have not been found yet in the tragedy, however, in Kesn'numa, which is a city located in the seriously damaged area, there were few student victims of tsunami. This is because every school in Kesen'numa has excellent education systems for disaster prevention. They have several safety exercises and conducts emergency drills each year in unique ways which have been developed upon the tragic experiences of serious earthquakes and tsunami in the past. For disaster prevention education, we should learn two important points from the case in Kesen'numa; to learn from the ancient wisdom, and to ensure for students to have enough opportunities of safety exercises and emergency drills at school. In addition to these two points, another issue from the viewpoint of science education can be added, which is to learn about the mechanisms of earthquake. We have developed disaster prevention and reduction programs in educational context, taking these three points into consideration. First part of the program is to study local history, focusing on ancient wisdom. In Kesen'numa City, there were thirty-three monumental stones with cautionary lessons of the possible danger of tsunami before the great earthquake. The lessons were based on the disasters actually happened in the past and brought down to the current generation. Kesen'numa-Otani elementary school has conducted education for disaster prevention referring to this information with full of ancient wisdom. Second part of the program is to make sure that every student has enough and rich opportunities to simulate the worst situation of any disasters. For example, in the case of earthquake and tsunami, teachers take students to the safest place through the designated evacuation rout according to each school's original manual. Students can experience this
Bast, Lotus S; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Andersen, Anette
Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself-for example, school-level characteristics, such as principal support and organizational capacity. We examined school-level characteristics of schools in groups of high, medium, and low implementation of a smoking prevention intervention. The X:IT study is a school-randomized trial testing a multicomponent intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents. Our data came from electronic questionnaires completed by school coordinators at 96.1% of participating intervention schools (N = 49) at first follow -up. Schools that implemented the X:IT intervention to a medium or high degree had higher levels of administrative leadership (77.3% and 83.3% vs 42.9%), school climate/organizational health (95.5% and 91.7% vs 66.7%), mission-policy alignment (90.9% and 100.0% vs 71.4%), personnel expertise (81.8% and 75.0% vs 46.7%), school culture (77.3% and 91.7% vs 53.3%), positive classroom climate (91.4% and 96.2% vs 82.9%) compared with low implementation schools. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the school context in future health prevention initiatives. © 2017, American School Health Association.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…
Cho, Hyunsan; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J.; Hartman, Shane
This study examines prevention practices and perceptions in U.S. schools since passage of federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, using survey data from state education agencies (SEA) and a population-based sample of school districts. Only one third of U.S. public school districts rely on evidence-based prevention curriculum in middle…
Gabari Gambarte, M Inés; Sáenz Mendía, Raquel
To learn about children's perception of the causes and prevention strategies involved in school accidents. The sample included 584 school children aged 8-9 years from Navarra. A mixed design was chosen by questionnaire with three open-response questions and one multiple-choice assessment. Analysis was performed in two phases: 1) qualitative development of categories and dimensions of the responses of narrative content, and 2) quantitative variables for recoding correlational analysis. 22 categories emerged, which make up three perceptual dimensions: 1) attribution of causality (5), 2) identification of mechanisms of avoidance (11), and 3) development of coping strategies (6). The correlation intra-variables portray varying degrees: on the one hand, moderate positive numbers (r>0.5) in allocating and identifying causality avoidance mechanisms and, on the other hand, high positive correlation values (r>0.7) referred to developing coping strategies. Children are able to identify accidents as a health problem. They question the multiplicity of elements involved and relate the origin and kind of accident to prevention and support mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Roel C. J. Hermans
Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food
Buckley, Mychl K.
The purpose of this research study was to describe and analyze at-risk high school students' perceptions of their experiences with online academic credit recovery classes offered to them through an urban school district's dropout prevention department. The review of literature concerning curricula for online programs revealed that the variety of…
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan
It is generally acknowledged that teachers play an important role in preventing or reducing violence in schools. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify teachers' responsibilities in terms of preventing violence among school children and (b) to solicit teachers' views as what they have been doing in preventing violence. Sample for the…
Zorpas, Antonis A; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa
Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.
Raja Bentaouet Kattan
Full Text Available The present study provides a detailed analysis of upper secondary education dropout patterns in Mexico, exploring its consequences and possible causes. To perform the analysis we combine different databases and statistical methods ranging from the use of surveys with information on specific individuals to data aggregated at the municipal and state level. The main value added is the simultaneous analysis of the influence of individual-family, community, and macroaggregate factors, on school dropout in the country.
A. Saranya; J. Rajeswari
Predicting college and school dropouts is a major problem in educational system and has complicated challenge due to data imbalance and multi dimensionality, which can affect the low performance of students. In this paper, we have collected different database from various colleges, among these 500 best real attributes are identified in order to identify the factor that affecting dropout students using neural based classification algorithm and different mining technique are implemented for dat...
Mikkonen, Janne; Moustgaard, Heta; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka
To quantify how large a part of educational dropout is due to adverse childhood health conditions and to estimate the risk of dropout across various physical and mental health conditions. A registry-based cohort study was conducted on a 20% random sample of Finns born in 1988-1995 (n = 101 284) followed for school dropout at ages 17 and 21. Four broad groups of health conditions (any, somatic, mental, and injury) and 25 specific health conditions were assessed from inpatient and outpatient care records at ages 10-16 years. We estimated the immediate and more persistent risks of dropout due to health conditions and calculated population-attributable fractions to quantify the population impact of childhood health on educational dropout, while accounting for a wide array of sociodemographic confounders and comorbidity. Children with any health condition requiring inpatient or outpatient care at ages 10-16 years were more likely to be dropouts at ages 17 years (risk ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.61-1.81) and 21 years (1.46, 1.37-1.54) following adjustment for individual and family sociodemographic factors. A total of 30% of school dropout was attributable to health conditions at age 17 years and 21% at age 21 years. Mental disorders alone had an attributable fraction of 11% at age 21 years, compared with 5% for both somatic conditions and injuries. Adjusting for the presence of mental disorders reduced the effects of somatic conditions. More than one fifth of educational dropout is attributable to childhood health conditions. Early-onset mental disorders emerge as key targets in reducing dropout. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liebowitz, David D.
In the early 1990s, the Supreme Court established standards to facilitate the release of school districts from racial desegregation orders. Over the next two decades, federal courts declared almost half of all districts under court order in 1991 to be "unitary"--that is, to have met their obligations to eliminate dual systems of…
Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…
Harris, Elizabeth; McFarland, Joyce; Siebold, Wendi; Aguilar, Rafael; Sarmiento, Ana
The Idaho Consortium for Safe Schools Healthy Students consists of three school districts in rural North Central Idaho and the Nez Perce Tribe's Students for Success Program. Universal prevention programs implemented in the elementary schools include Second Step and the middle schools implemented the Life Skills program. Each of the three…
A page to register to view the February 22, 2018, Energy Savings Plus Health for Schools Webinar Series Webinar: Making the Connection: Linking IAQ, Energy Efficiency and Preventive Maintenance Together for Healthy Schools
Pater, Robert; And Others
Almost a quarter of disabling work injuries among school employees are caused by slips and falls. Outlines prevention steps and safety programs that can help lower the possibilities of accidents from falls in schools. (MD)
Ghadeer S. Abu-Oda; Alaa M. El-Halees
In this paper, we apply different data mining approaches for the purpose of examining and predicting students’ dropouts through their university programs. For the subject of the study we select a total of 1290 records of computer science students Graduated from ALAQSA University between 2005 and 2011. The collected data included student study history and transcript for courses taught in the first two years of computer science major in addition to student GPA , high school average ...
This December 2012 Brief updates NSCC's 2011 report "State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil School"s (www.schoolclimate.org/climate/papers-briefs.php). This Brief provides a summary of State level: (1) anti-bullying legislation; (2)…
Andersen, Bror Just
The author wanted to test the effects of preventive mental health programmes in schools and established a longitudinal study with a test group and a control group, using Solomon's method. Data was collected through questionnaires prior to intervention and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. The size of the effect on the various indices were estimated in terms of (a) differences in improvement of total percentage scores and (b) Cohen's d. From to to t1, t2 and t3 the intervention group showed significantly greater progress in six out of seven knowledge indexes, and 12 months later we found significant effects on the level of mental health problems.
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Ruff, R R; Niederman, R
The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.
Bridgeland, John M
Interview and survey data reveal significant disconnects among the insights and perspectives of dropouts, parents, teachers, and administrators on the causes and solutions to the dropout challenge. Many educators, for example, do not see boredom as a factor for most dropouts, while young people who drop out see it as the central cause. The author argues that if these disconnects are not more fully understood and bridged, they will continue to set back efforts to keep more students in school and on track to graduate ready for postsecondary education. Models for how communities can engage these constituencies in productive dialogue and transformative action are included in reports and in Grad Nation, a guidebook that helps communities tackle their dropout crises.
Full Text Available Predicting college and school dropouts is a major problem in educational system and has complicated challenge due to data imbalance and multi dimensionality, which can affect the low performance of students. In this paper, we have collected different database from various colleges, among these 500 best real attributes are identified in order to identify the factor that affecting dropout students using neural based classification algorithm and different mining technique are implemented for data processing. We also propose a Dropout Prediction Algorithm (DPA using fuzzy logic and Logistic Regression based inference system because the weighted average will improve the performance of whole system. We are experimented our proposed work with all other classification systems and documented as the best outcomes. The aggregated data is given to the decision trees for better dropout prediction. The accuracy of overall system 98.6% it shows the proposed work depicts efficient prediction.
Helmbold, David P.; Long, Philip M.
Dropout is a simple but effective technique for learning in neural networks and other settings. A sound theoretical understanding of dropout is needed to determine when dropout should be applied and how to use it most effectively. In this paper we continue the exploration of dropout as a regularizer pioneered by Wager, et.al. We focus on linear classification where a convex proxy to the misclassification loss (i.e. the logistic loss used in logistic regression) is minimized. We show: (a) when...
Fisher, Deanne L.; Fritz, Ronald D.; Scott, Nancy L.
This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind" in 2002 legislation has put a greater…
Bowers, Alex J.
Studies of student risk of school dropout have shown that present predictors of at-risk status do not accurately identify a large percentage of students who eventually drop out. Through the analysis of the entire Grade 1-12 longitudinal cohort-based grading histories of the class of 2006 for two school districts in the United States, the author…
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan
The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…
Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida
This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…
Full Text Available The high rate of dropout is a serious problem in E-learning program. Thus it has received extensive concern from the education administrators and researchers. Predicting the potential dropout students is a workable solution to prevent dropout. Based on the analysis of related literature, this study selected student’s personal characteristic and academic performance as input attributions. Prediction models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Decision Tree (DT and Bayesian Networks (BNs. A large sample of 62375 students was utilized in the procedures of model training and testing. The results of each model were presented in confusion matrix, and analyzed by calculating the rates of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. The results suggested all of the three machine learning methods were effective in student dropout prediction, and DT presented a better performance. Finally, some suggestions were made for considerable future research.
Wyman, Jodi; Price, James H; Jordan, Timothy R; Dake, Joseph A; Telljohann, Susan K
The purpose of this study was to examine Ohio parents' perceptions of the role of schools in smoking prevention, cessation, and anti-tobacco policy for their children. A 46-item questionnaire was based on the CDC Guidelines for School Health Programs to Prevent Tobacco Use and Addiction. Surveys (n = 800) were sent to a stratified random sample of parents of junior high and high school aged students and 57% responded. Parents were supportive of smoking prevention activities, but almost two-thirds believed their child's school should get parents' input. Furthermore, mothers/step-mothers were more likely than fathers/step-fathers to agree that the school had a role in smoking prevention activities. The majority of parents were also supportive of smoking cessation activities. However, only 8% of parent respondents supported schools providing nicotine gum or patches to students trying to quit smoking. Overall, the majority of parents were supportive of the seven recommendations developed by the CDC as guidelines for school health programs to prevent tobacco use and addiction. Schools have the opportunity to impact student smoking through prevention and cessation activities. Schools need to know that parents are supportive of these activities and want to be included in the process of implementing effective prevention or cessation programs.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%, drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%, peer education clubs (15%, workshops and seminars on HIV (8%, sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%, guidance and counseling (6%, talking compounds- (5%, abstinence talks (6%, keeping students busy in sports (4%, straight talk (4%. Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.
Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among
Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.
Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…
Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.
The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…
Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted
Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M
A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.
Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.
This summary brief is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Researchers from the Justice Policy Center conducted an assessment of the school's violence prevention…
This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…
Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…
Triplett, Carla A.
This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…
Windham, R. Craig; Hooper, Lisa M.; Hudson, Patricia E.
The mass-casualty school shooting incidents in recent years have heightened concern about the safety of U.S. schools and prompted responses that, in many cases, have centered mainly on bolstering security on school campuses. Some researchers have concluded, however, that the most effective prevention efforts are those that are more comprehensive…
Turri, Mary G.; Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Hoselton, Robert
The purpose of this study was to determine if an experimental 5-item measure of barriers to implementing and sustaining school-wide prevention practices, the "Assessment of Barriers to Implementation and Sustainability in Schools" (ABISS), would relate to objective measures of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports…
Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen
Background: Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims: The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of…
Quelly, Susan B.
Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…
McCormac, Mary E.
Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…
Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi
Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona. PMID:28196078
Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik
BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...
Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea
University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…
Castro-Olivo, Sara Maria; Tran, Oanh Kim; Begum, Gazi Ferdousi; Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle; Garcia, Nicole Marie; Tung, Catherine Yang
Implementing violence prevention programs has become a priority for schools; however, most programs used for this purpose are limited in the skills they teach. In this study, two different resiliency building/violence prevention models were evaluated to assess their effectiveness at preventing violent and maladaptive behaviors in youth. Data from…
Bast, Lotus S.; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Andersen, Anette
Background: Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself--for example,…
Scott, Nancy L.; Fisher, Deanne L.; Fritz, Ronald D.
This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind in 2002" legislation has put a greater…
Kandakai, Tina L; King, Keith A
To examine preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention and the potential effect of violence-prevention training on preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. Six Ohio universities participated in the study. More than 800 undergraduate and graduate students completed surveys. Violence-prevention training, area of certification, and location of student- teaching placement significantly influenced preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention. Violence-prevention training positively influences preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. The results suggest that such training should be considered as a requirement for teacher preparation programs.
Lipson, Glenn; Grant, Billie-Jo; Mueller, Jessica; Sonnich, Steve
This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.
Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.
Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…
Miller, David N.
Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…
Roux, H; Ali, A; Lambert, S; Radon, L; Huas, C; Curt, F; Berthoz, S; Godart, Nathalie
Patients with severe Anorexia Nervosa (AN) whose condition is life-threatening or who are not receiving adequate ambulatory care are hospitalized. However, 40 % of these patients leave the hospital prematurely, without reaching the target weight set in the treatment plan, and this can compromise outcome. This study set out to explore factors predictive of dropout from hospital treatment among patients with AN, in the hope of identifying relevant therapeutic targets. From 2009 to 2011, 180 women hospitalized for AN (DSM-IV diagnosis) in 10 centres across France were divided into two groups: those under 18 years (when the decision to discharge belongs to the parents) and those aged 18 years and over (when the patient can legally decide to leave the hospital). Both groups underwent clinical assessment using the Morgan & Russell Global Outcome State questionnaire and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for assessment of eating disorder symptoms and outcome. Psychological aspects were assessed via the evaluation of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic data were also collected. A number of factors identified in previous research as predictive of dropout from hospital treatment were tested using stepwise descending Cox regressions. We found that factors predictive of dropout varied according to age groups (being under 18 as opposed to 18 and over). For participants under 18, predictive factors were living in a single-parent family, severe intake restriction as measured on the "dietary restriction" subscale of the Morgan & Russell scale, and a low patient-reported score on the EDE-Q "restraint concerns" subscale. For those over 18, dropout was predicted from a low depression score on the HADS, low level of concern about weight on the EDE-Q subscale, and lower educational status. To prevent dropout from hospitalization for AN, the appropriate therapeutic measures vary according to whether
Julie C.S. Boiché
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate a large number of determinants of sport dropout among French adolescents, in order to reveal proximal and distal factors of dropout. 261 current and 106 dropout athletes (M = 14.6 participated to the study. The data were collected by a questionnaire assessing demographic information, athletes' perceptions on their experience, their parents, teammates and coach. t-tests revealed that current and former athletes were distinct on numerous variables. A discriminant function analysis showed three proximal predictors of sport dropout (perceived value of the activity, satisfaction, parents' investment. Subsequent regression analyses showed that perceived value was positively predicted by perceived competence, the value of the activity for teammates, coach's investment, and negatively by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates; satisfaction was positively predicted by the coach's mastery climate, but negatively predicted by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates and with the coach; parents investment was negatively predicted by the goal conflicts with them. This study permitted to discriminate between proximal and more distal psychological antecedents of the dropout behaviour. It brings information relative to the possible targets of interventions aiming at preventing dropout from organized sport
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Lau, Yuk King
Chinese parenting emphasises parents' responsibility in training and governing children's appropriate and expected behaviors, including good academic performance. As reflected by the Attendance Ordinance and the strong involvement of parents in children's study, there is continuous emphasis on parental responsibility in children's education in…
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.
Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein
This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.
Olalekan, Adebimpe Wasiu; Adeola, Efuntoye
Nigeria was one of the West African countries gripped by the fear of the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), leading to a long period of delay in resumption of primary and secondary schools for academic activities in September 2014. The aim of this study was to assess the preparedness of schools in the north central region of Nigeria toward EVD prevention and control within 1 month of resumption of schools. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 76 schools selected using a multistage sampling method. Research instruments were self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Half (38) of the schools reported that some of the children could have traveled to EVD-infected areas during the holiday period; 77.6% (59) had their teachers formally trained on EVD prevention and control before resumption; 50% (38) set up a committee on EVD prevention; and 62.9% (63) carried out awareness-raising activities on school assembly ground. Based on some preventive measures criteria, 55.2% (42) were categorized ready, whereas 44.7% (34) were not ready for EVD prevention and control within 1 month of resumption of students back to school. About 76.3% (58) said they would like to sustain these EVD prevention efforts; 14.5% (11) would like to sustain such efforts at least until the end of the present term. Determinants of readiness for EVD prevention and control include being a private school, being an urban school, belief that children could have traveled to an EVD-infected area, and school having standard operating procedure or policy guidelines on EVD prevention and control. The persistent call for postponement of school resumption might have been due to the unpreparedness of many of schools to meet EVD prevention and control guidelines. Schools need to take more proactive and sustainable measures toward effective control of the ongoing epidemic and prevention of future occurrences. Copyright © 2014 The
Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.
This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…
Fethi Ahmet INAN
Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.
Howard-Drake, E J; Halliday, V
Headteachers of primary schools in England are a crucial partner for childhood obesity prevention. Understanding how this works in practice is limited by their views being underrepresented or missing from the evidence base. The aim of this study was to explore primary school headteachers' perspectives on childhood obesity and the perceived barriers and facilitators of prevention. A qualitative study with a purposive sample of 14 primary school headteachers from the Yorkshire and Humber region of England was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. An extensive range of barriers and facilitators emerged within four key themes; understanding childhood obesity, primary school setting, the role of parents and external partners. A lack of knowledge, awareness and skills to deal with the sensitivity and complexity of childhood obesity across all school stakeholders presents the most significant barrier to effective action. Headteachers recognize primary schools are a crucial setting for childhood obesity prevention; however their school's often do not have the capability, capacity and confidence to make a meaningful and sustainable impact. To increase headteachers' ability and desire to prevent childhood obesity, schools require specialist and tailored training, resources and support from external partners such as public health teams and school nursing services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ana Paula Dias Pereira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.
Musita, Richard; Ogange, Betty O.; Lugendo, Dorine
The Kenyan education system has very limited re-entry options for learners who drop out before attaining secondary school certificate. It is very difficult to access training and or secure a job that requires at least secondary school education. This study examined the prospects of initiating Open and Distance e-Learning(ODeL) in re-entry…
Raible, Claire A.; Dick, Rebecca; Gilkerson, Fern; Mattern, Cheryl S.; James, Lisa; Miller, Elizabeth
Background: Project Connect is a national program to build partnerships among public health agencies and domestic violence services to improve the health care sector response to partner and sexual violence. Pennsylvania piloted the first school nurse-delivered adolescent relationship abuse intervention in the certified school nurses' office…
Full Text Available Emmet Fralick, 14, of Halifax, shot himself at home in April 2002. He left a suicide note saying he was tormented by bullies at school. In November 2000, Dawn-Marie Wesley, 14, of Mission, B.C., hanged herself. She left a note naming three girls at her school she said were “killing her” because of their bullying.
The National School Safety Framework (NSSF) – approved by the Minister of Education in April 2015 - is located within a range of international and national laws and policies that recognise the safety of learners and educators as a prerequisite for quality learning and teaching at school. The framework affirms the ...
Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann
Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Tegli, Jemee; Garber, Salome; Fahnbulleh, Pearl W.; Korvah, Prince M.; Kolubah, Moses; Mulbah-Kamara, Comfort; Fulton, Shannon
This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in…
Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar
As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…
Prompted by frequent media reports of school fraud and a lack of relevant K-12 literature, this research study was designed to investigate current fraud prevention practices in public school districts in New York State. Using a "fraud triangle" model, an analysis of existing legislation and professional practice guidelines reveals that…
This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…
Rollin, Stephen A.; Kaiser-Ulrey, Cheryl; Potts, Isabelle; Creason, Alia Haque
Examines the effectiveness of a school and community-based violence prevention program for at-risk eighth-grade students. School officials matched intervention students with community-based mentors in an employment setting. Findings suggest that mentored students had significant reductions in total number and days of suspensions, days of sanction,…
Kocken, P.L.; Scholten, A.M.; Westhoff,E.; Kok, B.P.H.; Taal, E.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.
The effectiveness of the “Extra Fit!” (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools (n = 1112) in the
Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.
Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210
Nathan, N.; Wolfenden, L.; Williams, C. M.; Yoong, S. L.; Lecathelinais, C.; Bell, A. C.; Wyse, R.; Sutherland, R.; Wiggers, J.
Despite significant investment in many countries, the extent of schools' adoption of obesity prevention policies and practices has not been widely reported. The aims of this article are to describe Australian schools' adoption of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices over an 8-year period and to determine if their adoption…
Abbey, Antonia; Pilgrim, Colleen; Hendrickson, Peggy; Buresl, Sue
Evaluates family-based substance abuse prevention program implemented in a rural community for families with middle school students. In comparison with nonparticipants, students had higher family cohesion, less family fighting, greater school attachment, higher self-esteem, and believed alcohol should be consumed at an older age, at one-year…
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) 101 applies to both new and existing schools and is built on three simple concepts: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality. If a school's layout seems unsafe, adopting a few CPTED fundamentals may help make it significantly safer. This paper offers some tips for making…
Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…
Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan
Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…
Sarot, Adeline; Bouznah, Serge
Schools are a place within which teenagers' anxieties are expressed, as well as those of adults, in the difficult confrontation with otherness, in a context of conflictual globalisation. The school is a key player in the prevention of terrorism, through the elaboration of these tensions which it can allow. The Métisco team offers school mediation programs, in order to help professionals fulfil this mission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Marjolein Simons; Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Rintse van der Werf
This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre Teaching in Multicultural Schools, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The projects main objective is to develop a model for the
Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…
Progress in education of the girl child in sub-Saharan Africa in general and South Africa in particular has been impeded by the high rates of school dropout, which occurrence has implications for the attainment of the MDGs, particularly eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, improving the health of children and mothers, ...
Pollack, Andrew M.
Describes a program to reduce the dropout rate for pregnant and parenting teens at York Vocational-Technical School (Pennsylvania) for the second semester of 1985-86. One successful feature was a "caring class" providing information about pregnancy, childcare, nutrition, and other subjects. The program retained most of its enrollees. Includes 1…
Wu, Haibing; Gu, Xiaodong
Recently, dropout has seen increasing use in deep learning. For deep convolutional neural networks, dropout is known to work well in fully-connected layers. However, its effect in convolutional and pooling layers is still not clear. This paper demonstrates that max-pooling dropout is equivalent to randomly picking activation based on a multinomial distribution at training time. In light of this insight, we advocate employing our proposed probabilistic weighted pooling, instead of commonly used max-pooling, to act as model averaging at test time. Empirical evidence validates the superiority of probabilistic weighted pooling. We also empirically show that the effect of convolutional dropout is not trivial, despite the dramatically reduced possibility of over-fitting due to the convolutional architecture. Elaborately designing dropout training simultaneously in max-pooling and fully-connected layers, we achieve state-of-the-art performance on MNIST, and very competitive results on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, relative to other approaches without data augmentation. Finally, we compare max-pooling dropout and stochastic pooling, both of which introduce stochasticity based on multinomial distributions at pooling stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glynn, Thomas J.
This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.
The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.
Payne, Susan R. T.; Elliott, Delbert S.
There is widespread agreement that many school shootings could be prevented if authorities were informed that a student was planning or preparing to carry out an attack. A universal problem is that young people are highly reluctant to report on their peers. This code of silence represents a major barrier to prevention efforts. In response to the…
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...
Heiwe, Susanne; Lönnquist, Ingeborg; Källmén, Håkan
Withdrawal of opioid medication in patients with chronic pain has a drop-out and relapse problem. To evaluate if depressive symptoms, anxiety and pain intensity are potential risk factors for drop-out or relapse during the withdrawal process. Further, to assess internal consistency of scales for assessment of these potential risk factors. Twenty-nine patients were included. After 2 years 28 of these were followed-up. Those with depressive symptoms at baseline had a significant risk for drop-out from the withdrawal program (odds ratio 1.37) and relapse into use of opioids at follow-up (odds ratio 1.44). Drop-outs rated depressive symptoms significantly higher before detoxification. Those who relapsed rated significantly higher for pain intensity, depressive symptoms and abstinence prior to withdrawal. All scales had high reliability. To avoid drop-out and relapse clinical practice need to screen for depressive symptoms, pain intensity, and abstinence. This article presents significant reliability of scales useful within dependency centers. They can be used to identify these risk factors for drop-out and relapse, respectively, when initiating the withdrawal process. Taking these risk factors into consideration could improve the outcome of the withdrawal process by preventing drop-out and relapse. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerber, B.U. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (Switzerland)
It is well known that children's skin and eyes are very sensitive to UV radiation, and that sunburn during childhood increases the risk of skin cancer later in life. Because of these facts and the easier influence to attitudes and behaviour at a young age, prevention in school becomes an important issue. There are difficulties and chances pointed out for prevention in schools. It is stated on the basis of a running prevention program for primary and secondary school in Switzerland how a concrete conversion can look. Teaching materials and worksheets for the different school stages form the principal item in this program. Described is the total concept, the method for the development of the materials as well as the experiences after three-year application. (orig.)
Ross, Victoria; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Given the important role teachers play as gatekeepers in school suicide prevention, this study explored teachers' perspectives on what should be done to improve current suicide prevention efforts. The study, in Queensland, Australia, was part of a large-scale survey examining teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience of suicidality. One hundred and fifteen teachers responded to an online survey question regarding their views on the requirements for school suicide prevention. Qualitative analysis identified five themes from teachers' responses: awareness and stigma reduction, support services for students, education and training, bullying and the role of social media. The results of this study provide some profound insights into teachers' perspectives on suicide and highlight the critical need for improved suicide prevention efforts in schools.
Flay Brian R
Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.
Macridis, Soultana; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique; McComber, Alex M; Jacobs, Judi; Macaulay, Ann C
School-based physical activity (PA) interventions, including school active transportation (AT), provide opportunities to increase daily PA levels, improves fitness, and reduces risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Based on a community-identified need, the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project, within an Indigenous community, undertook school travel planning to contribute to PA programming for two elementary schools. Using community-based participatory research, the Active & Safe Routes to School's School Travel Planning (STP) process was undertaken in two schools with an STP-Committee comprised of community stakeholders and researchers. STP activities were adapted for local context including: school profile form, family survey, in-class travel survey, pedestrian-traffic observations, walkability checklist, and student mapping. STP data were jointly collected, analyzed and interpreted by researchers and community. Traffic-pedestrian observations, walkability and parent surveys identified key pedestrian-traffic locations, helped develop safe/direct routes, and traffic calming strategies. In-class travel and mapping surveys identified a need and student desire to increase school AT. The STP-Committee translated findings into STP-action plans for two schools, which were implemented in 2014-2015 school year. Combining CBPR with STP merges community and researcher expertise. This project offered evidence-informed practice for active living promotions. Experience and findings could benefit Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…
Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph
The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are
Gibbone, Anne; Manson, Mara
Although not a new concept, bullying continues to be a problem in schools across the nation. Bullying involves the intention to hurt the feelings of the victim. Research demonstrates that victims of bullying often experience low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, insecurity, oversensitivity, introversion, and withdrawal from social activities. This…
Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharrón-del Río, María R.
In this article we argue that efforts to eradicate school violence should include an understanding of the complex social, cultural, and historical contexts in which violence is perpetrated. Specifically, we assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic/dominant masculinity plays a pivotal role in various forms of aggression and violence…
Gallo, Laura L.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents and has become a public health concern in the United States. In addition, certain groups of students are more at risk for suicide than others. School counselors have an ethical obligation to protect their students and are in an ideal position to educate students and staff about the risks…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...
Anderson, Mary Jane
The problem of adolescent suicide worldwide is discussed. Teen suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds in the United States, and has become an increasing concern for counselors employed in schools. Contributing factors to suicide, such as cultural and socio-demographic factors, dysfunctional family patterns, cognitive…
Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather
Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…
Studer, Jeannine R.; Mynatt, Blair S.
School bullying reaches across all ages and grades, and is associated with serious mental health issues such as suicide, homicide, and other acts of violence. There are several different types of bullying that are classified as physical, verbal, relational, and cyber bullying. Physical bullying may involve hitting, punching, threatening acts, and…
Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I
Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura
Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice
This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…
Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert
Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
María de los Santos Rincón-Ramírez
Full Text Available Violence in schools is a problem that has worried broad sectors of society, not only because of its immediate effects but also due to the repercussions it may have in the future. In many institutions the violence is not acknowledged, and no actions are taken to prevent it. In contrast other institutions confront the violence head on through preventive and corrective actions that uncomplicated daily coexistence. It is in this context that this paper relays the results of a study on student and teacher attitudes to violence manifestations in the schools of Cucuta, Colombia; and on institutional prevention strategies. The quantitative-type research, executed with a descriptive and exploratory approach, used a sample of 348 students from sixth to eleventh grade, their ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old; and 87 high school teachers. The results highlight the frequently occurring forms of aggression, as well as the preventive strategies and actions schools emplace to handle cases of violence.
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan
The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…
Marina Bassi; Matias Busso; Juan Sebastián Muñoz
We use 292 household surveys from 18 Latin American countries to document patterns in secondary school graduation rates over the period 1990-2010. We find that enrollment and graduation rates increased during that period while dropout rates decreased. We provide two types of explanations for these patterns. Countries implemented changes on the supply side to increase access, by increasing the resources allocated to education and designing policies to help students staying in school. Despite t...
In order to effectively address the complex issue of school safety, school and community partnerships are being formed with greater frequency and intensity. Collaboration between educational, law enforcement, and mental health personnel is now widely considered to be the most effective means for addressing issues of school safety (Dryfoos, 1998;…
Walitza, Susanne; Melfsen, Siebke; Della Casa, André; Schneller, Lena
This article deals with refusal to attend school and dropping out of school from the point of view of child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, in German speaking countries and from the perspective of Swiss schools and their administrative bodies. General epidemiological data on refusal to attend school show that approximately 5% of children and adolescents are likely to try to avoid attending school at some point. There is very little data available on the frequency of school drop-out. In the past two years (2011 and 2012), approximately 2% of all patients seen for the first time at the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Zurich, were referred because of failure to attend school, making this phenomenon one of the most common reasons for referral in child and adolescent psychiatry. After a discussion of the epidemiology, symptomatology, causes and its risk factors, the article presents examples drawn from practice and guidelines for intervention in cases of refusal to attend school, and discusses ways of preventing school drop-out from the point of view of schools, hospitals and bodies such as educational psychology services in Switzerland.
Arnold, Ivo J. M.
This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…
Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna
Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.