WorldWideScience

Sample records for school-based peer hierarchies

  1. The relative importance of family socioeconomic status and school-based peer hierarchies for morning cortisol in youth: an exporatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Patrick; Sweeting, Helen; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of family socioeconomic status (SES) and school-based peer hierarchies for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response, represented by cortisol level. Data are drawn from a study of 2824, 15-year-olds in 22 Scottish secondary schools in 2006 who provided information on family SES (parental occupation, material deprivation and family affluence) and social position in school hierarchies, together with two morning salivary cortisol samples. School social position was assessed by participants placing themselves on seven 'ladders', from which three factors were derived, termed scholastic, peer and sports hierarchies. Controlling for confounds, there was little or no variation in cortisol by any SES measure. By contrast, each school hierarchy was independently associated with cortisol, but in different ways. For the scholastic hierarchy, an inverse linear relationship was found for females, cortisol increasing with lower position. For peer hierarchy, an opposite (direct) linear relationship occurred for males, while for females elevated cortisol was associated only with 'top' position. For sports, elevated cortisol among males was associated with 'bottom' position, among females with all except the 'top'. These results are interpreted in the context of Sapolsky's (Sapolsky, 2005) predictions for stress responses to hierarchical position in stable and unstable social systems, the former represented by the scholastic hierarchy involving elevated cortisol in lower positions, the latter by peer hierarchy with elevated cortisol in higher positions. Overall, the results highlight the greater importance of school-based peer groups than family SES for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Process evaluation of school-based peer education for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...

  3. An Evaluation of Participation in a Schools-Based Youth Mental Health Peer Education Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey

    2016-01-01

    The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…

  4. Results of a Rural School-Based Peer-Led Intervention for Youth: Goals for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Tanya; Fries, Elizabeth; Meyer, Aleta; Buzzard, Marilyn; Uguy, Samy; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh; Lewis, Carol; Danish, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: School-based interventions are critical for enhancing the health of youth. The "Goals for Health (GFH)" school-based project was a goal-setting and life-skills intervention conducted in rural areas to increase self-efficacy, knowledge, and positive behaviors related to healthy eating. The intervention was peer-led with high…

  5. Process evaluation of school-based peer education for HIV prevention among Yemeni adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Iryani, Buthaina; Basaleem, Huda; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled; Kok, Gerjo; van den Borne, Bart

    2013-03-01

    In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention in the 27 schools of Aden. In 2008, and after 3 years of implementation, a quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted, which revealed that the peer education intervention has succeeded in improving HIV knowledge and skills; and in decreasing stigmatization of PLWH. This process evaluation aims to give a deeper understanding of the quasi-experimental evaluation which was conducted in the 27 high schools of Aden, and to highlight the factors that facilitated or inhibited school peer education in such a conservative Muslim setting. Qualitative methodologies were pursued, where 12 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with peer educators, targeted students, school principals, social workers, and parents of peer educators. Results revealed that school-peer education was well received. There was an apparent positive effect on the life skills of peer educators, but the intervention had a lesser effect on targeted students. Key enabling factors have been the high quality of training for peer educators, supportive school principals, and acceptance of the intervention by parents. These findings are important for improving the life skills and peer education intervention at the school level, and in better planning and implementation of life skills and peer programmes at a national scale.

  6. Power Structure in the Peer Group: The Role of Classroom Cohesion and Hierarchy in Peer Acceptance and Rejection of Victimized and Aggressive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Babarro, Javier; Díaz-Aguado, María José; Martínez Arias, Rosario; Steglich, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the interacting effects of classroom cohesion and hierarchy on the relationships between victimization and aggression with peer acceptance and rejection. Classroom cohesion and hierarchy were constructed from friendship nominations. Multilevel analysis conducted in a sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students from the…

  7. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  8. Violence against children perpetrated by peers: A cross-sectional school-based survey in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wandera, SO; Clarke, K.; Knight, L; Allen, E.; Walakira, E; Namy, S; Naker, D.; DeVries, K.

    2017-01-01

    Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated ...

  9. School-Based Peer-Related Social Competence Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis and Descriptive Review of Single Case Research Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalon, Kelly J.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to facilitate the peer-related social competence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted peer-related social competence, included children 3-12 years old…

  10. School-Based Peer Mediation as a Strategy for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaks, John; Noaks, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of peer mediation as a strategy for promoting social inclusion in primary school settings. Peer mediation constituted one of the interventions in the UK Government-sponsored On Track programme and evaluative data from this project are reported. The paper reports on trends in bullying and anti-social behaviour in…

  11. Effects of a school-based sexuality education program on peer educators: the Teen PEP model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennings, J M; Howard, S; Perotte, C L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections...

  12. Effects of a school-based sexuality education program on peer educators: the Teen PEP model

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, J.M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...

  13. Effects of a School-Based Sexuality Education Program on Peer Educators: The Teen PEP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…

  14. School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of an Italian school-based expressive writing intervention trial focused on peer problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Settanni, Michele; Kliewer, Wendy; Ciairano, Silvia

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention in a sample of Italian early adolescents on internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms and coping strategies. Participants were 153 Italian adolescents (48% male), attending 7th grade (M=12.24 yrs, SD=0.47). Youth were randomly assigned either to write about personal emotional events related to problems they recently experienced with peers, or trivial topics. Data were collected before and 2 months following the intervention. Analyses revealed no overall intervention effects on symptoms. However, level of peer victimization moderated the effects of the intervention on coping strategies, such that victimized youth in the intervention showed increases in cognitive restructuring and avoidance coping, relative to other groups. Thus, expressive writing affected coping strategies but not internalizing problems in our early adolescent sample.

  16. The Importance of Specifying and Studying Causal Mechanisms in School-Based Randomised Controlled Trials: Lessons from Two Studies of Cross-Age Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen P.; Edovald, Triin; Lloyd, Cheryl; Kiss, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experience of evaluating 2 cross-age peer-tutoring interventions, we argue that researchers need to pay greater attention to causal mechanisms within the context of school-based randomised controlled trials. Without studying mechanisms, researchers are less able to explain the underlying causal processes that give rise to results from…

  17. Features of Groups and Status Hierarchies in Girls' and Boys' Early Adolescent Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Scott D.; Davidson, Alice J.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Moody, James; Welsh, Janet A.

    2007-01-01

    The near universality of gender segregation in middle childhood and early adolescence has stimulated extensive research on sex differences in peer relationship processes. Recent reviews of the literature suggest that although some claims of two-cultures theory have clear empirical support, such as strong preference for same-sex peers over…

  18. Effect of a school-based peer education intervention on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Chinese adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au.

  19. Effects of rewards, peer-modelling and pedometer targets on children's physical activity: a school-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Horne, Pauline J; Fergus Lowe, C

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a physical activity intervention for children that comprised peer-modelling, pedometer step goals and tangible rewards. A version of the intervention without the reward component was also tested. Participants (n = 386) were from three primary schools, which were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (i) full intervention, where children received "Fit 'n' Fun Dude" peer-modelling materials and were given daily pedometer goals to receive rewards, (ii) no-rewards intervention, where children received peer-modelling materials and pedometer goals but rewards were not used and (iii) control, where children wore pedometers with no further intervention. Physical activity was measured at baseline, intervention and at the end of a 14-week 'taper' phase. During the intervention, the full intervention school showed the largest increase in physical activity relative to baseline (+2456 steps per day, p school (+1033 steps per day, p school continued to increase (+2030 steps per day, p full intervention school. The intervention that used only peer-modelling and pedometer goals produced better effects over time.

  20. A school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities: the LILT-LdP cluster randomized controlled trial design and study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Sandra; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Carreras, Giulia; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Few school programs are effective in preventing adolescents' tobacco smoking initiation. The "Lega contro i Tumori - Luoghi di Prevenzione" is a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities for students aged 14-15 years. This paper presents the study design and the baseline characteristics of the study population. Twenty secondary schools located in the Reggio Emilia province took part in the study. Five schools were excluded because they already participated in smoking prevention interventions. The schools were randomized to control or intervention arms. The study population consisted of students attending the first grade. Components of the intervention included 1) the out-of-school "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) at the "Luoghi di Prevenzione" Center, a 4-hour (4 sessions) extracurricular activity; 2) the "Smoke-free Schools" intervention, combining a life-skills-based peer-led intervention at school, an in-depth lesson on one of the SPT sessions, and enforcement surveillance of the school antismoking policy. Tobacco use was studied through a questionnaire administered before and 6 months after the intervention. Eleven high schools and 9 vocational secondary schools took part in the study for a total of 2,476 out of 3,050 eligible students (81.2%). The proportions of respondents in high schools and vocational secondary schools were 90.9% and 64.5%, respectively (P Intervention and control arms showed a different distribution of gender and school type, whereas no difference was observed in any tobacco-use characteristic. This study is one of the few Italian trials to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based program for preventing smoking initiation.

  1. The role of community, family, peer, and school factors in group bullying: implications for school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L

    2015-07-01

    Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland population school survey (N = 7084, response rate: 83.5%, 50.8% girls). Parental support and time spent with parents were protective against group bullying behavior while worsening relationships with teachers and disliking school increased the likelihood of such behavior. Knowing kids in the area increased the likelihood of group bullying while intergenerational closure was a protective factor. Normlessness was consistently positively related to group bullying. We found no indication of higher-level relationships across the bullying models. Parental support was protective against victimization. Disliking school, intergenerational closure, and anomie/normlessness were strongly and negatively related to victimization. We found some indication of multilevel relationships for victimization. Findings support efforts to increase family and community connection, closure, and support as a part of school-based intervention. These factors become more important as young people participate in or experience greater odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  2. School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureati, Monica; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

  4. Hierarchies in student groups

    OpenAIRE

    Güntert, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...

  5. Sports-specific factors, perceived peer drinking, and alcohol-related behaviors among adolescents participating in school-based sports in Southwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Thompson, Nancy; Kushner, Howard I; Mays, David F; Farmer, Derrick; Windle, Michael

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sports-specific factors, perceived peer drinking, and alcohol-related behaviors among adolescents, examining sex differences in the relationship between perceived peer drinking and alcohol-related behaviors. A questionnaire assessing demographics, sports-specific factors, perceived peer drinking, and alcohol-related behaviors was administered among 378 adolescents who were mostly male (76.3%) and non-Hispanic black (70.0%). Varsity sports participants reported higher levels of perceived peer drinking compared to those who participated in sports at other levels (B 0.64, 95% CI 0.28, 0.99, psports offering team- and individual-level competition reported greater perceived peer drinking (B 0.71, 95% CI 0.05, 1.38, p=0.04), compared to those who only participated in individual sports. Perceived peer drinking was associated with alcohol-related behaviors (B 0.39, 95% CI 0.31, 0.47, psports that impact perceived peer drinking and alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  7. Pragmatic Pilot Cluster Randomised Control Trial of a School-Based Peer-Led Anti-Smoking Intervention for 13-14 Year Olds in Malaysia: Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Elniee; Bridle, Christopher; Markham, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the process evaluation of a pilot randomised control trial of an anti-smoking intervention for Malaysian 13-14-year olds, conducted in 2011/2012. It was hypothesised that trained peer supporters would promote non-smoking among classmates through informal conversations. Design/methodology/approach:…

  8. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furzana Timol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and

  9. Addressing adolescents' risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene

    2016-12-01

    Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships

  10. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge

  11. PEER

    OpenAIRE

    10.Baharuddin, Prof

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Effectivity of Locally Wood Rot Fungal Isolates in Decomposition of Leaf and Cocoa Pod Husk Waste.Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca. Rev.2014; 2 (11): 59-65. ISSN: 2347-3215. Penulis ke empat dari lima orang

  12. An Informal School?based, Peer-led Intervention for Prevention of Tobacco Consumption in Adolescence: A Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Gandhinagar

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall; Aroor Bhagyalaxmi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in con...

  13. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  14. An Informal School-based, Peer-led Intervention for Prevention of Tobacco Consumption in Adolescence: A Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Gandhinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Anjali Sunil Kumar; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%-36%) during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P group (32%-29%) was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.

  15. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can...

  16. An informal school-based, peer-led intervention for prevention of tobacco consumption in adolescence: A cluster randomized trial in rural Gandhinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. Results: About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%–36% during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P < 0.01. A significant reduction in exposure to passive smoking in the intervention group (32%–29% was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. Conclusion: It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.

  17. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain) and Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-01-23

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula.

  18. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy

  19. Fractional Volterra hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin; Zhou, Chunhui

    2018-02-01

    The generating function of cubic Hodge integrals satisfying the local Calabi-Yau condition is conjectured to be a tau function of a new integrable system which can be regarded as a fractional generalization of the Volterra lattice hierarchy, so we name it the fractional Volterra hierarchy. In this paper, we give the definition of this integrable hierarchy in terms of Lax pair and Hamiltonian formalisms, construct its tau functions, and present its multi-soliton solutions.

  20. Update to a protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Kadir, Bryar; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence, and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. In addition, this paper describes an update that has been made to the protocol for the PLAN-A feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer supporters. Approximately 15% of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be

  1. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...

  2. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  3. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of microlevel data on the allocation of decision authority between formal and real authority, and further on the organization design of 761 decision tasks within a hierarchy. Our findings show how the specialization of decision......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...

  4. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…

  5. Maternal Management of Social Relationships as a Correlate of Children's School-Based Experiences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne C Fletcher; Jill K Walls; Angella Y Eanes; David R Troutman

    2010-01-01

    .... Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated a good fit for a model in which mothers' efforts to facilitate children's social relationships with peers were associated with lower levels of school-based stress, but mothers...

  6. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  7. The predicative Frege hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper, we characterize the strength of the predicative Frege hierarchy, Pn+1V, introduced by John Burgess in his book [Burg05]. We show that Pn+1V and Q + conn(Q) are mutually interpretable. It follows that PV := P1V is mutually interpretable with Q. This fact was proved earlier by Mihai

  8. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...

  9. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  10. Peer Connectedness in the Middle School Band Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Jared R.; Stoddard, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that students participating in school-based musical ensembles are more engaged in school and more likely to connect to their peers in school; however, researchers have not specifically investigated peer connectedness among adolescents in school-based music ensembles. The purpose of this study was to explore middle school…

  11. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengduo Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  12. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  13. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  14. Hierarchies of geometric entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; de Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-06-01

    We introduce a class of generalized geometric measures of entanglement. For pure quantum states of N elementary subsystems, they are defined as the distances from the sets of K -separable states (K=2,…,N) . The entire set of generalized geometric measures provides a quantification and hierarchical ordering of the different bipartite and multipartite components of the global geometric entanglement, and allows discrimination among the different contributions. The extended measures are applied to the study of entanglement in different classes of N -qubit pure states. These classes include W and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and their symmetric superpositions; symmetric multimagnon states; cluster states; and, finally, asymmetric generalized W -like superposition states. We discuss in detail a general method for the explicit evaluation of the multipartite components of geometric entanglement, and we show that the entire set of geometric measures establishes an ordering among the different types of bipartite and multipartite entanglement. In particular, it determines a consistent hierarchy between GHZ and W states, clarifying the original result of Wei and Goldbart that W states possess a larger global entanglement than GHZ states. Furthermore, we show that all multipartite components of geometric entanglement in symmetric states obey a property of self-similarity and scale invariance with the total number of qubits and the number of qubits per party.

  15. Concepts Hierarchies for Extensible Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    of measurement. Finally, a concept is defined for each relation in the database. These concepts can be used to build a concept hierarchy to help ensure queries are consistent with the semantics of the database design.

  16. Hamiltonian Structure of PI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The string equation of type (2,2g+1 may be thought of as a higher order analogue of the first Painlevé equation that corresponds to the case of g = 1. For g > 1, this equation is accompanied with a finite set of commuting isomonodromic deformations, and they altogether form a hierarchy called the PI hierarchy. This hierarchy gives an isomonodromic analogue of the well known Mumford system. The Hamiltonian structure of the Lax equations can be formulated by the same Poisson structure as the Mumford system. A set of Darboux coordinates, which have been used for the Mumford system, can be introduced in this hierarchy as well. The equations of motion in these Darboux coordinates turn out to take a Hamiltonian form, but the Hamiltonians are different from the Hamiltonians of the Lax equations (except for the lowest one that corresponds to the string equation itself.

  17. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  18. A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…

  19. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  20. Student Voices: Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Background: This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North…

  1. The Promise and Potential of Studying the "Invisible Hand" of Teacher Influence on Peer Relations and Student Outcomes: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Peers influence children's social-emotional development and school engagement in important and unique ways. Recent research on peer social networks documents that children are affected by the nature of the school-based peer ecology, as well as by their personal peer experiences. Yet, little is known about how teachers affect the peer ecology, nor…

  2. Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Klingbeil, David A.; McKinley, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    Peer management intervention is a subtype of peer-mediated intervention that involves training individuals to implement standardized intervention protocols to modify the behavior of their peers. This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management…

  3. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  4. The Efficacy of School-Based Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jonathan

    This presentation reviews the concept of school-based consultation (Lambert, 1974) and contrasts it with other consultation models. The validity of this model for the professional talking relationships of school psychologists (school-based consultation) is assessed first by examining: (1) the likelihood that interprofessional interchange will take…

  5. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  6. Peering Into Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Musser, George; Caldwell, Karenann; Hafer, Abigail A.

    1995-11-01

    Critiquing a colleague's manuscript doesn't have the glamour of discovering rare spectral lines or building huge observatories, but it is central to how science functions. Increasingly, new forms of communication -- press releases, Internet postings -- bypass the peer review. Will this undermine or strengthen astronomy?

  7. Hierarchy problem and BSM physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... The 'hierarchy problem' plagues the Standard Model of particle physics. The source of this problem is our inability to answer the following question: Why is the Higgs mass so much below the GUT or Planck scale? A brief description about how 'supersymmetry' and 'composite Higgs' address this problem is ...

  8. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  9. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  10. Hierarchy problem and BSM physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2017-10-01

    The `hierarchy problem' plagues the Standard Model of particle physics. The source of this problem is our inability to answer the following question: Why is the Higgs mass so much below the GUT or Planck scale? A brief description about how `supersymmetry' and `composite Higgs' address this problem is given here.

  11. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with "objective" socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Scottish 13-15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: "objective" SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports"). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than "objective" or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. School-Based Management: Power to the Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discusses school-based management, explaining what PTAs need to be prepared for discussions about restructuring through school-based management. The article discusses origin of governance, school-based management councils, decision making, and parent-community involvement. (SM)

  13. Hierarchy measure for complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enys Mones

    Full Text Available Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people. Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes together with their relations (edges. Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC, which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure.

  14. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  15. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  16. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  17. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  18. Evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention intervention among Yemeni adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutzen Rik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes an evaluation of a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among students in twenty seven high schools in Aden, Yemen. The intervention was developed after a survey among the same population in 2005, which revealed a high level of stigma towards people living with HIV (PLWH and a low level of HIV knowledge. Methods In a quasi-experimental design students who received the peer education intervention (78.6% were compared with students who did not receive the intervention (21.4%. No systematic procedure was applied in selecting students for the intervention condition. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 2510 students from all 27 high-schools in Aden governorate. To increase internal validity, students were also compared with a cohort control sample surveyed in 2005, which was a random sample of 2274 students from the same schools. Results Sixty eight percent of students targeted by peer education had good knowledge scores, compared with 43.3% of students not targeted by peer education (χ2 = (df = 1 = 111.15, p Conclusion The school-based peer education intervention has succeeded in improving levels of knowledge on modes of transmission and prevention, and in decreasing levels of stigma and discrimination in a culturally conservative setting.

  19. Developing a hierarchy of needs for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the concept of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and apply this to Type 1 diabetes. Qualitative methods were employed using semi-structured interviews with 101 people from 13 countries. Grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis, with thematic analysis employed to identify the interviewees' needs. Sixteen needs were identified and links between these were mapped. Aligning these with Maslow's hierarchy allowed for a hierarchy to be developed for Type 1 diabetes with 'Policies', 'Organization of health system', 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin', 'Control', 'Healthcare workers' and 'Information and education' at the base, as they were needed for survival. Next came 'Community, family and peers' and changing roles for 'Healthcare workers' in their approach to care and delivering 'Information and education'. This enabled people to learn how to use 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin' and 'Control' flexibly. People's 'Experience' and 'Personality' then helped them 'Adapt' and 'Be open' about their diabetes, allowing for 'Acceptance' and viewing 'Diabetes as something positive'. Despite limitations, this work highlights that some needs are required for survival and others for well-being. Some are tangible as they can be directly provided, whereas others are intangible and cannot be provided directly by the health system. These results might be used for policy and practice in identifying needs that are met within a health system or what needs are lacking for the individual to then implement targeted interventions. © 2013 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  20. Enhancing Pedagogical Content Knowledge in a Collaborative School-Based Professional Development Program for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the trial of a school-based professional development process aimed at helping science teachers improve their inquiry-based science teaching skills. This process focuses on developing the pedagogical content knowledge of teachers through peer collaboration, under the guidance of a teacher educator. A multi-method interpretive…

  1. The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people

  2. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  3. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Asher Silberman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer comment on: Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online by Meg Lambert and Donna Yates

  4. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  5. What Is School-Based Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank Publications, 2007

    2007-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) is the decentralization of authority from the central government to the school level. SBM has become a very popular movement over the past decade. The World Bank's work program emerged out of a need to define the concept more clearly, review the evidence, support impact assessments in various countries, and provide…

  6. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology and School Based Assessment: Challenges for Sustainable Development. ... The result showed among others that ICT is very useful in SBA and all primary schools be provided with ICT facilities and that teachers should be computer literate for sustainable development.

  7. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [IFAE and BIST, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain); Pomarol, Alex [IFAE and BIST, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain); CERN, Theory Division,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193 (Spain)

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, f̄f. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  8. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  9. Hierarchy measure for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...

  10. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic

  11. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  12. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  13. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  14. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  15. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  16. Evidence, hierarchies, and typologies: horses for courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Roberts, H

    2003-07-01

    Debate is ongoing about the nature and use of evidence in public health decision making, and there seems to be an emerging consensus that the "hierarchy of evidence" may be difficult to apply in other settings. It may be unhelpful however to simply abandon the hierarchy without having a framework or guide to replace it. One such framework is discussed. This is based around a matrix, and emphasises the need to match research questions to specific types of research. This emphasis on methodological appropriateness, and on typologies rather than hierarchies of evidence may be helpful in organising and appraising public health evidence.

  17. Gradients of cortical hierarchy in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bethlehem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental condition associated with altered functional connectivity. We propose to re-frame the functional connectivity alterations in terms of gradients that capture the functional hierarchy of cortical processing from sensory to default-mode network regions. We hypothesized that this hierarchy will be altered in ASD. To test that, we compared the scale of gradients in people with autism and healthy controls. The present results do not support our hypothesis. There are two alternative implications: either the processing hierarchies are preserved in autism or the scale of the gradients does not capture them. In the future we will attempt to settle which alternative is more likely.

  18. Women's hierarchies of age and suffering in an Andean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W L

    1994-04-01

    In the Aymara community of 'Utani', hierarchical relationships between middle aged and younger women are evident in the cycle of domestic life. An older woman - mother, sister, step mother, mother-in-law - has unquestioned authority as taskmistress over the labor of girls and young women; although very old women no longer wield such power. Post-marital residence patterns and the family life cycle contribute to the hierarchical relationships among women in an extended family household. When women's community-wide prestige is examined, however, a different pattern is apparent. Prestige among female peers is based less on age than on a woman's reputation for being long-suffering. The paper concludes that these two types of female hierarchy complement each other as part of women's adaptation to the exploitations of peasant life.

  19. The closure approximation in the hierarchy equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G.

    1971-01-01

    The expectation of the solution process in a stochastic operator equation can be obtained from averaged equations only under very special circumstances. Conditions for validity are given and the significance and validity of the approximation in widely used hierarchy methods and the ?self-consistent field' approximation in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics are clarified. The error at any level of the hierarchy can be given and can be avoided by the use of the iterative method.

  20. Evidence, hierarchies, and typologies: horses for courses

    OpenAIRE

    Petticrew, M; Roberts, H

    2003-01-01

    Debate is ongoing about the nature and use of evidence in public health decision making, and there seems to be an emerging consensus that the "hierarchy of evidence" may be difficult to apply in other settings. It may be unhelpful however to simply abandon the hierarchy without having a framework or guide to replace it. One such framework is discussed. This is based around a matrix, and emphasises the need to match research questions to specific types of research. This emphasis on methodologi...

  1. Liouville Correspondence Between the Short-Pulse Hierarchy and the Sine-Gordon Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Liu, Xiaochuan; Qu, Changzheng

    2016-12-01

    The Liouville correspondence between the short-pulse integrable hierarchy and the sine-Gordon integrable hierarchy is studied. It is shown that the transformation relating the short-pulse equation with the sine-Gordon equation also establishes the correspondence between their flows and Hamiltonian conservation laws in respective hierarchy. This proposes an alternative approach to derive the Hamiltonian conservation laws of the short-pulse equation from the known ones of the classical sine-Gordon equation.

  2. School-Based Conception of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Coleman, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author's research reports that giftedness is a combination of advanced development and creativity. It is developmental in nature in that it begins as potential (generally in young people), evolves into achievement within recognizable domains during the school years, and becomes increasingly advanced (compared with peers)…

  3. Between-Classroom Differences in Peer Network Features and Students' Perceptions of the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadzora, Kathleen; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this poster is to examine whether differences in the structural features of classroom peer networks (tight-knittedness, hierarchy, salience norms) are associated with differences in how individual students perceive the classroom environment (relational support from teachers and peers) and express achievement-related beliefs…

  4. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  5. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  6. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Judul: Exploration of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi From Sugarcane Rhizozphare In South Sulawesi (Zahraeni Kumalawati, Yunus Musa, Nur Amin, Laode Asrul Ifayanti Ridwan). ISSN 2277-8616; International Journal of scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 3 issue 1, January 2014. Hal. 201-203. Penerbit: Journal of Scientific & Technology Research.

  7. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Winata, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Review Identification of Patogenic Bacteria Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Staphilococcus Aureus from pasteurised and Non Pasteurised bovine Milk, Proceeding International Seminar "The Role of Veterinary Science to Support Millenium Development goals and the 12th Asian association of Veterinary Schools Congress, ISBN: 978-602-70438-0-0, Faculty of Veterinary medicine universitas Airlangga

  8. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  9. Peer-Assisted Learning in School Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity Programmes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate. A.; Naughton, Geraldine; Benson, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is a teaching strategy utilised in both the general classroom and physical education. Through the interaction with same-age or cross-age peers, learning can occur across various domains. Purpose: This review aimed to identify school-based PAL interventions and assess the tutor training provided, as well as…

  10. School Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Targeting Anxiety in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Randomised Controlled Trail Incorporating a Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris; Hill, Vivian; Charman, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Children with a diagnosis of autism are more likely to experience anxiety than their typically developing peers. Research suggests that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) could offer a way to help children with autism manage their anxiety but most evidence is based on clinical trials. This study investigated a school-based CBT programme using a…

  11. Mediating Factors of a School-Based Multi-Component Smoking Prevention Intervention: The LdP Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, G.; Bosi, S.; Angelini, P.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors mediating the effects of Luoghi di Prevenzione (LdP) smoking prevention intervention based on social competence and social influence approaches, and characterized by peer-led school-based interventions, out-of-school workshops, school lessons, and by enforcing the school anti-smoking policy.…

  12. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groß, Andreas [Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit.

  13. Peer Victimization and Parental Psychological Control in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2012-01-01

    With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…

  14. Peer Relations in Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  15. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  16. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  17. Assessing Fidelity of Implementation (FOI) for School-Based Mindfulness and Yoga Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    As school-based mindfulness and yoga programs gain popularity, the systematic study of fidelity of program implementation ( FOI ) is critical to provide a more robust understanding of the core components of mindfulness and yoga interventions, their potential to improve specified teacher and student outcomes, and our ability to implement these programs consistently and effectively. This paper reviews the current state of the science with respect to inclusion and reporting of FOI in peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of school-based mindfulness and/or yoga programs targeting students and/or teachers implemented in grades kindergarten through twelve (K-12) in North America. Electronic searches in PsychInfo and Web of Science from their inception through May 2014, in addition to hand searches of relevant review articles, identified 312 publications, 48 of which met inclusion criteria. Findings indicated a relative paucity of rigorous FOI. Fewer than 10% of studies outlined potential core program components or referenced a formal theory of action, and fewer than 20% assessed any aspect of FOI beyond participant dosage. The emerging nature of the evidence base provides a critical window of opportunity to grapple with key issues relevant to FOI of mindfulness-based and yoga programs, including identifying essential elements of these programs that should be faithfully implemented and how we might develop rigorous measures to accurately capture them. Consideration of these questions and suggested next steps are intended to help advance the emerging field of school-based mindfulness and yoga interventions.

  18. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer victimization and social-emotional outcomes: The role of teacher and peer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Fredrick, Stephanie S; Wenger, Jordan

    2018-03-01

    The relation between peer victimization, risk of social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties, and school-based sources of social support for students in elementary and middle school were examined. Participants included 656 students in third to eighth grade from one school district. Results indicated that peer support mediated the relation between peer victimization and risk of social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties, but teacher support did not mediate this relation. Conditional indirect effects analyses revealed that the indirect effect of peer support varied as a function of school level (i.e., intermediate and middle school). The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed, as well as directions for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  1. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  2. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  3. Multi-Hierarchy Simulation for Magnetic Reconnection - 2D Hierarchy-Interlocking Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Shunsuke; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Ohtani, Hiroaki; den, Mitsue

    2013-10-01

    Toward the complete understanding of magnetic reconnection as a multi-hierarchy phenomenon, we have developed a multi-hierarchy simulation model which solves macro- and microscopic physics simultaneously and self-consistently. For this purpose, we pay attention to a hierarchical structure of magnetic reconnection phenomena, i.e. kinetic effects play crucial roles in the vicinity of the X point, while MHD model gives a good approximation as being away from the X point. Based on this feature, we divide a real space into macro- and microscopic domains and solve the physics in the macro- and microscopic domains with use of the MHD and PIC algorithms, respectively. In 2009, with the hierarchy-interlocking model in the upstream direction, we had successfully performed multi-hierarchy simulations of magnetic reconnection. In order to apply our model to much wider systems, we have extended it to a 2D hierarchy-interlocking one, namely an interlocking in the upstream and downstream directions. In our presentation, we will show simulation results with 2D hierarchy-interlocking models and talk about the future prospect of our multi-hierarchy model. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant No. 23340182, No. 24740374).

  4. Politics of School-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s the problem of urban education has been cast as partially a problem of governance and authority structures. This focus mirrors a larger preoccupation by educational reformers with democratizing the decision-making process in public schools, a preoccupation that is evident not only in this country but also many nations throughout the world. Borrowing from the private sector, the underlying assumption behind decentralization is that educational improvement is only possible if those closest to the point at which decision are enacted become the architects of these decisions. Thus, school-based management or participatory decision-making is viewed as a means to formally incorporate the voices of parents, teachers and the community in the management of their schools. This paper discusses the findings of a recently conducted study on school-based management in thirty of New Jersey's poorest districts (referred to as the Abbott Districts. These districts have begun a process of complex reform after the State's Supreme Court ruled that the state had failed to constitutionally provide a thorough and efficient education for its poorest students by the absence of parity funding. Populated by primarily black and Hispanic students, and representing most of the larger urban communities in the state, students in these districts exhibit performance levels significantly below that of the state average. The results of the study indicate that (1 genuine autonomy has been usurped by an intensification in state power and authority, (ii state elites have provided little opportunity for districts and SBM teams to build capacity; (iii the level of democratization or opening-up of decision making to local community members has been minimal as the teams become teacher dominated; and (iv in the absence of clear guidelines from the State, conflict over the appropriate role of SBM members, principals, central office staff and local school boards has

  5. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  6. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  7. School-based Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behaviour in Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Murtagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolonged, uninterrupted periods of sedentary time may be associated with increased risk of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality even if the minimum recommended levels of daily physical activity are achieved. It is reported that children spend approximately 80% of their day engaged in sedentary behaviours. Since children spend a large portion of their waking time at school, school-based interventions targeting excessive or interrupted periods of sedentary time have been investigated in a number of studies. However, results of the effectiveness of studies to-date have been inconsistent. Aim: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour on objectively measured sedentary time in children. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to retrieve peer-reviewed studies published in English up to and including August 2015. Studies that reported objectively measured sedentary time before and after a school-based intervention to reduce sedentary time were included in the review.  Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration method. Results: Our search identified eleven papers reporting eight interventions. Studies focused on the physical environment, the curriculum, individual in-class activities, homework activities or a combination of these strategies. Three studies reported decreases in sedentary time following intervention. Study follow-up periods ranged from immediately post-intervention to 12 months. None of the studies were judged to have a low risk of bias. Conclusions: Multicomponent interventions which also include the use of standing desks may be an effective method for reducing children’s sedentary time in a school-based intervention. However, longer term trials are needed to determine the sustained effectiveness of such interventions on children’s sedentary time.

  8. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  9. The "peer" in "peer review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  10. School-based asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkelman, David; Schwartz, Abby

    2004-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness and the leading cause of missed school days. School is a potential location for establishing an asthma education program for children and their parents/caregivers designed to improve disease management. To determine whether a comprehensive, school-based asthma management program, in addition to a conventional disease management program, can reduce measures of asthma control, student absenteeism, and caregiver lost workdays. School nurses recruited parents/caregivers of students with asthma from three urban elementary and middle schools. Children were identified as having asthma by a previous diagnosis from their personal physician. Parents were invited to attend educational sessions about the program. Students received peak flow meters and training in their use and had access to an interactive asthma diary to record symptoms, peak flow, and medicine usage. They received monthly asthma education at school and had access to an online asthma education program and additional handouts. Parents received several educational calls regarding asthma and had a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week emergency number to call if problems arose. At 6 months, missed school days and unscheduled doctor visits were reduced by two thirds (n = 41; pschool-based asthma management program can successfully improve asthma control and reduce absenteeism in elementary and middle school students and caregiver lost workdays.

  11. Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yiya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.

  12. Prioritization of Programmer's Productivity Using Analytic Hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model in the context of prioritizing programmer's productivity in University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP model can be used to select the best programmer for the purpose of developing software ...

  13. Hierarchies of DIFFdifference boundary value problems II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an illustration of the work done in [14] where a hierarchy of difference boundary value problems was developed. In particular, we studied the effect of applying a Crum-type transformation to a weighted second order difference equation with general -dependent boundary conditions at the end points, ...

  14. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  15. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  16. Incorporating Trauma-Informed Care into School-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L.; Ashley, Olivia Silber; White, LeBretia; Axelson, Sarah; Clark, Marc; Burrus, Barri

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article provides an overview of the rationale and process for incorporating trauma-informed approaches into US school-based programs, using school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs as an example. Methods: Research literature is reviewed on the prevalence and outcomes of childhood trauma, including the links between…

  17. Strategies for Fostering the Efficacy of School-Based Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined community participation in the School-Based Management Committees (SBMC), the challenges hindering participation, and strategies for fostering efficacy of the School Based Management Committee. The number 340 schools were selected from the population of 2543 public primary schools in ...

  18. School-Based Management and Effectiveness of Public Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the extent to which some of the functions of the State Secondary Education Board (SSEB) have been delegated to Principals of Secondary Schools in Cross River State, in line with school-based management. Four research questions guided the study. A questionnaire [School-based Management and ...

  19. School-Based Crisis Intervention. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…

  20. School-Based Health Care State Policy Survey. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) surveys state public health and Medicaid offices every three years to assess state-level public policies and activities that promote the growth and sustainability of school-based health services. The FY2011 survey found 18 states (see map below) reporting investments explicitly dedicated…

  1. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  2. A Profile of Latino School-Based Extracurricular Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Participation in school-based extracurricular activities influences educational success. Thus, it is important to depict a profile of school-based extracurricular activity involvement for a Latino student population that is marginalized in schools. This research uses the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 and logistic regression analyses to…

  3. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  4. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy; exact solution; compatibility condition; inverse scattering transformation. ... In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and ...

  5. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  6. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L.; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J.; Davis, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. Purpose We explored parents’ perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Participants Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Findings Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Conclusions Parents perceived advantages and

  7. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal influenza

  8. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. PURPOSE: We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. FINDINGS: Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. CONCLUSIONS: Parents perceived

  9. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...

  10. Validation of a Learning Hierarchy for the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alan K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Three psychometric methods for validating learning hierarchies were applied to one data set derived from student responses (N=269) to items representing skills in a hypothesized hierarchy for the mole concept. The hierarchy derived from the analysis was supported by a test for transfer of learning from subordinate to superordinate skills.…

  11. A Practical Reinforcement Hierarchy for Classroom Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Barry T.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed a practical reinforcement hierarchy for classroom-based behavior modification programs. The seven-level hierarchy ranged from primitive consequences (Infantile Physical Contact and Food) through the more abstract consequences (Praise and Internal Self-Reinforcement). Suggestions were made for using the hierarchy in teacher consultation…

  12. Analysing hierarchy in the organization of biological and physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A structured approach is discussed for analysing hierarchy in the organization of biological and physical systems. The need for a structured approach follows from the observation that many hierarchies in the literature apply conflicting hierarchy rules and include ill-defined systems. As an

  13. Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.

  14. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....

  15. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  16. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  17. Relativistic DNLS and Kaup-Newell Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaev, Oktay K.; Lee, Jyh-Hao

    2017-07-01

    By the recursion operator of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy we construct the relativistic derivative NLS (RDNLS) equation and the corresponding Lax pair. In the nonrelativistic limit c → ∞ it reduces to DNLS equation and preserves integrability at any order of relativistic corrections. The compact explicit representation of the linear problem for this equation becomes possible due to notions of the q-calculus with two bases, one of which is the recursion operator, and another one is the spectral parameter.

  18. Visualizing Dynamic Hierarchies in Graph Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehlow, Corinna; Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Graphs are used to model relations between objects, where these objects can be grouped hierarchically based on their connectivity. In many applications, the relations change over time and so does the hierarchical group structure. We developed a visualization technique that supports the analysis of the topology and the hierarchical group structure of a dynamic graph and the tracking of changes over time. Each graph of a sequence is visualized by an adjacency matrix, where the hierarchical group structure is encoded within the matrix using indentation and nested contours, complemented by icicle plots attached to the matrices. The density within and between subgroups of the hierarchy is represented within the matrices using a gray scale. To visualize changes, transitions and dissimilarities between the hierarchically structured graphs are shown using a flow metaphor and color coding. The design of our visualization technique allows us to show more than one hierarchical group structure of the same graph by stacking the sequences, where hierarchy comparison is supported not only within but also between sequences. To improve the readability, we minimize the number of crossing curves within and between sequences based on a sorting algorithm that sweeps through the sequences of hierarchies.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Simulation Architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed parallel and soft real-time simulation architecture is presented. It employs a publish-subscribe communication framework layered on a peer-to-peer Transport Control Protocol-based message passing architecture. Mechanisms for efficient...

  20. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  1. A meta-analysis of the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health problem, and many studies have examined the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. However, these programs and those outcomes are complex, broad, and diverse. Research is needed into the optimal strategies for these comprehensive programs, which consider both the effectiveness and cost of programs. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package to calculate effect size (ES) and the Q statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses to examine the differences based on student grade level, program duration, and program strategy. The pooled ES calculation indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small to moderate effect on victimization. The results of the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity across studies of victimization (Q = 39.625; I (2) = 69.7%; p bullying (p bullying programs should include training in emotional control, peer counseling, and the establishment of a school policy on bullying. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Pathways of influence in school-based mentoring: The mediating role of parent and teacher relationships☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Howard, Waylon J.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Schwartz, Sarah E.O.; Herrera, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the pathways through which school-based mentoring relationships are associated with improvements in elementary and high school students’ socio-emotional, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Participants in the study (N=526) were part of a national evaluation of the Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring programs, all of whom had been randomly assigned to receive mentoring at their schools over the course of one academic year. Students were assessed at the beginning and end of the school year. The results of structural equation modeling showed that mentoring relationship quality, as measured by the Youth-Centered Relationship scale and the Youth’s Emotional Engagement scale, was significantly associated with positive changes in youths’ relationships with parents and teachers, as measured by subscales of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Teacher Relationship Quality scale, and the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness. Higher quality relationships with parents and teachers, in turn, were significantly associated with better youth outcomes, including self-esteem, academic attitudes, prosocial behaviors, and misconduct. The effect sizes of the associations ranged from 0.12 to 0.52. Mediation analysis found that mentoring relationship quality was indirectly associated with some of the outcomes through its association with improved parent and teacher relationships. Implications of the findings for theory and research are discussed. PMID:23375177

  3. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D

    2011-04-01

    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  6. The hierarchy of needs to inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Júlio Carlos de Souza; Brendler, Clariana Fischer

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses Design importance in the development of effectively inclusive products based on Design Emotional approach, allowing children with disabilities to experience playing in the childhood as an instrument for social integration. The methodology used to develop this study was based on literature review, considering the following themes: emotional design, accessibility and inclusion, emotion and development of children. As a result, we propose a new level of need to model the hierarchy of needs, of Jordan ("usability", "functionality" and "pleasure"), level with the inclusion of "dignity."

  7. Function of Attachment Hierarchies in Young Adults Experiencing the Transition From University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scharfe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An important cornerstone of Bowlby’s attachment theory (1969/1997 is the proposal that moving away from parents and toward peers is an indication of healthy development. In this study, we explored the benefit of the shift, not the shift itself, in a sample of emerging adults experiencing a stressful life event (i.e., the transition from university. Although the shift from parents to peers is an important cornerstone of Bowlby’s theory, this study is one of the first to test the differential effects of parent and peer networks on adjustment. In this longitudinal study, 73 participants completed surveys to assess attachment, social networks, and distress one month before completing their undergraduate degree and 6 months later. We found that participants experiencing the transition from university, who chose a peer as the first person in their network, tended to report stable scores over time whereas participants who chose a family member reported more variable scores. Interestingly, the direction of change was not different for the groups, just the magnitude of change. Furthermore, the difference in adjustment was not found when we compared the groups using the percent hierarchy method highlighting that there is a benefit of exploring primary attachment relationships when examining the influence of networks on adjustment.

  8. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I

    2004-08-02

    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  9. Relaxation of the composite Higgs little hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Fedderke, Michael A.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a composite Higgs scenario in which a cosmological relaxation mechanism naturally gives rise to a hierarchy between the weak scale and the scale of spontaneous global symmetry breaking. This is achieved through the scanning of sources of explicit global symmetry breaking by a relaxion field during an exponentially long period of inflation in the early universe. We explore this mechanism in detail in a specific composite Higgs scenario with QCD-like dynamics, based on an ultraviolet SU( N )TC `technicolor' confining gauge theory with three Dirac technifermion flavors. We find that we can successfully generate a hierarchy of scales ξ≡〈 h〉2/ F π 2 ≳ 1.2 × 10- 4 (i.e., compositeness scales F π ˜ 20 TeV) without tuning. This evades all current electroweak precision bounds on our (custodial violating) model. While directly observing the heavy composite states in this model will be challenging, a future electroweak precision measurement program can probe most of the natural parameter space for the model. We also highlight signatures of more general composite Higgs models in the cosmological relaxation framework, including some implications for flavor and dark matter.

  10. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...... that entail specific consequences for platform use as well as provide insights about their overall design imperative....

  11. Victimization and its associations with peer rejection and fear of victimization: Moderating effects of individual-level and classroom-level characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Predicting Peer Nominations Among Medical Students: A Social Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, Barret; Grbic, Douglas; Veloski, J Jon; Cuddy, Monica M; Hafferty, Frederic W

    2016-06-01

    Minimal attention has been paid to what factors may predict peer nomination or how peer nominations might exhibit a clustering effect. Focusing on the homophily principle that "birds of a feather flock together," and using a social network analysis approach, the authors investigated how certain student- and/or school-based factors might predict the likelihood of peer nomination, and the clusters, if any, that occur among those nominations. In 2013, the Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education included a special instrument to evaluate peer nominations. A total of 211 (81%) of 260 graduating medical students from the Sidney Kimmel Medical College responded to the peer nomination question. Data were analyzed using a relational contingency table and an ANOVA density model. Although peer nominations did not cluster around gender, age, or class rank, those students within an accelerated program, as well as those entering certain specialties, were more likely to nominate each other. The authors suggest that clerkships in certain specialties, as well as the accelerated program, may provide structured opportunities for students to connect and integrate, and that these opportunities may have an impact on peer nomination. The findings suggest that social network analysis is a useful approach to examine various aspects of peer nomination processes. The authors discuss implications regarding harnessing social cohesion within clinical clerkships, the possible development of siloed departmental identity and in-group favoritism, and future research possibilities.

  13. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  14. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  15. Hamiltonian and Godunov structures of the Grad hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmela, Miroslav; Hong, Liu; Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy; Pavelka, Michal

    2017-03-01

    The time evolution governed by the Boltzmann kinetic equation is compatible with mechanics and thermodynamics. The former compatibility is mathematically expressed in the Hamiltonian and Godunov structures, the latter in the structure of gradient dynamics guaranteeing the growth of entropy and consequently the approach to equilibrium. We carry all three structures to the Grad reformulation of the Boltzmann equation (to the Grad hierarchy). First, we recognize the structures in the infinite Grad hierarchy and then in several examples of finite hierarchies representing extended hydrodynamic equations. In the context of Grad's hierarchies, we also investigate relations between Hamiltonian and Godunov structures.

  16. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  17. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K; Dean, Kyle C; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M; Romeo, Edna

    2015-12-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines the impact of community violence on a school-based research program. It is also a brief summary of the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence on psychological and academic functioning and health outcomes. An example of the impact of community violence on the implementation of a school-based asthma program will be addressed. Implications for school nurses will be discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The provision of nurse-led school based health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Dickinson, Annette

    2017-07-12

    Internationally, nurses have been in the forefront of delivering health care services in the school environment and whilst health care delivery in secondary and high schools is evaluated, this is not the case for services delivered in primary/elementary schools. In countries such as New Zealand there is no significant inter-service collaboration between health and education; therefore, the delivery of health services remains fragmented and underdeveloped. This discussion paper reviews the history and development of nurse-led school-based health services internationally and provides an insight into the current provision of primary school-based health services in New Zealand. The initial approach to this paper was to gain an understanding of the history of school-based health services internationally and to explore the relationship between health and education in relation to this. This assisted in providing some context and comparison with the current provision of school-based health services in New Zealand. Discussion outcome: Internationally, it is acknowledged that schools provide not only a location to deliver health services to children but also the opportunity to reach entire families and communities yet surprisingly, the development of school-based health services within the primary/elementary school sector has received minimal attention in New Zealand and worldwide. This paper supports the need for further research concerning the feasibility, provision and effectiveness of school-based health services in primary/elementary schools. In order to be effective, this should incorporate the shared needs and values of all stakeholders. The authors argue the need to develop an inter-service, collaborative, national framework for the delivery of school nursing services within the primary school sector in New Zealand. Impact statement: A collaborative framework for health service delivery into primary schools can enable early establishment of supportive health

  19. Biological hierarchies and the nature of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congreve, Curtis R; Falk, Amanda R; Lamsdell, James C

    2017-09-24

    Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate. In particular, long-term palaeontological data often show that large-scale (macro) patterns of evolution are predominantly dictated by shifts in the abiotic environment, while short-term (micro) modern biological studies stress the importance of biotic interactions. We propose that thinking about ecological and evolutionary interactions in a hierarchical framework is a fruitful way to resolve these conflicts. Hierarchy theory suggests that changes occurring at lower hierarchical levels can have unexpected, complex effects at higher scales due to emergent interactions between simple systems. In this way, patterns occurring on short- and long-term time scales are equally valid, as changes that are driven from lower levels will manifest in different forms at higher levels. We propose that the dual hierarchy framework fits well with our current understanding of evolutionary and ecological theory. Furthermore, we describe how this framework can be used to understand major extinction events better. Multi-generational attritional loss of reproductive fitness (MALF) has recently been proposed as the primary mechanism behind extinction events, whereby extinction is explainable solely through processes that result in extirpation of populations through a shutdown of reproduction. While not necessarily explicit, the push to explain extinction through solely population-level dynamics

  20. Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastin, T.; Noyes, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2/sup 127/-1 approx. =10/sup 38/) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, ..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup 0/, ..pi../sup -/). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ..nu.. anti ..nu..) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU/sub 2/ X SU/sub 3/ and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, ..cap alpha../sup 2/m/sub e/c/sup 2/. Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could

  1. School-Based Anxiety Treatments for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig-Anderson, Kathleen; Colognori, Daniela; Fox, Jeremy K.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY School-based empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders are a promising avenue for providing necessary intervention to distressed youth who would otherwise never receive treatment. Sustaining such programs in school settings should be viewed as a multiple-stage process, from integration of the program into the institution and maintenance of the intervention to responding to institutional change and ownership of the program by the school.51 Given the scarce resources available to schools, additional research on embedding programs into the school culture and maximizing existing resources is essential to enhancing the sustainability of school-based interventions for anxiety disorders and reaching youth in need. PMID:22801000

  2. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  3. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  4. Structural Hierarchy Governs Fibrin Gel Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechocka, Izabela K.; Bacabac, Rommel G.; Potters, Max; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Fibrin gels are responsible for the mechanical strength of blood clots, which are among the most resilient protein materials in nature. Here we investigate the physical origin of this mechanical behavior by performing rheology measurements on reconstituted fibrin gels. We find that increasing levels of shear strain induce a succession of distinct elastic responses that reflect stretching processes on different length scales. We present a theoretical model that explains these observations in terms of the unique hierarchical architecture of the fibers. The fibers are bundles of semiflexible protofibrils that are loosely connected by flexible linker chains. This architecture makes the fibers 100-fold more flexible to bending than anticipated based on their large diameter. Moreover, in contrast with other biopolymers, fibrin fibers intrinsically stiffen when stretched. The resulting hierarchy of elastic regimes explains the incredible resilience of fibrin clots against large deformations. PMID:20483337

  5. Name Collision in Multiple Classification Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jørgen Lindskov

    Supporting multiple classification in object-oriented programming languages is the topic of discussion in this paper. Supporting multiple classification gives rise to one important question - namely the question of inheritance of attributes with identical names from multiple paths in the classification hierarchy. The problem is to decide how these multiple classification paths are reflected in the class being defined. One of the conclusions in this paper is, that by choosing strict and simple inheritance rules, one is excluding some particular usages of multiple classification. This leads to the notion of attribute-resolution at class definition, which means that the programmer in some cases is forced or allowed to resolve the potential ambiguity of the inherited names. The concept of attribute-resolution is managed through the identification of two conceptually different utilizations of specialization (unification and intersection), and two different attribute properties (plural and singleton) to guide the attribute-resolution.

  6. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres...

  7. A Hierarchy of Homodesmotic Reactions for Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul v. R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical equations that balance bond types and atom hybridization to different degrees are often used in computational thermochemistry, for example, to increase accuracy when lower levels of theory are employed. We expose the widespread confusion over such classes of equations and demonstrate that the two most widely used definitions of “homodesmotic” reactions are not equivalent. New definitions are introduced and a consistent hierarchy of reaction classes (RC1 – RC5) for hydrocarbons is constructed: isogyric (RC1) ⊇ isodesmic (RC2) ⊇ hypohomodesmotic (RC3) ⊇ homodesmotic (RC4) ⊇ hyperhomodesmotic (RC5). Each of these successively conserves larger molecular fragments. The concept of isodesmic bond separation reactions is generalized to all classes in this hierarchy, providing a unique sectioning of a given molecule for each reaction type. Several ab initio and density functional methods are applied to the bond separation reactions of 38 hydrocarbons containing five or six carbon atoms. RC4 and RC5 reactions provide bond separation enthalpies with errors consistently less than 0.4 kcal mol−1 across a wide range of theoretical levels, performing significantly better than the other reaction types and far superior to atomization routes. Our recommended bond separation reactions were demonstrated by determining the enthalpies of formation (at 298 K) of 1,3,5-hexatriyne (163.7 ± 0.4 kcal mol−1), 1,3,5,7-octatetrayne (217.6 ± 0.6 kcal mol−1), the larger polyynes C10H2 through C26H2, and an infinite acetylenic carbon chain. PMID:19182999

  8. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  9. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact ...

  10. A Computational Glimpse at the Leibniz and Frege Hierarchies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moraschini, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-20 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * Leibniz hierarchy * Frege hierarchy Leibniz congruence * decidability * Diophantine equations * relation algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  11. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  12. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  13. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  14. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  15. Relative Importance of Parents and Peers: Differences in Academic and Social Behaviors at Three Grade Levels Spanning Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Juvonen, Jaana; Spatzier, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    By focusing on school-based behaviors, this study examined the validity of a lay assumption that peers match, and even surpass, parents in terms of their importance as socialization agents by early adolescence. Self-reported academic and social behaviors, peer group norms, and perceived parent values were assessed among fourth, sixth, and eighth…

  16. Consultation: Creating School-Based Interventions. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon

    Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…

  17. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  18. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  19. Teacher Training by Means of a School-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM) could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby…

  20. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  1. The Current Practices and Problems of School Based Supervision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All teacher respondents were used in the analysis. On the other hand 65 school based supervisors, 13 principals and 10 cluster supervisors were selected using comprehensive sampling techniques as they are highly responsible for supervisory practices and their number was also manageable. The main instruments used ...

  2. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  3. School-Based Home Instruction and Learning: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research on elementary school-based programs for increasing the educationally stimulating qualities of the home environment was statistically synthesized in a qualitative analysis of 29 controlled studies. Of 121 comparisons made in the analysis, 91.1 percent favored treatment over control groups, thus pointing to the effectiveness of these…

  4. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  5. A School-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…

  6. Family Involvement in School-Based Dysphagia Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Nicholson, Joanna K.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a practitioner-friendly synthesis of existing literature on family involvement in the management of dysphagia for school-age. Research reviewed includes family perspectives on programs, therapists, and characteristics that comprise effective family involvement in school-based dysphagia management programs. Also included are…

  7. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.

  8. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  9. Building an Effective School-Based Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy Ann; Stormont, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth are at risk for failure in school due to various school, family, and community characteristics. To provide more support for youth at risk, school-based mentoring programs have become increasingly popular. However, this seemingly simple intervention is actually quite complex and must be implemented with integrity and fidelity. Although…

  10. Addressing Pediatric Health Concerns through School-Based Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Albritton, Kizzy

    2011-01-01

    In schools, the term "consultation" has multiple meanings. Often it is used to describe a quick, informal process of advice giving between teachers and/or school specialists. As a formal discipline, School-Based Consultation (SBC) is an indirect service delivery model that involves two or more parties working together to benefit students. Most…

  11. Youth Voice in Nigerian School-Based Management Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Bashiru Bako; Krauss, Steven Eric; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Hamid, Jamaliah Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In Nigeria, School-Based Management Committees (SBMCs) aim to provide an opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable groups in the school's host communities such as young people and women to partake in school governance. Research on the experiences of youth voice in the committees is scant, however, as much of the existing…

  12. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  13. Decentralisation And School-Based Management In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; Sooksomchitra, Pacharapimon

    2004-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) in Thailand began in 1997 in the course of a reform aimed at overcoming a profound crisis in the education system. The present contribution reports on the introduction and institutionalisation of decentralisation and SBM with community participation in Thailand. The data reported here are based on an empirical survey…

  14. What Do We Know about School-Based Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Fasih, Tazeen; Barrera, Felipe; Garcia-Moreno, Vicente A.; Bentaouet-Kattan, Raja; Baksh, Shaista; Wickramasekera, Inosha

    2007-01-01

    Impact evaluations of school-based management (SBM) programs, or any other kind of program, are important because they can demonstrate whether or not the program has accomplished its objectives. Furthermore, these evaluations can identify ways to improve the design of the program. These evaluations can also make successful interventions…

  15. Physical Therapists' Perceptions of School-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Sheryl L; Kuperstein, Janice; Effgen, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    Surveys have reported that most school-based physical therapists perceive ideal practices are not commonly implemented in their settings. Our aim was to obtain a more in-depth understanding of these perceptions through open-ended inquiry. Qualitative data were derived from voluntary open-ended responses provided upon completion of a survey regarding school-based physical therapy practice. Of the survey's 561 participants, 250 provided open-ended commentaries that were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Six qualitative themes emerged from the open-ended responses, including: In quest: Meeting students' school-based needs via physical therapy; Seeking relatedness: Finding working teams in the school system; Building understanding: Developing a voice/identity in the school context; Stretched beyond limits: Managing workloads; Networking: Coordinating services outside school to meet student needs; Defying definition: What does working in an educational model mean? School-based physical therapists seek to meet educationally relevant physical therapy needs of students, ages 3 to 21 years. Successes appear woven of a multitude of factors such as therapist expertise, team dynamics, and district supports.

  16. Teamwork in Israeli Arab-Bedouin School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizel, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the western world a leading example of the educational reforms that have been implemented in the late twentieth and twenty-first century is School-Based Management (SBM), a system designed to improve educational outcome through staff teamwork and self-governance. This research set out to examine the efficacy of teamwork in ten…

  17. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  18. School-Based Management and Arts Education: Lessons from Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    School-based management, or local school control, is an organizational school reform effort aimed at decentralizing school decision-making that has become prevalent in districts throughout the United States. Using the groundbreaking Chicago system of local school control as an exemplar, this article outlines the implications of such reform efforts…

  19. Key Elements of a Successful School-Based Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kerri L.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Syntheses of research findings from major studies of school-based management (SBM) generate eight elements of schooling associated with successful SBM: An active vision, meaningful decision-making authority, distribution of power, development and use of knowledge and skills, collecting and communicating information, rewards for progress, shared…

  20. The Equity Consequences of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam E.; Miran, Meir

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) affects schools' incomes and educational equity? Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of financial reports coming from 31 SBM schools during a period of four sequential years reveals that the overall inequity among schools has…

  1. Who Benefits from School-Based Management in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Fernando; Cardenas, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors examine evidence pertaining to the implementation of a national programme of school-based decentralization, the Quality Schools Programme ("Programa de Escuelas de Calidad"). The main argument of this article is that high levels of inequality in the institutional capacity of different schools and in the…

  2. School-Based Management Developments and Partnership: Evidence from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) with devolution of authority and responsibility to school level decision-makers has become the most prominent feature of public school management systems in most countries around the world. This article provides the global trends and current developments in SBM in Indonesia with an emphasis on how SBM has created…

  3. School-Based Management Developments: Challenges and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current school-based management (SBM) policy reform in Indonesia, with an emphasis on the impacts of shifting authority and responsibility to school level, as well as challenges confronted by the school council members, followed by remedial measures to minimize the problems.…

  4. The Art of Successful School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Zach

    2006-01-01

    In this monograph the author offers the reader a new perspective on an important, dynamic, and sometimes daunting issue: managing successful school-based leadership. Organized around the seven elements of art criticism, the author uses an arts-based approach to weave together notions of research-based leadership skills for successful school-based…

  5. Outcomes for a Comprehensive School-Based Asthma Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Lynn B.; Redden, David; Wittich, Angelina R.; Hains, Coralie; Turner-Henson, Anne; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Feinstein, Ronald; Erwin, Sue; Bailey, William C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a comprehensive school-based asthma management program in an inner-city, largely African-American school system. All 54 elementary schools (combined enrollment 13,247 students) from a single urban school system participated in this study. Schools were randomly divided between immediate and delayed…

  6. Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Georges; Karam, Rita; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative and qualitative status report on the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in Indonesia, identifies factors associated with the successful practices of SBM, and assesses SBM effects on student achievement eight years after its inception. The authors' findings are based on face-to-face surveys of…

  7. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  8. Local Responses to School-Based Management In Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yvonne Y. K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper adopts a qualitative approach to study the perceptions of six secondary teachers from two schools with a similar background and history of school-based management (SBM). The study aims to explore the views of the teachers in the following areas: changes in school administration and the structure of the school under SBM; changes in the…

  9. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  10. Transition from School-Based Training in VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehlen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the drop-out rate among disadvantaged students within vocational education and training. The purpose of this paper is to examine the probability of dropping out after school-based training for child welfare clients--a particularly disadvantaged group of youth. Child welfare clients' drop-out rate is compared with…

  11. School-Based Support Groups for Traumatized Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Linda Leek

    2011-01-01

    After students experience a traumatic event, group counseling is an effective tool to offset the effects of grief and distress. Following a school crisis, successful school-based intervention requires interdisciplinary coordination between school psychologists, counselors, school social workers, teachers, and administrative staff. Within a short…

  12. School-Based Health Centers + School Nurses = Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) and school nurses know that healthy students learn better. They share an important mission: providing preventive care for all students they serve, with the goal of keeping students in class learning. They both: (1) Educate students and families about healthy behaviors and nutrition; (2) Enroll students and…

  13. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Technology for Health (PATH) to evaluate different HPV vaccine delivery strategies. A school-based HPV vaccine delivery strategy was adopted in Ibanda targeting girls enrolled in primary grade five (P5). In Nakasongola, the HPV vaccine was delivered during the routine Child. Days Plus (CDP) program, targeting girls of at.

  14. Models for Delivering School-Based Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…

  15. Incorporating Trauma-Informed Care Into School-Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Ashley, Olivia Silber; White, LeBretia; Axelson, Sarah; Clark, Marc; Burrus, Barri

    2017-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the rationale and process for incorporating trauma-informed approaches into US school-based programs, using school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs as an example. Research literature is reviewed on the prevalence and outcomes of childhood trauma, including the links between trauma and pregnancy. Information is then presented concerning the implementation of trauma-informed approaches in school settings, describing activities undertaken, barriers encountered, and outcomes achieved. Next, we describe the implications of this literature for school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, outlining the reasons for including trauma-informed approaches in these programs, the prerequisites for doing so, and some examples of successful implementation. Many children in our country experience trauma, placing them at increased risk of multiple health concerns including adolescent pregnancy. In response to this situation, some schools have successfully incorporated trauma-informed approaches into adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, as well as other programming. Incorporating trauma-informed approaches into school settings, including school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, is a viable and important way to address the multiple needs of traumatized children. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  16. Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A

    2015-03-01

    Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Offenders, Disclosure, and School-Based Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldman, Jonathan P.; Crespi, Tony D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of the child sexual offender and the devastating impact of sexual abuse on children. It discusses the importance of a child's disclosure of victimization and its significance in the treatment process. Recommendations are presented on ways to improve school-based sexual abuse programs since they are in a…

  18. Assessing the Outcomes of School-Based Partnership Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…

  19. Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of ...

  20. Attitude of teachers to school based adolescent reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three teachers in Sagamu. Forty seven percent of them were trained family life educators while 52.9% had ...

  1. Community's willingness to pay for a school-based chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a random sample of 523 households having at least one child attending primary school in 3 villages in Buchosa Division, Sengerema District, Tanzania. The aim was to determine the community's willingness to pay (WTP) for a school-based chemotherapy ...

  2. The challenges of school-based teacher development initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It illustrates this by reporting on some research findings on the potential and limitations of school-based teacher development through a cluster case study, which could be described as a South African version of a Professional Learning Community. Keywords: teacher development, cluster teaching, professional learning ...

  3. Implementing School-Based Teacher Development in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Frank; Hardman, Jan; Dachi, Hillary; Elliott, Louise; Ihebuzor, Noel; Ntekim, Maniza; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a pilot school-based professional development programme for Tanzanian primary school teachers launched in February 2011 and evaluated in December 2012 by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training with the support of UNICEF. The study set out to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of the pilot…

  4. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood mental illnesses most times are detected earlier in schools than at homes as the schools provide enabling environment for early identification of children with problems. Objectives: To evaluate the resources available for school-based mental health services in Enugu urban and to determine the head ...

  5. Teacher Motivation and School-Based Performance Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes findings from series of research studies on the motivational effects of school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) School District. Finds that teachers associate various positive and negative outcomes with the programs. Draws several implications for design and…

  6. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  7. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  8. A Synthesis of International School-Based Bullying Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jennifer; Medaris, Jessica; Verity, Kimberley; Hott, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a prevalent problem in school systems in the United States and abroad. This literature review focuses on elementary school-based bullying interventions for students published between 2005-2012. Ten studies reviewed included students from the first grade through the eighth grade from five countries. There were many common themes among…

  9. Immigrant Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Extracurricular activity involvement is generally beneficial toward student progress and success. Little is known, however, about immigrant youth involvement in school-based extracurricular activities. The author examined the patterns of Latino and Asian American youth extracurricular involvement by focusing on the pertinent role of immigrant…

  10. Peer Leadership Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  11. Peer Tutoring for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Lynnes, Michelle D.

    2008-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a pedagogical technique that has promise to improve outcomes for students with a disability within existing resource constraints. Published empirically-based papers on peer-tutoring were descriptively analysed. Synthesis of these studies revealed that peer tutoring is effective in inclusive physical education contexts. Evidence…

  12. Peer Influence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  13. Developmental Benefits of Extracurricular Involvement: Do Peer Characteristics Mediate the Link between Activities and Youth Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynn S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we test: (a) the relation between school-based extracurricular participation and indicators of positive and negative development across a range of activity contexts, and (b) a mediation model linking activity participation, prosocial peers, and development. Extensive survey information was collected from a predominately White…

  14. Peer Victimization Trajectories from Kindergarten through High School: Differential Pathways for Children's School Engagement and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2017-01-01

    This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…

  15. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Smoking Prevention Programme for Romanian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, L. M.; Dijk, F.; Mesters, I.; Ionut, C.; De Vries, H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a school-based smoking prevention programme that used both a video and peer-led discussion groups among Romanian junior high school students aged 13-14 years. The programme embraced the social influence approach and concentrated on enhancing self-efficacy and the acquisition of cigarette refusal…

  16. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  17. Scientometrics of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squazzoni, Flaminio; Brezis, Elise; Marušić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to introduce a special issue on "Scientometrics of peer review", which collects papers originally presented at workshops and conferences organised by the COST ACTION TD1306 "New frontiers of peer review". Peer review is the cornerstone of science and is one of the underlying processes that bring about publication traces that are at the heart of bibliometric studies. Unfortunately, despite its importance, quantitative studies on peer review are still poorly developed, often due to lack of data. The issue aims to promote the establishment of peer review as an interdisciplinary field of research and stimulate further quantitative research.

  18. Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability in School-Based and Non-School-Based Management: Principals' Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  19. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  20. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Tobacco Prevention: The Mirroring Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Seeger, Werner; Buslaff, Fabian

    2016-06-28

    Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Adolescent smoking can best be prevented through health education at schools. Interventions that take advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve prevention. In this first pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology in accordance with the theory of planned behavior to improve school-based tobacco prevention. We used a free photoaging mobile phone app ("Smokerface") in three German secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The students' altered three-dimensional selfies on mobile phones or tablets were "mirrored" via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire, we then measured on a 5-point Likert scale the perceptions of the intervention among 125 students of both genders (average age 12.75 years). A majority of the students perceived the intervention as fun (77/125, 61.6%), claimed that the intervention motivated them not to smoke (79/125, 63.2%), and stated that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (81/125, 64.8%). Only a minority of students disagreed or fully disagreed that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (16/125, 12.8%) or that they were themselves motivated not to smoke (18/125, 14.4%). We have presented a novel method to integrate photoaging in school-based tobacco prevention that affects student peer groups and considers the predictors of smoking in accordance with the theory of planned behavior.

  1. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Tobacco Prevention: The Mirroring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Werner; Buslaff, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Background Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Adolescent smoking can best be prevented through health education at schools. Interventions that take advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents’ interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve prevention. Objective In this first pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology in accordance with the theory of planned behavior to improve school-based tobacco prevention. Methods We used a free photoaging mobile phone app (“Smokerface”) in three German secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The students’ altered three-dimensional selfies on mobile phones or tablets were “mirrored” via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire, we then measured on a 5-point Likert scale the perceptions of the intervention among 125 students of both genders (average age 12.75 years). Results A majority of the students perceived the intervention as fun (77/125, 61.6%), claimed that the intervention motivated them not to smoke (79/125, 63.2%), and stated that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (81/125, 64.8%). Only a minority of students disagreed or fully disagreed that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (16/125, 12.8%) or that they were themselves motivated not to smoke (18/125, 14.4%). Conclusions We have presented a novel method to integrate photoaging in school-based tobacco prevention that affects student peer groups and considers the predictors of smoking in accordance with the theory of planned behavior. PMID:27352819

  2. Nanoporous Metals with Structural Hierarchy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Theresa [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA 90089 USA; Biener, Juergen [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Weissmüller, Jörg [Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany, and Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Geesthacht Germany; Hodge, Andrea M. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA 90089 USA

    2017-08-09

    Nanoporous (np) metals have generated much interest since they combine several desirable material characteristics, such as high surface area, mechanical size effects, and high conductivity. Most of the research has been focused on np Au due to its relatively straightforward synthesis, chemical stability, and many promising applications in the fields of catalysis and actuation. Other materials, such as np-Cu, Ag, and Pd have also been studied. This review discusses recent advances in the field of np metals, focusing on new research areas that implement and leverage structural hierarchy while using np metals as their base structural constituents. First, we focus on single-element porous metals that are made of np metals at the fundamental level, but synthesized with additional levels of porosity. Second, we discuss the fabrication of composite structures, which use auxiliary materials to enhance the properties of np metals. Important applications of these hierarchical materials, especially in the fields of catalysis and electrochemistry, are also reviewed. Finally, we conclude with a discussion about future opportunities for the advancement and application of np metals.

  3. Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Ozogány, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...

  4. Inductive Generalization of Analytically Learned Goal Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Tolga; Nejati, Negin; Kuter, Ugur

    We describe a new approach for learning procedural knowledge represented as teleoreactive logic programs using relational behavior traces as input. This representation organizes task decomposition skills hierarchically and associate explicitly defined goals with them. Our approach integrates analytical learning with inductive generalization in order to learn these skills. The analytical component predicts the goal dependencies in a successful solution and generates a teleoreactive logic program that can solve similar problems by determining the structure of the skill hierarchy and skill applicability conditions (preconditions), which may be overgeneral. The inductive component experiments with these skills on new problems and uses the data collected in this process to refine the preconditions. Our system achieves this by converting the data collected during the problem solving experiments into the positive and negative examples of preconditions that can be learned with a standard Inductive Logic Programming system. We show that this conversion uses one of the main commitments of teleoreactive logic programs: associating all skills with explicitly defined goals. We claim that our approach uses less expert effort compared to a purely inductive approach and performs better compared to a purely analytical approach.

  5. Measuring the hierarchy of feedforward networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we explore the concept of hierarchy as a quantifiable descriptor of ordered structures, departing from the definition of three conditions to be satisfied for a hierarchical structure: order, predictability, and pyramidal structure. According to these principles, we define a hierarchical index taking concepts from graph and information theory. This estimator allows to quantify the hierarchical character of any system susceptible to be abstracted in a feedforward causal graph, i.e., a directed acyclic graph defined in a single connected structure. Our hierarchical index is a balance between this predictability and pyramidal condition by the definition of two entropies: one attending the onward flow and the other for the backward reversion. We show how this index allows to identify hierarchical, antihierarchical, and nonhierarchical structures. Our formalism reveals that departing from the defined conditions for a hierarchical structure, feedforward trees and the inverted tree graphs emerge as the only causal structures of maximal hierarchical and antihierarchical systems respectively. Conversely, null values of the hierarchical index are attributed to a number of different configuration networks; from linear chains, due to their lack of pyramid structure, to full-connected feedforward graphs where the diversity of onward pathways is canceled by the uncertainty (lack of predictability) when going backward. Some illustrative examples are provided for the distinction among these three types of hierarchical causal graphs.

  6. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...... und ESN and hierarchy’s effects regarding the sociotechnical design and implementation of related systems....

  7. School-based In-service Teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen; Hadzibegovic-Bubanja, Elvira; Nielsen, Søren P.

    and learning methodologies and to produce guidelines for organisation of such competence development of teachers. The ambition is to inspire and enable policymakers and practitioners to organise a school-based approach to continuing professional development of teachers in VET schools (and teachers in other...... upper–secondary education). The philosophy of the Handbook is that teacher competence development becomes both more efficient and much cheaper if closely related to the actual job requirements of teachers, organised at school level and for teams of teachers with strong support from school leadership...... and to produce guidelines for organisation of such competence development of teachers. The ambition is to inspire and enable policymakers and practitioners to organise a school-based approach to continuing professional development of teachers in VET schools (and teachers in other upper–secondary education...

  8. Adolescent smoking cessation services of school-based health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Yingling, Faith; Dake, Joseph A; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-04-01

    A national sample of 390 junior and senior high school-based centers were mailed an 18-item survey to assess their institutional stages of change regarding smoking cessation education, referral, and prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) services and their perceived barriers and benefits regarding the provision of these services. Nearly half were in the maintenance stage for cessation education programs, one-third were in maintenance stage for referral services, and 12% were in the maintenance stage for NRT. The most frequently cited perceived benefits included an increased awareness of short- and long-term effects of smoking (education programs and referral services) and increasing student access to cessation methods (NRT). The greatest barriers cited were a lack of financial resources (education programs), problems with student transportation (referral services), and staff not having the authority to provide prescription services (NRT). School-based centers can do more to help stop adolescents from using tobacco.

  9. Understanding social hierarchies: The neural and psychological foundations of status perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica E; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R

    2015-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review, we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are sociocultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents.

  10. Understanding Social Hierarchies: The Neural and Psychological Foundations of Status Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2017-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184

  11. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  12. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  13. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  14. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-08-13

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks.

  15. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  16. Recent developments in ecological theory: hierarchy and scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past decade, hierarchy and scale have been adopted as an ecological paradigm. Beyond this new awareness, however, a number of studies have attempted to test the underlying hierarchy theory and developed new analytical applications. The purpose of the present paper is to review these recent developments. Tests of the theory have focused on the prediction that ecological systems should not be uniformly distributed across scale, but grouped or lumped into discrete levels. The predicted breaks in spatial distribution have been found in vegetation transects. Vertebrate weight distributions are also distinctly aggregated, corresponding to the spatial scale at which each species operates. An important development of hierarchy theory has considered extrapolating information upscale. Simply stated, the dynamics of the higher level cannot be represented by the same functional form as its components. One cannot insert the mean parameter value for the components and predict higher level effects. Analytical methods, derived from hierarchy theory, have been developed deal with the problem.

  17. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-10-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P^4 . We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ɛ and η are smaller than one. The value of ɛ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  18. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  19. Self-organization and time-stability of social hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, Joseph; Davidsen, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    The formation and stability of social hierarchies is a question of general relevance. Here, we propose a simple model for establishing social hierarchy via pair-wise interactions between individuals and investigate its stability. In each interaction or fight, the probability of "winning" depends solely on the relative societal status of the participants, and the winner has a gain of status whereas there is an equal loss to the loser. The interactions are characterized by two parameters. The f...

  20. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-07-11

    The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs.

  1. Self- and Peer-Identified Victims in Late Childhood: Differences in Perceptions of the School Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.

  2. School-Based Mental Health Services: Definitions and Models of Effective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Beth; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Cornell, Laura; Song, Samuel Y.

    2017-01-01

    School-based mental health services are those delivered by school-employed and community-employed providers in school buildings. With the implementation of provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that funds school-based health centers, school-based mental health services could become more broadly available in…

  3. Approaching Participation in School-Based Mathematics as a Cross-Setting Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic study of a 10-year-old's pursuit of school-based mathematics across school and home to suggest that participating in school-based mathematics is a cross-setting phenomenon in at least 2 ways. First, I illustrate how accomplishing school-based mathematics literally extends into the home and how individuals…

  4. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  5. An Observational Case Study of Near-peer Teaching in Medical and Pharmacy Experiential Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin; Battistella, Marisa

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees' perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care.

  6. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  7. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gary D; Linder, Barbara; Baranowski, Tom; Cooper, Dan M; Goldberg, Linn; Harrell, Joanne S; Kaufman, Francine; Marcus, Marsha D; Treviño, Roberto P; Hirst, Kathryn

    2010-07-29

    We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [+/- SD] age, 11.3 [+/- 0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. There was a decrease in the primary outcome--the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity--in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P=0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P=0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.)

  8. Peer selection in peer-to-peer networks with semantic topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  9. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the

  10. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; van Harmelen, Frank

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  11. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in

  12. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao

    2009-01-01

    skyline computation problem on a structured peer-to-peer network. In order to achieve low communication cost and quick response time, we utilize the iMinMax(\\theta ) method to transform high-dimensional data to one-dimensional value and distribute the data in a structured peer-to-peer network called BATON......An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional...

  13. Analysis of Learning Environment Factors Based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košir Katja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new analysis of some learning environment factors from the point of view of one of the most established motivational models, i.e. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. For a teacher, this model can represent a meaningful tool for the analysis of the potential factors of pupils’ inadequate school adjustment. Some psychological constructs that can be conceptualized as learning environment factors are presented at specific levels of needs. As regards the level of physiological needs, this paper provides an overview of research studies on ergonomic factors of learning environment. As for safety needs, the paper outlines the concepts of classroom management and peer-to-peer violence, and presents some main research findings in both fields. The analysis regarding the level of love and belonging includes aspects of positive classroom climate and the concept of pupils’ social acceptance. Contemporary findings about the development of pupil’s academic self-concept are presented within the self-esteem and achievements needs. Flow is considered to be one of key factors that help teacher satisfy the self-actualization needs and stimulate pupils’ personal development. On the basis of this analysis, some implications and recommendations are given to help teachers efficiently encourage an integrated approach to pupil development.

  14. Peer education: the nursing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Vera

    2006-01-01

    The two-fold purpose of this study was to explore the peer education experiences of registered nurses and solutions for developing peer education as an effective method of adult learning. Eleven designated peer nurse teachers and 13 peer nurse learners were asked to complete a questionnaire. Three peer nurse teachers and three peer nurse learners were further interviewed in focus groups. The metathemes of peer role conflict, organizational stress, and the timing of new role integration were identified. The study found nurses believed that to have a successful peer education program, the scope of the peer education program and the peer roles should be clarified, peer time should be available and accessible, positive motivational techniques (including a just peer selection process) should be present, and other resources should be provided.

  15. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  16. Two-Year BMI Outcomes From a School-Based Intervention for Nutrition and Exercise: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Cowgill, Burton O; Klein, David J; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Uyeda, Kimberly; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the long-term effects on BMI of a randomized controlled trial of Students for Nutrition and Exercise, a 5-week, middle school-based obesity prevention intervention combining school-wide environmental changes, encouragement to eat healthy school cafeteria foods, and peer-led education and marketing. We randomly selected schools from the Los Angeles Unified School District and assigned 5 to the intervention group and 5 to a wait-list control group. Of the 4022 seventh-graders across schools, a total of 1368 students had their height and weight assessed at baseline and 2 years' postintervention. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict BMI percentile at ninth grade by using BMI percentile at seventh grade, school indicators, and sociodemographic characteristics (child gender, age, Latino race/ethnicity, US-born status, and National School Lunch Program eligibility [as a proxy for low-income status]). Although the Students for Nutrition and Exercise intervention did not exhibit significant effects on BMI percentile overall, intervention students who were classified as obese at baseline (in seventh grade) showed significant reductions in BMI percentile in ninth grade (b = -2.33 percentiles; SE, 0.83; P = .005) compared with control students. This outcome translated into ∼9 pounds (∼4.1 kg) lower expected body weight after 2 years for an obese student in the intervention school at the mean height and age of the sample at baseline. Multilevel school-based interventions can have long-term effects on BMI among students who are obese. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which school-based obesity interventions can affect BMI over time. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Multicomponent Burgers and KP Hierarchies, and Solutions from a Matrix Linear System

    OpenAIRE

    Aristophanes Dimakis; Folkert Müller-Hoissen

    2009-01-01

    Via a Cole-Hopf transformation, the multicomponent linear heat hierarchy leads to a multicomponent Burgers hierarchy. We show in particular that any solution of the latter also solves a corresponding multicomponent (potential) KP hierarchy. A generalization of the Cole-Hopf transformation leads to a more general relation between the multicomponent linear heat hierarchy and the multicomponent KP hierarchy. From this results a construction of exact solutions of the latter via a matrix linear sy...

  18. Structured Query Translation in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Masud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a query translation mechanism between heterogeneous peers in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems (PDSSs. A PDSS combines a database management system with P2P functionalities. The local databases on peers are called peer databases. In a PDSS, each peer chooses its own data model and schema and maintains data independently without any global coordinator. One of the problems in such a system is translating queries between peers, taking into account both the schema and data heterogeneity. Query translation is the problem of rewriting a query posed in terms of one peer schema to a query in terms of another peer schema. This paper proposes a query translation mechanism between peers where peers are acquainted in data sharing systems through data-level mappings for sharing data.

  19. The association of peer pressure and peer affiliation with the health risk behaviors of secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, A Y; Mak, Y W; Wu, C S T

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peer pressure and the health risk behaviors of secondary school students. Cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. Secondary school students in Year 3 were the target population of this study. Information was solicited from students on their perceptions of peer pressure using a questionnaire employing the Peer Pressure Inventory and their involvement in risk behaviors using a modified global school-based student health survey. A total of 840 secondary students from Hong Kong completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of secondary students who had ever smoked was 6.4%, consumed alcohol 39.2%, ever used drugs 0.5%, were sexually active 3.9%, and involved in bullying 20.5%. A higher proportion of secondary students involved in risk behaviors were affiliated with peers who were involved in the same activities: smoking (48.9%), drinking alcohol (86.5%), using drugs (18.2%), engaged in sexual activity (34.5%), and bullying (82.6%). The perception of peer conformity and peer involvement was found to be significantly correlated with the students' health risk behaviors, particularly with regard to smoking, drinking alcohol, and bullying. A logistic regression analysis showed that having friends who are involved in the same risk behaviors is the single most important factor associated with the participation of secondary students in those specific risk behaviors. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the association between peer pressure and the adoption of health behaviors. The development of effective peer-led prevention programs to reduce the uptake of health risk behaviors should therefore be promoted to prevent adolescents from developing serious health problems. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  1. Standardized childhood fitness percentiles derived from school-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Bowser, John; White, Doug; Moberg, D Paul; Weaver, Brian; Hisgen, Jon; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B

    2012-07-01

    To develop a statewide school-based program of measuring and reporting cardiovascular fitness levels in children, and to create age- and sex-specific cardiovascular fitness percentile-based distribution curves. A pilot study validated cardiovascular fitness assessment with Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) testing as an accurate predictor of cardiovascular fitness measured by maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing. Schools throughout the state were then recruited to perform PACER and body mass index (BMI) measurement and report de-identified data to a centralized database. Data on 20 631 individual students with a mean age 12.1 ± 2.0 years, BMI of 21.4 ± 5.1, and a cardiovascular fitness measured with PACER of 29.7 ± 18.2 laps (estimated maximal oxygen consumption of 36.5 mL/kg/min) were submitted for analysis. Standardized fitness percentiles were calculated for age and sex. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing, reporting, and recording annual school-based assessments of cardiovascular fitness to develop standardized childhood fitness percentiles on the basis of age and sex. Such data can be useful in comparing populations and assessing initiatives that aim to improve childhood fitness. Because health consequences of obesity result from both adiposity and physical inactivity, supplementation of BMI measurement with tracking of cardiovascular fitness adds a valuable tool for large-scale health assessment. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Practitioner Review: School-based interventions in child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Ohmann, Susanne; Popow, Christian

    2016-12-01

    School-based interventions (SBIs) are well-established and effective treatments for improving child mental health. Specific school-based topics include prevention (Tier I-III) and interventions (e.g. cognitive-behavioural programmes and daily report cards). We performed a systematic literature search in five commonly used online databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX) for English-language articles published between 1993 and 2015. Additional sources included reference lists of relevant articles and book chapters. We identified a number of successful behavioural or cognitive-behavioural programmes yielding moderate to strong effects for a range of emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of these programmes and the collaboration of the involved settings (school and home) and persons are important factors for their effectiveness under real-life conditions. Effective SBIs are valuable tools for students with mental health problems if evidence-based cognitive-behavioural interventions are applied and rules of translational algorithms and implementation science are respected. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. School Based Vision Centers: striving to optimize learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Stacy Ayn; Johnson, Catherine; Majzoub, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The successful delivery of comprehensive pediatric vision care after vision screening referral is a longstanding challenge that has significant implications for child wellness. In response to the many known obstacles that prevent the diagnosis and treatment of vision conditions, School-Based Vision Centers have been established in Framingham, MA and Boston, MA to provide easy access to comprehensive vision care following a failed vision screening. These on-site Vision Centers were developed to improve access to comprehensive vision care and treatment thereby correcting vision conditions that can adversely affect student academic achievement, athletic performance, and self-esteem. This paper highlights the collaboration between two public schools in Massachusetts and The New England Eye Institute and describes a multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive care delivery to high-risk pediatric populations in school-based settings. The ultimate goal of this model is to minimize visual barriers that may impede learning in order to maximize academic success and wellness. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  4. A school-based post-Katrina therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Eliot E; Bauer, Daliah; Newman, Denise L; Kalka, Elaine; Lochman, John E; Silverman, Wendy K; Jensen, Peter S; Curry, John; Stark, Kevin; Wells, Karen C; Bannon, William M

    2015-05-01

    The current study presents the implementation of a set of school based interventions in a greater New Orleans school district one year following Hurricane Katrina. The interventions included adaptation and implementation of evidence based treatments in a crisis situation with at-risk youth which involved training and clinical challenges. 386 students found to have significant depressive and/or disruptive disorder symptoms received treatment from the School Therapeutic Enhancement Program (STEP). Further, a district-wide mental health needs assessment of middle and high school students (N = 11,861) screened for behavioral and emotional difficulties at the beginning and end of the school year provided a benchmark for community youth's emotional and behavioral distress. High-need intervention students demonstrated clinically significant lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems, depression and inattention in comparison to pre-treatment levels as indicated by multiple informants (i.e., self, parent, teacher). Self-reported distress levels were also lower than screening group students at post-test. These findings support the efficacy of a school-based intervention for youth struggling with the aftereffects of a highly disruptive natural disaster. Implications for utilizing a flexible adaptation of an evidence-based training model involving coaching and consultation are discussed.

  5. Effectiveness of School Based Recruitment Procedures and Modular Data Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES is a school-based data collection and knowledge exchange system designed to improve the health of youth. This paper outlines the design of the SHAPES study, examines the impact of different school recruitment models on participation rates, and examines the impact of using two different research modules during data collection on the prevalence of core behaviours being measured. Methods: In total, 76 schools were recruited from seven health regions and data were collected using the SHAPES Tobacco (TM and Physical Activity Modules (PAM. Results: It was found that school recruitment rates were higher when both the researchers and the health unit, worked together to recruit schools. Significant differences were found between students who completed the TM and students who completed the PAM with respect to body mass index, smoking susceptibility, the number of friends who smoke, and the number of active friends. Conclusions: This paper provides valuable real-world insight for future researchers interested in performing population-level school-based studies of youth risk behaviours. Our experience suggests that a modular approach to data collection is feasible and that recruitment rates are improved when researchers work in collaboration with health unit staff who have existing relationships with schools.

  6. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of a school-based Reproductive Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This quasi-experimental study compared the relative efficacy of teacher instructions alone, peer education alone, and a combination of these two on reproductive health knowledge, attitude, perceived self-efficacy and sexual practices among secondary schools students in the Ibarapa district of Southwestern Nigeria.

  8. Hierarchy curriculum for practical skills training in optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Lin, YuanFang

    2017-08-01

    The employers in optical engineering fields hope to recruit students who are capable of applying optical principles to solve engineering problems and have strong laboratory skills. In Zhejiang University, a hierarchy curriculum for practical skill training has been constructed to satisfy this demand. This curriculum includes "Introductive practicum" for freshmen, "Opto-mechanical systems design", "Engineering training", "Electronic system design", "Student research training program (SRTP)", "National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition game", and "Offcampus externship". Without cutting optical theory credit hours, this hierarchy curriculum provides a step-by-step solution to enhance students' practical skills. By following such a hierarchy curriculum, students can smoothly advance from a novice to a qualified professional expert in optics. They will be able to utilize optical engineering tools to design, build, analyze, improve, and test systems, and will be able to work effectively in teams to solve problems in engineering and design.

  9. Parallel On-Demand Hierarchy Construction on Contemporary GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Marek; Havran, Vlastimil; Bittner, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    We present the first parallel on-demand spatial hierarchy construction algorithm targeting ray tracing on many-core processors such as GPUs. The method performs simultaneous ray traversal and spatial hierarchy construction focused on the parts of the data structure being traversed. The method is based on a versatile framework built around a task pool and runs entirely on the GPU. We show that the on-demand construction can improve rendering times compared to full hierarchy construction. We evaluate our method on both object (BVH) and space (kd-tree) subdivision data structures and compare them mutually. The on-demand method is particularly beneficial for rendering large scenes with high occlusion. We also present SAH kd-tree builder that outperforms previous state-of-the-art builders running on the GPU.

  10. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  11. Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a '4S' hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Lynn V; Walsh, Jessica C; Sutherland, William J

    2014-11-01

    Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a '4S' hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchy of stability factors in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio; Keller, Tony S; Levy, Jonathan C; Lee, William E; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty is being used more frequently to treat irreparable rotator cuff tears in the presence of glenohumeral arthritis and instability. To date, however, design features and functions of reverse shoulder arthroplasty, which may be associated with subluxation and dislocation of these implants, have been poorly understood. We asked: (1) what is the hierarchy of importance of joint compressive force, prosthetic socket depth, and glenosphere size in relation to stability, and (2) is this hierarchy defined by underlying and theoretically predictable joint contact characteristics? We examined the intrinsic stability in terms of the force required to dislocate the humerosocket from the glenosphere of eight commercially available reverse shoulder arthroplasty devices. The hierarchy of factors was led by compressive force followed by socket depth; glenosphere size played a much lesser role in stability of the reverse shoulder arthroplasty device. Similar results were predicted by a mathematical model, suggesting the stability was determined primarily by compressive forces generated by muscles.

  13. The elimination of hierarchy in a completely cyclic competition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Dong, Linrong; Yang, Guangcan

    2012-01-01

    Interactions among competing units are crucial to maintaining biodiversity, and non-hierarchical interactions can promote biodiversity in cyclic competing systems. In the present study, we explore the role of hierarchical interactions, existing ubiquitously in reality, in the co-evolution of a cyclic competing system. In systems composed of cyclic competing species with hierarchy interactions in which one predator species has more than one prey, we find that hierarchy disappears in a rather short evolving time. In the process of co-evolution, a hierarchical competing system tends to transit to a cyclic non-hierarchical competing system described by the rock-paper-scissors game. In other words, the cyclic competing interactions appear to eradicate hierarchy. This conclusion is analyzed by a mean-field approach and is tested by stochastic simulations.

  14. Exponential and power-law hierarchies from supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, A A

    1999-01-01

    We examine how a d-dimensional mass hierarchy can be generated from a d+1-dimensional set up. We consider a d+1--dimensional scalar, the hierarchon, which has a potential as in gauged supergravities. We find that when it is in its minimum, there exist solutions of Horava-Witten topology R^d X S^1/Z^2 with domain walls at the fixed points and anti-de Sitter geometry in the bulk. We show that while standard Poincare supergravity leads to power-law hierarchies, (e.g. a power law dependence of masses on the compactification scale), gauged supergravity produce an exponential hierarchy as recently proposed by Randall and Sundrum.

  15. Directions for memory hierarchies and their components: research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.J.

    1978-10-01

    The memory hierarchy is usually the largest identifiable part of a computer system and making effective use of it is critical to the operation and use of the system. The levels of such a memory hierarchy are considered and the state of the art and likely directions for both research and development are described. Algorithmic and logical features of the hierarchy not directly associated with specific components are also discussed. Among the problems believed to be the most significant are the following: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of gap filler technology as a level of storage between main memory and disk, and if it proves to be effective, determine how/where it should be used, (b) develop algorithms for the use of mass storage in a large computer system, and (c) determine how cache memories should be implemented in very large, fast multiprocessor systems.

  16. mitigating mitigating free riding in peer-to-peer networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    9. R. Krishnan, M. Smith, and Z. Tang, “The impact of free-riding. On peer-to-peer networks," in the 37th Annual Hawaii. International Conference on System Sciences, 2004, pp. 1-. 10. 10. P. Golle, K. Leyton-brown, I. Mironov, and M. Lillibridge,. “Incentives for Sharing in Peer-to-Peer Networks,". Electronic Commerce,, 2001.

  17. A peer-to-peer traffic safety campaign program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...

  18. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  19. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  20. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  1. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  2. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  3. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case...... by visual contact and by the activation of an appropriate secure side channel of their personal device; we show that the process can be fuelled by taking advantage of trusted acquaintances. We then show that the proposed solution is generic: It can be deployed on any mobile network and it can be implemented...

  4. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  5. Political behavior, hierarchy and egalitarianism. Implication for the Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Marafuschi Phillips

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Political Science includes two fields according to Hix (2012, Institutional and Behavioral Politics. This paper focuses on the politic behavior and describes, based in a bibliography review, the political behavior of big apes and human tribes. A specific type of behavior of some tribes is described, the egalitarianism and its transformation to the hierarchical model. Those concepts are taken to the organizational world in order to question the assumed physis view of the organizational hierarchy and to promote the research of alternative management models.Key words: political behavior, hierarchy, egalitarianism.

  6. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  7. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  8. Hierarchy in air travel: Few large and many small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Chen, R.; Lorente, S.; Wen, C. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Here, we document the diversity of commercial aircraft models and bodies in use during the past five decades. Special emphasis is on the models that have moved humanity across the globe during the past three decades. The first objective is to show that the apparent diversity is in fact underpinned (sustained) by organization, which is a distinct hierarchy of "few large and many small" coexisting and moving people harmoniously everywhere. The second objective is to rely on the emerging hierarchy in order to predict for the future how few the even bigger models will be and how more numerous the even smaller models (e.g., drones for package delivery) will be, naturally.

  9. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  10. Teacher training by means of a school-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Richter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby student teachers are appointed at schools as assistant teachers. A mixed method study was preferred in order to explore the effectiveness of the model. The findings of the research indicate that the majority of teachers, lecturers, students and members of school managements involved were positive regarding the SBTM, and that the advantages of the model outweighed the challenges. It is therefore recommended that the model be implemented as an alternative teacher training programme for the special conditions prevailing in South Africa, as well as other countries that experience a teacher shortage.

  11. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and School-Based Victimization and Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey ( n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction ( ps bullying and bringing a weapon to campus ( ps effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

  13. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  15. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Melanoma Prevention: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Brieske, Christian Martin; Schaefer, Christoph Matthias; Buslaff, Fabian; Gatzka, Martina; Petri, Maximilian Philip; Sondermann, Wiebke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Stoffels, Ingo; Klode, Joachim

    2017-09-08

    (n=74, 71.8% agreement in skin types 1-2 vs n=50, 53.8% agreement in skin types 3-6) and increased use of sun protection (n=70, 68.0% agreement in skin types 1-2 vs n=52, 55.3% agreement in skin types 3-6), and also positively correlated with higher age. We present a novel way of integrating photoaging in school-based melanoma prevention that affects the students' peer group, considers the predictors of UV exposure in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, and is particularly effective in changing behavioral predictors in fair-skinned adolescents (Fitzpatrick skin types 1-2). Further research is required to evaluate the intervention's prospective effects on adolescents of various cultural backgrounds.

  16. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  17. Peer Selection in Peer-to-Peer Networks with Semantic Topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; van Harmelen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial.\

  18. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  19. Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…

  20. Research project prioritization through training in analytic hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    support system by linking resource and knowledge based decisions of farmers and scientists. Methodology. Approach of the study was imparting training on Analytic. Hierarchy Process (AHP) and facilitating group decision- making on the provided participatory case study of a village. Multidisciplinary groups of scientists of ...

  1. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  2. Using the analytical hierarchy process to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Law of Comparative Judgement (LCJ) are pairwise comparison methods. A large number of observers need to perform an LCJ evaluation in order to get accurate results. LCJ also does not provide an absolute...

  3. The problem of using hierarchy for implementing organisational innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Harbers, Clementine; Harbers, C.C.E.; Kruiswijk, M.; Kruiswijk, Martine; Rijnders, Sander; Boer, Harm

    2003-01-01

    Neither science nor practice seems to regard the implementation of a continuous improvement (CI) programme as a problematic organisational innovation. Many organisations do not regard CI implementation as a major change and tend to use their existing hierarchy to organise and manage the process.

  4. The mouse that roared : neural mechanisms of social hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fei; Kessels, Helmut W; Hu, Hailan

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical social status greatly influences behavior and health. Human and animal studies have begun to identify the brain regions that are activated during the formation of social hierarchies. They point towards the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a central regulator, with brain areas upstream of the

  5. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  6. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces. RANA BARUA and ASHOK MAITRA. ∗. Stat-Math Division, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108, India. ∗School of Statistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. E-mail: rana@isical.ac.in; maitra@stat.umn.edu. MS received 22 August 2005; revised 28 ...

  7. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur

  8. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  9. Dual-Hierarchy Graph Method for Object Indexing and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    INDEXING AND RECOGNITION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-C-0117 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62305E 6. AUTHOR(S) Isaac Weiss, Fan...hierarchies. We then adjust the position and orientation of the node by minimizing its total energy using a simple one-step Newton method. Next we adjust

  10. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an "alternative school" in an urban school system for students having trouble in the regular secondary setting. The program was based upon "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and is described in detail. The initial assessment of the program produced very positive results.

  11. Teacher Leadership vs. School Management: Flatten the Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Monica

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the hierarchical chain of command in schools. Describes a three-year program to help urban schoolteachers bring about school improvement. Notes that state-mandated tests can result in increasing powerlessness among teachers. Argues that unless the present hierarchies are flattened, the best and brightest will be discouraged from entering…

  12. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and ... ABHIJIT BANERJEE. Regular Volume 88 Issue 1 January 2017 Article ID 1 ... Abstract. In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the ...

  13. Calculated hierarchy model of the process of metals dynamic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosheleva E.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are considered dynamic properties of dissipative structures that make it possible to get time dependence of cascade accumulation of failure centers at different stages of failure process. There is presented a hierarchy model of dynamic failure based on wide experimental materials, mathematical formalism of percolation theory, fractal geometry.

  14. Approaches to the Validation of Learning Hierarchies. Preprint 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Wang, Margaret C.

    The authors describe a program of research in the application of scalogram analysis to the validation of learning hierarchies, together with the development of an alternative method for assessing hierarchical relationships among tests of instructional objectives. The relationship between scalability of tests and positive transfer between…

  15. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale.

  16. Orbifold melting crystal models and reductions of Toda hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2015-05-01

    Orbifold generalizations of the ordinary and modified melting crystal models are introduced. They are labelled by a pair a,b of positive integers, and geometrically related to {{{Z}}a}× {{{Z}}b} orbifolds of local {C}{{{P}}1} geometry of the {O}(0)\\oplus {O}(-2) and {O}(-1)\\oplus {O}(-1) types. The partition functions have a fermionic expression in terms of charged free fermions. With the aid of shift symmetries in a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, one can convert these partition functions to tau functions of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The powers {{L}a},{{\\bar{L}}-b} of the associated Lax operators turn out to take a special factorized form that defines a reduction of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The reduced integrable hierarchy for the orbifold version of the ordinary melting crystal model is the bi-graded Toda hierarchy of bi-degree (a,b). That of the orbifold version of the modified melting crystal model is the rational reduction of bi-degree (a,b). This result seems to be in accord with recent work of Brini et al on a mirror description of the genus-zero Gromov-Witten theory on a {{{Z}}a}× {{{Z}}b} orbifold of the resolved conifold.

  17. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  18. Who Are Teachers? A Study of Identity Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ferat; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to create a hierarchy of identities for teachers' perceptions of the self. The research carried out as a survey study was conducted in Diyarbakir, a province in Turkey, with a study group of 261 teachers. This study employs a tool of data collection making it possible to present the six types of identities--namely, professional…

  19. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter ? Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the hierarchy problem. SUSY enlarges the space-time symmetry of physical laws, by connecting the realms of particles and fields. It predicts a variety of new species of particles at the energy scale around 1 TeV - waiting to be discovered at the LHC.

  20. Can nonstandard interactions jeopardize the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, K. N.; Goswami, Srubabati; Nath, Newton

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of nonstandard interactions (NSIs) on the propagation of neutrinos through the Earth's matter and how it affects the hierarchy sensitivity of the DUNE experiment. We emphasize the special case when the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e=-1 , nullifying the standard matter effect. We show that if, in addition, C P violation is maximal then this gives rise to an exact intrinsic hierarchy degeneracy in the appearance channel, irrespective of the baseline and energy. Introduction of the off diagonal NSI parameter, ɛe τ, shifts the position of this degeneracy to a different ɛe e. Moreover the unknown magnitude and phases of the off diagonal NSI parameters can give rise to additional degeneracies. Overall, given the current model independent limits on NSI parameters, the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE can get seriously impacted. However, a more precise knowledge of the NSI parameters, especially ɛe e, can give rise to an improved sensitivity. Alternatively, if a NSI exists in nature, and still DUNE shows hierarchy sensitivity, certain ranges of the NSI parameters can be excluded. Additionally, we briefly discuss the implications of ɛe e=-1 (in the Earth) on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the Sun.

  1. Sex-Specific Mechanism of Social Hierarchy in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Berg; S. Lamballais (Sander); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe establishment of social hierarchies is a naturally occurring, evolutionarily conserved phenomenon with a well-established impact on fitness and health. Investigations of complex social group dynamics may offer novel opportunities for translational studies of autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  3. Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-10-05

    In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.

  4. Maslow's Need Hierarchy and the Adjustment of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the need hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow is used to describe stages in the adjustment process of new immigrants. This notion is developed and applied to interpreting some longitudinal data on the changing needs of immigrants to Israel during the first two years after their arrival. (Author/GC)

  5. The origins of governments: from anarchy to hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.; Weisdorf, J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze development trajectories of early civilizations where population size and technology are endogenous, and derive conditions under which such societies optimally ‘switch’ from anarchy to hierarchy – when it is optimal to elect and support a ruler. The ruler provides an efficient level of

  6. Brazilian adolescents' knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: A school-based internet inquiry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Ellen; Heumann, Silke; Araujo, Ana; Adesse, Leila; Halpern, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    ...: We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged...

  7. Peer Influence, Peer Selection and Adolescent Alcohol Use: a Simulation Study Using a Dynamic Network Model of Friendship Ties and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2017-05-01

    While studies suggest that peer influence can in some cases encourage adolescent substance use, recent work demonstrates that peer influence may be on average protective for cigarette smoking, raising questions about whether this effect occurs for other substance use behaviors. Herein, we focus on adolescent drinking, which may follow different social dynamics than smoking. We use a data-calibrated Stochastic Actor-Based (SAB) Model of adolescent friendship tie choice and drinking behavior to explore the impact of manipulating the size of peer influence and selection effects on drinking in two school-based networks. We first fit a SAB Model to data on friendship tie choice and adolescent drinking behavior within two large schools (n = 2178 and n = 976) over three time points using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We then alter the size of the peer influence and selection parameters with all other effects fixed at their estimated values and simulate the social systems forward 1000 times under varying conditions. Whereas peer selection appears to contribute to drinking behavior similarity among adolescents, there is no evidence that it leads to higher levels of drinking at the school level. A stronger peer influence effect lowers the overall level of drinking in both schools. There are many similarities in the patterning of findings between this study of drinking and previous work on smoking, suggesting that peer influence and selection may function similarly with respect to these substances.

  8. A hybrid fuzzy stochastic analytical hierarchy process (FSAHP) approach for evaluating ballast water treatment technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Peng, Hongxuan

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents a novel hybrid fuzzy stochastic analytical hierarchy process (FSAHP) approach to aid decision making by incorporating fuzzy and stochastic uncertainty into the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP...

  9. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  10. School-based secondary prevention programmes for preventing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, J; DiGuiseppi, C; Gough, D; Taylor, R; Logan, S

    2006-07-19

    Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of different interventions for children exhibiting aggressive behaviour. To examine the effect of school based violence prevention programmes for children identified as aggressive or at risk of being aggressive. We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, other specialised databases and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and organisations to identify any further studies. We included trials meeting the following criteria; 1) participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups; 2) outcome data were collected concurrently; 3) participants comprised children in mandatory education identified as exhibiting, or at risk of, aggressive behaviour; 4) interventions designed to reduce aggression, violence, bullying, conflict or anger; 5) school based interventions; 6) outcomes included aggressive behaviour, school and agency responses to acts of aggression, or violent injuries. Data were collected on design, participants, interventions, outcomes and indicators of study quality. Results of any intervention to no intervention were compared immediately post-intervention and at 12 months using meta-analysis where appropriate. Of 56 trials identified, none reported data on violent injuries. Aggressive behaviour was significantly reduced in intervention groups compared to no intervention groups immediately post intervention in 34 trials with data, (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.26). This effect was maintained in the seven studies reporting 12 month follow-up (SMD = -0.40, (95% CI -0.73 to -0.06)). School or agency disciplinary actions in response to aggressive behaviour were reduced in intervention groups for nine trials

  11. Commitment and Compatibility: Teachers' Perspectives on the Implementation of an Effective School-Based, Peer-Led Smoking Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Campbell, Rona

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although current UK policy argues that schools have a key role in raising health standards, emphasis on the core curriculum restricts teachers' opportunities to undertake health promotion activities. The challenge is to design effective health promotion interventions that minimize pressures on teaching staff and curriculum space. Here…

  12. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  13. Storied experiences of school-based habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne C.

    The purpose of this study has been to consider the eco-pedagogical promise of school-based habitat restoration. How does the practice of restoration foster a lived sense of being in a more-than-human world1 while inviting alternative approaches to teaching and learning? What opportunities does it offer to resist the societal forces and patterns, reinforced through the school system, which are eroding and effacing human relationships with other life? A literature review sets the broader context for an in-depth exploration of the experiences and understandings of participants (students, teachers, parents) involved in a case study. I proceeded with my research on the assumption that both the discursive and non-discursive dimensions of habitat restoration were key to appreciating its eco-pedagogical potential. Through participant observation over a ten month period, interviewing and a survey, I listened to some of the ways that habitat restoration challenged the typically disembodied, decontextualized organization of schooling by privileging hands-on involvement and encouraging attentive, caring relationships within the human and natural communities of which students were a part. I investigated particular storylines and metaphors which encoded and supported participants' endeavours, especially with regard to their potential to disrupt human-centered values and beliefs. This study suggests that the promise of habitat restoration lies in the openings created to attune to and interact with human and nonhuman others in fully embodied, locally situated and personally meaningful ways. Participants overwhelmingly attested to the importance of the experience of restoration which many deemed to be memorable and motivating and to provide fertile ground for future engagements in/for nature and society. As participants attended to the nuances and complexities of their interactions with a specific place and its inhabitants, their intimate involvement added a depth of feeling and

  14. Associations Between Peer Harassment and School Risk and Protection Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2017-11-01

    Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and students' bullying involvement. Data came from 505 schools and 122,106 students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. School-level risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics were included in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify profiles of schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess associations between school profiles and peer harassment. Six qualitatively different school profiles were identified. Unadjusted models showed that schools with higher levels of risk had greater odds of peer harassment. However, after controlling for student-level risk and protection, regardless of school-level risk, students in metro-area schools with a more diverse student body reported lower odds of bullying involvement. These findings highlight the importance of the social environment into peer harassment. In addition to addressing student-level risk and protection, larger community factors and norms also need to be taken into account for developing, selecting, and implementing the most effective approaches to bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  15. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-09-21

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  16. Systematic review of universal school-based 'resilience' interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Nepal, Smriti; Dray, Julia; Kingsland, Melanie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John

    2017-07-01

    Universal school-based interventions that address adolescent 'resilience' may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, however previous systematic reviews have not examined the effectiveness of such an intervention approach. A systematic review was undertaken to 1) assess whether universal school-based 'resilience' interventions are effective in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use by adolescents, and 2) describe such effectiveness per intervention characteristic subgroups. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed reports (1994-2015) of randomised controlled trials including participants aged 5-18years that reported adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use, and implemented a universal school-based 'resilience' intervention (i.e. those addressing both individual (e.g. self-esteem) and environmental (e.g. school connectedness) protective factors of resilience). Trial effects for binary outcomes were synthesised via meta-analyses and effect sizes reported as odds ratios. Subgroup (by intervention type, prevention approach, setting, intervention duration, follow-up length) and sensitivity analyses (excluding studies at high risk of bias) were conducted. Nineteen eligible studies were identified from 16,619 records (tobacco: n=15, alcohol: n=17, illicit: n=11). An overall intervention effect was found for binary measures of illicit substance use (n=10; OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.6-0.93, p=0.007,Tau2=0.0, I2=0%), but not tobacco or alcohol use. A similar result was found when studies assessed as high risk of bias were excluded. Overall intervention effects were evident for illicit substance use within multiple intervention characteristic subgroups, but not tobacco and alcohol. Such results support the implementation of universal school-based interventions that address 'resilience' protective factors to reduce adolescent illicit substance use, however suggest alternate approaches are required for tobacco and alcohol use

  17. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  18. A Reference Model for Semantic Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlood-Yunis, Abdul-Rahman; Weiss, Michael; Santoro, Nicola

    Today’s information systems are highly networked and need to operate in a global world. With this comes the problem of semantic heterogeneity of information representations. Semantic peer-to- peer networks have been proposed as a solution to this problem. They are based around two components: a peer-to-peer infrastructure for information exchange between information system, and the use of ontologies to define application semantics. However, progress in this area is hampered by a lack of commonality between these approaches, which makes their comparison and translation into practical implementations difficult. In this paper, we describe a reference model for semantic peer-to-peer networks in an effort to remedy this problem. The reference model will (1) enable the establishment of a common terminology for describing semantic peer-to-peer networks, and (2) pave the way for an emerging standardized API that will promote information system interoperability.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Data Mining, Privacy Issues, and Games

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increasing popularity in many distributed applications such as file-sharing, network storage, web caching, sear- ching and...

  20. The mediatization of peer-to-peer health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    This case study analyses the media as an arena in which media logics engage with health logics from other institutional arenas; municipal peer-to-peer health care and politics of risk. The article will draw on empirical data, comprising journalistic and PR content as well as participant observati...... as an enterprise characterised by cooperative in risk citizens and framed by a promotional media logic.......This case study analyses the media as an arena in which media logics engage with health logics from other institutional arenas; municipal peer-to-peer health care and politics of risk. The article will draw on empirical data, comprising journalistic and PR content as well as participant...... observations and qualitative interviews from a peer-to-peer programme for men in Copenhagen. The article analyses the tensions that occurred in the media coverage of the programme as well as in the municipal facilitation and management of the peer-to-peer health care programme defined partly...

  1. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-03-14

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  2. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  3. Youth Voice in Nigerian School-based Management Committees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashiru Bako Umar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, School-Based Management Committees (SBMCs aim to provide an opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable groups in the school’s host communities such as young people and women to partake in school governance. Research on the experiences of youth voice in the committees is scant, however, as much of the existing literature on SBMCs focuses on program outcomes. Using qualitative research interviews, observations, and document analysis, this study addressed this gap by exploring how youth participate and express themselves in two SBMCs in Niger State, Nigeria. The findings, which were derived from 19 youth and adult participants, were drawn from SBMC members out of which 12 were youth between the ages 13 and 25, while 7 were adults aged 40 and above. The participants revealed that youth committee members expressed their voice in the committees through participating in a number of committee activities. Specifically, the youth participated in decision-making during meetings, aided in the construction of committee projects, undertook administrative/managerial functions and monitored the committee’s projects. They also participated in revenue generation, planning, school visits and supervision, advocacy, and sensitization campaigns.

  4. Data sharing to inform school-based asthma services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G; Nelson, Elissa B

    2013-12-01

    This article examines results and lessons learned from a collaborative project involving a large urban school district, its county health department, multiple community partners, and the local university to establish an effective system for data sharing to inform monitoring and evaluation of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools (CMS) Asthma Education Program (AEP). Databases maintained by nurses, program staff, and school personnel were integrated into a single AEP Evaluation Database. There were a number of positive findings, including evidence that students with an elevated level of need received priority from AEP. A series of dependent group t tests analyzing changes across time in students' grade-point averages and absences, as well as their implications, also demonstrated some improvements. Additional outcome analyses for the 296 students who received case management services demonstrated further program benefits in the areas of attendance, academic performance, behavior, and quality of life. Enhancing the ability of school-based programs to merge data across project partners will facilitate efforts not only to evaluate services but also to demonstrate program impact on a wide variety of health and academic outcomes for students. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  5. Evaluating the Sustainability of School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.

  6. Open Hypermedia in a Peer-to-Peer Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia.......This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia....

  7. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  8. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  9. Comprehensive and Systematic School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs: A Checklist for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Patrick B.; Kush, Francis

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature germane to school-based suicide programs and identifies components that are descriptive of comprehensive and systematic school-based suicide programs. Uses literature review to devise checklist to enable school counselors to compare their programs with current views of prevention of teenage suicide. Checklist is appended and…

  10. Service Use by At-Risk Youths after School-Based Suicide Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…

  11. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  12. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  13. A mobile school-based HCT service – is it youth friendly?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... to a health facility for further management. Testing at each school usually lasts a number of days, depending on the student numbers at the school, and the demand for HCT.1. Little has been published about this school-based model of HCT provision. A mobile school-based service in Uganda run by the.

  14. Voice Disorder Management Competencies: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Amy F.; DeVeney, Shari L.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to determine the self-perceived competence levels in voice disorders of practicing school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and identify correlated variables. Method: Participants were 153 master's level, school-based SLPs with a Nebraska teaching certificate and/or licensure who completed a survey,…

  15. Improving The Quality of Education through School-Based Management: Learning from International Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grauwe, Anton

    2005-01-01

    School-based management is being increasingly advocated as a shortcut to more efficient management and quality improvement in education. Research, however, has been unable to prove conclusively such a linkage. Especially in developing countries, concerns remain about the possible detrimental impact of school-based management on school quality;…

  16. School Based Management: A Concept of Modest Entitivity with Modest Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of school-based management (SBM), often also called whole school reform. The paper is in four sections: (1) A description and discussion of what is meant by school-based management; (2) a review of the literature about its implementation; (3) a review of its effects on students; and (4) some general conclusions.…

  17. School-Based Management: Views from Public and Private Elementary School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca-Tucker, Mary T.; Slate, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to determine the extent to which school-based management was reported as having been implemented differently by public and private elementary school principals. Findings based on 866 principals show that public school principals have implemented school-based management to a…

  18. Integrating School-Based and Therapeutic Conflict Management Models at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Explores the possibility of integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models, comparing two management models: a school-based conflict management program, "Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers"; and a therapeutic conflict management program, "Life Space Crisis Intervention." The paper concludes that integration might be possible…

  19. Leadership in School-Based Management: A Case Study in Selected Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Nico

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature on school-based management, there are two clear schools of thought on this issue. One school views school-based management as a positive and successful vehicle of school improvement. The other argues that it has been minimally successful in school improvement. The leadership role of the school principal is widely…

  20. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  1. Integrated School-Based Teacher Education: From Apprenticeship to a Complex Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steve; Ting, Hermia

    2017-01-01

    This article differentiates approaches to school-based teacher education. It contrasts the pervasive apprenticeship model, to a "naturally integrated" school-based teacher education program that we describe as a complex learning system. Rather than view teacher education as fragmented by separating educational theory (physically based on…

  2. Constructing the Ideal Muslim Sexual Subject: Problematics of School-Based Sex Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…

  3. School-Based Group Counseling for Children of Divorce: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauman, Beth E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on school-based group counseling for children of divorce, focusing on support for school-based group intervention, consideration of developmental factors, involvement of parents and teachers, attending to positive aspects, and specific approaches and techniques. Looks at bibliotherapy, media use, board games, and other…

  4. School-based interventions on physical inactivity as a risk factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School -based health education programmes are important in focussing on risk factors for chronic disease of lifestyle (CDL) among young people. The school as a setting can be used to assist learners to make informed decisions regarding health risk behaviours. In this article, research relating to school based interventions ...

  5. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  6. Utilization of Mental Health Services in School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Ranbir M.; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background: We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Methods: Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were…

  7. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma…

  8. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the "National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation…

  9. Effects of Gifted Peers Tutoring Struggling Reading Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a peer tutoring program that used a Direct Instruction (DI) reading curriculum. Students identified as gifted and talented delivered instruction, using the DI reading program, to their struggling reading peers. The students used a cross-skill peer tutoring instructional format. The results indicated that all of…

  10. Measurement study of peer-to-peer file sharing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroiu, Stefan; Gummadi, P. Krishna; Gribble, Steven D.

    2001-12-01

    The popularity of peer-to-peer multimedia file sharing applications such as Gnutella and Napster has created a flurry of recent research activity into peer-to-peer architectures. We believe that the proper evaluation of a peer-to-peer system must take into account the characteristics of the peers that choose to participate. Surprisingly, however, few of the peer-to-peer architectures currently being developed are evaluated with respect to such considerations. In this paper, we remedy this situation by performing a detailed measurement study of the two popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, namely Napster and Gnutella. In particular, our measurement study seeks to precisely characterize the population of end-user hosts that participate in these two systems. This characterization includes the bottleneck bandwidths between these hosts and the Internet at large, IP-level latencies to send packets to these hosts, how often hosts connect and disconnect from the system, how many files hosts share and download, the degree of cooperation between the hosts, and several correlations between these characteristics. Our measurements show that there is significant heterogeneity and lack of cooperation across peers participating in these systems.

  11. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  13. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  14. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  15. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  16. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...

  17. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you don't realize it, just by spending time with you. You learn from them, and they learn from you. It's only human nature to listen to and learn from other people in your age group. Peers can have a positive influence on each other. Maybe another student in your science class taught you an easy ...

  18. Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric') variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

  19. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process for Ecological Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radionovs Andrejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being able to evaluate risks is an important task in many areas of human activity: economics, ecology, etc. Usually, environmental risk assessment is carried out on the basis of multiple and sometimes conflicting factors. Using multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methodology is one of the possible ways to solve the problem. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP is one of the most commonly used MCDM methods, which combines subjective and personal preferences in the risk assessment process. However, the AHP involves human subjectivity, which introduces vagueness type of uncertainty and requires the use of decision making under those uncertainties. In this paper, work with uncertainty is considered using fuzzy-based techniques. The paper also analyses the ecological risk assessment towards human health in case of gaseous substance escape at a chemical factory using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process.

  20. Why we live in hierarchies? a quantitative treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Zafeiris, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically interprets and documents new, unifying principles and basic laws describing the most relevant aspects of hierarchy. To do so, it discusses recent experiments and models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the observations, and develops concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many organisms. The book covers systems ranging from flocks of birds to groups of people.   Although it focuses on hierarchical collective behavior in general, two aspects pop up in the majority of cases: collective motion and dynamically changing, partially directed networks (and the natural relation between the two). In addition, it offers a brief description of the most relevant definitions and concepts involved in the context of hierarchies, presenting both a review of the current literature and a number of new experimental and computational results in more detail. It is a valuable resource for students and scholars pursuing research on the structure of in...

  1. Hierarchies of loss: a critique of disenfranchised grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Patricia; Walter, Tony

    Two aspects of the concept of disenfranchised grief are examined: its binary assumption that grief is either enfranchised or disenfranchised; and its emancipatory agenda that grief should not be socially regulated. Focusing on the mourner's relationship to the deceased, we argue that social norms about the legitimacy of bereavement are not binary (yes-no), but are scalar or hierarchical, or even more complex still. We report on a tool for identifying hierarchies of loss, and describe the hierarchy identified by this tool in one British study. If norms about loss are not binary but hierarchical, how has disenfranchised grief--which claims to be a theory of norms--become an uncontested concept within bereavement research and clinical practice? We point to its rhetorical value in the postmodern politics of grief and its seductive emancipatory symbolism within the clinic; its value both for clinical practice and for empirical research into bereavement norms, however, may be limited.

  2. Family gauge bosons with an inverted mass hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, Yoshio, E-mail: koide@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); MISC, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamashita, Toshifumi, E-mail: tyamashi@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [MISC, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2012-05-23

    A model that gives family gauge bosons with an inverted mass hierarchy is proposed, stimulated by Sumino's cancellation mechanism for the QED radiative correction to the charged lepton masses. The Sumino mechanism cannot straightforwardly be applied to SUSY models because of the nonrenormalization theorem. In this Letter, an alternative model which is applicable to a SUSY model is proposed. It is essential that family gauge boson masses m(A{sub i}{sup j}) in this model is given by an inverted mass hierarchy m(A{sub i}{sup i}){proportional_to}1/{radical}(m{sub ei}), in contrast to m(A{sub i}{sup i}){proportional_to}{radical}(m{sub ei}) in the original Sumino model. Phenomenological meaning of the model is also investigated. In particular, we notice a deviation from the e-{mu} universality in the tau decays.

  3. The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andino, Óscar Lasso; Ortín, Tomás [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera, 13-15, C.University Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-18

    We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.

  4. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  5. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  6. Bibliometric Evidence for a Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences, first formulated in the 19(th century, predicts that, moving from simple and general phenomena (e.g. particle dynamics to complex and particular (e.g. human behaviour, researchers lose ability to reach theoretical and methodological consensus. This hypothesis places each field of research along a continuum of complexity and "softness", with profound implications for our understanding of scientific knowledge. Today, however, the idea is still unproven and philosophically overlooked, too often confused with simplistic dichotomies that contrast natural and social sciences, or science and the humanities. Empirical tests of the hypothesis have usually compared few fields and this, combined with other limitations, makes their results contradictory and inconclusive. We verified whether discipline characteristics reflect a hierarchy, a dichotomy or neither, by sampling nearly 29,000 papers published contemporaneously in 12 disciplines and measuring a set of parameters hypothesised to reflect theoretical and methodological consensus. The biological sciences had in most cases intermediate values between the physical and the social, with bio-molecular disciplines appearing harder than zoology, botany or ecology. In multivariable analyses, most of these parameters were independent predictors of the hierarchy, even when mathematics and the humanities were included. These results support a "gradualist" view of scientific knowledge, suggesting that the Hierarchy of the Sciences provides the best rational framework to understand disciplines' diversity. A deeper grasp of the relationship between subject matter's complexity and consensus could have profound implications for how we interpret, publish, popularize and administer scientific research.

  7. Combining semantics with non-standard interpreter hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramov, Sergei M.; Glück, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on results concerning the combination of non-standard semantics via interpreters. We define what a semantics combination means and identify under which conditions a combination can be realized by computer programs (robustness, safely combinable). We develop the underlying...... mathematical theory and examine the meaning of several non-standard interpreter towers. Our results suggest a technique for the implementation of a certain class of programming language dialects by composing a hierarchy of non-standard interpreters....

  8. Multiple criteria inventory classification using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin; Golam Kabir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic approach to the inventory control and classification may have a significant influence on company competitiveness. In practice, all inventories cannot be controlled with equal attention. In order to efficiently control the inventory items and to determine the suitable ordering policies for them, multi-criteria inventory classification is used. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for multiple criteria ABC inventory classification has been proposed. Fuzzy Analytic Hierar...

  9. Physical Principles of Discrete Hierarchies Formation in Protein Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshko, E. V.; Tverdislov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    A model for chiral periodicity with alternating chiral sense in hierarchies of protein and nucleic acid structures is proposed and substantiated. Regular alternation of the chirality sense is revealed in transitions from the lowest to higher levels of structural-functional organization in proteins where it is L-D-L-D. The stratification principle combines the ideas of biomacromolecules folding and molecular biological machines.

  10. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available through example • Conclusion Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Field Evaluation of Camouflage Uniforms • Problem statement: • Different patterns, different environments: which pattern is the best? • Different colours... www.csir.co.za two……..“ • Scientific method Field Evaluation of Camouflage Uniforms Current techniques: • Cumulative Probability of Detection (Sweden, WTD52) • Sliding Scales (USA) • Law of Comparative Judgment (Thurstone) • Analytic Hierarchy...

  11. Analysis of Decisions Made Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    maker and potentially influence their future decisions. v THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vi Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The Problem of...Action FMHR Field Material Handling Robot FGDO Foreign Government Defense Organizations MCDM Multi Criteria Decision Making OR Operations Research RDTE...fruitful, and entertaining. xix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xx CHAPTER 1: Introduction This thesis analyzes the use of the Analytic Hierarchy

  12. Encoding Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars with a Nonmonotonic Inheritance Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper shows how DATR, a widely used formal language for lexical knowledge representation, can be used to define an LTAG lexicon as an inheritance hierarchy with internal lexical rules. A bottom-up featural encoding is used for LTAG trees and this allows lexical rules to be implemented as covariation constraints within feature structures. Such an approach eliminates the considerable redundancy otherwise associated with an LTAG lexicon.

  13. Needs Hierarchy, Motivational Factors and Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mostofa Haque

    2010-01-01

    Every human being is driven by his/her desire to reach his/her needs, whereby the needs evolve to more ambitious needs once the most fundamental needs have been achieved. To reach more ambitious needs, accommodating socio-economic infrastructures and appropriate government support are required. Based on various surveys, this paper examines the needs hierarchy of Bangladeshi people as well as the main hindrances for not reaching higher up needs in Bangladesh. It analyzes the motivational facto...

  14. Emergent Intentionality in Perception-Action Subsumption Hierarchies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Windridge, David

    2017-01-01

    ... that subsumptive perception-action learning uniquely has the capacity to resolve these issues by a) building the perceptual hierarchy from the bottom up so as to ground all proposed representations and b) maintaining a bijective coupling between proposed percepts and projected action possibilities to ensure empirical falsifiability of these grounded representations. In doing so, we will show that such subsumptive perception-action learners intrinsically incorporate a model for how intentionality emerges ...

  15. Cost Effective Dynamic Concept Hierarchy Generation for Preserving Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Valli Kumari Vatsavayi; Sri Krishna Adusumalli

    2014-01-01

    Explosive growth of information in the Internet has raised threats for individual privacy. k-Anonymity and l-diversity are two known techniques proposed to address the threats. They use concept hierarchy tree (CHT)-based generalization/suppression. For a given attribute several CHTs can be constructed. An appropriate CHT is to be chosen for attribute anonymization to be effective. This paper discusses an on the fly approach for constructing CHT which can be used for generalization/suppression...

  16. Strings and extra dimensions: Mass hierarchies and experimental signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniadis I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its experimental implications.

  17. Gauge hierarchy problem in asymptotically safe gravity - The resurgence mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Christof; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-07-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem could find a solution within the scenario of asymptotic safety for quantum gravity. We discuss a ;resurgence mechanism; where the running dimensionless coupling responsible for the Higgs scalar mass first decreases in the ultraviolet regime and subsequently increases in the infrared regime. A gravity induced large anomalous dimension plays a crucial role for the required ;self-tuned criticality; in the ultraviolet regime beyond the Planck scale.

  18. Notes on Adolescent's Peer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    栗本, かおり; Kaori, KURIMOTO; 岩手県立大学社会福祉学部; FACULTY OF SOCIAL WELFARE IWATE PREFECTURAL UNIVERSITY

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the influence of adolescents' peer relationships on their psychosocial development. Adolescents influence on each other, though some psychosocial merit and demerit emerge in peer influence on adolescents. The merit improves adolescents' identity, self-esteem, satisfaction of life and happiness, provides support under the crisis as well. A case of the demerit can be seen as the negative peer pressure. Adolescents are willing to conform to the norm of peer...

  19. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship.

  20. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant independ......The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant...... independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free...

  1. Cortical hierarchies perform Bayesian causal inference in multisensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Tim; Noppeney, Uta

    2015-02-01

    To form a veridical percept of the environment, the brain needs to integrate sensory signals from a common source but segregate those from independent sources. Thus, perception inherently relies on solving the "causal inference problem." Behaviorally, humans solve this problem optimally as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference; yet, the underlying neural mechanisms are unexplored. Combining psychophysics, Bayesian modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and multivariate decoding in an audiovisual spatial localization task, we demonstrate that Bayesian Causal Inference is performed by a hierarchy of multisensory processes in the human brain. At the bottom of the hierarchy, in auditory and visual areas, location is represented on the basis that the two signals are generated by independent sources (= segregation). At the next stage, in posterior intraparietal sulcus, location is estimated under the assumption that the two signals are from a common source (= forced fusion). Only at the top of the hierarchy, in anterior intraparietal sulcus, the uncertainty about the causal structure of the world is taken into account and sensory signals are combined as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference. Characterizing the computational operations of signal interactions reveals the hierarchical nature of multisensory perception in human neocortex. It unravels how the brain accomplishes Bayesian Causal Inference, a statistical computation fundamental for perception and cognition. Our results demonstrate how the brain combines information in the face of uncertainty about the underlying causal structure of the world.

  2. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gracia-Lázaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.

  3. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  4. Structural Measures to Track the Evolution of SNOMED CT Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying (Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is an extensive reference terminology with an attendant amount of complexity. It has been updated continuously and revisions have been released semi-annually to meet users’ needs and to reflect the results of quality assurance (QA) activities. Two measures based on structural features are proposed to track the effects of both natural terminology growth and QA activities based on aspects of the complexity of SNOMED CT. These two measures, called the structural density measure and accumulated structural measure, are derived based on two abstraction networks, the area taxonomy and the partial-area taxonomy. The measures derive from attribute relationship distributions and various concept groupings that are associated with the abstraction networks. They are used to track the trends in the complexity of structures as SNOMED CT changes over time. The measures were calculated for consecutive releases of five SNOMED CT hierarchies, including the Specimen hierarchy. The structural density measure shows that natural growth tends to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a more complex state, whereas the accumulated structural measure shows that QA processes tend to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a less complex state. It is also observed that both the structural density and accumulated structural measures are useful tools to track the evolution of an entire SNOMED CT hierarchy and reveal internal concept migration within it. PMID:26260003

  5. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-12-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.

  6. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  7. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  8. Inspiring Students with Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandy

    2007-01-01

    Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…

  9. Peer Review in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…

  10. A school-based intervention to promote dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi C; Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Lena M; Lissner, Lauren

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 2 school-based interventions on adolescents' consumption and knowledge of fish with the hypothesis that home economics education would enhance the effect of modifications in the school canteen. The school lunch intervention (SL) focused on changes in the school canteen, and the school lunch + home economics intervention (SL + HE) in addition consisted of changes in the home economics syllabus. Pupils in the 8th grade (n = 228) from 3 schools in Göteborg, Sweden, participated (control, n = 83; SL group, n = 58; SL + HE group, n = 87). A controlled design was used in which behavior and knowledge were assessed before and after the intervention. In contrast to much previous research of this type, measurement of behavior was based primarily on direct observation as opposed to self-reported intakes. Behavior (fish consumption) was measured individually by structured observations in the school canteen 5 times (once a week) when fish was served. Nutritional knowledge was measured by means of 10 items in a questionnaire. To analyze changes in behavior, a nonparametric statistical method assessing systematic change in paired ordered categoric variables was used. At follow-up evaluation, consumption had increased significantly in the SL + HE group, a change that also differed from the control group. In addition, significant positive changes in knowledge were observed in both intervention groups, but not in controls. The results suggest that dietary change was achieved by modifying conditions in the school canteen together with changing the home economics syllabus. This study shows the importance of the school in the promotion of dietary change among adolescents.

  11. Mobile healthcare services in school-based health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, campus health problems are placing more and more pressure on school-based health centers (SBHCs). Moreover, SBHCs have insufficient resources to actively provide follow-up healthcare for students and faculty found to be overweight, chronically ill, or at high risk. In order to improve the quality of SBHC healthcare, a project was begun to enhance the efficiency of campus healthcare services by employing web-based and cell phone-based services. This project employed the Mobile Automated Medical Alert (MAMA) system, which was designed especially for campus health center use. Before implementing the MAMA system, a focus group of healthcare related staff identified areas in which SBHC healthcare services might be improved by the system and created a questionnaire to measure student and faculty response to the proposed services. Modifications to the MAMA design and service offerings were made based upon these questionnaire results. After the initial brainstorming session, the MAMA team created a survey instrument that was administered to students and faculty in order to understand their attitudes toward the proposed mobile healthcare services. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students and faculty at a private technical college in central Taiwan. Among the respondents, 100% had cellular phones and used short-text messages. Ninety-five percent of the student respondents and 85% of the faculty respondents agreed that mobile healthcare system would improve the quality of the health care their SBHC was currently providing. Based on these positive survey responses, the MAMA system was implemented. The current paper describes the process by which the MAMA team brainstormed proposed services and administered their survey. Survey results and the consequent changes to the MAMA system are discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for MAMA system use and a description is offered of the impact such systems might have on the future of college campus

  12. School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J

    2001-02-01

    Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices.

  13. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perman, Sarah; Turner, Simon; Ramsay, Angus I G; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-03-14

    Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1) focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2) considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3) were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4) had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state) or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and students, including methods for obtaining consent

  14. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Perman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. Methods We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1 focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2 considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3 were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4 had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. Results We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and

  15. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    primary outcome was self-reported or medically attended unintentional (or unspecified intent) injuries and secondary outcomes were observed safety skills, observed behaviour, self-reported behaviour and safety practices, safety knowledge, and health economic outcomes. The control groups received no intervention, a delayed injury-prevention intervention or alternative school-based curricular activities. We included studies that aimed interventions at primary or secondary prevention of injuries from more than one injury mechanism and were delivered, in part or in full, in schools catering for children aged four to 18 years. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors identified relevant trials from title and abstracts of studies identified in searches and two review authors extracted data from the included studies and assessed risk of bias. We grouped different types of interventions according to the outcome assessed and the injury mechanism targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to provide a summary of results across studies. The review included 27 studies reported in 30 articles. The studies had 73,557 participants with 12 studies from the US; four from China; two from each of Australia, Canada, the Netherlands and the UK; and one from each of Israel, Greece and Brazil. Thirteen studies were RCTs, six were non-RCTs and eight were CBAs. Of the included studies, 18 provided some element of the intervention in children aged four to 11 years, 17 studies included children aged 11 to 14 years and nine studies included children aged 14 to 18 years.The overall quality of the results was poor, with the all studies assessed as being at high or unclear risks of bias across multiple domains, and varied interventions and data collection methods employed. Interventions comprised information-giving, peer education or were multi-component.Seven studies reported the primary outcome of injury occurrence and only

  16. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  17. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  18. The Effectiveness of the Life Skills Program IPSY for the Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Use: The Mediating Role of Yielding to Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichold, Karina; Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Spaeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3…

  19. METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS: SISTEM REKOMENDER DATABASE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alam Syah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Rekomender electoral system is a database software application that can be used to look for alternative software database selection strategy, the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Rekomender systems needed by companies that have a large enough data processing such as the Bureau of Bina Sarana IT Information, expensive investments in the provision of Information Technology (IT makes IT Bina Sarana Information Bureau to be more careful in determining the selection of database software. This study focuses on research of database software selection system with the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP, a case study of IT Bureau Bina Sarana Infromatika with the observation unit administrator. The results of the study found that there are two (2 main criteria, namely the selection of technology and a user with an alternative strategy My SQL, Oracle and SQL Server. Having tested the system rekomender My SQL result that the top priority in the selection of database software with a 41% weighting, followed by SQL Server and Oracle 39% 21%. The end result of a system that has been created rekomender concluded that the Bureau of Bina Sarana Informatics IT can define strategy alternatives before determining database software to be used more effectively and efficiently. Abstrak¬¬ - Sistem rekomender pemilihan database software merupakan aplikasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mencari alternatif strategi pemilihan database software, dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Sistem rekomender dibutuhkan oleh perusahaan yang memiliki pengolahan data yang cukup besar seperti Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika, mahalnya investasi pada penyediaan Teknologi Informasi (TI membuat Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika lebih berhati-hati dalam menentukan pemilihan database software. Penelitian ini berfokus kepada penetilian tentang sistem pemilihan database sofware dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP, studi kasus Biro TI Bina Sarana

  20. Tonal hierarchies in the music of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M A; Bharucha, J J; Krumhansl, C L

    1984-09-01

    Cross-culturally, most music is tonal in the sense that one particular tone, called the tonic, provides a focus around which the other tones are organized. The specific organizational structures around the tonic show considerable diversity. Previous studies of the perceptual response to Western tonal music have shown that listeners familiar with this musical tradition have internalized a great deal about its underlying organization. Krumhansl and Shepard (1979) developed a probe tone method for quantifying the perceived hierarchy of stability of tones. When applied to Western tonal contexts, the measured hierarchies were found to be consistent with music-theoretic accounts. In the present study, the probe tone method was used to quantify the perceived hierarchy of tones of North Indian music. Indian music is tonal and has many features in common with Western music. One of the most significant differences is that the primary means of expressing tonality in Indian music is through melody, whereas in Western music it is through harmony (the use of chords). Indian music is based on a standard set of melodic forms (called rags), which are themselves built on a large set of scales (thats). The tones within a rag are thought to be organized in a hierarchy of importance. Probe tone ratings were given by Indian and Western listeners in the context of 10 North Indian rags. These ratings confirmed the predicted hierarchical ordering. Both groups of listeners gave the highest ratings to the tonic and the fifth degree of the scale. These tones are considered by Indian music theorists to be structurally significant, as they are immovable tones around which the scale system is constructed, and they are sounded continuously in the drone. Relatively high ratings were also given to the vadi tone, which is designated for each rag and is given emphasis in the melody. The ratings of both groups of listeners generally reflected the pattern of tone durations in the musical contexts. This

  1. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  2. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  3. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peer Relationships of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Predictors of Peer Entry and Peer Interaction Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one…

  5. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  6. The socialization of dominance: peer group contextual effects on homophobic and dominance attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D

    2007-06-01

    Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  8. School-based sexual violence among female learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi; Nyokangi, Doris

    2012-03-01

    Following qualitative research methodology, this article presents school-based sexual violence experiences of female learners with mild intellectual disability. A total of 16 learners aged 16 to 24 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that learners with intellectual disability are not immune to school-based sexual violence. Modes of behavior that occurred frequently included touching, threats, and intimidation. School practices that reinforced school-based sexual violence are identified. The findings contradict common misconceptions that people with intellectual disability do not understand what is happening to them. The study recommends that school policies for sexual violence be intensified and learners receive developmentally appropriate sex education.

  9. Primary school-based behavioural interventions for preventing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anna M; O'Malley, Lucy A; Elison, Sarah N; Armstrong, Rosemary; Burnside, Girvan; Adair, Pauline; Dugdill, Lindsey; Pine, Cynthia

    2013-05-31

    Dental caries is one of the most common global childhood diseases and is, for the most part, entirely preventable. Good oral health is dependent on the establishment of the key behaviours of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and controlling sugar snacking. Primary schools provide a potential setting in which these behavioural interventions can support children to develop independent and habitual healthy behaviours. To assess the clinical effects of school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children (4 to 12 year olds) for caries prevention. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 18 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 18 October 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 October 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 18 October 2012) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 October 2012). Ongoing trials were searched for using Current Controlled Trials (to 18 October 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 18 October 2012). Conference proceedings were searched for using ZETOC (1993 to 18 October 2012) and Web of Science (1990 to 18 October 2012). We searched for thesis abstracts using the Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1950 to 18 October 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Non-English language papers were included and translated in full by native speakers. Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in primary schools (children aged 4 to 12 years at baseline) were selected. Included studies had to include behavioural interventions addressing both toothbrushing and consumption of cariogenic foods or drinks and have a primary school as a focus for delivery of the intervention. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data related to methods

  10. Susceptibility to peer pressure as an explanatory variable for the differential effectiveness of an alcohol misuse prevention program in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Kloska, D D; Leech, S L; Schulenberg, J E; Shope, J T

    1992-08-01

    A school-based alcohol misuse prevention program had differential effects on students' susceptibility to peer pressure, depending on prior experience with alcohol. These effects paralleled those on alcohol use and misuse, indicating program effects on use and misuse were mediated by reductions in the rate of increase on susceptibility to peer pressure. Experimental group students with prior unsupervised use of alcohol showed a significantly greater reduction than their controls in the rate of increase in susceptibility to peer pressure, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse. This difference was not found among students without prior unsupervised use of alcohol.

  11. Sexually active adolescent women: assessing family and peer relationships using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.

  12. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  13. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.dhar@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-15

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  14. Discovering Planetary Nebula Geometries: Explorations with a Hierarchy of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Karen A.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Granquist-Fraser, Domhnull; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2004-01-01

    Astronomical objects known as planetary nebulae (PNe) consist of a shell of gas expelled by an aging medium-sized star as it makes its transition from a red giant to a white dwarf. In many cases this gas shell can be approximately described as a prolate ellipsoid. Knowledge of the physics of ionization processes in this gaseous shell enables us to construct a model in three dimensions (3D) called the Ionization-Bounded Prolate Ellipsoidal Shell model (IBPES model). Using this model we can generate synthetic nebular images, which can be used in conjunction with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of actual PNe to perform Bayesian model estimation. Since the IBPES model is characterized by thirteen parameters, model estimation requires the search of a 13-dimensional parameter space. The 'curse of dimensionality,' compounded by a computationally intense forward problem, makes forward searches extremely time-consuming and frequently causes them to become trapped in local solutions. We find that both the speed and of the search can be improved by judiciously reducing the dimensionality of the search space. Our basic approach employs a hierarchy of models of increasing complexity that converges to the IBPES model. Earlier studies establish that a hierarchical sequence converges more quickly, and to a better solution, than a search relying only on the most complex model. Here we report results for a hierarchy of five models. The first three models treat the nebula as a 2D image, while the last two models explore its characteristics as a 3D object and enable us to characterize the physics of the nebula. This five-model hierarchy is applied to HST images of ellipsoidal PNe to estimate their geometric properties and gas density profiles.

  15. A STUDY ON THE HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi

    Compared to the late 20th century, the Japanese construction industry has drastically changed its business methodology, outlook and approach in response to global issues and the incredible advances in technology. Such influences, non-exhaustively include the; WTO Government procurement agreement, updating conditions of tendering and contracting, client demands for cost reduction and the rapid penetration of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) into modern society. These days, the significance of controlling Quality, Cost and Time (the so-called QCT) has been recognized as an eternal-triangle by almost all countries, Government organizations and the private sector. However, as the construction industry is exposed to , and influenced by, more and more internal and external dynamic factors, continued reliance on managing and controlling QCT elements on their own is no longer adequate in meeting the growing demands and expectations, and as such control of additional management elements is now essential to avoid problems, or minimize their potential impacts should they occur. This paper utilizes the results of a survey carried out amongst construction managers and consultants in Japan and overseas to develop a spatial network that defines the interaction of management factors as a weighted graphical model. The calculated closeness centrality index of the developed management network model is adopted to identify the initialelement hierarchy, which is then further analyzed using the minimum distance of independent relationships of management elements (Warshall-Floyd algorism methodology), to identify the optimum potential hierarchy for effective construction management. A key result of the analysis is the significance of "Human Resource" in the construction industry management element hierarchy alongside the traditional QCT elements.

  16. Cache and memory hierarchy design a performance directed approach

    CERN Document Server

    Przybylski, Steven A

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of ca

  17. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  18. APPLICATION OF FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO BUILDING RESEARCH TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol DĄBROWSKI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  19. Lagrangian Approach to Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Choudhuri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive a Lagrangian based approach to study the compatible Hamiltonian structure of the dispersionless KdV and supersymmetric KdV hierarchies and claim that our treatment of the problem serves as a very useful supplement of the so-called r-matrix method. We suggest specific ways to construct results for conserved densities and Hamiltonian operators. The Lagrangian formulation, via Noether's theorem, provides a method to make the relation between symmetries and conserved quantities more precise. We have exploited this fact to study the variational symmetries of the dispersionless KdV equation.

  20. Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties

    CERN Document Server

    Celko, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The demand for SQL information and training continues to grow with the need for a database behind every website capable of offering web-based information queries. SQL is the de facto standard for database retrieval, and if you need to access, update, or utilize data in a modern database management system, you will need SQL to do it. The Second Edition of Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties covers two new sets of extensions over three entirely new chapters and expounds upon the changes that have occurred in SQL standards since the previous edition's public

  1. Integrable Hierarchy of the Quantum Benjamin-Ono Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Nazarov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchy of pairwise commuting Hamiltonians for the quantum periodic Benjamin-Ono equation is constructed by using the Lax matrix. The eigenvectors of these Hamiltonians are Jack symmetric functions of infinitely many variables x_1,x_2,…. This construction provides explicit expressions for the Hamiltonians in terms of the power sum symmetric functions p_n=x^n_1+x^n_2+⋯ and is based on our recent results from [Comm. Math. Phys. 324 (2013, 831-849].

  2. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W. van de Leur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981, 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]. We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense variables.

  3. Calculable mass hierarchies and a light dilaton from gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, Daniel; Piai, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, we calculate the scalar and tensor mass spectrum of the boundary theory defined by a special 8-scalar sigma-model in five dimensions, the background solutions of which include the 1-parameter family dual to the baryonic branch of the Klebanov-Strassler field theory. This provides an example of a strongly-coupled, multi-scale system that yields a parametrically light mass for one of the composite scalar particles: the dilaton. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings towards identifying a satisfactory solution to both the big and little hierarchy problems of the electro-weak theory.

  4. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R

    2009-02-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program?

  5. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of School-Based Breastfeeding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Debra B; Roberts, Katherine J; Grosskopf, Nicholas A; Basch, Corey H

    2016-02-01

    School-based interventions aimed at modifying the knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and intended future practice regarding breastfeeding may be an effective way of improving breastfeeding rates. A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to identify scientifically rigorous studies on school-based interventions and promotion activities that focus on breastfeeding. Of the 1990 citations reviewed, only 6 empirical articles on school-based interventions to promote breastfeeding were found and these interventions vary greatly in terms of format, duration, outcome measures, and significance of the results. Overall, these studies demonstrated positive effects on perceptions and attitudes toward breastfeeding and increased behavioral intention of breastfeeding later in life. School-based breastfeeding promotion programs hold promise for increasing knowledge of breastfeeding and support for breastfeeding, promoting positive attitudes, creating a culture where breastfeeding is the norm, and increasing future intentions to breastfeed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Association of aggression and non-suicidal self injury: a school-based sample of adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Jie; Ma, Ying; Guo, Yong; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Yu, Yizhen; Wang, Jiaji

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI...

  7. Rethinking School-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions In South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking School-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions In South Africa. ... Changing behaviour, even that of adolescents who are just beginning to experience and ... and preventive behaviour such as condom use is lax amongst this age group.

  8. Bringing X, Y, Z Generations Together to Facilitate School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akbari Kamrani, Mahnaz; Yahya, Sharifah Syed

    2016-01-01

    This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia...

  9. School-based health centers: cost-benefit analysis and impact on health care disparities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Jeff J; Wade, Terrance J; Pan, Wei; Keller, Kathryn N

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of school-based health centers-which provide essential health care for students by aiming to eliminate many access barriers-on health care access disparities and conducted a cost-benefit analysis...

  10. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  11. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  12. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  13. Video-Multicast in Peer-to-Peer-Netzen

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuentes, Francisco de Asís

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming is a promising solution to enable efficient video distribution over the Internet. The nodes or peers in this type of system can take the role of both a server and of a client at the same time. During video distribution each peer acts as a relay node contributing it upload capacity. This thesis focuses on a specific topic known as P2P Video Multicast within the P2P streaming area. The contribution of this thesis is to present network-adaptive t...

  14. Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs.We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996-2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools in the Canadian province of Alberta.Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada.These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs.

  15. Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Kuhle, Stefan; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs. We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI) using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996-2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools) in the Canadian province of Alberta. Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average) less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average) less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada. These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs.

  16. Effectiveness of a school-based multi-component smoking prevention intervention: the LdP cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Bosi, Sandra; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds school-based smoking prevention programme. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 989 students aged 14-15 years in 13 secondary schools located in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The intervention consisted of the "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) out-of-school workshop, one in-depth lesson on one Smoking Prevention Tour topic, a life-skills peer-led intervention, and enforcement surveillance of school antismoking policy. Self-reported past 30-day smoking of ≥ 20 or 1-19 days of cigarette smoking (daily or frequent smoking, respectively) was recorded in 2 surveys administered immediately before and 18 months after the beginning of the programme. Analysis was by intention to treat. The effect of the intervention was evaluated using random effects logistic regression and propensity score-matching analyses. Past 30-day smoking and daily cigarette use at eighteen months follow-up were 31% and 46% lower, respectively, for intervention students compared to control students. Taking into account non-smokers at baseline only, daily smoking at eighteen months follow-up was 59% lower in intervention students than in controls. Past 30-day smoking in school areas was 62% lower in intervention students compared to controls. The Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds programme was effective in reducing daily smokers and in reducing smoking in school areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bringing Wellness to Schools: Opportunities for and Challenges to Mental Health Integration in School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H

    2016-12-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce access barriers to mental health care and improve educational outcomes for youths. This qualitative study evaluated the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district as the centers attempted to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semistructured interviews with each participant were audio recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded by using Atlas.ti 5.1 and collapsed into three domains: operations, partnership, and engagement. Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both primary care and mental health services to colocated services. Sites where the health agency provided at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites used SBHC wellness coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and health agency and community mental health clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and "drop-in" lunches. Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of integrating primary care, mental health care, and education. Among the provider models observed, the combined primary care and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions to operational problems and family engagement in mental health services.

  18. P2PStudio - Monitoring, Controlling and Visualization Tool for Peer-to-Peer Networks Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kotilainen, Niko; Vapa, Mikko; Auvinen, Annemari; Weber, Matthieu; Vuori, Jarkko

    2006-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer Studio has been developed as a monitoring, controlling and visualization tool for peer-to-peer networks. It uses a centralized architecture to gather events from a peer-to-peer network and can be used to visualize network topology and to send different commands to individual peer-to-peer nodes. The tool has been used with Chedar Peer-to-Peer network to study the behavior of different peer-to-peer resource discovery and topology management algorithms and for visualizing the result...

  19. Sustained Reduction in Chlamydia Infections Following a School-Based Screening: Detroit, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunville, Richard; Peterson, Amy; Liddon, Nicole; Roach, Mary; Coleman, Kenneth; Dittus, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    We describe school-based screening events in four Detroit, Michigan public high schools. To examine trends, we analyzed Chlamydia trachomatis data from 2010 to 2015. Prevalence of C. trachomatis decreased significantly (P < .01): from 10.24% to 6.27%. Future school-based screening events may bring about similar results if the program is instituted in a high-prevalence area and can achieve high student participation.

  20. Guiding Principles for Implementing School-Based Management Programs: An Online Toolkit Providing General Principles That Can Be Applied to the Implementation of School-Based Management Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Fasih, Tazeen; Barrera, Felipe; Garcia-Moreno, Vicente A.; Bentaouet-Kattan, Raja; Baksh, Shaista; Wickramasekera, Inosha

    2007-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) has become a very popular movement over the past decade. The World Bank Education Team's SBM work program emerged out of a need to define the concept more clearly, review the evidence, support impact assessments in various countries, and provide some initial feedback to teams preparing education projects. During the…