Midford, Richard; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Snow, Pamela; Ladzinski, Ursula
This study identifies the conceptual underpinnings of effective school-based drug education practice in light of contemporary research evidence and the practical experience of a broad range of drug education stakeholders. The research involved a review of the literature, a national survey of 210 Australian teachers and others involved in drug education, and structured interviews with 22 key Australian drug education policy stakeholders. The findings from this research have been distilled and presented as a list of 16 principles that underpin effective drug education. In broad terms, drug education should be evidence-based, developmentally appropriate, sequential, and contextual. Programs should be initiated before drug use commences. Strategies should be linked to goals and should incorporate harm minimization. Teaching should be interactive and use peer leaders. The role of the classroom teacher is central. Certain program content is important, as is social and resistance skills training. Community values, the social context of use, and the nature of drug harm have to be addressed. Coverage needs to be adequate and supported by follow-up. It is envisaged that these principles will provide all those involved in the drug education field with a set of up-to-date, research-based guidelines against which to reference decisions on program design, selection, implementation, and evaluation.
Guthrie, James W.
Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…
Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
AIMS: To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and
Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália
Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…
James, Joan K.; Williams, Theresa
In this research study, we hear the voices of middle school students, preservice teachers, and practicing middle school teachers in support of school-based experiential outdoor education. The benefits of engaging youth in memorably relevant learning, immersing them in physically active, field-based education, and providing them with authentic,…
Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Pieterse, Marcel E
To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up, 363 students were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (n = 205) or usual curriculum (n = 158). Thirteen secondary SE schools spread throughout the Netherlands. Participants were recruited during the autumn of 2013 from three school subtypes: SE for adolescents with intellectual/physical disabilities (SEI; n = 13), behavioural/emotional difficulties (SEB; n = 136) and learning disabilities/developmental disorders (SEL; n = 214). Self-reported life-time smoking prevalence and life-time drinking frequency as outcomes, and school subtype (SEL/SEB) and implementation fidelity (high/low) as moderators. No significant differences were found at follow-up in life-time smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.12] and drinking frequency (d = 0.01; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.18). Interaction analyses revealed adverse effects in SEB students for alcohol use (d = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.16-0.69). Effect on tobacco refusal self-efficacy was moderated positively by implementation fidelity (d = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.07-0.63). The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests further that, within special education, substance use interventions may need to be targeted at school subtypes, as these may have harmful effects among students with behavioural difficulties. Finally, limited evidence was found that programme effectiveness may depend upon implementation fidelity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...
Roien, Line Anne; Graugaard, Christian; Simovska, Venka
pupils 6 to 12 years of age. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws upon the methodology of systematic research mapping and presents a broad overview of research on sexuality education in a school setting for pupils aged 6-16. We searched the leading bibliographic databases in the field, i...... a rare, if not the first, comprehensive overview of research on school-based sexuality education including a focus on school children 6 to 12 years of age.......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to map and discuss the overall characteristics of international research on school-based sexuality education, published in academic journals, with a particular focus on the framing of non-conservative approaches including sex education research targeting...
Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen
In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…
School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher
Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve
Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the ...
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Roien, Line Anne; Graugaard, Christian; Simovska, Venka
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map and discuss the overall characteristics of international research on school-based sexuality education, published in academic journals, with a particular focus on the framing of non-conservative approaches including sexuality education research targeting young pupils 6-12 years of age.…
Samuels, Fiona; Kivela, Jari; Chetty, Dhianaraj; Herat, Joanna; Castle, Chris; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob
Drawing on evidence from a wider study on the cost and cost-effectiveness of sexuality education programmes in six countries, and focusing on the examples of India and Nigeria, this paper argues that advocacy is a key, yet often neglected component of school-based sexuality education programmes, especially where sex and sexuality are politically…
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
Objective: Drawing on the concepts of the cosmopolitan person and democratic health education, this article explores the merits of primary school-based, cross-cultural dialogues for global health education. Design: A qualitative study of the learning outcomes of the Move/Eat/Learn (MEL) project. MEL facilitates cultural meetings, primarily…
Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar
Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…
Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman
Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
: Qualitative analysis of 18 focus group discussions with 72 Danish and 36 Kenyan students. Results: Cross-cultural dialogues promoted students’ engagement and reflections on their own and peers’ health condition, access to education, food cultures, gender and family structures. Conclusion: Findings indicate...
McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.
This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…
Nabors, Laura A; Kockritz, Jennifer L; Ludke, Robert L; Bernstein, Jonathan A
Schools are an important site for delivery of asthma education programs. Computer-based educational programs are a critical component of asthma education programs and may be a particularly important education method in busy school environments. The objective of this brief report is to review and critique computer-based education efforts in schools. The results of our literature review indicated that school-based computer education efforts are related to improved knowledge about asthma and its management. In some studies, improvements in clinical outcomes also occur. Data collection programs need to be built into games that improve knowledge. Many projects do not appear to last for periods greater than 1 year and little information is available about cultural relevance of these programs. Educational games and other programs are effective methods of delivering knowledge about asthma management and control. Research about the long-term effects of this increased knowledge, in regard to behavior change, is needed. Additionally, developing sustainable projects, which are culturally relevant, is a goal for future research.
Dr. Harmen Schaap; Dr. Liesbeth Baartman; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn
This article reviews 24 articles in order to get a structured view on student's learning processes when dealing with a combination of school-based learning and workplace learning in vocational education. It focuses on six main themes: students' expertise development, students' learning styles,
Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van
A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had
Anderson, Alicia; Spear, Caile; Pritchard, Mary; George, Kayla; Young, Kyle; Smith, Carrie
Purpose: Healthy Habits, Healthy U (HHHU) is a two-day school-based primary prevention cancer education program that uses interactive classroom presentations designed to help students learn how to reduce their cancer risks. HHHU is a collaboration between a local cancer hospital, school district and university. HHHU incorporates real cancerous and…
Drury, Darrel; Levin, Douglas
School-based management is a reinvention and countermovement to a broader historical trend to centralize and standardize American education. The present study represents one component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's project to investigate how schools in 12 member nations can most effectively respond to recent…
Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…
Pérez-Rodrigo , C; Aranceta , J
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices.
Elia, John P.; Eliason, Mickey J.
To gain an understanding of how abstinence-only-until-marriage school-based sexuality education has been exclusionary, it is important to explore how heteronormativity has been endorsed, played out, and reproduced ever since school-based sexuality education has been offered in the United States. Such an exploration reveals glaring evidence that…
Grauwe, Anton De
School-based management is being increasingly advocated as a shortcut to more efficient management and quality improvement in education. Research, however, has been unable to prove conclusively such a linkage. Especially in developing countries, concerns remain about the possible detrimental impact of school-based management on school quality; equity among different schools in the same system; the motivation of and relationships between principals and teachers; and financial as well as administrative transparency. The present study defines school-based management and, in view of its implementation in different world regions, examines some of its advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the author explores the strategies which must accompany school-based management in order to ensure a positive impact on quality. These are found to include (1) guaranteeing that all schools have certain basic resources; (2) developing an effective school-support system; (3) providing schools with regular information on their performance and advice on how they might improve; and (4) emphasizing the motivational element in the management work of the school principal.
In-Iw, Supinya; Saetae, Tridsanun; Manaboriboon, Boonying
The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutri...
School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.
Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.
This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,
Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore
Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale
To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.
Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.
Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:
Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole
Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.
Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio
This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction.
Van Kirk Villalobos, Aubrey; Quintana, Yuri; Ribeiro, Raul C
In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital created Cure4Kids for Kids, a school-based outreach program. The objectives of this community education program are to teach about cancer and healthy lifestyles and to inspire an interest in science and health-related careers. A multidisciplinary team of St. Jude and outside experts developed and pilot tested age-appropriate educational materials and activities with 4th grade students. Eight schools and more than 800 children have participated in the program since 2006. Teachers and students have demonstrated a very positive response to the program for it being both fun and educational. Cure4Kids for Kids resources have been collected into a teacher's kit and are now freely available online at www.cure4kids.org/kids.
Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B
In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Kickin' Asthma, a school-based asthma curriculum designed by health educators and local students, which teaches asthma physiology and asthma self-management techniques to middle and high school students in Oakland, CA. Eligible students were identified through an in-class asthma case identification survey. Approximately 10-15 students identified as asthmatic were recruited for each series of the Kickin' Asthma intervention. The curriculum was delivered by an asthma nurse in a series of four 50-minute sessions. Students completed a baseline and a 3-month follow-up survey that compared symptom frequency, health care utilization, activity limitations, and medication use. Of the 8488 students surveyed during the first 3 years of the intervention (2003-2006), 15.4% (n = 1309) were identified as asthmatic; approximately 76% of eligible students (n = 990) from 15 middle schools and 3 high schools participated in the program. Comparison of baseline to follow-up data indicated that students experienced significantly fewer days with activity limitations and significantly fewer nights of sleep disturbance after participation in the intervention. For health care utilization, students reported significantly less frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations between the baseline and follow-up surveys. A school-based asthma curriculum designed specifically for urban students has been shown to reduce symptoms, activity limitations, and health care utilization for intervention participants.
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.
Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Slaby, Ronald G; Rich, Michael
While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U.S. middle school received the TtC program, while a similar school in the same district served as the comparison group. Health-related and academic measures were collected from students and teachers at both schools before and after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was student-reported electronic media use (television, video games, Internet). Secondary measures included student health behaviors (student-reported sleep, exercise, and outdoor play) and academic activities (teacher-reported homework and classroom performance). Compared to the comparison group, students receiving TtC slept more and reduced television viewing, background television time, after-school video gaming, and weekend Internet use. Teachers reported increases in the extent to which TtC students completed homework assignments and stayed on task in the classroom. Well-designed school-based programs such as TtC can reduce electronic media use among middle-school children and improve related health and academic outcomes.
Conrado, Carlos Alberto; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Oliveira, Márcia Regina
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of a school-based oral health educational strategy adopted in public primary schools from the city of Maringa, State of Parana, Brazil. The study sample was composed by 556 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, 124 schoolteachers and a group of 55 mothers. The educational approach was implemented for 18 months and consisted of reinforcements of interventions addressed to students and schoolteachers at school level and few activities targeted at the mothers, performed by means of home visits. Baseline and follow-up interviews focused on oral health care were undertaken for the entire study population. As a stimulus for the students to achieve proper oral hygiene habits, the simplified oral hygiene index was assessed at three different moments. A statistically significant improvement in their oral hygiene index (pstudied. They also point out the need of intensifying the preparation of schoolteachers in oral health topics, as well the instructions to the mothers for their oral health care. Moreover, they highlight the importance of the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.
Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.
Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287
This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…
Wells, Trent; Matthews, Jennifer; Caudle, Lawrence; Lunceford, Casey; Clement, Brian; Anderson, Ryan
Demands for increases in student achievement have led education professionals to incorporate various and rigorous teaching strategies into classrooms across the United States. Within school-based agricultural education (SBAE), agriculture teachers have responded to these challenges quite well. SBAE incorporates a wide variety of teaching and…
Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris
To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…
Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Johnson, Megan; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Galván, Adriana
Background: Many school-based abstinence-only sex education curricula state that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological effects. Recent advances in neuroscience have expanded our understanding of the neural underpinnings of romantic love, marriage, sexual desire, and sexual behavior and improved our…
Easterly, R.G., III.; Myers, Brian E.
Desimone's core features of professional development (PD) guides the PD for teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the PD practice of School-Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers in the enthusiastic and growing career stage. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with five teachers from five different states. The…
Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob
Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…
Amaugo, Lucky Gospel; Papadopoulos, Chris; Ochieng, Bertha M. N.; Ali, Nasreen
HIV/AIDS is one of the most important public health challenges facing Nigeria today. Recent evidence has revealed that the adolescent population make up a large proportion of the 3.7% reported prevalence rate among Nigerians aged 15-49 years. School-based sexual health education has therefore become an important tool towards fighting this problem.…
Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The
Chung, Ka-Fai; Chan, Man-Sum; Lam, Ying-Yin; Lai, Cindy Sin-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai
Insufficient sleep among students is a major school health problem. School-based sleep education programs tailored to reach large number of students may be one of the solutions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the programs' effectiveness and current status. Electronic databases were searched up until May 2015. Randomized controlled trials of school-based sleep intervention among 10- to 19-year-old students with outcome on total sleep duration were included. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane's risk of bias assessment. Seven studies were included, involving 1876 students receiving sleep education programs and 2483 attending classes-as-usual. Four weekly 50-minute sleep education classes were most commonly provided. Methodological quality was only moderate, with a high or an uncertain risk of bias in several domains. Compared to classes-as-usual, sleep education programs produced significantly longer weekday and weekend total sleep time and better mood among students at immediate post-treatment, but the improvements were not maintained at follow-up. Limited by the small number of studies and methodological limitations, the preliminary data showed that school-based sleep education programs produced short-term benefits. Future studies should explore integrating sleep education with delayed school start time or other more effective approaches. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds
Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.
In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…
Cotts, T B; Goldberg, C S; Palma Davis, L M; Durussel-Weston, J E; Aaronson, S M; Lin, K; Eagle, K A
This prospective study aimed to measure the impact of a school-based multidisciplinary education program on risk factors for atherosclerosis in sixth-grade students. A prospective study was performed in which patients served as their own controls. Healthy sixth-grade students from three middle schools in a city of approximately 100,000 were exposed to an educational program promoting healthful habits through behavioral and environmental change. Risk factors including body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cholesterol panel, and random blood glucose were measured before program initiation, then 5 months afterward. Of 711 sixth-graders at three middle schools, 287 (47% boys; mean age, 11.5 +/- 0.37 years) consented to participate in the study. The mean total cholesterol value decreased from 169 +/- 26 to 154 +/- 26 mg/dl (p value decreased from 86 +/- 25 to 84 +/- 23 mg/dl (p = 0.01), and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value decreased from 56 +/- 13 to 50 +/- 13 mg/dl (p value decreased from 96 +/- 13 to 93 +/- 15 mm/dl (p = 0.01). The mean SBP did not change, showing 109 +/- 12.5 mmHg before the program and 108 +/- 11.5 mmHg afterward. The DBP decreased from 63.6 +/- 8.6 to 62.3 +/- 7.8 mmHg (p = 0.01). The Project Healthy Schools program is feasible and appears to be effective. The results showed significant improvement in risk factors for early atherosclerosis among sixth-grade students including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, random glucose levels, and diastolic blood pressure. Further study with a larger group and a longer follow-up period would be valuable.
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Perry, Cheryl L
Peer education has become a popular strategy for health promotion interventions with adolescents, but it has not been used widely in school-based nutrition education. This paper describes and reports on the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable intakes and lower fat foods. About 1,000 seventh-grade students in eight schools received the nutrition intervention. Of these, 272 were trained as peer leaders to assist the teacher in implementing the activities. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation based on peer leader and classroom student feedback, direct classroom observation, and teacher ratings and interviews are presented. Results show that peer-led nutrition education approaches in schools are feasible and have high acceptability among peer leaders, classroom students, and teachers.
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…
Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Martin, Christopher James
This article analyses changes that have occurred in the elementary education system in Mexico since 1992 when an administrative de-concentration process took place. This process was accompanied by legal modifications that created opportunities for social participation in public elementary schools affairs. As a result, some school communities in…
Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan
The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....
Vanderlinde, R.; Van Braak, J.; Tondeur, J.
An important step towards the successful integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools is to facilitate their capacity to develop a school-based ICT policy resulting in an ICT policy plan. Such a plan can be defined as a school document containing strategic and operational elements concerning the integration of ICT in…
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako
To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Andre Wallace Nery da Costa; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado; Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Deborah Carvalho Malta
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs,...
Haleem, Abdul; Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Sufia, Shamta; Chaudhry, Saima; Siddiqui, Muhammad Irfanullah; Khan, Ayyaz Ali
Repetition and reinforcement have been shown to play a crucial role in the sustainability of the effect of Oral Health Education (OHE) programs. However, its relevance to school-based OHE imparted by different personnel is not depicted by the existing dental literature. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the repeated and reinforced OHE (RR-OHE) compared to one-time OHE intervention and to assess its role in school-based OHE imparted by dentist, teachers and peers. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial that involved 935 adolescents aged 10-11 years. Twenty four boys' and girls' schools selected at random in two towns of Karachi, Pakistan were randomly assigned to three groups to receive OHE by dentist (DL), teachers (TL) and peer-leaders (PL). The groups received a single OHE session and were evaluated post-intervention and 6 months after. The three groups were then exposed to OHE for 6 months followed by 1 year of no OHE activity. Two further evaluations at 6-month and 12-month intervals were conducted. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire preceded by a structured interview and followed by oral examination of participants. The adolescents' oral health knowledge (OHK) in the DL and PL groups increased significantly by a single OHE session compared to their baseline knowledge (p strategy. Although the OHK scores of the DL and PL groups decreased significantly at 12-month evaluation of RR-OHE (p play a key role in school-based OHE irrespective of educators. The trained teachers and peers can play a complementary role in RR-OHE.
Lena V Nordheim
Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health
Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe
Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo
Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to identify which determinants affect completeness and fidelity of program implementation. As part of the launch of Long Live Love+ (LLL+), an online school-based sexuality education program for adolescents aged 15-17, we performed a process evaluation among teachers and students to measure the levels of completeness and fidelity, identify factors influencing teachers' implementation, and to evaluate the students' response. Sixteen Biology teachers from nine secondary schools throughout the Netherlands who implemented LLL+ were interviewed and 60 students participated in 13 focus group discussions. Results showed that teachers' completeness ranged between 22-100% (M = 75%). Fidelity was high, but many teachers added elements. Teachers and students enjoyed LLL+, particularly the diversity in the exercises and its interactive character. The most important factors that influenced implementation were time and organizational constraints, lack of awareness on the impact of completeness and fidelity, and student response. These factors should be taken into account when developing school-based prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W
Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased
Outdoor education in teaching and learning is being increasingly used as an ... development of the students' problem-solving and higher order thinking ...... Figure 6 Teacher profiles aiming at achieving more effective visual arts education with ...
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and
Wright, F V; Boschen, K; Jutai, J
Conductive education (CE) is a holistic educational system that uses an active cognitive approach to teach individuals with motor disorders to become more functional participants in daily activities. While CE's popularity continues to grow in North America and Europe, its effectiveness has not been established. The lack of definition of responsive outcome measures for evaluation of CE programmes has limited the interpretability of conclusions from earlier studies evaluating effectiveness. To determine which measures from a core set were most responsive to physical, functional and psychosocial changes associated with a school-based CE programme. This was a one-group before and after data collection design using an 8-month follow-up period. We enrolled a referral sample of nine children with cerebral palsy in Kindergarten or Grade 1 (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 3, 4 or 5). The study took place within a school-based CE programme at a Canadian children's rehabilitation centre. Children participated in a CE full-day class for an entire school year. Physical, functional, psychosocial and participation measures included: Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, Individualized Educational Plan, and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS). Four children from the study's second year were also evaluated on the Impact on Family Scale (IFS), GAS and School Function Assessment. The Gross Motor Function Measure, QUEST, PEDI (Caregiver Assistance) and IFS were most responsive to change. GAS was useful in documenting and quantifying goals. Problems were encountered in evaluating self-esteem and school participation. Several strong measures of outcome were identified. Further work is needed to find valid and sensitive psychosocial and school participation
Hursen, Cigdem; Islek, Didem
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the views of the teachers on the…
Bedwinek, Anne P.; Kummer, Ann W.; Rice, Gale B.; Grames, Lynn Marty
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the education and experience of preschool and school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) regarding the assessment and treatment of children born with cleft lip and/or palate and to determine their continuing education needs in this area. Method: A 16-item mixed-methods…
Holly, Cheryl; Porter, Sallie; Kamienski, Mary; Lim, Aubrianne
Nearly 1,300 children in the United States die because of firearm-related injury each year and another 5,790 survive gunshot wounds, making the prevention of firearm-related unintentional injury to children of vital importance to families, health professionals, and policy makers. To systematically review the evidence on school-based and community-based gun safety programs for children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic review. Twelve databases were searched from their earliest records to December 2016. Interventional and analytic studies were sought, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, as well as before-and-after studies or cohort studies with or without a control that involved an intervention. The low level of evidence, heterogeneity of studies, and lack of consistent outcome measures precluded a pooled estimate of results. A best evidence synthesis was performed. Results support the premise that programs using either knowledge-based or active learning strategies or a combination of these may be insufficient for teaching gun safety skills to children. Gun safety programs do not improve the likelihood that children will not handle firearms in an unsupervised situation. Stronger research designs with larger samples are needed to determine the most effective way to transfer the use of the gun safety skills outside the training session and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn.
Aniebue, P N
To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.
Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Arteaga, Irma A; White, Barry A B
Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered understanding. We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for more than 1400 participants. This established, publicly funded intervention begins in preschool and provides up to 6 years of service in inner-city Chicago schools. Relative to the comparison group receiving the usual services, program participation was independently linked to higher educational attainment, income, socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance coverage, as well as lower rates of justice-system involvement and substance abuse. Evidence of enduring effects was strongest for preschool, especially for males and children of high school dropouts. The positive influence of four or more years of service was limited primarily to education and SES. Dosage within program components was mostly unrelated to outcomes. Findings demonstrate support for the enduring effects of sustained school-based early education to the end of the third decade of life.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin; Tai, Baojun
OBJECTIVES: To assess oral health outcomes of a school-based oral health education (OHE) programme on children, mothers and schoolteachers in China, and to evaluate the methods applied and materials used. DESIGN: The WHO Health Promoting Schools Project applied to primary schoolchildren in 3...... in experimental schools adopted regular oral health behaviour such as toothbrushing, recent dental visits, use of fluoride toothpaste, with less frequent consumption of cakes/biscuits compared to controls. In experimental schools, mothers showed significant beneficial oral health developments, while teachers...... showed higher oral health knowledge and more positive attitudes, also being satisfied with training workshops, methods applied, materials used and involvement with children in OHE. CONCLUSIONS: The programme had positive effects on gingival bleeding score and oral health behaviour of children...
Roberts, Scott W.
This study examined the effectiveness of school-based drug education in affecting knowledge, attitudes, decision making, motivation, and self-esteem. Pre- and postintervention surveys of fourth through eighth graders indicated that self-esteem did not improve significantly. Knowledge and attitude scores improved significantly, with a positive…
Hino, Tenyu; Yokota, Chiaki; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Kato, Suzuka; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Arimizu, Takuro; Tomari, Shinya; Wada, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Okamura, Tomonori; Minematsu, Kazuo
Advancing school-based education is a promising means to spread knowledge pertaining to stroke. The aim of the current study was to clarify whether stroke lessons provided by schoolteachers could deliver stroke knowledge to children (aged 9-11 years) and their parents, at a similar level to when taught by medical staff. Schoolteachers conducted lessons on stroke for school children using the educational materials we prepared (i.e., the teacher group; 1051 children and 719 parents). This was compared with our previous data from Akashi city and Tochigi prefecture, in which the stroke lessons were conducted by medical staff (i.e., the medical group; 1031 children and 756 parents). Three campaigns were conducted between September 2014 and May 2016. Each child was given education materials to take home to discuss stroke with their parents. The children and their parents answered questionnaires on stroke knowledge, at baseline, immediately after the lesson, and at 3 months after the lesson. Compared with the time point before the lesson, both children and parents instructed by the teacher group showed significant increases in the scores about stroke symptoms and risk factors, immediately and at 3 months after the lesson (P educational material, adequately delivered knowledge of stroke to children and parents, in a manner that was similar to when medical staff delivered this information. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka
The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Heineke, Amy; Carr, Andrea L.; Camacho, Daniel; Israel, Marla Susman; Goldberger, Nancy; Clawson, Angela; Hill, Martin
This study sought to expand the field's understanding of the educational involvement of Latino parents whose children were English Learners and attended Catholic schools. Specifically, we attempted to identify factors that facilitate as well as prohibit involvement in two home-based types of educational involvement and two specific school-based…
Alton, Forrest L.; Valois, Robert F.; Oldendick, Robert; Drane, J. Wanzer
The purpose of this article was to determine opinions on the use of abstinence only versus comprehensive sex education by registered voters in South Carolina. A cross-sectional, random-digit dial sample was utilized. Approximately 81% of respondents indicated support for sex education that emphasizes abstinence but also teaches about the benefits…
Eid, Fatima H.
The growing interest in Human Rights Education (HRE) is linked in this paper to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1989). The linkage between citizenship education and HRE is also highlighted, along with the necessary critiques of human rights pronouncements regarding the situation of HRE in Bahrain while the challenges ahead in…
Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan
Advocates a stronger comparative emphasis in the study of educational administration and management while acknowledging comparative educational administration's weak knowledge base. Clarifies the potential import of a comparative, cross-cultural perspective embracing five societal/cultural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power…
Ponzetti, James J., Jr.; Selman, Jan; Munro, Brenda; Esmail, Shaniff; Adams, Gerald
Public concern about adolescent sexuality has garnered considerable interest in recent decades. Most teenagers are either thinking about or acting on their sexual impulses. Yet notable controversy exists regarding sexual education among youth. Adolescents report sexuality education must speak to issues of interest to them and be delivered in a…
Kivela, J.; Ketting, E.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.
BACKGROUND: Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the
Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Nanda, Tarun; Sawhney, Gurjashan Singh; Setia, Saniya
The teaching of Oral Health Education aims at preventing the dental disease and promoting dental health at early stages. Schools are powerful places to shape the health, education and well-being of our children. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school dental health education programmes conducted in various parts of India. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. The study examined papers relating to oral health interventions which were published between 1992 and 2012. Ten articles were selected and included in the review. All the studies were found to contain the required information on the outcomes of school dental health programmes in India. Different methods were used to deliver oral health education. All the studies reported significant improvement in oral hygiene of school children after imparting dental health education. In some studies, school teachers were also trained to impart oral health education. Decreased level of awareness was found in children coming from low income families. Longer duration studies are needed to improve the results. School dental education programmes should be more focused on north-eastern Indian population.
Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.
Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…
Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C
First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline...
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…
Schaap, H.; Baartman, L.K.J.; Bruijn, de E.
Learning in vocational schools and workplaces are the two main components of vocational education. Students have to develop professional competences by building meaningful relations between knowledge, skills and attitudes. There are, however, some major concerns about the combination of learning in
de Haas, Billie; Hutter, Inge
Teachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers’ values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to sexuality
de Haas, B. (Billie); I. Hutter (Inge)
textabstractTeachers can feel uncomfortable teaching sexuality education when the content conflicts with their cultural values and beliefs. However, more research is required to understand how to resolve conflicts between teachers’ values and beliefs and those implicit in comprehensive approaches to
Miedema, E.; Millei, Z.; Imre, R.
In this chapter, I examine the role of public schools in shaping young people’s gendered understanding of citizenship and their "sense of place" in Mozambique. I seek to illuminate two interrelated features of processes of civil enculturation, which is defined as education for and about citizenship
Spencer, Grace; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
Policy and practice on sex and relationships education (SRE) in England often has the stated objectives of delaying sexual activity, reducing sexually transmitted infections and lowering rates of teenage conception. Underlying these objectives is the desire to support young people in making "informed choices" and developing the skills…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.
The aim of this study is to identify opportunities in policy framing for critical health education (CHE) about food and nutrition in Ecuadorian schools. The research engages in a dialogue between the perspectives of critical nutrition and political ecology, as it seeks to clarify and develop...... through critical, democratic and collaborative processes, anchored in and supported by the local community. Based on a textual analysis of health, food and education policy documents, the study finds that concrete norms endorse a biomedical stance. Consequently, focus remains on prescribing individual...... behavior, and schools are regarded as intervention settings, rather than a site for generating change as would be the case of health promotion using a CHE viewpoint. However, the study finds the possibility for developing a CHE perspective in the overarching rationale of “good living”, which reaffirms...
Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health education (OHE in schools has largely been imparted by dental professionals. Considering the substantial cost of this expert-led approach, the strategies relying on teachers, peer-leaders and learners themselves have also been utilized. However the evidence for comparative effectiveness of these strategies is lacking in the dental literature. The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of dentist-led, teacher-led, peer-led and self-learning strategies of oral health education. Methods A two-year cluster randomized controlled trial following a parallel design was conducted. It involved five groups of adolescents aged 10-11 years at the start of the study. The trial involved process as well as four outcome evaluations. The present paper discusses the findings of the study pertaining to the baseline and final outcome evaluation, both comprising of a self-administered questionnaire, a structured interview and clinical oral examination. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results All the three educator-led strategies of OHE had statistically higher mean oral health knowledge (OHK, oral health behavior (OHB, oral hygiene status (OHS and combined knowledge, behavior and oral hygiene status (KBS scores than the self-learning and control groups (p Conclusions The dentist-led, teacher-led and peer-led strategies of oral health education are equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents. The peer-led strategy, however, is almost as effective as the dentist-led strategy and comparatively more effective than the teacher-led and self-learning strategies in improving their oral health behavior. Trail registration SRCTN39391017
Spear, Hila J
This study examined the attitudes and experiences of male and female college students relative to breastfeeding education within middle and high school programs of study. Findings revealed that 36.7% of the participants were taught about breastfeeding while enrolled in a specific course in high school; 11.3% received information about breastfeeding in middle school. Overall, participants expressed positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and were supportive of the promotion of breastfeeding within a formal educational setting. However, 54% disagreed with offering information about breastfeeding to middle school students. Furthermore, most (67.8%) participants found public breastfeeding to be unacceptable; 77.7% indicated that breastfeeding is an intimate behavior that should be kept private. School nurses are in a unique position to influence school health and science-related curricula designed to promote the health benefits of breastfeeding. More education is needed to teach young people about the advantages of breastfeeding and to make breastfeeding a socially and culturally acceptable lifestyle behavior.
Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…
Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane
The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…
Escartí, Amparo; Liops-Goig, Ramon; Wright, Paul M.
Purpose: The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model was developed to foster responsibility and teach life skills that transfer to various settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of a school-based TPSR program in physical education and other subject areas. Method: Systematic observation was…
Battjes-Fries, M.C.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Renes, R.J.; Meester, H.J.; Veer, van 't P.
Objective To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme ‘Taste Lessons’ on children’s behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. Design In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected
Sani, A. Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Mathews, Catherine
This study investigated facilitators and challenges to designing, implementing and evaluating school-based sexual health education in sub-Saharan Africa, using interviews with intervention designers and researchers. At the pre-planning and planning stages, participants reported that facilitating factors included addressing the reproductive health…
Ronoh, T. K.; Sang, A. K.; Sisungo, Z. W.; Mumiukha, C. K.; Ayub, M. J.
This paper sought to establish the effects of selected cultural, financial, and school-based factors on the girl-child's access to educational and socioeconomic development in Kenya. It is arguably observed that various local and international conventions, treaties, commissions, and state actors have strived to promote the development of…
Singh, Harsimran; Matza, Maria; Latham, Christine
Statistics representing professional health care providers do not adequately reflect the shift in the nation's diverse population. Latinos are significantly underrepresented at all levels of appropriate academic programs critical for entry to health profession careers. This project describes the implementation of a student-run, faculty-facilitated Future Nurse and Health Club at a school (with majority Latino students) to emphasize the importance of higher education in health care. Demographic and psychosocial profiles of club members were also developed to understand community needs. The Future Nurse and Health Club was established in partnership with faculty and researchers representing a university-based nursing program, school officials, and community leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from club members and their parents using a variety of techniques including questionnaires and focus groups. The findings of the study highlighted a variety of student- and parent-related factors including poor lifestyle habits and perceptions of support that could potentially influence Latino high school students' interest and progress in health care-related higher education. A school-based health career club involving active participation of parents and students with support from health care professionals such as academic nursing faculty has the potential to simultaneously raise student interest in health-related careers and health needs of their community.
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
Asthma is a common, chronic, non-communicable respiratory disease that affects millions of children worldwide. Asthma exacerbations can range from mild to severe and can have an unfavorable impact on the quality of life of children and their caregivers. Asthma exacerbations often result in absenteeism from school or work, activity intolerance and emergency hospital visits. One strategy to address this health issue in an attempt to improve health outcomes is school-based asthma educational programs. A review of the literature revealed that previous systematic reviews have examined similar topics on the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational programs that have included collaborative efforts between parents and schools. No systematic reviews were found that examined the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational programs that exclusively included children and their caregivers. Research has not been systematically reviewed to determine the effectiveness of a school-based asthma educational program within a familial context. To identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs that exclusively included both children and caregivers on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Children aged five to 18 years of any gender, race or ethnicity with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and their caregivers. School-based family asthma educational programs. Randomized controlled trials. Quality of life and the number of asthma exacerbations measured by either missed days from school or work, and/or physical activity intolerance, and/or emergency hospital visits. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies from inception of the database to August 21, 2015. Quantitative papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity before inclusion in the review
Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; da Costa, Andre Wallace Nery; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ² test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4) of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors
Jennissen, Charles A; Peck, Jeffrey; Wetjen, Kristel; Hoogerwerf, Pam; Harland, Karisa K; Denning, Gerene M
Since 1985, one-third of all US all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries and one-quarter of deaths involved victims safety education of youth could help reduce these tragedies. To assess the efficacy of the Safety Tips for ATV Riders (STARs) school-based programme targeting adolescents. A survey was anonymously administered before and after the programme to determine demographics, knowledge and reported likelihood of using the information learned. Over 4600 students in 30 Iowa schools participated from November 2010 to April 2013. Initially, 52% knew most ATVs are designed for one rider, 25% knew the recommended vehicle size for their age range and 42% knew riding on Iowa's roads was legal only for agricultural purposes. After the programme, this increased to 92%, 82% and 76%, respectively (psafety information learned, respectively; younger students, females and infrequent riders reported higher likelihoods. STARs increased short-term ATV safety knowledge and almost half the participants reported they would use the safety information presented. Males and frequent riders seemed more resistant, but some groups that may be more vulnerable to potential ATV crash and injury appeared amenable to the training with higher increases in postprogramme scores and greater intention of improving safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conner, Matthew David
. The second questionnaire, adapted from a survey developed for the Starr County Diabetes Education Study (Garcia et al, 2001), measured general diabetes and diabetes management knowledge. A comparison group, a total of 19 students, also completed both surveys during the study period. Results: Significant increases (p<0.05) were seen in the post-intervention study group in general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of diabetes prevention strategies, when compared to the baseline study group and comparison group.
Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C; Klakk, H; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L B
First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline. This study was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. The study population consisted of 10 Danish public schools with children in preschool to fourth grade (cohorts 0-4) with 2.5-year follow-up. Six schools had extra PE and four schools had normal PE. In total 1247 children were included (normal PE = 536, extra PE = 711). Development in fitness was analyzed using a composite z-score from six fitness tests. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the association between school type and development in fitness. Extra PE increased the total development of composite z-score units among children enrolled in cohort 4 and borderline in cohort 3 with 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.48-1.65) and 0.52 z-score units (-0.06 to 1.09), respectively. Children in the lower 50 percentiles increased their development with 0.47 (0.08-0.85) z-score units. Extra PE in schools improved development in fitness for cohort 4 and borderline for cohort 3 among all children. Extra PE improved fitness development across all cohorts among children with low fitness levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera
Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (pschools (pschools, which positively associated with male gender (AOR=4.13, CI: 2.38, 7.15) and having a middle-income family (AOR=2.93, CI: 1.92, 6.15). This study showed that by integrating a dietary intervention into school-based activities, there might be significant improvements in dietary intake of primary school adolescents. Therefore, school-based nutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.
Lelo, Agola E; Mburu, David N; Magoma, Gabriel N; Mungai, Ben N; Kihara, Jimmy H; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mutuku, Martin W; Loker, Eric S; Mkoji, Gerald M; Steinauer, Michelle L
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that infects over 200 million people worldwide. To combat this disease, in 2012, the World Health Organization announced a goal of reducing and eliminating transmission of schistosomes. Current control focuses primarily on mass drug administration (MDA). Therefore, we monitored transmission of Schistosoma mansoni via fecal egg counts and genetic markers in a typical school based MDA setting to ascertain the actual impacts of MDA on the targeted schistosome population. For 4 years, we followed 67 children enrolled in a MDA program in Kenya. Infection status and egg counts were measured each year prior to treatment. For 15 of these children, for which there was no evidence of acquired resistance, meaning they became re-infected following each treatment, we collected microsatellite genotype data from schistosomes passed in fecal samples as a representation of the force of transmission between drug treatments. We genotyped a total of 4938 parasites from these children, with an average of 329.2 parasites per child for the entire study, and an average of 82.3 parasites per child per annual examination. We compared prevalence, egg counts, and genetic measures including allelic richness, gene diversity (expected heterozygosity), adult worm burdens and effective number of breeders among time points to search for evidence for a change in transmission or schistosome populations during the MDA program. We found no evidence of reduced transmission or schistosome population decline over the course of the program. Although prevalence declined in the 67 children as it did in the overall program, reinfection rates were high, and for the 15 children studied in detail, schistosome egg counts and estimated adult worm burdens did not decline between years 1 and 4, and genetic diversity increased over the course of drug treatment. School based control programs undoubtedly improve the health of individuals; however, our data
Prater, Greg; And Others
A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.
Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…
Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian
Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity
Aims: This article reports on findings to emerge from a project examining YouTube "drug videos" in the light of an emerging literature on the relationship between YouTube and health education. The aim of this article is to describe the variety of discourses circulated by the "drug videos" available on YouTube and to consider…
Blitstein, Jonathan L; Cates, Sheryl C; Hersey, James; Montgomery, Doris; Shelley, Mack; Hradek, Christine; Kosa, Katherine; Bell, Loren; Long, Valerie; Williams, Pamela A; Olson, Sara; Singh, Anita
Evidence supports the use of social marketing campaigns to improve nutrition knowledge and reinforce the effects of nutrition education programs. However, the additional effects of parent-focused social marketing with nutrition education have received little attention. Our aim was to assess the impact of the Iowa Nutrition Network's school-based nutrition education program (Building and Strengthening Iowa Community Support for Nutrition and Physical Activity [BASICS]) and the benefits of adding a multichannel social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) to increase parent-directed communication. A quasi-experimental design with three study conditions compared a school-based nutrition education program (BASICS) with a school-based and social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) and a no-treatment comparison group. The study included 1,037 third-grade students attending 33 elementary schools and their parents. Measures included parents' reports of their children's in-home consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) and use of low-fat/fat-free milk. Data on F/V were collected using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist; and data on milk use were collected using two questions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multilevel, mixed-effect regression models that account for correlation within repeated measures and children within school were used to compare the mean change over time in the outcome variable for one study group with the mean change over time for another study group. Children in BASICS increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.16 cups (P=0.04) compared with children in the comparison group. Children in BASICS Plus increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.17 cups (P=0.03) and mean consumption of vegetables by 0.13 cups (P=0.02). Children in BASICS Plus were 1.3 times (P=0.05) more likely to use low-fat/fat-free milk than children in either the BASICS group or the comparison group
A school-based master’s programme was provided for teachers at a comprehensive in the East End of London, UK. Two traditional barriers to doing an MA (cost and travelling time) were removed. The study explores the extent to which teachers’ workload, family commitments and other external factors impact on the retention of MA participants. It was found that heavy job and family obligations were not necessarily predictors of failure to complete the course, and that personal values and aspiration...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...
Lander, Natalie; Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M
Fundamental movement skill (FMS) competence is positively associated with physical activity (PA). However, levels of both FMS and PA are lower than expected. Current reviews of interventions to improve FMS and PA have shown that many school-based programs have achieved positive outcomes, yet the maintenance of these interventions is variable. Teachers play a central role in the success and longevity of school-based interventions. Despite the importance of teacher engagement, research into the nature and quality of teacher training in school-based PA and FMS interventions has received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the type and quantity of teacher training in school-based physical education PA and/or FMS interventions, and to identify what role teacher training had on the intervention outcome. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Publication date restrictions were not implemented in any database, and the last search was performed on 1 March 2015. School physical education-based interventions facilitated by a school teacher, and that included a quantitative assessment of FMS competence and/or PA levels were included in the review. The search identified 39 articles. Eleven of the studies measured FMS, 25 studies measured PA and three measured both FMS and PA. Nine of the studies did not report on any aspect of the teacher training conducted. Of the 30 studies that reported on teacher training, 25 reported statistically significant intervention results for FMS and/or PA. It appears that teacher training programs: are ≥ 1 day; provide comprehensive subject and pedagogy content; are framed by a theory or model; provide follow-up or ongoing support; and measure teacher satisfaction of the training, are more effective at improving student outcomes in FMS and/or PA. However, the provision of information regarding the characteristics of the teacher training was largely inadequate. Therefore, it was
Halliday Katherine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of
Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan
School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.
Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Li, Chunyan; Cheng, Zixi; Wu, Taiwen; Liang, Xiao; Gaoshan, Junjian; Li, Lihe; Hong, Ping; Tang, Kun
A growing prevalence of unexpected pregnancies and younger age of sexual debut is observed among Chinese young people, while they lack formal sexuality education from schools and parents. It is necessary to measure their knowledge level of sexual and reproductive health, and how such knowledge associates with their sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, which would shed light on the effectiveness of sexuality education in China. An Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted from January to August, 2015. 130 colleges were selected from eastern, central, and western parts China with a good balance of geographic distributions. The survey link was subsequently delivered to the focal points in each college for voluntary participation, targeting on undergraduates aged 18 ~ 25. Information on demographics, experience of school-based sexuality education (defined as any course introducing information on sexual and reproductive health) and SRH knowledge quiz was collected. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were applied to explore the relationship between students' SRH knowledge, sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, such as sexual intercourse (penetrative sex by vaginal or anal), unprotected sex, pregnancy and abortion, etc. A total sample of 17,966 Chinese college students (mean age = 20.2, 60.4% female) eventually entered the analysis. Only 55.6% of the respondents self-reported having received sexuality education before, and they scored significantly higher (2.33/4.00) in the SRH knowledge quiz than those who had not (1.75/4.00). Among the sexually experienced students (n = 3639, 20.2%), both males and females with higher SRH knowledge were less likely to report having experience of (partner's) pregnancy or abortion (OR sexually experienced males, those with higher SRH knowledge had a slightly later age of sexual debut (coefficient = 0.28, p sexual intercourses (OR = 0.82, 95%C.I.: 0.69 ~ 0.96). Students
School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Kong, Kaimeng; Liu, Jie; Tao, Yexuan
School-based nutrition education has been widely implemented in recent years to fight the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in China. A comprehensive literature search was performed using six databases to identify studies of school-based nutrition education interventions in China. The methodological quality and the risk of bias of selected literature were evaluated. Stratified analysis was performed to identify whether different methodologies influenced the estimated effect of the intervention. Seventeen articles were included in the analysis. Several of the included studies had inadequate intervention duration, inappropriate randomization methods, selection bias, unbalanced baseline characteristics between control and intervention groups, and absent sample size calculation. Overall, the studies showed no significant impact of nutrition education on obesity (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.55-1.05; p=0.09). This can be compared with an OR of 0.68 for interventions aimed at preventing malnutrition and an OR of 0.49 for interventions aimed at preventing iron-deficiency anemia. When studies with unbalanced baseline characteristics between groups and selection bias in the study subjects were excluded, the impact of nutrition education on obesity was significant (OR=0.73; 95% CI=0.55-0.98; p=0.003). An analysis stratified according to the duration of intervention revealed that the intervention was effective only when it lasted for more than 2 years (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.42-0.58; pnutrition education programs in China have some important limitations that might affect the estimated effectiveness of the intervention.
Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative inquiry was to examine the self-efficacy of Indonesian secondary school English as foreign language (EFL teachers in developing a school-based EFL syllabus. The data were collected through a survey to 98 secondary school EFL teachers in the District of Kerinci, Jambi Sumatra, Indonesia. The data were analyzed through the Rasch Analysis (Linacre 2004, 2006. The results revealed that the teachers had a high-self efficacy in developing the syllabus. However, they tended to be less efficacious on theoretical tasks in the syllabus development and on tasks that were not part of their responsibility in previous curricula. In addition, this study also produced an instrument for measuring teachers’ self-efficacy in developing the syllabus that can be used for similar purposes in other contexts.
Violette, Ronald W.
Efforts in the area of drug education have been less than successful over the years. The time has come to step back and reevaluate and reassess what it is we are trying to accomplish. Emphases in the past have certainly been well intentioned, but a new direction needs to be charted for the future. Health Educators and other professionals have…
Stripling, Christopher T.; Barrick, R. Kirby
The philosophy behind the kind of teacher education one receives affects the preparedness of beginning agricultural education teachers. The purpose of this philosophical study was to examine and summarize the professional knowledge, technical knowledge, and general knowledge competencies needed in a comprehensive teacher education program to…
Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.
The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…
Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.
Mkumbo, Kitila Alexander
Teachers? attitudes towards sexuality education are among the important predictors of their willingness to teach sexuality education programmes in schools. While there is a plethora of studies on teachers? attitudes towards sexuality in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study examined teachers? attitudes towards and comfort in teaching sexuality education in rural and urban Tanzania. The results show that ...
Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi Darani, Firoozeh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Safarian, Mohammad; Allipour Birgani, Ramesh; Bitarafan, Vida; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali
Background Nowadays childhood obesity has become one the most challenging issue which is considered as a principle public health problem all around the world. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact of a 7-month school-based nutrition education intervention using social cognitive theory (SCT) to prevent obesity among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Method In this cluster randomized community trial after choosing schools, a total of 172 overweight and obese girl students participated in the study (87 in the intervention and 85 in the control group). A 7-month intervention based on SCT for students, their parents, and teachers was conducted. At baseline and end of the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumstances (WCs), dietary intake, and psychological questionnaires regarding the SCT constructs were obtained. Results After 7 months, the mean of BMI and WCs reduced in the intervention group from 29.47 (4.05) to 28.5 (4.35) and from 89.65 (8.15) to 86.54 (9.76), respectively, but in comparison to the control group, they were not statistically significant ( p values .127 and .504, respectively). In the intervention group, nutritional behaviors and most of the psychological variables (self-efficacy, social support, intention, and situation) were improved in favor of the study and they were significant in comparison to the control group ( p < .05). Conclusion Although school-based nutrition education intervention using SCT did not change significantly BMI and WCs among the targeted population in this study, dietary habits as well as psychological factors improved significantly in the intervention group. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, www.irct.ir (IRCT2013103115211N1).
Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.
Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.
Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Preparing children and adolescents for sexual safety and reproductive responsibility lies at the heart and purpose of puberty/sexuality education. The document of International Technical Guidance released by UNESCO in December 2009 aims to provide an evidence-based and rights-based platform offering children and adolescents vital knowledge about…
Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines
Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…
Lambe, Jackie; Bones, Robert
This study seeks to discover the attitudes to inclusion of those about to embark on initial teacher education in Northern Ireland and the extent to which an extended teaching practice in a non-selective placement school can influence attitude change. A cohort of 125 student teachers responded to a survey that explored their attitudes towards a…
Uses data from an evaluation of a high school sexuality education program to examine gender relations and production of difference. Participating schools incorporated teaching and learning that normalized sexual diversity and explored HIV-related discrimination and homophobia. Discussion of gender, power, and menstruation and heterosexism and…
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo
Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to…
Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark
Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…
Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.
This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…
Recent developments in initial teacher education (ITE) have produced a number of school-centred models. These mean that student teachers may now spend more of their time in schools than has historically been the case. In some of these models, student teachers are more clearly part of the school as an institution than might be the case in more…
Aikins, Ross Douglas
Higher education is a place where students are known to navigate various stages of psychosocial development, and experiment with psychoactive substances. Extant research detailing the relationship between drugs and student development typically frame the impact of substance use as exclusively negative or harmful to student health and the outcomes…
Pound, Pandora; Langford, Rebecca; Campbell, Rona
Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs. Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE. Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden. Studies of students aged 4-19 in full-time education, young adults ≤19 (not necessarily in full-time education) or adults ≤25 if recalling their experiences of school-based SRE. -69 publications were identified, with 55 remaining after quality appraisal (representing 48 studies). The synthesis found that although sex is a potent and potentially embarrassing topic, schools appear reluctant to acknowledge this and attempt to teach SRE in the same way as other subjects. Young people report feeling vulnerable in SRE, with young men anxious to conceal sexual ignorance and young women risking sexual harassment if they participate. Schools appear to have difficulty accepting that some young people are sexually active, leading to SRE that is out of touch with many young people's lives. Young people report that SRE can be negative, gendered and heterosexist. They expressed dislike of their own teachers delivering SRE due to blurred boundaries, lack of anonymity, embarrassment and poor training. SRE should be 'sex-positive' and delivered by experts who maintain clear boundaries with students. Schools should acknowledge that sex is a special subject with unique challenges, as well as the fact and range of young people's sexual activity, otherwise young people will continue to disengage from SRE and opportunities for safeguarding and improving their sexual health will be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
Ayu Nurul Handayani, Hemas; Waspada, Indra
Non-formal Early Childhood Education (non-formal ECE) is an education that is held for children under 4 years old. The implementation in District of Banyumas, Non-formal ECE is monitored by The District Government of Banyumas and helped by Sanggar Kegiatan Belajar (SKB) Purwokerto as one of the organizer of Non-formal Education. The government itself has a program for distributing ECE to all villages in Indonesia. However, The location to construct the ECE school in several years ahead is not arranged yet. Therefore, for supporting that program, a decision support system is made to give some recommendation villages for constructing The ECE building. The data are projected based on Brown’s Double Exponential Smoothing Method and utilizing Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (Promethee) to generate priority order. As the recommendations system, it generates map visualization which is colored according to the priority level of sub-district and village area. The system was tested with black box testing, Promethee testing, and usability testing. The results showed that the system functionality and Promethee algorithm were working properly, and the user was satisfied.
Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay
Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme's effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme 'The World Starts With Me'. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme's effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.
Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J
School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).
Children's Aid Society, 2012
School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…
Hubbard, Gill; Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G
Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help-seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho-educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help-seeking barriers. This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50-min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help-seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self-efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6-month follow-up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2-week follow-up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help-seeking were observed. School-based brief psycho-educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Renes, Reint-Jan; Meester, Hante J; van 't Veer, Pieter
To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on children's behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected at baseline, four weeks and six months after the intervention in both the intervention and control group. Children completed consecutively three questionnaires in which knowledge, awareness, skills, attitude, emotion, subjective norm and intention towards the two target behaviours were assessed. Teachers implemented on average a third of the programme activities. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare individual changes in the determinants in the intervention group with those in the control group, corrected for children's gender and age. Effect sizes were expressed as Cohen's d. Dutch elementary schools. Forty-nine classes (1183 children, 9-12 years old) in grades 5-8 of twenty-one elementary schools. The intervention group showed a higher increase in knowledge (d=0·26, Peating healthy and a variety of foods. Full and repeated implementation of Taste Lessons in subsequent years might result in larger effects.
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Skinner, S Rachel; Davies, Cristyn; Cooper, Spring; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Jones, Jane; Collins, Joanne; Hutton, Heidi; Parrella, Adriana; Zimet, Gregory; Regan, David G; Whyte, Patti; Brotherton, Julia M L; Richmond, Peter; McCaffrey, Kirsten; Garland, Suzanne M; Leask, Julie; Kang, Melissa; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Kaldor, John; McGeechan, Kevin
The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in Australia commenced in 2007 for females and in 2013 for males, using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV 6,11,16,18). Thus far, we have demonstrated very substantial reductions in genital warts and in the prevalence of HPV among young Australian women, providing early evidence for the success of this public health initiative. Australia has a long history of school-based vaccination programs for adolescents, with comparatively high coverage. However, it is not clear what factors promote success in a school vaccination program. The HPV.edu study aims to examine: 1) student knowledge about HPV vaccination; 2) psycho-social outcomes and 3) vaccination uptake. HPV.edu is a cluster randomised trial of a complex intervention in schools aiming to recruit 40 schools with year-8 enrolments above 100 students (approximately 4400 students). The schools will be stratified by Government, Catholic, and Independent sectors and geographical location, with up to 20 schools recruited in each of two states, Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA), and randomly allocated to intervention or control (usual practice). Intervention schools will receive the complex intervention which includes an adolescent intervention (education and distraction); a decisional support tool for parents and adolescents and logistical strategies (consent form returns strategies, in-school mop-up vaccination and vaccination-day guidelines). Careful process evaluation including an embedded qualitative evaluation will be undertaken to explore in depth possible mechanisms for any observed effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes. This study is the first to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various strategies to promote best practice in school-based vaccination against HPV. The study aims to improve vaccination-related psychosocial outcomes, including adolescent knowledge and attitudes, decision-making involvement, self
Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P
The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5-14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD. The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. CONCLUSIONS: The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process.
Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.
This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN; Optimized physical activity (AFSO; Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN + optimized physical activity (AFSO; Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. Discussion A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of
Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia
Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study
Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob
The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…
Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Kayako, Sakisaka; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam
There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a
School-based data and management of technological innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... Result indicated that: there is no significant positive relationship between school-based data and principals management of technological innovation.
Sorensen, James L.; Joffe, Stephen J.
Aimed at encouraging rational decision making about drug use, a peer oriented drug education program was conducted in a community youth project. Youth and leaders shared feelings and knowledge about drugs. Compared with four program dropouts, six participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the drug group, its leaders and themselves.…
Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the school-based support program (SBSP) as perceived by teachers who participated in this program. SBSP was designed to collectively build the capacity and promote the overall quality of teaching and learning in identified independent schools in the State of Qatar.…
The instructional approach used in this teaching idea involves high-level cognitive and affective learning rather than passive learning through lecture, which often is the traditional, and ineffective, approach for students being educated about drugs. Objectives: At the conclusion of this drug education teaching strategy, students will be able to:…
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
This paper lists guidelines approved by the Illinois State Board of Education for improving alcohol and drug education in the schools. Statistics point out the seriousness of alcohol and drug abuse in terms of human costs to the victim, his/her family, and associates, and the economic costs of health care, accident losses, crime, social programs,…
Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.
In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…
Drury, Darrel W.
This report critiques the movement to decentralize decision making in public education. It provides an indepth examination of school-based management (SBM) with the aim of revealing why this type of reform seems to have had so little payoff for students. It addresses several key questions: What are the objectives of SBM, and are these objectives…
Schutte, Lisette; van den Borne, Marieke; Kok, Gerjo; Meijer, Suzanne; Mevissen, Fraukje Ef
Full program implementation is crucial for effectiveness but is often overlooked or insufficiently considered during development of behavioral change interventions. For school-based health promotion programs, teachers are key players in program implementation, but teacher support in this phase is mostly limited to technical support and information. To ensure optimal implementation of the Dutch school-based sexual health program Long Live Love, a Web-based coaching website was developed to support teachers in completeness and fidelity of program implementation. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the process of systematic development of a Web-based coaching intervention to support teachers in their implementation of a school-based sexual health program. The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was applied for the development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention. The IM process begins with (1) a needs assessment, followed by (2) the formulation of change objectives, (3) the selection of theory-based intervention methods and practical applications that take the parameters for effectiveness into consideration, (4) integration of practical applications into an organized program, (5) planning for adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and finally, (6) generating an evaluation plan to measure program effectiveness. Teacher's implementation behavior was characterized by inconsistently selecting parts of the program and not delivering (all) lessons as intended by program developers. Teachers, however, did not perceive this behavior as problematic, revealing the discrepancy between teacher's actual and perceived need for support in delivering Long Live Love lessons with completeness and fidelity. Teachers did, however, acknowledge different difficulties they encountered which could potentially negatively influence the quality of implementation. With the IM protocol, this Web-based coaching intervention was developed based on a concept
Kok, Gerjo; Meijer, Suzanne; Mevissen, Fraukje EF
Background Full program implementation is crucial for effectiveness but is often overlooked or insufficiently considered during development of behavioral change interventions. For school-based health promotion programs, teachers are key players in program implementation, but teacher support in this phase is mostly limited to technical support and information. To ensure optimal implementation of the Dutch school-based sexual health program Long Live Love, a Web-based coaching website was developed to support teachers in completeness and fidelity of program implementation. Objective The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the process of systematic development of a Web-based coaching intervention to support teachers in their implementation of a school-based sexual health program. Methods The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was applied for the development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention. The IM process begins with (1) a needs assessment, followed by (2) the formulation of change objectives, (3) the selection of theory-based intervention methods and practical applications that take the parameters for effectiveness into consideration, (4) integration of practical applications into an organized program, (5) planning for adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and finally, (6) generating an evaluation plan to measure program effectiveness. Results Teacher’s implementation behavior was characterized by inconsistently selecting parts of the program and not delivering (all) lessons as intended by program developers. Teachers, however, did not perceive this behavior as problematic, revealing the discrepancy between teacher’s actual and perceived need for support in delivering Long Live Love lessons with completeness and fidelity. Teachers did, however, acknowledge different difficulties they encountered which could potentially negatively influence the quality of implementation. With the IM protocol, this Web-based coaching
A workshop for Australian nursing students used simulation to impart information about illicit drug use and enhance nurses' ability to care for patients who use drugs. Simulations challenged attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes and expanded students' knowledge about health promotion and patient care. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)
Chng, Chwee Lye
Values clarification is widely used in drug education programs. Criticisms are offered on the role of content in valuing, the position of ethical relativism, the danger of indoctrination, and the social pressure to conform. (Author)
Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie
Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation
Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera
This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…
Aham-Chiabuotu, Chidimma B.; Aja, Godwin N.
There is limited data on the implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Nigerian schools. This study explored In-School adolescents' perspectives on the implementation and utility of the Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum, using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Findings reveal that sexuality education in schools…
Pierce, Lawrence C.
School-based management is an educational reform intended to reverse the trend toward increasing centralization of school administration. Though it has been claimed that centralization increases financial and educational equity, aids efficiency, and eases administration, examination of these claims reveals them to be based too often on incomplete,…
Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle
This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…
Dudley, Dean A.; Pearson, Phil; Okely, Anthony D.; Cotton, Wayne G.
Physical activity affords a host of physical and cognitive benefits for children. Physical education classes are one such venue where children can reap recommended amounts of physical activity. However, little research has explored evidence-based physical education instruction, particularly in culturally and linguistically diverse schools. No…
Rochmes, Jane E.
Health and education are reciprocally related, and research indicates that unhealthy students are poorly positioned to learn. Providing services that prevent health problems or help students cope with existing health concerns is one way that schools intervene in the relationship between student background and educational outcomes. Providing health…
ABRAMS, D; SHEERAN, P; ABRAHAM, C; SPEARS, R
A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in
One hundred and ninety-one parents attending an urban, community college were surveyed about what topics schools should teach their children about sexuality education, and how they communicate with their child about sexuality topics. The quantitative data was collected using a "School Sexuality Education Questionnaire" (SSEQ), and the "Parenting…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study seeks to extend earlier Australian school drug education research by developing and measuring the effectiveness of a comprehensive, evidence-based, harm reduction focused school drug education program for junior secondary students aged 13 to 15 years. The intervention draws on the recent literature as to the common elements in effective school curriculum. It seeks to incorporate the social influence of parents through home activities. It also emphasises the use of appropriate pedagogy in the delivery of classroom lessons. Methods/Design A cluster randomised school drug education trial will be conducted with 1746 junior high school students in 21 Victorian secondary schools over a period of three years. Both the schools and students have actively consented to participate in the study. The education program comprises ten lessons in year eight (13-14 year olds and eight in year nine (14-15 year olds that address issues around the use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs. Control students will receive the drug education normally provided in their schools. Students will be tested at baseline, at the end of each intervention year and also at the end of year ten. A self completion questionnaire will be used to collect information on knowledge, patterns and context of use, attitudes and harms experienced in relation to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drug use. Multi-level modelling will be the method of analysis because it can best accommodate hierarchically structured data. All analyses will be conducted on an Intent-to-Treat basis. In addition, focus groups will be conducted with teachers and students in five of the 14 intervention schools, subsequent to delivery of the year eight and nine programs. This will provide qualitative data about the effectiveness of the lessons and the relevance of the materials. Discussion The benefits of this drug education study derive both from the knowledge
Full Text Available
Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....
Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.
Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the
Shannon, Barrie; Smith, Stephen J.
Sexuality education in Australian schools continues to struggle in its ability and willingness to address many of the broader social issues associated with sexuality, such as the needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, intersex and queer (GLBTIQ) students. Studies involving teachers have demonstrated that a reticence on their part to teach…
Moriarty, Susan; Brown, Suzanne Robben
This case report describes the impact of the post-professional doctor of physical therapy curriculum on the role of one physical therapist employed as a special education related service provider. Physical therapists working in the public school setting play an important role in promoting success for students with physical disabilities as…
Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna
This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…
Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and
Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene
Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships
Rasberry, Catherine N; Condron, D Susanne; Lesesne, Catherine A; Adkins, Susan Hocevar; Sheremenko, Ganna; Kroupa, Elizabeth
With HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates disproportionately high among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM), it is important to understand how school-based sexual health education may relate to sexual risk-related behavior among this population. This analysis explores reported HIV/AIDS- and condom-related education and sexual risk-related behaviors among ASMM and their adolescent non-sexual-minority male (non-ASMM) peers. Students (n = 11,681) from seven Florida high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires. A matched analytic sample of ASMM and non-ASMM students was created by using propensity score-matching techniques (n = 572). Logistic regressions controlling for individual and school characteristics examined reporting having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school, having been taught in school about using condoms, condom use at last sex, HIV/STD testing, and associations between these variables. Compared with matched non-ASMM peers, ASMM students were less likely to report having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, P = 0.04) and having used a condom at last sex (OR = 0.39, P condoms. Among non-ASMM, reporting having been taught in school about using condoms was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last sex (OR = 4.78, P education and differential associations between condom-related education and condom use in ASMM and non-ASMM suggest that sexual health education in schools may not be resonating with ASMM and non-ASMM in the same way.
This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse. 192 adolescents comprising of male and females, randomly selected from two secondary schools and a university were used as sample with ages ranging from 12-22years with a mean of 17years. The questionnaire ...
Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.
Examined effects of mixed affective-cognitive drug education program on rural northern Michigan and northeastern Wisconsin sixth and seventh graders' (N=265) substance use health beliefs and behaviors. Alcohol use in this population was determined to be much higher than national average for similar age groups while marijuana, cigarette, and…
Mahomva, Chengetai; Harris, Sue; Seebran, Narvanie; Mudge, Bridget; Catlin, Brian; Davies, Louise
Currently few children with tracheostomies attend rural mainstreams schools in South Africa limiting their ability to gain an education. We sought to document the current school experience for the few children attending school who have tracheostomies and devise educational tools for teachers and administrators that will facilitate greater acceptance and safety in classrooms for this population. The four patients that are currently attending school with a tracheostomy were identified from the patient records of a tertiary hospital with a pediatric tracheostomy home based care service. With the aid of a Zulu language translator, the mothers and classroom teachers completed a semi structured interview and closed item questionnaire in their home and school, respectively. Schools were visited to understand and describe the settings in which the children and their teachers were being asked to function. Tools for education were developed in conjunction with key stakeholders at schools already hosting such children. The key teacher-identified barriers to enrollment were: teacher unfamiliarity with tracheostomies, uncertainty about the school's liability, and concerns about the response of other children. The safety barriers identified were: greater than 60 children per classroom - limiting teacher's ability to attend to the child with a tracheostomy, lack of running water, pit latrines separate from school threatening hygiene and isolating the child when they leave to use the latrines & sandy classrooms which can result in sand entering the airway. Identified needs for successful school placement include providing tracheostomy supplies and suctioning equipment, hand hygiene materials and training teachers in: identification of respiratory distress, performance of emergency tracheostomy changes, CPR. Children with tracheostomies could likely successfully attend South African rural mainstream public schools with a training program for teachers. As a first step, an
Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay
Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme’s effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation ...
Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Sylvester A Mwidunda
Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and
Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia
Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…
Nir, Adam E.; Miran, Meir
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) affects schools' incomes and educational equity? Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of financial reports coming from 31 SBM schools during a period of four sequential years reveals that the overall inequity among schools has…
Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.
School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…
In Canada, school-based decision making is a political expedient to co-opt public support for public education at the same time as financial resources to schools are being curtailed. School councils are advisory in nature and have no statutory position in either school or school-system decisions. (17 references) (MLF)
Deray, Raffy; Rivera, Cesar; Gripon, Shiela; Ulanday, Corazon; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Amparo, Anna Charinna; Attlan, Michael; Demont, Clarisse; Kieffer, Alexia; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth
Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions. A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Data on animal bite incidence from the study cohort were compared to that obtained from a review of consultation records at the Animal Bite Treatment Center (ABTC). PrEP was offered to children in all 27 public elementary schools in El Nido (in January to February 2012). Teachers were given a manual for integrating rabies in the public elementary school curriculum during the school year 2012-13. Active surveillance of the cohort revealed a higher incidence of suspect rabies exposures than that from passive surveillance. Despite a decrease in the number of Category III bites, there was no significant decrease in overall bite incidence as a result of the interventions. However, there was an increase in rabies awareness among school children in all grade levels. There was also a high level of acceptability of PrEP. Children who received PrEP and subsequently were bitten only needed two booster doses for post-exposure prophylaxis, resulting in substantial cost-savings. The true burden of animal bites remains underestimated in ABTC records. PrEP is advantageous in selected population groups, i.e. school-aged children in rabies endemic areas with limited access to animal and human rabies prevention services. Educating school children is beneficial. Strengthening veterinary interventions to target the disease at source is important.
The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
The objective of this review is to identify the best available quantitative evidence related to the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to18 years with a diagnosis of asthma. Asthma is a serious public health issue globally and nationally. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Asthma Report 2014 estimates that 334 million people worldwide currently suffer from asthma. In the United States, asthma currently affects about 25 million people. Although asthma can occur at any age, it most often begins early in life, and is the most common non-communicable disease among children. Approximately 14% of the world's children have asthma. In the United States, 7.1 million children have asthma. Globally, the burden of asthma, measured by disability and premature death, is greatest in children approaching adolescence (ages 10-14). Asthma is also a serious economic concern in primary health care worldwide. In the United States, the estimated total cost of asthma to society was US$56 billion in 2007, or US$3259 per person. In 2008 asthma caused 10.5 million missed days from school and 14.2 missed days from work for caregivers. The estimated total cost of loss of productivity resulting from missed school or work days is US$3.8 billion per year, and premature death US$2.1 billion per year. Globally, asthma ranks 14 in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the number of years lost to ill health, disability or death attributed to asthma. According to a 2011 European study, the estimated total cost of asthma was €19.3 billion among people aged 15 to 64 years. A study conducted in the Asia-Pacific region reported that the direct and indirect costs of asthma per person ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1189in Hong Kong in 2000. A Canadian study showed that C$184 loss of productivity during one week was attributed to asthma in 2012. In Australia, AU
Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn
To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P blood glucose (P blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager may...
Aikins, Ross D.
The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over…
Holt, Sheryl L; Kuperstein, Janice; Effgen, Susan K
Surveys have reported that most school-based physical therapists perceive ideal practices are not commonly implemented in their settings. Our aim was to obtain a more in-depth understanding of these perceptions through open-ended inquiry. Qualitative data were derived from voluntary open-ended responses provided upon completion of a survey regarding school-based physical therapy practice. Of the survey's 561 participants, 250 provided open-ended commentaries that were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Six qualitative themes emerged from the open-ended responses, including: In quest: Meeting students' school-based needs via physical therapy; Seeking relatedness: Finding working teams in the school system; Building understanding: Developing a voice/identity in the school context; Stretched beyond limits: Managing workloads; Networking: Coordinating services outside school to meet student needs; Defying definition: What does working in an educational model mean? School-based physical therapists seek to meet educationally relevant physical therapy needs of students, ages 3 to 21 years. Successes appear woven of a multitude of factors such as therapist expertise, team dynamics, and district supports.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.304A. ACTION... the Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program. The notice stated that a list...
Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth
Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…
Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N
The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo
School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.
Deogan, Charlotte; Zarabi, Natalie; Stenström, Nils; Högberg, Pi; Skärstrand, Eva; Manrique-Garcia, Edison; Neovius, Kristian; Månsdotter, Anna
Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug globally. Despite increasing evidence that cannabis use is associated with adverse health effects, the knowledge on preventative strategies is still limited. This study stemmed from a systematic review of effective prevention in which school-based programmes were identified as promising. The primary objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of Project ALERT (Adolescent, Learning, Experiences, Resistance, and Training), compared with ordinary ATOD (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug) education, among Swedish students in the eighth grade of compulsory school. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as an outcome (willingness-to-pay threshold €50,000) and follow-up periods from 1 year to a lifetime, considering a discounting rate of 3%, and with costs inflated to 2013 levels. A Markov model was constructed on the basis of the 'states' of single use, regular use, daily use and use of other illicit drugs, which were associated with 'complications' of psychosis, schizophrenia, traffic accidents, depression and amotivational syndrome. Health and cost consequences were linked to both states and complications. The programme was cost saving on the basis of evidence from the USA (ratio 1:1.1), and was cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio €22,384 per QALY) after reasonable adjustment for the Swedish context and with 20 years of follow-up. When the target group was restricted to boys who were neither studying nor working/doing work experience, the programme was cost effective after 9 years and cost saving (ratio 1:3.2) after 20 years. School-based prevention such as Project ALERT has the potential to be cost effective and to be cost saving if implemented in deprived areas. In the light of the shifting landscape regarding legalization of cannabis, it seems rational to continue the health economic analysis of prevention initiated
Thomas, R; Perera, R
Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and
Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal
Stanger, Jeffrey J.
The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…
Many educators advocate school-based management, a method of decentralization wherein the school, instead of the district office, becomes the primary unit of educational decision-making. This shift is part of American education's long-term oscillation between administrative centralization and decentralization. Centralization, say its critics, has…
Echávarri, Jaime; Peraza, Cecilia
In this paper we analyze the evolution of the teacher assessment policy and the origins of school-based management initiatives in the Mexican education context from the late 1980s until the last 2012-2013 Education Reform (RE2012-2013). Mexico joined the Global Education Reform Movement during the 1990s through the National Agreement for the…
Carlos Alberto Conrado
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of a school-based oral health educational strategy adopted in public primary schools from the city of Maringa, State of Parana, Brazil. The study sample was composed by 556 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, 124 schoolteachers and a group of 55 mothers. The educational approach was implemented for 18 months and consisted of reinforcements of interventions addressed to students and schoolteachers at school level and few activities targeted at the mothers, performed by means of home visits. Baseline and follow-up interviews focused on oral health care were undertaken for the entire study population. As a stimulus for the students to achieve proper oral hygiene habits, the simplified oral hygiene index was assessed at three different moments. A statistically significant improvement in their oral hygiene index (pO principal propósito deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados preliminares de uma estratégia educacional baseada em escolas sobre saúde bucal adotada em escolas públicas de ensino fundamental da cidade de Maringá, estado do Paraná, Brasil. A amostra de estudo foi composta por 556 crianças e adolescentes entre 6 e 17 anos de idade, 124 professoras e um grupo de 55 mães. A abordagem educacional foi implementada por um período de 18 meses e consistiu de reforços das intervenções educativas dirigidas aos estudantes e professores a nível escolar e de poucas atividades tendo como alvo as mães, desenvolvidas através de visitas domiciliares. Entrevistas iniciais e de acompanhamento focando cuidados em saúde bucal foram realizadas com toda a população de estudo. Como um estímulo aos estudantes para assumirem hábitos apropriados de higiene bucal, o índice de higiene oral simplificado foi avaliado em três diferentes momentos. Uma melhora estatisticamente significante em seus índices de higiene oral (p< 0,001 foi registrada. Os resultados alcan
School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? : exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings
Luyten, Johannes W.; Dolkar, Dechen
This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE)
Casciotti, Dana; Smith, Katherine C.; Andon, Lindsay; Vernick, Jon; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C.
BACKGROUND In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based HPV vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005-2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages, and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. PMID:25099421
Background: Patient safety is a key concern for nurses; ability to calculate drug ... Specific objectives were to assess learning from targeted teaching, to identify problem areas in perfor- .... this could result in reduced risk of drug dose error in.
Carliner, Hannah; Sarvet, Aaron L; Gordon, Allegra R; Hasin, Deborah S
While gender inequality has been a topic of concern for decades, little is known about the relationship between gender discrimination and illicit drug use. Further, whether this association varies by education level is unknown. Among 19,209 women participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used logistic regression to test the association between gender discrimination (measured with four items from the Experiences of Discrimination instrument) and three outcomes: past-year illicit drug use, frequent drug use, and drug use disorders. We then tested whether associations differed by education level. Gender discrimination was reported by 9% of women and was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-3.29], frequent drug use (aOR = 2.82; CI 1.99-4.00), and past-year drug use disorders (aOR = 3.15; CI 2.16-4.61). All specific domains of gender discrimination (on the job, in public, with institutions, being called a sexist name) were associated with all drug use outcomes. The association between gender discrimination and past-year drug use was stronger among women with less than a high school education (aOR = 6.33; CI 3.38-11.85) compared to those with more education (aOR = 2.45; CI 1.97-3.04; p interaction Gender discrimination is consistently and strongly associated with illicit drug use and drug use disorders among U.S. women, with significantly higher odds for drug use among women with less than a high school education. Future research should examine whether explicitly addressing distress from discrimination could benefit women in drug treatment, especially among clients with lower educational attainment.
Grant, John A.
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob
The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.
School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…
Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Paquin, Thomas F.
The superintendent of Saint Pauls Schools describes how educators, community leaders, businesspersons, and high school students worked together to develop the Way Off Broadway Deli, a successful school-based enterprise providing experiential education in entrepreneurship and small business management, as well as student employment and local…
Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.
Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…
Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C
Serious educational games (SEG) have been shown to be effective in educating young people about a range of topics, including languages and maths. This paper identifies the use of computerised SEGs in education about alcohol and other drugs and reviews their impact on the prevention of alcohol and drug use. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, psychINFO, pubMED and DRUG databases were searched in February 2013. Additional publications were obtained from the reference lists of the relevant papers. Studies were included if they described an evaluation of a computerised SEG that targeted alcohol and/or other drugs and had been trialled with adolescents. Eight SEGs were identified targeting tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine, ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine and opioids. Six reported positive outcomes in terms of increased content knowledge and two reported increased negative attitudes towards the targeted drugs. Only one reported a decrease in the frequency of drug use. This is the first review of the efficacy of computerised SEGs for alcohol and other drugs for adolescents. Results suggest that SEGs can increase content knowledge of alcohol and other drugs. Evidence concerning impacts on negative attitudes and alcohol and drug use is limited, with few studies examining these outcomes. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Yolles, Stanley F.
This article emphasizes the need to prepare youth to make decisions about drug use. To do this it is essential to eliminate hypocrisy about the use of marihuana, to "infuse" the curriculum with drug information and to provide students with realistic learning experiences. (Author)
Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.
Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…
Bauer, Anne M.
This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This directory lists academic institutions, State offices of alcohol and drug abuse, and national organizations which offer drug, alcohol, and employee assistance program (EAP) educational resources. A matrix format is used. Entries include name, address, telephone number, and contact person. A dot appears directly under column headings which are…
Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.
Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…
Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H
An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the disproportionate prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among drug users, many remain uninformed or misinformed about the virus. Drug treatment programs are important sites of opportunity for providing HCV education to their patients, and many programs do, in fact, offer this education in a variety of formats. Little is known, however, about the level of HCV knowledge among drug treatment program patients, and the extent to which they utilize their programs' HCV education services. Methods Using data collected from patients (N = 280 in 14 U.S. drug treatment programs, we compared patients who reported that they never injected drugs (NIDUs with past or current drug injectors (IDUs concerning their knowledge about HCV, whether they used HCV education opportunities at their programs, and the facilitators and barriers to doing so. All of the programs were participating in a research project that was developing, implementing, and evaluating a staff training to provide HCV support to patients. Results Although IDUs scored higher on an HCV knowledge assessment than NIDUs, there were many gaps in HCV knowledge among both groups of patients. To address these knowledge gaps, all of the programs offered at least one form of HCV education: all offered 1:1 sessions with staff, 12 of the programs offered HCV education in a group format, and 11 of the programs offered this education through pamphlets/books. Only 60% of all of the participating patients used any of their programs' HCV education services, but those who did avail themselves of these HCV education opportunities generally assessed them positively. In all, many patients were unaware that HCV education was offered at their programs through individual sessions with staff, group meetings, and books/pamphlets, (42%, 49%, and 46% of the patients, respectively, and 22% were unaware that any HCV education opportunities existed. Conclusion Efforts especially need
Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal
Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.
Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered
Donohue, Julie M; Fischer, Michael A; Huskamp, Haiden A; Weissman, Joel S
To estimate potential savings associated with the Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs program, a national educational program that provides consumers with price and effectiveness information on prescription drugs. National data on 2006 prescription sales and retail prices paid for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-coA) reductase inhibitors (statins). We converted national data on aggregate unit sales of drugs in the four classes to defined daily doses (DDD) and estimated a range of potential savings from generic and therapeutic substitution. We estimated that $2.76 billion, or 7.83 percent of sales, could be saved if use of the drugs recommended by the educational program was increased. The recommended drugs' prices were 15-65 percent lower per DDD than their therapeutic alternatives. The majority (57.4 percent) of potential savings would be achieved through therapeutic substitution. Substantial savings can be achieved through greater use of comparatively effective and lower cost drugs recommended by a national consumer education program. However, barriers to dissemination of consumer-oriented drug information must be addressed before savings can be realized. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTDescribing drug treatment given by general practitioners, and quantifying changes in their prescribingbehaviour due to educational intervention, were important parts of the method developed and appliedby the European Drug Education Project. Based on the physicians’ prescription data, individual patientswere defined as having either asthma or urinary tract infections. Prescribing indicators were establishedfor assessing the quality (acceptable or unacceptable of the drug treatment. The diagnose definitionsand prescribing indicators are discussed in more detail in relation to feeding back individual prescribingdata to educational groups of physicians to improve the quality of their drug therapy.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...
Bilge, S. Sırrı; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Özlem, Mıdık
Objectives: Irrational drug use results in drug interactions, treatment noncompliance, and drug resistance. Rational pharmacotherapy education is being implemented in many faculties of medicine. Our aim is to introduce rational pharmacotherapy education by clinicians and to evaluate task-based rational drug therapy education in the clinical context. Methods: The Kirkpatrick's evaluation model was used for the evaluation of the program. The participants evaluated the program in terms of constituents of the program, utilization, and contribution to learning. Voluntary participants responded to the evaluation forms after the educational program. Data are evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative tools. SPSS (version 21) used for quantitative data for determining mean and standard deviation values. Descriptive qualitative analysis approach is used for the analysis of open-ended questions. Results: It was revealed that the program and its components have been favorable. A total 95.9% of the students consider the education to be beneficial. Simulated patients practice and personal drug choice/problem-based learning sessions were appreciated by the students in particular. 93.9% of the students stated that all students of medicine should undergo this educational program. Among the five presentations contained in the program, “The Principles of Prescribing” received the highest points (9 ± 1.00) from participating students in general evaluation of the educational program. Conclusion: This study was carried out to improve task-based rational drug therapy education. According to feedback from the students concerning content, method, resource, assessment, and program design; some important changes, especially in number of facilitators and indications, are made in rational pharmacotherapy education in clinical task-based learning program. PMID:28458432
Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K
Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary
This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy. ... South African Journal of Education ... study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy.
Demsko, Tobin W.
School-based health clinics, adolescent pregnancy prevention programs offering comprehensive health services, represent the latest initiative to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University designed and administered a pregnancy prevention program which offered sexuality education and family planning services…
This evidence-based project provided a professional development opportunity for educators to enhance the awareness of school-based occupational therapy and promote a collaborative approach when supporting student participation in daily learning tasks. Through asynchronous web-based delivery, participants viewed five narrated PowerPoint…
Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee
In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…
Steele, Annfrid R.
There is an increased focus in teacher education on research-based teaching as a means to develop a more research-based professional knowledge. However, research from several Western countries shows that neither school-based nor university-based teachers are familiar with how to integrate research-based knowledge in professional teacher practice.…
Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.; Shen, Sa; Hillman, Charles H.; McLoughlin, Gabriella
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is the most accurate predictor of academic performance in US schools. Third-grade reading is highly predictive of high school graduation. Chronic physical activity (PA) is shown to improve cognition and academic performance. We hypothesized that school-based PA opportunities (recess and physical education)…
Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy
School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…
Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey
Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…
Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.; Coster, Daniel C.
Objective: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. Design: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. Setting: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. Participants: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group…
Mokoena, Sello; Machaisa, Rebotile
In this multi-case qualitative study the degree to which school-based decision-making (SBDM) is understood and conceptualised by the members of school governing bodies (SGBs)--educators, chairpersons of SGBs, principals, and learner representative councils-as well the extent to which decisions were shared among the various groups represented on…
Rauniar, G P; Das, B P; Manandhar, T R; Bhattacharya, S K
Irrational use of drugs as well as inappropriate and over drug prescribing leads to unnecessary expenditures and emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Feedback intervention on drug prescribing habits and face to face educational intervention of prescription audit would be effective in rationalizing prescribing practices. To measure the impact of educational feedback intervention on the prescribing behavior of dental surgeons. Prospective audit of twelve hundred outpatients prescriptions in dental OPD at BPKIHS of those dental surgeon who attended the educational intervention session was collected randomly by trained persons on customized data collection sheet before and after educational intervention. A total 1200 prescription were collected, 300 before and 300 after intervention period at the internal of one month, three months and six months. Majority of the prescriptions (39.33%) contained four drugs but after intervention, prescriptions contained mostly one drug, 73% in first month, 78.67% in third month and 65.34% in six month. Mean number of drugs per prescription after intervention were decreased. There was increased number of generic names of drugs after intervention. Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Chlorhexidine, Povidone iodine gargle, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ibuprofen + paracetamol, and Paracetamol were most commonly prescribed by dental prescribers before and after intervention. Selection of antimicrobial was done on empirical basis which was correct because Amoxicillin concentration reaches effectively in gingival crevicular fluid and Metronidazole covered effectively against anaerobic bacteria were found in orodental infection. The uses of topical anti-infective preparation as irrigants of choice that can kill majority of micro-organisms found is root canal and dental tubules and minimize systemic use of antimicrobials. Nimesulide prescribing needs to be rationalized. Feedback educational intervention of prescription audit is effective to improve their
Virolainen, M.; Persson Thunqvist, D.
The Nordic countries are often referred to as a group even though their education systems and training models are very different. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of those differences and compare the developments and organisation of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Finland and Sweden since the 1990s as examples…
Dash, Deepa; Sebastian, Teenu Mary; Aggarwal, Meena; Tripathi, Manjari
This study was conducted to observe the effect of a structured educational program on drug adherence and self-care management in people with epilepsy in a developing country. A total of 180 consecutive people with epilepsy were enrolled from the epilepsy clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Out of these, 90 were randomized to the epilepsy health education group and received the educational program and 90 were in the control group and received the standard of care but did not receive any structured educational program. The modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and Epilepsy Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) were administered to assess drug adherence and self-care, respectively, on the day of enrollment. The patients enrolled in the epilepsy health education group received 4 sessions of the structured educational program. The MMAS and ESES questionnaires were again administered to both groups after 6months. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between control and epilepsy health education groups using a chi-square test, with p value less than 0.05 considered significant. A comparison between pretest and posttest MMAS scores and ESES scores was done using a paired t-test. In the epilepsy health education group, the pretest mean MMAS score was 6.58 whereas the posttest mean MMAS score was 7.53; the difference was significant (p=0.001). The mean MMAS scores for the control group's pretest and posttest were 6.46 and 6.58, respectively, which were not significantly different (p=0.224). On comparing the ESES scores at the beginning of the study and after 6months, there was no significant change in both groups. The present study proves the efficacy of a structured educational program in improving drug adherence in a cohort of people with epilepsy with low educational background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I
Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…
Belizario, V Y; Totañes, F I G; de Leon, W U; Matias, K M H
We evaluated the effect of a local government unit-led, school-based, teacher-assisted mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) on the morbidity of school children in selected provinces of western Visayas, the Philippines. Parasitological assessment was done on stool samples using the Kato-Katz technique. Nutritional status and school performance were also evaluated using secondary data from the Department of Education. The overall prevalence of STH decreased from 71.1% to 44.3% (p < 0.0001) and the prevalence of heavy infection with STH decreased from 40.5% to 14.5% (p < 0.0001), after two years of biannual MDA. The prevalence of underweight children decreased from 26.2% to 17.8% (p < 0.0001) and the prevalence of stunted children decreased from 20.9% to 16.6% (p < 0.0001) after two years of biannual MDA. School performance improved on standardized testing from a mean percentage of 53.8% to 64.6%. Advocacy, social mobilization, strong local government support and intersectoral collaboration with other agencies probably contributed to the success of the program.
Stapinski, Lexine A; Reda, Bill; Newton, Nicola C; Lawler, Siobhan; Rodriguez, Daniel; Chapman, Catherine; Teesson, Maree
Learning is most effective when it is active, enjoyable and incorporates feedback. Past research demonstrates that serious games are prime candidates to utilise these principles, however the potential benefits of this approach for delivering drug education are yet to be examined in Australia, a country where drug education in schools is mandatory. The serious game 'Pure Rush' was developed across three stages. First, formative consultation was conducted with 115 students (67% male, aged 15-17 years), followed by feasibility and acceptability testing of a prototype of the game (n = 25, 68% male). In the final stage, 281 students (62% female, aged 13-16 years) were randomly allocated to receive a lesson involving Pure Rush or an active control lesson. The lessons were compared in terms of learning outcomes, lesson engagement and future intentions to use illicit drugs. Students enjoyed playing Pure Rush, found the game age-appropriate and the information useful to them. Both the Pure Rush and the active control were associated with significant knowledge increase from pre to post-test. Among females, multi-level mixed-effects regression showed knowledge gain was greater in the Pure Rush condition compared to control (β = 2.36, 95% confidence interval 0.36-4.38). There was no evidence of between condition differences in lesson engagement or future intentions to use illicit drugs. Pure Rush is an innovative online drug education game that is well received by students and feasible to implement in schools. [Stapinski LA, Reda B, Newton NC, Lawler S, Rodriguez D, Chapman C, Teesson M. Development and evaluation of 'Pure Rush': An online serious game for drug education. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
The data presented by Joel Weissman and colleagues and by Robert Dubois do not justify the conclusions that the effects of pharmaceutical promotion are beneficial. Among consumers of direct-to-consumer advertising (Weissman and colleagues), those heavily influenced by such promotion were no more likely than others were to have new conditions diagnosed or confirmed and were much less likely to have laboratory studies ordered or lifestyle changes recommended. A second study (Dubois) arguing that drug advertising improves the appropriateness of prescribing relies on unconvincing ecological arguments. A greater presence of noncommercial, public health-oriented communication would make a more useful and cost-effective impact on the nation's health.
Full Text Available Background Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students. Patients and Methods This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003. In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P 0.05. Conclusions Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.
Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.
Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.
This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
This article analyses the relationship between cannabis use and educational trajectories among 42 young drug users, recruited at addiction treatment centres in Denmark. Quantitative research shows regular cannabis use to be associated with poor school performance and drop-out. However, these studies do not pay much attention to differences between…
Provides a brief history of 3,4-ethylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Presents a summation of current findings and implications including MDMA in drug education. Examines typical dosage, effects, user profile, and therapeutic aspects. Calls for increased research to address the lack of formal scientific data regarding the nature and effects of…
Alkhamis, Ahmed; Matheson, Catriona; Bond, Christine
Aims: To provide baseline data regarding GPs' knowledge, experience, and attitudes toward the management of PsychoStimulant Drug Misuse (PSDM) patients to inform future education and training initiatives. Methods: A structured cross-sectional postal questionnaire was developed following initial content setting interviews, piloted then sent to a…
Schwalbe, Michelle Kristin
This dissertation has two primary concerns: (i) evaluating the uncertainty and prediction capabilities of a nanodiamond drug delivery model using Bayesian calibration and bias correction, and (ii) determining conceptual difficulties of multi-scale analysis from an engineering education perspective. A Bayesian uncertainty quantification scheme…
Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Lester, Leanne; Cahill, Helen; Mitchell, Johanna; Foxcroft, David R.; Venning, Lynne
The Drug Education in Victorian Schools program provided integrated education about licit and illicit drugs, employed a harm minimization approach that incorporated participatory, critical thinking and skill-based teaching methods, and engaged parental influence through home activities. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was…
Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen
The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…
Oosterhoff, Marije; Bosma, Hans; van Schayck, Onno C P; Joore, Manuela A
A uniform approach for costing school-based lifestyle interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a template for costing primary school-based lifestyle interventions and apply this to the costing of the "Healthy Primary School of the Future" (HPSF) and the "Physical Activity School" (PAS), which aim to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors. Cost-effectiveness studies were reviewed to identify the cost items. Societal costs were reflected by summing up the education, household and leisure, labor and social security, and health perspectives. Cost inputs for HPSF and PAS were obtained for the first year after implementation. In a scenario analysis, the costs were explored for a hypothetical steady state. From a societal perspective, the per child costs were €2.7/$3.3 (HPSF) and €- 0.3/$- 0.4 (PAS) per day during the first year after implementation, and €1.0/$1.2 and €- 1.3/$- 1.6 in a steady state, respectively (2016 prices). The highest costs were incurred by the education perspective (first year: €8.7/$10.6 (HPSF) and €4.0/$4.9 (PAS); steady state: €6.1/$7.4 (HPSF) and €2.1/$2.6 (PAS)), whereas most of the cost offsets were received by the household and leisure perspective (first year: €- 6.0/$- 7.3 (HPSF) and €- 4.4/$- 5.4 (PAS); steady state: €- 5.0/$- 6.1 (HPSF) and €- 3.4/$- 4.1 (PAS)). The template proved helpful for costing HPSF and PAS from various stakeholder perspectives. The costs for the education sector were fully (PAS) and almost fully (HPSF) compensated by the savings within the household sector. Whether the additional costs of HPSF over PAS represent value for money will depend on their relative effectiveness.
Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.
Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo
This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months Pbehavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Muhammad Tisna Nugraha
Full Text Available This paper raises the issue of the death penalty for drug-crime actors in Islamic education perspective, especially when the President Joko Widodo refused to pardon the actors at the beginning of his reign. Although the execution was likely contrary to the wishes of human right instigators, but on the other hand, such punishment is one vehicle in providing education to the citizens as well as the efforts to actualize the law enforcement in Indonesia. The implementation of the death sentence does not touch directly the scope of formal education in Indonesia. However, this is where the emerging hope and the search for enlightenment of such punishment is seen from the eyes of Islamic education which has applied the concept of reward and punishment in its system. Thus, through this paper, it is expected that educators can assist in bridging the imposition of a death sentence as an attempt to form good citizens.
Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju
To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... to achieve its statutory roles, objectives and aspirations. We suggest that the adoption of School-based management by way of increasing the principals' sphere of influence would facilitate effective service delivery in schools. Keywords: school-based management, principals' effectiveness, public secondary schools.
The study examined community participation in the School-Based Management Committees (SBMC), the challenges hindering participation, and strategies for fostering efficacy of the School Based Management Committee. The number 340 schools were selected from the population of 2543 public primary schools in ...
Neal, Richard G.
This book examines school-based management and provides strategies to implement management changes. The 14 chapters examine the components of good schools, including clarity of purpose, leadership, professionalism, lack of bureaucratic control, competition, and choice. The text describes the components of school-based management and the need for…
Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna
The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…
Bucey, Janet C.; Provident, Ingrid M.
This article evaluates a peer mentoring experience for school-based practitioners and its effect on collaborative consultation practices. Best practice and public school policy promote the use of collaborative consultation services but school-based practitioners report significant barriers in achieving effective collaborative consultation…
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
Vialu, Carlo; Doyle, Maura
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) includes physical therapy (PT) as a related service that may be provided to help students with disabilities benefit from their education. However, the IDEA does not provide specific guidance for the provision of school-based PT, resulting in variations in practice across the United States. The authors examined 22 state and local education agency guidelines available online to find commonalities related to the determination of a student's need for PT. Seven commonalities found: educational benefit, team decision, need for PT expertise, establishment of Individualized Education Program (IEP) goal before determining need for PT, distinction between medical and educational PT, the student's disability adversely affects education, and the student's potential for improvement. These commonalities are discussed in relation to current PT and special education literature. This article suggests applying these commonalities as procedural requirements and questions for discussion during an IEP team meeting.
Scorzelli, J F
The multifaceted drug prevention education and rehabilitation system of Malaysia appears to have contributed to the steady decrease of the number of identified drug abusers in the country. In this article, those components of the Malaysian system that would be most applicable to the American effort were examined. In the same manner, because the fastest growing minority group in the United States are Asian Americans, in which a significant proportion involve persons from Southeast Asia, those components in the Malaysian system that are applicable to Southeast Asian Americans were examined.
Cecchini Marie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant
Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...
Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L
Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some
School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.
Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...
Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy
Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.
Martins, Silvia S; Kim, June H; Chen, Lian-Yu; Levin, Deysia; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Storr, Carla L
Little is known about nonmedical use of prescription drugs among non-college-attending young adults in the United States. Data were drawn from 36,781 young adults (ages 18-22 years) from the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health public use files. The adjusted main effects for current educational attainment, along with its interaction with gender and race/ethnicity, were considered. Compared to those attending college, non-college-attending young adults with at least and less than a HS degree had a higher prevalence of past-year nonmedical use of prescription opioids [NMUPO 13.1 and 13.2 %, respectively, vs. 11.3 %, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) 1.21 (1.11-1.33) and 1.25 (1.12-1.40)], yet lower prevalence of prescription stimulant use. Among users, regardless of drug type, non-college-attending youth were more likely to have past-year disorder secondary to use [e.g., NMUPO 17.4 and 19.1 %, respectively, vs. 11.7 %, aORs 1.55 (1.22-1.98) and 1.75 (1.35-2.28)]. Educational attainment interacted with gender and race: (1) among nonmedical users of prescription opioids, females who completed high school but were not enrolled in college had a significantly greater risk of opioid disorder (compared to female college students) than the same comparison for men; and (2) the risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids was negligible across educational attainment groups for Hispanics, which was significantly different than the increased risk shown for non-Hispanic whites. There is a need for young adult prevention and intervention programs to target nonmedical prescription drug use beyond college campuses.
Sarayani, Amir; Naderi-Behdani, Fahimeh; Hadavand, Naser; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Farsad, Fariborz; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah
Nurses' insufficient knowledge of adverse drug reactions is reported as a barrier to spontaneous reporting. Therefore, CE meetings could be utilized to enhance nurses' competencies. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial, 496 nurses, working in a tertiary medical center, were randomly allocated to a didactic lecture, brainstorming workshop, or the control group (delayed education). Similar instructors (2 clinical pharmacists) prepared and delivered the educational content to all 3 groups. Outcomes were declarative/procedural knowledge (primary outcome), participation rate, and satisfaction. Knowledge was evaluated using a validated researcher-made questionnaire in 3 time points: immediately before, immediately after, and 3 months after each session. Participants' satisfaction was assessed immediately after each meeting via a standard tool. Data were analyzed using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Rate of participation was 37.7% for the lecture group and 47.5% for the workshop group. The workshop participants were significantly more satisfied in comparison with the lecture group (p techniques. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Nov 28, 2016 ... sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of ... relatives aux indicateurs de résultats sur les orientations futures, ..... their biological mother.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…
Butters, Jennifer E.
Drug education programs that rely on an abstinence based philosophy neglect, and may even contribute to, the potentially adverse consequences experienced by young people who already engage in this potentially health-compromising behaviour. A predominant focus of drug research during the initial wave of rising cannabis use by young people in the…
Brindley, Sue; Bowker, Anne
As school-based action research has taken a higher profile in UK schools, the place of ethics warrants particular attention. This paper draws on evidence from a taught online Master of Education course collated via chat room discussion where 53 researching teachers were asked to explore policy within their own institution regarding school-based…
Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...
Mohammad Afkhami Aqda
Full Text Available Introduction: Higher education system in each country is mainly responsible for training specialists and efficient personnels in different levels of government. Regarding a community approach, if the system uses social factors properly, goals attainment will be facile. On the contrary, if the system is affected by common social traumas and deviations, it will result in dissonant maladroit graduated students who would trouble themselves, their family and their society. Addiction to narcotic drugs is one of the most important social traumas that is quite common in developing countries. Materials and Methods: The current descriptive analytic study has been conducted in community of Yazd University in academic year of 2010 -2011. For this purpose, 406 students of this university were selected via stratified random sampling method who responded to a researcher-made questionnaire that its validity and reliability were confirmed utilizing psychometric standards. Regarding data description, frequency indexes, percent, mean, and standard deviation were applied. Moreover, inferential tests of chi-square test and correlation coefficient of Pearson were utilized. Results: The study results revealed that approximately 21/9 percent of students were suggested the drug abuse whose rate of drug use was 25/9 percent. 34/1 percent of subjects determined their friend's homes as the most propitious place for their use and most important reasons involved respectively release of spiritual stress, inability to say "No" in response to others’ suggestion. Furthermore, students’ point of view revealed the significant effect of narcotic drugs use on education process. Any of students’ demographic variables had significant correlation with drug abuse. conclusion: since one of the most common social traumas associated with youth generation, specially college students, is addiction to narcotic drugs, that in addition to extensive economic loss, it would jeopardize their
de Crespigny, C
The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol and other drug use, including medicines, impact on the Australian community profoundly. Many Australians use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) on a regular basis and a significant number experience problems at some time. There are about 25,000 drug-related deaths annually, the majority of which are related to alcohol and tobacco use. Many young people die or are injured as a direct result of alcohol intoxication, accidental overdose and related problems, and significant numbers of elderly people are hospitalised, permanently incapacitated or suffer avoidable trauma through adverse drug reactions and side-effects of medications. It is estimated that at least 25 per cent of acute hospital beds hold patients with alcohol-related problems directly associated with the medical diagnosis, and there are comparable numbers of people needing social and other forms of assistance at some time. Despite the preventative nature of many AOD problems and the call for harm reduction, timely intervention and support for the thousands of Australians attending hospitals, community health and mental health services, nurses are yet to effectively assist the community in preventing and responding to the range of AOD problems. Nursing policy, guidelines and clinical expertise are required to assist the community in addressing this issue. Undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education have a vital role to play in providing the profession with the knowledge, skills and research base to meet this challenge.
Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Moreno, Veronica Kaune
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of adapting and implementing in La Paz, Bolivia a drug education course originally developed for use in the middle schools in the United States. On the basis of teacher and student evaluations, it was concluded that the unit is a viable, culturally relevant and effective method of drug education in the public and private schools in La Paz. Implications for the prevention of other health-related problems and for implementation of a demandreduction strategy to prevent drug abuse throughout the Americas are discussed.
Njomo, D W; Masaku, J; Mwende, F; Odhiambo, G; Musuva, R; Matey, E; Thuita, I G; Kihara, J H
In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters. To assess the local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for programme implementation, a qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in four-sub-counties of coastal region. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were administered to 40 purposively selected opinion leaders so as to explore their perceptions of awareness creation sources, adequacy of information given, length of period of awareness creation and period between which information is given and drugs are administered. Separate IDIs were administered to pre-school teachers (41), community health extension workers (34) and primary school teachers (38). To elicit more information, 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) categorized by gender and age were conducted among parents of school-age children. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed manually by study themes. The most commonly reported source of information was school pupils. Due to low literacy levels, use of posters was regarded as ineffective and religious institutions, town criers and vernacular radio stations considered more effective. The information given during programme implementation was considered inadequate and use of complementary methods to reach all targeted children including the non-enrolled, and relay adequate information reported as important. Use of school and chief's meetings with health personnel being present was mentioned as a useful method that would allow for interaction with participants indicating that they
Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana
This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.
M. Ed. (Higher Education) This study seeks to evaluate the processes used in the moderation of School-based Assessment (SBA) in Life Orientation (LO). This subject has been introduced by the Department of Education (DoE) to form part of Grade 12 exit examinations the National Curriculum Statement (NCS). SBA refers to all assessment that is conducted by teachers, and sometimes is known as internal assessment, coursework or continuous assessment...
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. METHODS: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time. Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé; de Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta; Dias, Antonio José Ribeiro; Bomtempo, Denise Birche
To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs) and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time). Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.
Ciccarelli, Marina; Portsmouth, Linda; Harris, Courtenay; Jacobs, Karen
Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. This has increased students' screen-based exposure and the potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Describe the framework for a planned school-based health promotion program to encourage healthy computing behaviours among middle school students. This planned program uses a community- based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The health promotion program is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments.
Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana
Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730
Harmon, Michele Alicia
DARE's effectiveness in Charleston County (South Carolina) was studied by comparing 341 DARE to 367 non-DARE fifth-grade students. DARE teaches students to recognize and resist social pressures to use drugs. DARE has positive impacts on anti-substance abuse attitudes, assertiveness, positive peer association, association with drug-using peers, and…
Scheen, A J
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics are two complementary disciplines which should lead the medical student, through an optimized training, to a rational prescription of drugs, ultimate and important step of the medical approach. Such a learning should occur progressively throughout the medical education, focusing, first, on the therapeutic reasoning ("why?") and, second, on the practical application leading to the prescription ("how?"). The medical student should learn the difficult task of integrating disease, drug and patient, in order to optimize the benefit/risk ratio, while being informed about new concepts such as "Evidence-Based Medicine" and pharmacoeconomics.
Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Hurwitz, Shelley; Varughese, Christy A; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena
Inpatient providers have varying levels of knowledge in managing patients with drug and/or penicillin (PCN) allergy. Our objectives were (1) to survey inpatient providers to ascertain their baseline drug allergy knowledge and preparedness in caring for patients with PCN allergy, and (2) to assess the impact of an educational program paired with the implementation of a hospital-based clinical guideline. We electronically surveyed 521 inpatient providers at a tertiary care medical center at baseline and again 6 weeks after an educational initiative paired with clinical guideline implementation. The guideline informed providers on drug allergy history taking and antibiotic prescribing for inpatients with PCN or cephalosporin allergy. Of 323 unique responders, 42% (95% CI, 37-48%) reported no prior education in drug allergy. When considering those who responded to both surveys (n = 213), we observed a significant increase in knowledge about PCN skin testing (35% vs 54%; P allergy over time (54% vs 80%; P allergy was severe significantly improved (77% vs 92%; P = .03). Other areas, including understanding absolute contraindications to receiving a drug again and PCN cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials, did not improve significantly. Inpatient providers have drug allergy knowledge deficits but are interested in tools to help them care for inpatients with drug allergies. Our educational initiative and hospital guideline implementation were associated with increased PCN allergy knowledge in several crucial areas. To improve care of inpatients with drug allergy, more research is needed to evaluate hospital policies and sustainable educational tools. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S
Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students' performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program's scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students' mental and physical health and behavior. The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school-based yoga programs may continue to grow.
Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
Context Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students’ performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. Objective The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Design Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program’s scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. Setting The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Results Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students’ mental and physical health and behavior. Conclusions The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school-based
Schiffman, Jason; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Hong, L Elliot; Reeves, Gloria
Students with emerging psychosis often experience delays in diagnosis and treatment that impact mental health and academic outcomes. School systems have tremendous potential to improve early identification and treatment of adolescent psychosis. As a community-based resource, schools can support outreach, education, and screening for adolescents with psychosis and engage identified students and their families for treatment. The concept of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP; the gap between symptom onset and treatment initiation) in adolescent psychosis and the potential role of schools in reducing DUP are reviewed. Future directions for clinical care and research needed to support school-based interventions are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D.Phil. In 2000, the incumbent Minister of Education, Professor Kader Asmal, mandated the inclusion of school based assessment (SBA) as a component of Senior Certificate (Grade 12) assessment across all examining bodies in the country. Prior to this, the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) examination was a “once off” terminal examination at the end of twelve years of schooling. The rationale for the inclusion of SBA as a component of the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) was to remove the focus fro...
Boccio, Dana E.
Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.
School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…
Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary
Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…
Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Nicholson, Joanna K.; Stoner, Julia B.
This article provides a practitioner-friendly synthesis of existing literature on family involvement in the management of dysphagia for school-age. Research reviewed includes family perspectives on programs, therapists, and characteristics that comprise effective family involvement in school-based dysphagia management programs. Also included are…
Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.
Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…
Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon
School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…
Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon
Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…
Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...
Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne
Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…
Thompson, John L.; And Others
The manual outlines the processes, policies, and actual program implementation of one component of a Minnesota program for emotionally disturbed adolescents (Project SAIL): the development of school-based therapy/intervention groups. The characteristics of SAIL students are described, and some considerations involved in providing group services…
Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M
Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…
Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter
As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.
The purpose of this study was to identify the current practice and problems of school based supervision in government primary schools of Jile Timuga Woreda of Oromia Zone. A descriptive survey design of research methodology was employed. Regarding sampling, there were 39 primary schools grouped in 10 cluster ...
Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine
Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…
Full Text Available Background: The use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs has increased tremendously, however, information on risk perception regarding the use of OTC drugs and their potential toxicity is scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of OTC drug safety and efficacy based on reading product packaging and the effect of race, education, age and income. Methods: We used the HINTS 2012 data set with total sample size of 2,554. Results: OTC drug users having some high school education had a lower chance of frequently reading information included in the product labeling with the OTC medication. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age were always likely to read drug information on the OTC drug labeling. Also, Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to read OTC drug labeling than Non-Hispanic whites. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. Conversely, OTC drug users with a high school, some college or bachelor’s degree consider OTC drugs less safe than prescription drugs. Non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and subjects of lower income were less likely to consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. OTC drug users with a high school education and some college perceive OTC drugs to be less effective than prescription drugs.Conclusion: To conclude, age, education, race, and income affect risk perception on OTC drugs. Consumer information programs need to be designed so that meaningful results can be incorporated into public policy. Providing information on the labeling of OTC drugs and likelihood of patients reading this information require further study.
Leviton, Harvey S.
This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)
Browne, Christi L.
The challenge of school-based science curriculum change and educational reform is often presented to science teachers and departments who are not necessarily prepared for the complexity of considerations that change movements require. The development of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on a science department's curriculum change efforts, may provide the necessary tools to foster sustainable school-based curriculum science changes. This research presents a case study of an evolving science department PLC consisting of 10 middle school science teachers from the same middle school and their efforts of school-based science curriculum change. A transformative mixed model case study with qualitative data and deepened by quantitative analysis, was chosen to guide the investigation. Collected data worked to document the essential developmental steps, the occurrence and frequency of the five essential dimensions of successful PLCs, and the influences the science department PLC had on the middle school science department's progression through school-based science curriculum change, and the barriers, struggles and inhibiting actions of the science department PLC. Findings indicated that a science department PLC was unique in that it allowed for a focal science departmental lens of science curriculum change to be applied to the structure and function of the PLC and therefore the process, proceedings, and results were directly aligned to and driven by the science department. The science PLC, while logically difficult to set-up and maintain, became a professional science forum where the middle school science teachers were exposed to new science teaching and learning knowledge, explored new science standards, discussed effects on student science learning, designed and critically analyzed science curriculum change application. Conclusions resulted in the science department PLC as an identified tool providing the ability for science departmental actions to lead to
Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura
Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raúl Zepeda Gil
Full Text Available The following article presents the effects of social and economic variables on the increment of violence in regional areas of Mexico, upon the intensification of drug prohibitions policies established by former President Felipe Calderon’s administration. This study involved using a data panel of homicides rates with firearms in 31 municipalities of the region of Tierra Caliente for the time period between 2006 to 2012. The results from the study help indicate that agroindustrial development, income inequality, and education rates have been effected in correlation with the increasing of homicidal rates. Also, based on the relevance of the inequality indicators of the study, it can be argued that there is a possible coincidence between the literature of civil wars and sociology of crime in that can be used to explain such cases of violence.
Yamada, Junichi; Takayanagi, Risa; Yokoyama, Haruko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sinohara, Satomi; Yamada, Yasuhiko
The educational intervention could improve knowledge about rational drug use in the junior high school. Improving knowledge about rational drug use at an early age may be a good way to increase the population's awareness of health, medicines and self-medication. To educate the rational drug use, it is desirable that the school pharmacists participate in this educational program in the junior high school. So we conducted an educational lecture by school pharmacists to promote rational drug use and self-medication in junior high school students. The study compared participant responses before and after a lecture. After the first questionnaire, we lectured the mentioned above to them. Afterward, second questionnaire was conducted. In the second questionnaire, more than 95% of the students understood the contents of the lecture to some extent. After a lecture, students who answered that 'I don't have confidence that I can buy medicines rightly by myself' decreased from 42.7% to 11.7%. And students who answered that 'I don't have confidence that I can use medicines rightly by myself' decreased from 25.2% to 12.6%. It was possible to achieve a favorable modification of attitudes to rational use of medicines in junior high school students. Continuous interventions might allow better effects and could help to fill the gap in health education of the general population.
E V Orlova
Full Text Available Objective: to assess awareness of drug and non-drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and compliance in patients before and after their participation in an education program, as well as the survival of the knowledge and the need for retraining. Subjects and methods. The study included 43 patients with RA: 23 study group patients were trained according to an education program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Health School, 20 patients formed a control group. The education program consisted of 4 daily 90-min studies. Adherence to drug and non-drug treatments was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results. In the study group, the basic therapy remained stably high (about 100% within 6 months. At 3 months after studies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be discontinued in 23.8% (p < 0.05. After 6 months, the proportion of patients using laser therapy increased by 57.1% (p < 0.01 and accounted for 47.8%; the use of electric and ultrasound treatments showed a 55.6% increase (p < 0.01 and was 60.9%. The number of patients who were compliant to the procedures for shaping a correct functional stereotype increased by 14 and 10 times following 3 and 6 months (60.9% and 43.5%, respectively; p < 0.01. After 3 months, there was a rise in the number of patients using hand ortheses by 75.0% (30.4%; p < 0.01; knee ortheses by 50.0% (39.1%; p < 0.01; individual inner soles by 71.4% (52.2%; p < 0.01; and walking sticks and crutches by 60.0% (34.8%; p < 0.01. Following 6 months, the positive changes remained only after the relative use of inner soles (60.9% and support means (34.8%; p < 0.05. The number of patients who regularly did physical activity increased by 5.3 (69.6%; р < 0.01 and 3.7 (47.8%; p < 0.01 times at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The trend in the control group was less pronounced, determining statistically significant differences between the groups in most indicators (р < 0.05. Conclusion. The education program retains high
Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…
Roy M Anderson
Full Text Available The London Declaration on neglected tropical diseases was based in part on a new World Health Organization roadmap to "sustain, expand and extend drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control by 2020". Large drug donations from the pharmaceutical industry form the backbone to this aim, especially for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs raising the question of how best to use these resources. Deworming for STHs is often targeted at school children because they are at greatest risk of morbidity and because it is remarkably cost-effective. However, the impact of school-based deworming on transmission in the wider community remains unclear.We first estimate the proportion of parasites targeted by school-based deworming using demography, school enrolment, and data from a small number of example settings where age-specific intensity of infection (either worms or eggs has been measured for all ages. We also use transmission models to investigate the potential impact of this coverage on transmission for different mixing scenarios.In the example settings <30% of the population are 5 to <15 years old. Combining this demography with the infection age-intensity profile we estimate that in one setting school children output as little as 15% of hookworm eggs, whereas in another setting they harbour up to 50% of Ascaris lumbricoides worms (the highest proportion of parasites for our examples. In addition, it is estimated that from 40-70% of these children are enrolled at school.These estimates suggest that, whilst school-based programmes have many important benefits, the proportion of infective stages targeted by school-based deworming may be limited, particularly where hookworm predominates. We discuss the consequences for transmission for a range of scenarios, including when infective stages deposited by children are more likely to contribute to transmission than those from adults.
Evans, Charlotte E L; Albar, Salwa Ali; Vargas-Garcia, Elisa J; Xu, Fei
School-based interventions are relatively new and were first introduced in the United States in the 1990s. Early programs were mainly education based with many of the findings now embedded in school policy in the form of a healthy eating curriculum. More recent school programs have taken education outside the classroom and attempted to engage parents as well as teachers. Environmental changes such as improving the quality of foods available at lunchtime and at other times during the school day are now common. Reviews of evaluations of school-based programs have demonstrated that they are effective and successfully improve dietary quality such as increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing sweet and savory snacks and sweetened drinks; not just in school but over the whole day and particularly in younger school children. School-based interventions are also effective at reducing obesity if components to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors are also targeted but not if only dietary behaviors are tackled. Most of the high-quality evaluation studies using randomized controlled trials have been carried out in high-income countries as they are costly to run. However, middle-income countries have benefitted from the information available from these evaluation studies and many are now starting to fund and evaluate school-based programs themselves, resulting in unique problems such as concomitant under- and overnutrition being addressed. Action for the future demands more focus on populations most at risk of poor dietary quality and obesity in order to reduce inequalities in health and on adolescents who have not benefited as much as younger children from school-based interventions. This will involve innovative solutions within schools as well as targeting the food environment outside schools such as reducing the density of fast-food outlets and marketing of sweet and savory snacks and drinks. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hill, Nancy E; Liang, Belle; Bravo, Diamond Y; Price, Maggi; Polk, Whitney; Perella, John; Savitz-Romer, Mandy
In the context of widespread media coverage of economic problems, un- and under-employment, and overwhelming student loan debt, youth are making sense of the prospects of getting a job and value of education. Further, they are assessing the implications of the job market in curtailing or enhancing their future success. School-based and familial relationships may support students in making sense of the job market. The current study focuses on how youth view the economy, its association with academic engagement, and how parental and school-based relationships shape views of the job market and their impact on academic engagement. With an ethnically diverse sample of high school students (N = 624; 54% female), perceptions of the job market were tested as mediators and moderators of the relations between school-based relationships and parenting on academic engagement. Using structural equation modeling, job market pessimism mediated the relation between school-based relationships and engagement. School-based relationships and parenting practices moderated the relation between job market pessimism and academic engagement. At high levels of parental and school support, interpreted as increased centrality and salience of academic success, there was a stronger negative association between job market pessimism and academic engagement. This set of findings indicates that high school students are thinking about the job market in ways that impact their engagement in school. These findings extend theories that have focused on the job market and the likelihood of dropping out of school or enrolling in post-secondary education. These findings are significant because just staying in school is not enough to succeed. With increased emphasis on college and career readiness, students are required to be more planful and purposeful during high school in order to succeed in the job market.
Hwang, Monica J; Young, Henry N
The educational value of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs hinges on its ability to convey important benefit and risk information to consumers. However, the literacy level required to understand some of the information presented in print advertisements may hinder DTCA's ability to educate consumers. The objective of this study was to compare the comprehension and retention of benefit and risk information between consumers who viewed an original print DTCA and those who viewed an advertisement modified according to health literacy principles. An experimental design was used to conduct the study. Participants were randomly assigned to view a modified print advertisement (experimental group) or the original print advertisement (control group) for an antidepressant medication. Study participants were recruited from the University of Wisconsin Kidney Clinic. Ten true-false and 10 multiple-choice questions were developed to assess participants' comprehension and retention of benefit and risk information. A total of 120 participants were randomized to view either the original or the modified version of the advertisement. Regarding the comprehension and retention of only the benefit information, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. Significant differences were observed for comprehension and retention of only the risk information. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in comprehension (U = 1224; P advertisement were successful in enhancing both consumers' comprehension and their retention of information presented in a print DTCA. This was especially apparent for the risk information. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kellams, Joni R; Maye, John P
Nurse practitioners (NPs) now have prescriptive authority for controlled substances in all 50 states in the United States. Florida, the last state to grant NPs DEA licensure, has been wrought with prescription diversion practices for a number of years as pill mills, doctor shopping, and overprescribing proliferated. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) help curb drug diversion activity and play a key role in reducing the abuse of controlled substances. The primary objective of this education improvement initiative was to increase knowledge of actively licensed NPs in the state of Florida regarding the state's PDMP. The main themes included the drug abuse problem, description and progression of the PDMP, and how to use the Florida PDMP. Upon approval from the institutional review board, this education improvement initiative gauged NP knowledge of the PDMP and main themes before and after an educational PowerPoint intervention. A pretest/posttest questionnaire was administered for assessment of all knowledge questions. One hundred forty-five NPs with active advanced registered NP licenses in Florida completed both the pretest and posttest questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were used for statistical significance testing. Knowledge of the PDMP and the main themes of the education improvement initiative significantly increased (p < .001) from pretest to posttest results. This education improvement initiative had positive effects for NPs on the knowledge of the Florida PDMP and the main themes. This indicated that Florida NPs are able to acquire greater comprehension of the PDMP by an education intervention.
Lamus, Jose Antonio Lopez; Sarmiento, Albeiro Saldana
This pamphlet describes the "San Gregorio" pilot program in Latin America, the first of its type on the continent as a program specifically for adolescent drug addicts. The Christian educative program is designed for males 12-18 years of age, who are addicted to psycho-active substances and evidence serious behavioral problems. It is…
This research examines the importance of trust in the classroom, and answers the following questions: 1) is trust important to create and maintain in the classroom? 2) What is the significance of trust between a teacher and a student, and 3) do students trust their drug and alcohol educators? In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 middle…
Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne
It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.
Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Melinda J. Ickes
Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.
Singh, Renee D.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Renshaw, Tyler; Saeki, Elina; Hart, Shelley R.; Earhart, James; Stewart, Kaitlyn
The prevention of drug abuse is an especially salient topic for school psychologists and other educational professionals. Schools are the primary setting for providing education and information aimed at the prevention of drug abuse. Previous meta-analyses (Ennett, et al., 1994; West & O'Neal, 2004) indicate that one of the nation's most popular…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J
Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A
School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.
Han Gyu Kim
Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6–12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P<0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P<0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P<0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P<0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P<0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P<0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P<0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P<0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.
Lopez, Laureen M; Bernholc, Alissa; Chen, Mario; Tolley, Elizabeth E
Young women, especially adolescents, often lack access to modern contraception. Reasons vary by geography and regional politics and culture. The projected 2015 birth rate in 'developing' regions was 56 per 1000 compared with 17 per 1000 for 'developed' regions. To identify school-based interventions that improved contraceptive use among adolescents Until 6 June 2016, we searched for eligible trials in PubMed, CENTRAL, ERIC, Web of Science, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assigned individuals or clusters. The majority of participants must have been 19 years old or younger.The educational strategy must have occurred primarily in a middle school or high school. The intervention had to emphasize one or more effective methods of contraception. Our primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraceptive use. We assessed titles and abstracts identified during the searches. One author extracted and entered the data into RevMan; a second author verified accuracy. We examined studies for methodological quality.For unadjusted dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For cluster randomized trials, we used adjusted measures, e.g. OR, risk ratio, or difference in proportions. For continuous outcomes, we used the adjusted mean difference (MD) or other measures from the models. We did not conduct meta-analysis due to varied interventions and outcome measures. The 11 trials included 10 cluster RCTs and an individually randomized trial. The cluster RCTs had sample sizes from 816 to 10,954; the median number of clusters was 24. Most trials were conducted in the USA and UK; one was from Mexico and one from South Africa.We focus here on the trials with moderate quality evidence and an intervention effect. Three addressed preventing pregnancy and HIV/STI through interactive sessions. One trial provided a multifaceted two-year program. Immediately after year one and
... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...
Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor
Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.
Benson, Jeryl DiSanti
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…
Doll, Beth; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Cornell, Laura; Song, Samuel Y.
School-based mental health services are those delivered by school-employed and community-employed providers in school buildings. With the implementation of provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that funds school-based health centers, school-based mental health services could become more broadly available in…
Eke, Chidi Idi; Singh, Shakila
School-based violence is serious, and on the rise in South African schools. The violence affects learners, teachers, communities and the management of schools. Towards finding possible ways to manage school violence, this article presents social networking as a strategic tool in the management of school-based violence in high schools, based on the…
Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M
There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.
Full Text Available Abstract Stigmatizing, or discriminatory, perspectives and behaviour, which target individuals on the basis of their mental health, are observed in even the youngest school children. We conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished, scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization. Forty relevant studies were identified, yet only a qualitative synthesis was deemed appropriate. Five limitations within the evidence base constituted barriers to drawing conclusive inferences about the effectiveness and harms of school-based interventions: poor reporting quality, a dearth of randomized controlled trial evidence, poor methods quality for all research designs, considerable clinical heterogeneity, and inconsistent or null results. Nevertheless, certain suggestive evidence derived both from within and beyond our evidence base has allowed us to recommend the development, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum, which fosters the development of empathy and, in turn, an orientation toward social inclusion and inclusiveness. These effects may be achieved largely by bringing especially but not exclusively the youngest children into direct, structured contact with an infant, and likely only the oldest children and youth into direct contact with individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. The possible value of using educational activities, materials and contents to enhance hypothesized benefits accruing to direct contact also requires investigation. Overall, the curriculum might serve as primary prevention for some students and as secondary prevention for others.
Full Text Available Bilingual learning can be integrated in any subjects in school. One of the subject is Guidance and Couseling subject that provides opportunities for students to develop their social skills and communication. Today, the phenomenon of bullying often occurs in every aspect of life, and one of them is in educational institutions such as schools. School should be a place to establish a positive attitude and character, but the fact the school becomes the scene of bullying practices. The research question is how the bilingual learning of school-based anti bullying intervension integrated with Guidance and Counseling materials by using English for Academic Purposes settings is. This qualitative study used descriptive qualitative method that aims to understand the process and the outcome of bilingual learning process from the viewpoint or perspective of the participants. This research takes the view that since people are instruments, the objects of the research together with the researcher herself, their active involvement in the process is the key to any sustainable efforts. This research is aslo supposed to identify the students‘ understanding of the school-based anti bullying materials that are implemented in EAP settings. The impact of thus program implementation is certainly expected as the strategies to minimize the impacts that will occur in bullying behavior by the integration of anti-bullying bilingual learning model through guidance and counseling materials.
Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. By analyzing 70 subjects' information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants' choices in a virtual environment. We found that subjects' information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects' decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects' decisions. The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and for current medical education, which has to prepare competent health
Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro
Introduction Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. Purpose This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. Subjects and methods By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment. Results We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions. Conclusion The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
This radio transcript includes six parts of a series "Kids and Drugs." Part one describes high school students' experience with alcohol and drugs. Part two deals with law enforcement in relations to marihuana and other drugs. Part three deals with students and their drinking habits. Liquor dealers explain the problem of sales to minors in part…
Kouladjian, Lisa; Chen, Timothy F; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N
Objective. To educate pharmacists and assess their knowledge of and ability to calculate the Drug Burden Index (DBI) using a continuing professional development (CPD) intervention. Methods. The intervention included designing education surrounding the DBI and its application in practice and assessing knowledge in the form of a CPD education article with four multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Deidentified demographic data on participants were collected. Results. Multiple-choice questions were completed by 2522 pharmacist participants: 97.9% of participants successfully completed the CPD assessment (answered three or four MCQs correctly), and 76.5% of participants achieved a perfect score (answered four MCQs correctly). The question that required calculation of the DBI for a fictional patient was answered correctly least often (81.8%). Conclusion. Pharmacist participants had good knowledge of using DBI in practice; difficulty was observed in calculating the DBI for a hypothetical patient. This CPD intervention provided a practical medium for educating and assessing pharmacists' knowledge of the DBI.
Baartman, L. K. J.; Kilbrink, N.; de Bruijn, E.
In vocational education, students learn in different school-based and workplace-based learning environments and engage with different types of knowledge in these environments. Students are expected to integrate these experiences and make meaning of them in relation to their own professional knowledge base. This study focuses both on…
van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Paulussen, T.G.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.
Background: The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide
Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.
The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…
Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan
Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Lester, Leanne; Foxcroft, David R; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne
This study investigated the impact of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) program on tobacco smoking. The program taught about licit and illicit drugs in an integrated manner over 2 years, with follow up in the third year. It focused on minimizing harm, rather than achieving abstinence, and employed participatory, critical-thinking and skill-based teaching methods. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was conducted with a student cohort during years 8 (13 years), 9 (14 years), and 10 (15 years). Twenty-one schools were randomly allocated to the DEVS program (14 schools, n = 1163), or their usual drug education program (7 schools, n = 589). One intervention school withdrew in year two. There was a greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including tobacco, in all 3 years. Intervention students talked more with their parents about smoking at the end of the 3-year program. They recalled receiving more education on smoking in all 3 years. Their consumption of cigarettes had not increased to the same extent as controls at the end of the program. Their change in smoking harms, relative to controls, was positive in all 3 years. There was no difference between groups in the proportionate increase of smokers, or in attitudes towards smoking, at any time. These findings indicate that a school program that teaches about all drugs in an integrated fashion, and focuses on minimizing harm, does not increase initiation into smoking, while providing strategies for reducing consumption and harm to those who choose to smoke.
Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Riyanti, Eka; Tasya, Irma A; Pohan, Mawar N; Sumintardja, Elmira N; Astuti, Sri R; Jabar, Bambang A; Pinxten, Lucas Wj; Hospers, Harm J
to explore the teacher perspective on needs (in terms of knowledge, skills and curriculum content), attitudes, beliefs and self-efficacy related to teaching and implementation of a reproductive health (RH)/drug education (DE) program at their own junior high school. one hundred and thirty-three teachers participated in a survey, from February to April 2009, measuring: socio demographic, behavioral intention, perceived behavior control, content knowledge, school climate, reproductive health knowledge and school drug education. all teachers had a high intention to teach RH and DE, especially the younger RH teachers had a high intention to teach about teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. DE teachers had a high intention facts/effects of drugs, first-time drug use dealing with peer pressure. Perceived beliefs of teachers, parents, school management and perceived self-efficacy were strong predictors for the intention of RH teaching and DE. the high intention of the RH and DE teacher offers a great opportunity to build and implement a DE and RH curriculum in junior high school. Before a curriculum is developed and implemented there is a need to assess and strengthen the teacher's skills and effectiveness in teaching RH and DE.
Public health professionals and educators have developed effective school-based interventions to reduce prejudice and stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. Such interventions can reduce the harm caused to sexual minority youths by stigma and can improve health outcomes. However, critics have warned that these interventions attempt to control speech and religious beliefs protected by the First Amendment. We review this critique and assess the legal and ethical arguments. We conclude that, both legally and ethically, there is great leeway for schools to implement LGBT-affirmative interventions. Still, we recommend that interventionists attend critics’ concerns using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using CBPR approaches, interventionists can achieve better community acceptance and cooperation and more successful interventions. PMID:23948002
Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S
The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl
sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America (Chile), and two in Europe (England and Scotland). Sexual and reproductive health educational programmes Six trials evaluated school-based educational interventions. In these trials, the educational programmes evaluated had no demonstrable effect on the prevalence of HIV (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32, three trials; 14,163 participants; low certainty evidence), or other STIs (herpes simplex virus prevalence: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15; three trials, 17,445 participants; moderate certainty evidence; syphilis prevalence: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.39; one trial, 6977 participants; low certainty evidence). There was also no apparent effect on the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16; three trials, 8280 participants; moderate certainty evidence). Material or monetary incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance Two trials evaluated incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance. In these two trials, the incentives used had no demonstrable effect on HIV prevalence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.96; two trials, 3805 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to controls, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was lower in young women receiving a monthly cash incentive to stay in school (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.85), but not in young people given free school uniforms (Data not pooled, two trials, 7229 participants; very low certainty evidence). One trial evaluated the effects on syphilis and the prevalence was too low to detect or exclude effects confidently (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.27; one trial, 1291 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial was lower among those who received incentives (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99; two trials, 4200 participants; low certainty evidence). Combined educational and incentive
Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiens, Matthew O; Soon, Judith A; MacLeod, Stuart M; Sharma, Sunaina; Patel, Anik
Ongoing efforts by Health Canada intended to modernize the legislation and regulation of pharmaceuticals will help improve the safety and effectiveness of drug products. It will be imperative to ensure that comprehensive and specialized training sites are available to train researchers to support the regulation of therapeutic products. The objective of this educational institution inventory was to conduct an environmental scan of educational institutions in Canada able to train students in areas of post-market drug evaluation research. A systematic web-based environmental scan of Canadian institutions was conducted. The website of each university was examined for potential academic programs. Six core programmatic areas were determined a priori as necessary to train competent post-market drug evaluation researchers. These included biostatistics, epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, health economics or pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics and patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Twenty-three academic institutions were identified that had the potential to train students in post-market drug evaluation research. Overall, 23 institutions taught courses in epidemiology, 22 in biostatistics, 17 in health economics/pharmacoeconomics, 5 in pharmacoepidemiology, 5 in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, and 3 in patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Of the 23 institutions, only the University of Ottawa offered six core courses. Two institutions offered five, seven offered four and the remaining 14 offered three or fewer. It is clear that some institutions may offer programs not entirely reflected in the nomenclature used for this review. As Heath Canada moves towards a more progressive licensing framework, augmented training to increase research capacity and expertise in drug safety and effectiveness is timely and necessary.
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille
prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...
Rienzo, B A; Button, J W; Wald, K D
School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to health services by bringing providers to children (and sometimes parents) and furnishing low cost services in an atmosphere of trust. While the number of SBHCs has continued to grow and some clinics have continued to expand their services, others have barely survived and some have even closed. This study investigated factors, particularly political forces, that affected the success of SBHCs. Using a national survey of clinic directors, this study assessed clinic success in terms both of longevity and service delivery. Findings indicate the factors most consistently and significantly associated with success include not only measures of "need" (school size and percent African-American enrollment or population) but of "politics" (citizen political ideology and Southern conservatism). Thus, politics matters more than previous studies suggested.
Einstein, Stanley; And Others
The article outlines a plan to train a cadre of teachers extensively in various facets of drug abuse during the summer of 1970 at four federally sponsored programs, or at programs developed in each state. (Author)
Lee, Yew-Jin; Chue, Shien
School-based curriculum innovations, including those in science education, are usually not adequately evaluated, if at all. Furthermore, current procedures and instruments for programme evaluations are often unable to support evidence-based decision-making. We suggest that adopting fidelity of implementation (FOI) criteria from healthcare research can both characterize and narrow the separation between programme intent and actual implementation, which is a mandatory stage of evaluation before determining overall programme value. We demonstrate how such a process could be applied by science educators using data from a secondary school in Singapore that had devised a new curriculum to promote interest, investigative processes, and knowledge in science. Results showed that there were ambivalent student responses to this programme, while there were high levels of science process skill instruction and close alignment with the intended lesson design. The implementation of this programme appeared to have a satisfactory overall level of FOI, but we also detected tensions between programme intent and everyday classroom teaching. If we want to advance science education, then our argument is that applying FOI criteria is necessary when evaluating all curricular innovations, not just those that originate from schools.
Oversight Hearing on Drug Abuse Education Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, 101st Congress, 2nd Session (Vancouver, Washington, September 6, 1990).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
The text of an oversight hearing on Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) programs is presented in this document. Introductory statements by Representatives Jolene Unsoeld and Dale E. Kildee are presented. Testimony by these witnesses is included: (1) Roy Bondurant, student, and Roy "Skip" Bondurant, parent, Tenino, Washington; (2) Paul…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...
Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikker; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Due, Pernille
Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking. Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82). Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L
Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting Ontario, Canada. Results Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. Conclusions These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. PMID:24902736
Safdie, Margarita; Cargo, Margaret; Richard, Lucie; Lévesque, Lucie
Ecological intervention programs are recommended to prevent overweight and obesity in children. The National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mexico implemented a successful ecological intervention program to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in school age children. This study assessed the integration of ecological principles and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs in this effective school-based obesity prevention program implemented in 15 elementary schools in Mexico City. Two coders applied the Intervention Analysis Procedure (IAP) to "map" the program's integration of ecological principles. A checklist gauged the use of SCT theory in program activities. Thirty-two distinct intervention strategies were implemented in one setting (i.e., school) to engage four different target-groups (students, parents, school representatives, government) across two domains (Nutrition and Physical Activity). Overall, 47.5% of the strategies targeted the school infrastructure and/or personnel; 37.5% of strategies targeted a key political actor, the Public Education Secretariat while fewer strategies targeted parents (12.5%) and children (3%). More strategies were implemented in the Nutrition domain (69%) than Physical Activity (31%). The most frequently used SCT construct within both intervention domains was Reciprocal Determinism (e.g., where changes to the environment influence changes in behavior and these behavioral changes influence further changes to the environment); no significant differences were observed in the use of SCT constructs across domains. Findings provide insight into a promising combination of strategies and theoretical constructs that can be used to implement a school-based obesity prevention program. Strategies emphasized school-level infrastructure/personnel change and strong political engagement and were most commonly underpinned by Reciprocal Determinism for both Nutrition and Physical Activity.
Brinker, Titus Josef; Seeger, Werner; Buslaff, Fabian
Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Adolescent smoking can best be prevented through health education at schools. Interventions that take advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve prevention. In this first pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology in accordance with the theory of planned behavior to improve school-based tobacco prevention. We used a free photoaging mobile phone app ("Smokerface") in three German secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The students' altered three-dimensional selfies on mobile phones or tablets were "mirrored" via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire, we then measured on a 5-point Likert scale the perceptions of the intervention among 125 students of both genders (average age 12.75 years). A majority of the students perceived the intervention as fun (77/125, 61.6%), claimed that the intervention motivated them not to smoke (79/125, 63.2%), and stated that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (81/125, 64.8%). Only a minority of students disagreed or fully disagreed that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (16/125, 12.8%) or that they were themselves motivated not to smoke (18/125, 14.4%). We have presented a novel method to integrate photoaging in school-based tobacco prevention that affects student peer groups and considers the predictors of smoking in accordance with the theory of planned behavior.
Lawrence M. Scheier
Full Text Available The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.
Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M
The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.
Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.
The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178
Paul T Cantey
Full Text Available Nearly 45% of people living at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF worldwide live in India. India has faced challenges obtaining the needed levels of compliance with its mass drug administration (MDA program to interrupt LF transmission, which utilizes diethylcarbamazine (DEC or DEC plus albendazole. Previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with the MDA program were used to refine a pre-MDA educational campaign. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of these refinements and of a lymphedema morbidity management program on MDA compliance.A randomized, 30-cluster survey was performed in each of 3 areas: the community-based pre-MDA education plus community-based lymphedema management education (Com-MDA+LM area, the community-based pre-MDA education (Com-MDA area, and the Indian standard pre-MDA education (MDA-only area. Compliance with the MDA program was 90.2% in Com-MDA+LM, 75.0% in Com-MDA, and 52.9% in the MDA-only areas (p<0.0001. Identified barriers to adherence included: 1 fear of side effects and 2 lack of recognition of one's personal benefit from adherence. Multivariable predictors of adherence amenable to educational intervention were: 1 knowing about the MDA in advance of its occurrence, 2 knowing everyone is at risk for LF, 3 knowing that the MDA was for LF, and 4 knowing at least one component of the lymphedema management techniques taught in the lymphedema management program.This study confirmed previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with India's MDA program for LF. More importantly, it showed that targeting these predictors and barriers in a timely and clear pre-MDA educational campaign can increase compliance with MDA programs, and it demonstrated, for the first time, that lymphedema management programs may also increase compliance with MDA programs.
Bell, Anne C.
The purpose of this study has been to consider the eco-pedagogical promise of school-based habitat restoration. How does the practice of restoration foster a lived sense of being in a more-than-human world1 while inviting alternative approaches to teaching and learning? What opportunities does it offer to resist the societal forces and patterns, reinforced through the school system, which are eroding and effacing human relationships with other life? A literature review sets the broader context for an in-depth exploration of the experiences and understandings of participants (students, teachers, parents) involved in a case study. I proceeded with my research on the assumption that both the discursive and non-discursive dimensions of habitat restoration were key to appreciating its eco-pedagogical potential. Through participant observation over a ten month period, interviewing and a survey, I listened to some of the ways that habitat restoration challenged the typically disembodied, decontextualized organization of schooling by privileging hands-on involvement and encouraging attentive, caring relationships within the human and natural communities of which students were a part. I investigated particular storylines and metaphors which encoded and supported participants' endeavours, especially with regard to their potential to disrupt human-centered values and beliefs. This study suggests that the promise of habitat restoration lies in the openings created to attune to and interact with human and nonhuman others in fully embodied, locally situated and personally meaningful ways. Participants overwhelmingly attested to the importance of the experience of restoration which many deemed to be memorable and motivating and to provide fertile ground for future engagements in/for nature and society. As participants attended to the nuances and complexities of their interactions with a specific place and its inhabitants, their intimate involvement added a depth of feeling and
Minshall, I; Berry, D; Smith, D
Since the early 1970s therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anti-epilepsy drug (AED) levels has been available to assist in the review process of patients with epilepsy. Routine blood levels were not part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework in the New GP Contract, neither have they been generally recommended in National Guidelines (NICE and SIGN) for the management of patients with epilepsy. To assess the impact of an educational intervention, the New GP Contract and NICE guidelines on the number of requests for TDM. Retrospective study. 39 general practices serving Chester (13), the Rural area surrounding Chester (13) and Ellesmere Port (13). An educational intervention took place in the individual Chester practices between December 2001 and March 2003. For the Rural and Ellesmere Port practices there was one combined event in March 2004 and in March 2007, respectively. Practices were encouraged, not to routinely request TDM, except in certain circumstances. The number of TDM requests for Chester, Rural and Ellesmere Port were obtained from the local laboratory in Chester, plus other nearby hospitals, to provide control groups. The number of TDM requests from primary care for Chester, Rural, Ellesmere Port, Wirral, Crewe, Warrington and Wrexham, April to April, 2002 through to 2008, where available. There has been a fall in the number requests in all districts. The most significant falls were in Chester (47%), Rural (34%) and Ellesmere Port (47%), and corresponded to the time of their educational intervention. The fall has been less marked in Wirral (25%), Crewe (27%), Wrexham (10%) and Warrington (9%). In 2004, the first year after the introduction of the New GP Contract, TDM in Chester and the Rural fell significantly, while those in Ellesmere Port, Wirral, Crewe and Wrexham increased. TDM dropped significantly in Ellesmere Port in the year after their educational intervention. Despite the valproate assay being clinically unhelpful there were still 611 requests
Bashiru Bako Umar
Full Text Available In Nigeria, School-Based Management Committees (SBMCs aim to provide an opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable groups in the school’s host communities such as young people and women to partake in school governance. Research on the experiences of youth voice in the committees is scant, however, as much of the existing literature on SBMCs focuses on program outcomes. Using qualitative research interviews, observations, and document analysis, this study addressed this gap by exploring how youth participate and express themselves in two SBMCs in Niger State, Nigeria. The findings, which were derived from 19 youth and adult participants, were drawn from SBMC members out of which 12 were youth between the ages 13 and 25, while 7 were adults aged 40 and above. The participants revealed that youth committee members expressed their voice in the committees through participating in a number of committee activities. Specifically, the youth participated in decision-making during meetings, aided in the construction of committee projects, undertook administrative/managerial functions and monitored the committee’s projects. They also participated in revenue generation, planning, school visits and supervision, advocacy, and sensitization campaigns.
Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A
The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.
CAAC Budgets Creditability Eating Disorders This portion of the instruction is directed toward the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa, bulimia ...command. 1 hour. 2. PARENT AWARENESS SEMINAR A seminar designed to give specific methods for preventing drug abuse among teens and pre- teens . The
Cotten-Huston, Annie L.
Focused on recorded tapes and sex-role interaction of 12 sessions on drug abuse. Subjects were 247 seventh-grade males and females. Communicators (males and females) made two presentations with roles rotated according to ex-addict/learned specialist. Results indicated female and male students were influenced most by female specialist…
Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.
Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…
Booth, Michael; Okely, Anthony
Paediatric overweight and obesity is recognised as one of Australia's most significant health problems and effective approaches to increasing physical activity and reducing energy consumption are being sought urgently. Every potential approach and setting should be subjected to critical review in an attempt to maximise the impact of policy and program initiatives. This paper identifies the strengths and limitations of schools as a setting for promoting physical activity. The strengths are: most children and adolescents attend school; most young people are likely to see teachers as credible sources of information; schools provide access to the facilities, infrastructure and support required for physical activity; and schools are the workplace of skilled educators. Potential limitations are: those students who like school the least are the most likely to engage in health-compromising behaviours and the least likely to be influenced by school-based programs; there are about 20 more hours per week available for physical activity outside schools hours than during school hours; enormous demands are already being made on schools; many primary school teachers have low levels of perceived competence in teaching physical education and fundamental movement skills; and opportunities for being active at school may not be consistent with how and when students prefer to be active.
Sandra L. Rogelberg
Full Text Available “Yet” is a school-based youth development program intended to introduce elementarygrade students to concepts of growth mindset, self-leadership, resilience and self-talk to promote healthy coping strategies to persist in tasks toward more positive educational outcomes. Drawing from psychology, education, and management literature focusing on self-leadership, the “Yet” program encourages interaction and internalization of concepts such as “growing the brain,” and “stinkin’ thinking,” while modeling how to reframe set-backs to things students have not mastered…”yet,” and practicing adaptive self-talk to promote coping and persistence. This unique program holds promise because it is approximately 30 minutes long, occurs within the context of a regular school day, and can be implemented with a high measure of fidelity because it is script-based. The success of the program may be augmented by principal and teacher support along with online videos.
Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C
Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.
Barnes, Margaret; Courtney, Mary D; Pratt, Jan; Walsh, Anne M
A case study and focus-group discussions were conducted with 10 youth health nurses (nurses) employed in the recently introduced School-Based Youth Health Nurse Program (SBYHNP) to identify their roles, responsibilities, and professional development needs. Major roles are support, referral, health promotion, and marketing. Clients include high school students, teachers, and parents; the majority of whom are female and aged 13-16 years. Health issues addressed during individual consultations are predominantly psychosocial but also include medical, sexual health and sexuality issues, health surveillance, and risk-taking behaviors. Nurses also provide clients with health information and promote enhanced personal skill development during these consultations. Health promotion strategies undertaken by nurses were predominantly health education and health information displays. Nurses reported marketing their role and function within the school to be an essential and often difficult aspect of their role. Professional development through the SBYHNP was excellent; however, there was concern relating to the availability of future educational opportunities. The SBYHNP provides nurses with a new, challenging, autonomous role within the school environment and the opportunity to expand their role to incorporate all aspects of the health-promoting schools' framework.
Andresen, Bent B.
This article presents the main results of a case study on teachers' professional development in terms of competence and identity. The teachers involved in the study are allocated time by their schools to participate in professional "affinity group" meetings. During these meetings, the teachers gather and analyse school-based data about factors which persistently create and sustain challenges in effective student education (grade K-10). This process improves their understanding and undertaking of job-related tasks. The affinity group meetings also influence the teachers' professional identity. The research findings thus illustrate the fact that the analytical approach of affinity groups, based on the analysis of the difficulties in their daily job, provides good results in terms of competencies and identity perception. In general, as a result of meeting in affinity groups, adult learners develop professional competencies and identities which are considered crucial in rapidly changing schools characterised by an increased focus on, among other things, lifelong learning, social inclusion, school digitalisation, and information literacy. The research findings are thus relevant for ministries and school owners, teacher-trainers and supervisors, schools and other educational institutions, as well as teachers and their organisations worldwide.
Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632
Veloo, Arsaythamby; Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.; Md-Ali, Ruzlan
School-Based Assessment (SBA) was implemented in Malaysian secondary schools in 2012. Since its implementation, teachers have faced several challenges to meet the aims and objectives of the School-Based Assessment. Based on these challenges this study aims to find the level of teachers' knowledge and readiness towards the implementation of…
Lingam, Govinda Ishwar; Lingam, Narsamma
The study explored challenges faced by school leaders in the Pacific nation of Solomon Islands in school-based assessment, and the adequacy of an assessment course to prepare them. A questionnaire including both open and closed-ended questions elicited relevant data from the school leaders. Modelling best practices in school-based assessment was…
Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among
Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo
Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…
Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill
Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…
Bains, Ranbir M.; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen
Background: We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Methods: Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were…
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.
School-based victimization is associated with poorer developmental, academic, and health outcomes. This meta-analytic review compared the mean levels of school-based victimization experienced by sexual minority youth to those of heterosexual youth, and examined moderators of this difference. Results from 18 independent studies (N = 56,752…
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…
School-based evaluation, the focus of this article, is conceived of as neither a synonym for internal evaluation nor an antonym for external evaluation, but as a combination that is examined through a review of recent research. A school-based evaluation in Israel illustrates combining these approaches in a complementary way. (SLD)
D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric
Explores the possibility of integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models, comparing two management models: a school-based conflict management program, "Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers"; and a therapeutic conflict management program, "Life Space Crisis Intervention." The paper concludes that integration might be possible…
Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Eanes, Angella Y.; Troutman, David R.
We tested a model considering the manner in which mothers' use of their own social relationships and efforts to facilitate their children's school-based social relationships were associated with two distinct types of school-based competence: academic achievement and levels of stress experienced within the school environment. Fourth grade children…
Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Black, David S.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara
Adolescence is characterized by incredible development in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is responsible for behavioral and emotional self-regulation, and higher order cognitive decision-making skills (that is, executive function). Typically late prefrontal cortical development and its integration with limbic areas of the brain…
DuPont, Robert L.; Bucher, Richard H.; Wilford, Bonnie B.; Coleman, John J.
Since 2000 researchers have reported a decline in the administration of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications given by school nurses, although no decline has been noted in the incidence of ADHD in school-age populations. Government data for the same period show reduced levels of methylphenidate abuse as measured by its…
Ariza, Carles; Villalbí, Joan R; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel
Evaluation of public health interventions usually focus on the quality of design and research methods, and less on the quality of the intervention or process evaluation. In process evaluation of school-based interventions, key issues are how completely the intervention is carried out and adherence to the protocol. In addition, exploration of intermediate variables, such as those that influence (and often predict) preventable behavior, is highly useful. This article describes the basic concepts in this topic, using examples of the effectiveness of some preventive interventions carried out in schools. The interventions discussed were mainly quasi-experimental studies, based on data from programs promoted by public health teams in the city of Barcelona. Data from process evaluation of preventive programs in secondary schools that underwent formal assessment of their effectiveness is provided. The examples are drawn from preventive programs of HIV infection or unprotected sexual intercourse (PRESSEC program) and drug consumption prevention (the PASE, PASE.bcn and x kpts programs). These examples show why the intervention process influences the impact of the programs and their results. Thorough planning of process evaluation is essential to obtain valid indicators that will identify, in the effectiveness evaluation of the intervention, the most efficacious strategies to obtain positive outcomes. Copyright Â© 2011 Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A
To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n = 232), physical education teachers (n = 53), food service managers (n = 33), and trained observers (n = 9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.
Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Harris, Diane M; Johnson, Carolyn C
Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school lunch with increased access to F/V. This study identified factors associated with student use of SBs. Surveys examining SB use, demographics, food preference, nutrition knowledge, and social support were administered to students in the 7th to 12th grades (N = 702) in Orleans Parish (New Orleans, Louisiana). Generalized estimating equations, which incorporate clustering at the school level, helped to determine associations between independent variables and SB use. Sixty percent of participants were SB users. Non-African-American students were more likely to be SB users than African-American students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35, confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-4.07) and students who had high preference for healthy food were more likely to use the SB than those who had low preference (OR = 2.41, CI: 1.44-4.01). Students who encouraged others to consume F/V were more likely to use the SB than those who did not (p = .015). Individual and interpersonal factors related to SB use can provide guidance in the development of school-based interventions to increase SB use and F/V consumption. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl
(Chile), and two in Europe (England and Scotland). Sexual and reproductive health educational programmesSix trials evaluated school-based educational interventions.In these trials, the educational programmes evaluated had no demonstrable effect on the prevalence of HIV (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32, three trials; 14,163 participants; low certainty evidence), or other STIs (herpes simplex virus prevalence: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15; three trials, 17,445 participants; moderate certainty evidence; syphilis prevalence: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.39; one trial, 6977 participants; low certainty evidence). There was also no apparent effect on the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16; three trials, 8280 participants; moderate certainty evidence). Material or monetary incentive-based programmes to promote school attendanceTwo trials evaluated incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance.In these two trials, the incentives used had no demonstrable effect on HIV prevalence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.96; two trials, 3805 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to controls, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was lower in young women receiving a monthly cash incentive to stay in school (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.85), but not in young people given free school uniforms (Data not pooled, two trials, 7229 participants; very low certainty evidence). One trial evaluated the effects on syphilis and the prevalence was too low to detect or exclude effects confidently (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.27; one trial, 1291 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial was lower among those who received incentives (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99; two trials, 4200 participants; low certainty evidence). Combined educational and incentive-based programmesThe single trial that evaluated free school uniforms also included a trial arm in which
Bradford, Brent; Kell, Shannon; Forsberg, Nick
The development of fundamental movement skills is essential in quality physical education. It has become widely accepted that school-age children who fail to reach the automatic phase in fundamental movement-skill development may choose physically inactive and unhealthy lifestyles. Therefore, physical educators must continue to discover ways to…
Pennington, Brittany; Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Kumm, Skip; Sterrett, Brittany I.
The National Center for Leadership in Intensive Intervention (NCLII), a consortium funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), prepares special education leaders to become experts in research on intensive intervention for students with disabilities who have persistent and severe academic (e.g., reading and math) and behavioral…
Burke, Robert W.
This article provides an overview of family systems theory, with a particular focus on the roles adapted by children in dysfunctional families. In addition, analyses of narratives about dysfunctional families, written by 125 preservice teachers, provide implications for new directions in teacher education. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Johnson, Ashleigh B; Montgomery, Chelsea M; Dillard, Wesley A; Morrill, Kenneth; Hoesli, Coral; Gillette, Wesley M; Johnson, Brandon K; Nathaniel, Thomas I
Community stroke awareness initiatives have traditionally been used to expand knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors to high-risk adult populations. Here, we use a novel unfettered, visual art-based approach for an elementary school initiative to raise stroke awareness. Seventh graders in a middle school art class received stroke awareness training during the course of the 2015 to 2016 school year through their teacher in the visual arts class. In turn, they used this training to develop their own artistic interpretations of key stroke awareness concepts via project-based learning and then present their projects to raise awareness about stroke. We evaluated our predata and postdata to determine whether the visual art school-based stroke intervention was effective in both educating students about stroke and enabling them to effectively disseminate this information to parents and other adults in their community. The pretest evaluation indicates a fair or good knowledge about stroke, and no student indicated an "outstanding" or "excellent" knowledge. The posttest evaluation indicated a higher degree of stroke awareness because students were rated as having an "outstanding," "excellent," or "very good" performance especially in the ability to translate knowledge of stroke awareness lessons learned in their art class into a well-articulated stroke-related project and presentation. Pearson χ test reveals significant difference (P art teacher to lead the educational component in the intervention indicates that expertise in neurology or stroke is not necessary to facilitate understanding of stroke and highlights the importance of creativeness in stroke education for children.
Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns' knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education.
Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad Ej; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab
Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians' practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P methods revealed that the mean answering score for 21 questions before education was 7.5 ± 2.6 and no significant difference was observed in groups (P = 0.55). However, after education, the average scores significantly increased to 11.0 ± 3.9 (P method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns' knowledge of CPR drugs.
O'Connor, Clare A; Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona; Watson, Roger
To examine evidence-using a range of outcomes-for the effectiveness of school-based mental health and emotional well-being programmes. It is estimated that 20% of young people experience mental health difficulties every year. Schools have been identified as an appropriate setting for providing mental health and emotional well-being promotion prompting the need to determine whether current school-based programmes are effective in improving the mental health and emotional well-being of young people. A systematic search was conducted using the health and education databases, which identified 29 studies that measured the effectiveness of school-based universal interventions. Prisma guidelines were used during the literature review process. Thematic analysis generated three key themes: (i) help seeking and coping; (ii) social and emotional well-being; and (iii) psycho-educational effectiveness. It is concluded that whilst these studies show promising results, there is a need for further robust evaluative studies to guide future practice. All available opportunities should be taken to provide mental health promotion interventions to young people in the school environment, with a requirement for educational professionals to be provided the necessary skills and knowledge to ensure that the school setting continues to be a beneficial environment for conducting mental health promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Durlak, Joseph A; Weissberg, Roger P; Dymnicki, Allison B; Taylor, Rebecca D; Schellinger, Kriston B
This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak
Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.
Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.
Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)
teacher shortage; teacher training; university-school partnerships; workplace learning ... (Department of Higher Education & Training, Republic of South Africa, 2011:8), which is an ..... http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lynda_Wiest/p.
Objectives. Non-communicable diseases and limited participation in school physical education have become increasing concerns in South Africa. In response to these concerns, a schoolbased physical activity intervention, Healthnutz, was implemented in three primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg.
Nov 11, 2003 ... Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care ... percent approved of teaching sex education to adolescents in schools, 55.6% approved of contraceptive use by the ..... own biases in the light of scientific facts.
Dec 12, 2013 ... effects of Soil Transmitted Infections on health and education, prevention strategies, knowledge of ... programme which is the most cost-effective public health ..... the deworming exercise rather than being informed by their ...
Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea
Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers...
Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a ... resilience in relation to educational psychology-rural school intervention. ... The data analysis techniques consist of descriptive statistics and t-tests on the sampled ...
Briggs, F; Hawkins, R M
In 1987, in response to concerns relating to the high incidence of (reported) child sexual abuse, the Ministry of Education and New Zealand Policy jointly introduced a national school-based personal safety program, Keeping Ourselves Safe. In December 1990, 252 children were interviewed in eight primary schools, selected as representative of the ethnic, economic, and social diversity of New Zealand society (Briggs 1991). The interview schedule was designed on problem-solving lines to establish whether children could identify and respond safely to a wide range of potentially unsafe situations. One year later, 117 of the children were available for interview using the same questionnaire. Children exposed to Keeping Ourselves Safe had retained and increased their safety strategies during that time. The variables of gender, age, race, and academic level did not affect improvement but the number of initial gains by children with highly committed teachers was almost double the number achieved by teachers classified as having low levels of commitment. Prior to using the program, children from low socioeconomic groups had significantly lower knowledge and skill levels than their middle-class contemporaries. Middle-class children also gained more from the program. The difference in gains achieved is explained in terms of parental participation in the school program.
Patel, Pooja R; Huynh, Michaela T; Alvarez, Crystal A; Jones, DaJonitta; Jennings, Kristofer; Snyder, Russell R
To determine characteristics of teen pregnancies in southeast Texas and the opinions of postpartum teenagers with regard to having contraceptive services available in high school clinics. A cross-sectional study of postpartum teenagers interviewed during their hospital stay. Of 404 postpartum teenagers interviewed, 86% had unplanned pregnancies. Approximately 53% of respondents first had intercourse at less than 16 years of age. Of the 130 teenagers who had used contraception prior to pregnancy, 85% became pregnant because they were unable to visit the clinic to obtain a contraceptive refill or replacement. In multivariate modeling, factors associated with using contraceptives prior to pregnancy included black race (p teenagers surveyed, 223 (82%) were in favor of having contraceptive services offered in high school clinics. Contraceptive education is not sufficient to prevent teenage pregnancy. Increase in access is critical as teenagers with previous pregnancies were more likely to use contraception, likely due to their interaction with the medical community during the antecedent pregnancy. One possible solution is to bring contraceptive services to the teenagers, by offering them at school based health systems. A majority of teenagers surveyed in this study supported this proposal.
Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K
To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Villeneuve, Michelle A; Shulha, Lyn M
School-based occupational therapy (SBOT) practice takes place within a complex system that includes service recipients, service providers, and program decision makers across health and education sectors. Despite the promotion of collaborative consultation at a policy level, there is little practical guidance about how to coordinate multi-agency service and interprofessional collaboration among these stakeholders. This paper reports on a process used to engage program administrators in an examination of SBOT collaborative consultation practice in one region of Ontario to provide an evidence-informed foundation for decision making about implementation of these services. Within an appreciative inquiry framework (Cooperrider, Whitney, & Stavros, 2008), Developmental Work Research methods (Engeström, 2000) were used to facilitate shared learning for improved SBOT collaborative consultation. Program administrators participated alongside program providers and service recipients in a series of facilitated workshops to develop principles that will guide future planning and decision making about the delivery of SBOT services. Facilitated discussion among stakeholders led to the articulation of 12 principles for effective collaborative practice. Program administrators used their shared understanding to propose a new model for delivering SBOT services. Horizontal and vertical learning across agency and professional boundaries led to the development of powerful solutions for program improvement.
Shetgiri, Rashmi; Kataoka, Sheryl; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
Few studies have rigorously evaluated school-based interventions to reduce violence and substance use in high school students, especially Latinos. This study assessed the effects of a school-based program on reducing violence and substance use among primarily Latino high school students. Ninth-grade students at risk for violence and substance use were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention was based on an existing program developed for white and African American youth. Data on smoking, alcohol and drug use, fighting, and grades were collected at baseline and 4 and 8 months post enrollment. There were 55 students in the control and 53 in the intervention group; 74% of controls and 78% of intervention students were Latino. There were no significant changes in fighting, smoking, or alcohol or drug use, from baseline to 8-month follow-up, between the intervention and control group. Pre and post grade point average (GPA) decreased from 2.3 at baseline to 1.8 at follow-up (pschool-based program showed no reduction in violence or substance use. The findings suggest that a program targeting non-Latino youth may not be optimal for reducing violence and substance use in Latinos; greater attention to cultural appropriateness and racial/ethnic differences may be needed. There was a decrease in intervention-group GPA but no significant change compared with controls. Further studies of the impact of school-based substance use and violence prevention programs on academics, and the effectiveness of afterschool or community-based programs compared to school-based programs are needed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Private outlets are the main suppliers of uncomplicated malaria treatment in Africa. However, they are so numerous that they are difficult for governments to influence and regulate. This study's objective was to evaluate a low-cost outreach education (vendor-to-vendor programme to improve the private sector's compliance with malaria guidelines in Bungoma district, Kenya. The cornerstone of the programme was the district's training of 73 wholesalers who were equipped with customized job aids for distribution to small retailers. Methods Six months after training the wholesalers, the programme was evaluated using mystery shoppers. The shoppers posed as caretakers of sick children needing medication at 252 drug outlets. Afterwards, supervisors assessed the outlets' knowledge, drug stocks, and prices. Results The intervention seems to have had a significant impact on stocking patterns, malaria knowledge and prescribing practices of shops/kiosks, but not consistently on other types of outlets. About 32% of shops receiving job aids prescribed to mystery shoppers the approved first-line drug, sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, as compared to only 3% of the control shops. In the first six months, it is estimated that 500 outlets were reached, at a cost of about $8000. Conclusions Changing private sector knowledge and practices is widely acknowledged to be slow and difficult. The vendor-to-vendor programme seems a feasible district-level strategy for achieving significant improvements in knowledge and practices of shops/kiosks. However, alternate strategies will be needed to influence pharmacies and clinics. Overall, the impact will be only moderate unless national policies and programmes are also introduced.
Cailhol, Lionel; Allen, Michael; Moncany, Anne-Hélène; Cicotti, Andrei; Virgillito, Salvatore; Barbe, Rémy P; Lazignac, Coralie; Damsa, Cristian
In spite of much effort to create guidelines on the management of violent behavior (VB) in emergency departments, little is known about the impact of such guidelines on a real-life emergency environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a staff educational crisis intervention (SECI) on the reduction of VB in patients admitted to emergency departments following drug suicidal attempt. The impact of a SECI on VB of patient consulting the ER following a drug suicide attempt was assessed by comparing the occurrence of VB before (5 months) and after (5 months) the introduction of a SECI. A significant reduction in VB (from 17.32% to 7.14%) was found with the comparison of two 5-month periods: before (254 patients) and after (224 patients) the introduction of a SECI program (chi(2)=11.238; P=.0008). These preliminary data suggest the need for further prospective randomized studies aiming to prevent VB in emergency departments by developing specific SECI programs.
Lopez-Gonzalez, Elena; Herdeiro, Maria T; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; Figueiras, Adolfo
The yellow-card scheme continues to be one of the principal methods for signal generation in pharmacovigilance. Nevertheless, under-reporting, one of its disadvantages, delays alert signals and has a negative influence on public health. Educational interventions in pharmacovigilance may have a positive impact on the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). To assess the duration of the effect and effectiveness of an educational intervention in pharmacovigilance designed to improve ADR reporting in a robust pharmacovigilance system. A spatial, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted covering all National Health System physicians in the northwest of Spain and targeting those who were actively engaged in clinical practice (n = 7,498). Of these, 2,120 were assigned in three spatial clusters to the intervention group (six hospitals and 138 primary care centers) and 3,614 in four clusters to the control group (seven hospitals and 267 primary care centers). The educational intervention consisted of two complementary approaches--one active (group sessions), the other passive (educational material, reporting form)-implemented from November 2007 to December 2008, with a follow-up period of 8 months. Intervention participation was 53.7 % in a hospital setting and 60.5 % in primary care settings. ADR reporting in the intervention group increased by 65.4 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 8.2-153.4) across the follow-up. The ADR reporting rate per 1,000 physicians/year in the intervention group rose from 28.1 to 39.6 following the intervention (51.7 and 27.4 in the first and second 4-month period, respectively). For the intervention group, relative risk (RR) was 2.31 (95 % CI: 1.46-3.68) and 1.04 (95 % CI: 0.61-1.77) in the first and second 4-month period, respectively adjusted to baseline values. There was an increase in unexpected ADR reporting (RR 2.06, 95 % CI 1.19-3.55). Pharmacovigilance educational interventions that have proved effective can be
Kawabata, Masato; Chua, Khai Leng; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D
Regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is important to manage obesity. Physical education (PE) is considered to play an important role in promoting lifelong participation in physical activity (PA) because it provides an existing network where cost-effective interventions can be implemented to produce sustainable change in health behavior. However, the association between compulsory school PA (e.g., PE lessons) and body composition levels has received mixed support in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether a school-based intervention targeting salient PA benefits and barriers grounded on the theory of planned behavior would promote young people's participation in MVPA during leisure time and reduce body mass index (BMI) of overweight students. A total of 171 students from 3 secondary schools in Singapore underwent the control condition followed by the intervention condition. Both the conditions consisted of PE lessons twice per week over 4 weeks. In the control condition, PE teachers encouraged students to participate in PA during leisure time without providing persuasive message. While in the intervention condition, PE teachers delivered persuasive messages that targeted the salient benefits and barriers associated with PA to the students at the last 5 to 10 min of each PE lesson. PA levels over a week were measured objectively with wrist-mounted GENEActiv Original accelerometers and subjectively with self-reporting questionnaires three times (Baseline, Post 1, and Post 2) in each condition. Student's self-reported PA level was measured using the Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and their attitudes, intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards leisure-time PA were measured with a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. Furthermore, students' intention, determination and
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51, drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02, drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27, have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24, suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68, engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76, feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36 and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60. They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime.
A quarta revolução educacional: a mudança de tempos, espaços e relações na escola a partir do uso de tecnologias e da inclusão social / The fourth educational revolution: changes of time, space and relations in school based...
Ulisses F. Araújo
Full Text Available Este artigo discute os movimentos de evolução da educação nos últimos séculos, buscando demonstrar como movimentos de democratização e universalização do acesso ao ensino promoveram a inclusão de todas as pessoas nos processos educativos. A escola, tal como a conhecemos, estruturada nos séculos XVIII e XIX sob princípios de exclusão e homogeneização, não parece estar dando conta das demandas de uma educação inclusiva, o que vem impactando as metas de qualidade do conhecimento almejadas pelas sociedades contemporâneas. Esse impasse vem demandando uma reinvenção da educação, que envolve transformações nos conteúdos, na forma e nas relações entre docentes e discentes dentro dos espaços educativos. Como exemplo de caminhos a serem seguidos para reinventar a educação, apresenta-se a estrutura de um curso de especialização que articula metodologias ativas de aprendizagem com novas e diversas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação e a preocupação com a ética pessoal e profissional.AbstractThis article discusses the evolution of education in recent centuries, trying to demonstrate how movements of democratization and universal access to education promoted the inclusion of all people in the educational processes. The school, as we know, structured in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries on principles of exclusion and homogenization, there seems not to be catching on the demands of an inclusive education, which has been impacting the quality goals of knowledge desired by contemporary societies. This impasse has been demanding a re-invention of education, which involves changes in the content, form and relationships between teachers and students within the educational spaces. As an example of paths to be followed to re-invent education, is presented the structure of a specialization course which combines active learning methodologies with new and diverse Information Technology and Communication tools, and the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opiate overdoses (OD constitute one of the leading causes of avoidable deaths among people aged 20-40 years old. As peer-administered help in cases of overdose was found to be effective, we aimed to explore how much the subjects of the intervention are able to learn from one another and from their own experience. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed with the 2008 dataset of peer-driven intervention among IDUs who were not involved in harm reduction programs earlier; recruiting was performed with respondent driven sampling methodology combined with peer education covering overdose response. Subsample of 6667 opiate users was considered. Data on overdose response strategies experienced by respondents were considered predictors and data on intended response strategies as outcomes. To reveal relationships between the experienced and intended responses, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: With recommended strategies including calling ambulance, putting a person in recovery position, fixing the tongue, applying mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and cardiac massage, percentages of those planning to apply them was considerably higher (on average, 2.3 times higher than the percentage of those having experienced them. With other strategies including applying cold, pain, ammonia, percentages of those who experienced the strategy and those who planned to practice it were rather close and on average differed just by 1.1. With all the strategies, the intention to apply a particular response in future was strongly associated with personal experience of having had this applied when having an overdose episode. Peer-education to larger extent determines the intentions of those who have not experienced particular overdose responses themselves. On the other hand, social learning contributes to persisting of those experienced strategies which cannot be recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Social learning can impact intended overdose
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a) Of...
Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.
Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen; Hadzibegovic-Bubanja, Elvira; Nielsen, Søren P.
-based initiatives as an integral part of modern teacher education programmes. The publication is an attempt to translate more academic reflections into action by being practice-oriented. However, not in the form of a classical tool kit or how-to-do guidelines which would wrongly give the impression...... of modern teacher education programmes. The publication is an attempt to translate more academic reflections into action by being practice-oriented. However, not in the form of a classical tool kit or how-to-do guidelines which would wrongly give the impression that it is possible to develop guidelines...... upper–secondary education). The philosophy of the Handbook is that teacher competence development becomes both more efficient and much cheaper if closely related to the actual job requirements of teachers, organised at school level and for teams of teachers with strong support from school leadership...
Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A
We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.
Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir
The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.
Greene, Michael B.
This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Tercedor, Pablo; Villa-González, Emilio; Ávila-García, Manuel; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Pérez-López, Isaac José; García-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Mandic, Sandra; Palomares-Cuadros, Juan; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier
The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age) from six schools in Granada (Spain) will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school) or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children). Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry), physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery), and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference). Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires), academic achievement (grades from the official school's records), and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires). To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the progress of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD both in school and at home to promote a school-based integrated care model between parents, teachers, and medical providers. This is a prospective cohort study. To monitor progress, outcome measures were administered via an online platform developed for caregivers and teachers of children (n = 30 attending a school specializing in neurodevelopmental disorders and using an integrated medical and education program. Longitudinal analysis showed improvements in a novel scale, the Teacher Autism Progress Scale (TAPS, which was designed to measure key autism-related gains in a school environment (2.1-point improvement, p = 0.004, ES = 0.324. The TAPS showed a strong and statistically significant correlation, with improvement in aberrant behavior (r = −0.50; p = 0.008 and social responsiveness (r = −0.70; p < 0.001. The results also showed non-statistically significant improvements in aberrant behavior, social responsiveness, and quality of life over time at both school and home. To assess feasibility of ongoing progress measurement, we assessed missing data, which showed caregivers were more likely to miss surveys during summer. Results demonstrate the value and feasibility of online, longitudinal data collection in school to assist with individualized education planning and collaborative care for children with ASD. Lessons learned in this pilot will support school outcomes researchers in developing more efficacious, collaborative treatment plans between clinicians, caregivers, and teachers.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering possible synergies between them. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines current conceptualisations of child and youth mental health and explores how these inform school-based prevention and intervention approaches. The dominance of discrete, “expert-driven” psychosocial programmes as well as the...
Benson, Jeryl D.; Elkin, Kathleen; Wechsler, Julie; Byrd, Lindsey
This study aims to explore the perceptions of parents of children receiving occupational therapy in educational settings, understand the importance of the parent/occupational therapist relationship and its impact on the outcomes of therapy. In addition, this study aims to reveal best practices when providing services within the school system in…
Feb 28, 2017 ... the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a ... predicted poor academic achievement and high dropout rates when comparing groups of ... In fact, schools/teachers can be seen as a vehicle for the provision of care and support .... Brazil (2002) agree that, quantitative methods.
This paper reports on a study which explored the mentoring experiences of professionally unqualified practicing teachers enrolled in a part-time Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The study sought to understand the mentoring experiences these students received ...
Davies, Susan C.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including concussions, can result in a constellation of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that affect students' well-being and performance at school. Despite these effects, school personnel remain underprepared identify, educate, and assist this population of students. This article describes a…
Winn, Matthew R.
Just as participation in social networking has grown, so has media coverage of inappropriate activity online. Teacher-student relationships and cyberbullying are just a few of the stories that seem to make the news on a regular basis. For educators, this is particularly troubling, considering how few students know what is appropriate when using…
The investigation on language practices aimed at establishing how the language of learning policy formulated by the Department of Education in South Africa was interpreted at classroom level. The study focused on language activities in schoolbased Grade R classes to observe how learners' home language was used as ...
innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. One hypothesis ... technology go hand in hand. Advances in ... Osika E. Okon, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, .... Science teachers in 50 middle schools located in five urban districts in the United States of.
Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.
Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support
Full Text Available This study aims to describe and interpret the implementation of school-based lesson study in SDN I Kretek. This study uses the qualitative research. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, field notes, and documentation. The data validity was determined through sources and techniques triangulation. The data were analyzed using the Interactive Analysis Model from Miles and Huberman. The results show: (1 the planning of school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek has been implemented from the beginning of the school year 2014/2015 by establishing school-based lesson study team. This team is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek, (2 school-based lesson study at SDN 1 Kretek is implemented in three phases, namely planning, implementation, and reflection, and (3 The evaluation of lesson study is conducted by each teacher who has conducted the open class and conducted thoroughly with a meeting by a team of school-based lesson study SDN 1 Kretek at the end of the school year.
Gadow, Kenneth D.
As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. METHODS: This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants' emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in 'minor NSSI', 11.9% in 'moderate/severe NSSI'. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI'. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI' in those who had poor emotional management ability. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents.
Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka
This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.
Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Taylor, Laura; Macatangay, Bernard Jonas C; Veldkamp, Peter; Belizario, Vicente Y
We evaluated the War on Worms in the Western Visayas (WOW-V) school-based mass treatment strategy in Capiz, the Philippines by assessing potential determinants of program acceptance among parents, teachers, and local health and education officials involved. Written surveys were distributed to parents and teachers assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Associations between data were examined using the Fisher's exact test (alpha = 0.05). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were employed to analyze teacher survey results. Local health and education officials participated in key-informant interviews (KIs) to evaluate their attitudes and practices regarding WOW-V; data was qualitatively analyzed and grouped. A strong association was observed between parental consent during the first two rounds of treatment and willingness to do so again. Most parents gave consent for their child to receive treatment at least once and demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding STH infections. The majority of teachers had positive attitudes toward their role in the program. Many identified lack of training and a fear of side effects as barriers to higher coverage. Lack of funding, program monitoring difficulties and insufficient parental education were identified by local officials as barriers. Proper planning and design is important to achieve high initial consent for program acceptance. The results correlate with studies showing relationships between health education and treatment acceptance. The implementation of health education and monitoring measures has the potential to greatly improve both treatment coverage and program infrastructure.
Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.
Davis, Holly S.
This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…
Health and Educational Effects of Marijuana on Youth. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
These proceedings of a hearing before the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Subcommittee include testimony about the health and educational effects of marijuana on young people. The materials describe recent findings on the extent of drug use among youth, recent changes in drug use trends, and the consequences of marijuana use on health and intellectual…
Krause, Joan H
Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al. would exacerbate them. The Model would limit FDA authority to core communications proposing immediate commercial transactions, giving manufacturers unfettered discretion over scientific exchanges and nearly free rein over truthful quasi-commercial communications. Most problematically, the New Model relies on the longstanding assumption that truly educational and scientific activities can be distinguished from simple product promotion - a dichotomy that exists not only in federal law and professional association codes, but also underlies the jurisdiction of the federal agencies overseeing the pharmaceutical sector. Experience invites skepticism that these activities can be cleanly separated, suggesting that the New Model may simply perpetuate abusive behaviors without offering concomitant benefits to physicians or patients.
This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…