WorldWideScience

Sample records for school-aged children chronically

  1. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  2. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen b...

  3. Strategies of normalization used by parents of chronically ill school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, E; Holaday, B; Harkins, A; Turner-Henson, A

    1990-01-01

    The concept of normalization is examined in relation to chronically ill children. From this conceptual base, the responses of 365 parents in a survey of chronically ill children's use of time out of school, were analyzed to determine the normalization strategies used pertaining to the life of the child and family. This article discusses the appropriateness and importance of normalization, and presents implications for the professional nurse working with families of chronically ill children.

  4. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

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    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  5. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  6. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  7. Chronic undernourishment in school-aged children: itineraries of nutritional neglect and official programs in indigenous communities of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of different elements of the nutritional dynamics in a predominantly indigenous municipality in Guerrero, Mexico, we explore the relevance of the concept of itineraries of nutritional neglect in order to broaden the understanding of avoidable health damage. In the framework of a process of accompaniment of the Health Commission of the Regional Coordination of Community Authorities - Community Police, the following methodological strategies were applied throughout the year 2015: a a review of official programs by means of the analysis of technical documents and interviews with health personnel; b the compilation of local narratives from families of undernourished children through interviews and participatory observation; c the somatometric measurement of 151 children in three elementary schools. We highlight the technical and cultural inadequacy of official nutrition programs and the existence of different scales (individual, familial, community, state, structural and dimensions (economic, environmental, cultural, institutional, affective-emotional of neglect, materialized in high rates of chronic undernourishment.

  8. Assent of school-age bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, Bonnie; Gonzales, Orlando; Mills, Debra

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of assent of school-age bilingual children to participate in a research study. The article reviews cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors influencing verbal and nonverbal concept formation in bilingual children. At the applied level, the focus of the article is on methodological considerations in using this information to obtain assent from a child who is bilingual and speaks English as a second language. Recommendations for the assessment of the child's language dominance, language proficiency, and the development of the assent form are provided. Language diversity and its potential effects on the assent process need to be formally acknowledged and appropriately addressed.

  9. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  10. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  11. The Relation Between Child Versus Parent Report of Chronic Fatigue and Language/Literacy Skills in School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with hearing loss experience elevated levels of chronic fatigue compared with children with normal hearing. Chronic fatigue is associated with decreased academic performance in many clinical populations. Children with cochlear implants as a group exhibit deficits in language and literacy skills; however, the relation between chronic fatigue and language and literacy skills for children with cochlear implants is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore subjective ratings of chronic fatigue by children with cochlear implants and their parents, as well as the relation between chronic fatigue and language and literacy skills in this population. Nineteen children with cochlear implants in grades 3 to 6 and one of their parents separately completed a subjective chronic fatigue scale, on which they rated how much the child experienced physical, sleep/rest, and cognitive fatigue over the past month. In addition, children completed an assessment battery that included measures of speech perception, oral language, word reading, and spelling. Children and parents reported different levels of chronic child physical and sleep/rest fatigue. In both cases, parents reported significantly less fatigue than did children. Children and parents did not report different levels of chronic child cognitive fatigue. Child report of physical fatigue was related to speech perception, language, reading, and spelling. Child report of sleep/rest and cognitive fatigue was related to speech perception and language but not to reading or spelling. Parent report of child fatigue was not related to children's language and literacy skills. Taken as a whole, results suggested that parents under-estimate the fatigue experienced by children with cochlear implants. Child report of physical fatigue was robustly related to language and literacy skills. Children with cochlear implants are likely more accurate at reporting physical fatigue than cognitive

  12. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  13. Preparation of early school age children in fire sport

    OpenAIRE

    Jermanová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on preparation of early school age children in fire sport. This sport is known as adult sport and only marginally. In theoretical part I want to bring near ideas of this sport. I deal with history of fire departments and children in these departments, next I am focused on fire game "Plamen"(Flame) and also trainer personality. Research is focused on searching and evaluation of informations about preparation early school age children in fire sport in Benešov district.

  14. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  15. Self-Control in School-Age Children

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    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  16. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  17. Anti-typhoid agglutinins in School aged African children | Ibadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine baseline antibody responses to H and O antigens of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi (A, B and C) in school aged Nigerian children. Design: Cross-sectional study involving 175 children. Using both rapid slide and tube agglutination techniques in dilutions of sera (1:20 to 1:320), ...

  18. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  19. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with hooigworms, Trichuris'trichirua and Ascaris lumbricoides infections are improved after treatment with albendazole J. Nutrition 1994, 124: 1199-1206. Nokes C. Grantham- McGregor, S.M. Sawyer A.W.. Cooper ES, Bundy, D.A.P. Parastic helminth infection and cognitive function in school children proceeding of the Royal ...

  20. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  1. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-06

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  2. Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... The prevalence of intestinal asymptomatic protozoan infection was assessed (November, 2012 through May, 2013) among school age children in Pategi, Pategi Local Government ... The distribution of the parasites was E. histolytica/dispar (75.1), E. coli (18.8) and G. lamblia (6.1%).

  3. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  4. Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria .... Typhoid sep- ticaemia is readily fulminant unless early diagnosis is made and adequate therapy offered.2 The conventional method of culturing the offending Salmonella organism, in a bid ... of the disease, recourse is often made to other methods.

  5. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke’s area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600 – 1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurode...

  6. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5s, but also to children of school age group. Programmes at reducing vitamin A deficiency in this country should therefore incorporate children in this age group. Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency, School aged children, Prevalence ...

  7. Factors associated with the resilience of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Yeo Jin; Kim, Dong Hee

    2012-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with the resilience of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis, a common chronic skin condition in childhood with an increasing incidence rate, can impose many challenges to children and their families. Survey. The participants were 102 children, 7-15 years old, who were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis at least six months prior to data collection. The instruments used were a self-report questionnaire on the resilience of children suffering a chronic illness, the Childrearing Behavior Questionnaire to examine parenting practices and the Personal Relationship Measurement to evaluate relationships with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. There was statistically significant relationship between resilience and duration of illness (r = -0·312, p children with atopic dermatitis who reported a shorter duration of illness, lower severity score and better relationships with parents, friends and teachers showed a higher resilience score than their counterparts. A comprehensive intervention programme for children with atopic dermatitis to promote the development of positive relationships with parents, friends and teachers is recommended. The careful nursing intervention to build a positive relationship with parents, friends and teachers would be helpful to enhance the resilience of school-aged children having atopic dermatitis. Considering social context of school-aged children having chronic skin condition should be enclosed to set a nursing plan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

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    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  9. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  10. The Harvard Southern California Chronic Ozone Exposure Study: assessing ozone exposure of grade-school-age children in two Southern California communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, A S; Xue, J; Ozkaynak, H; Spengler, J D

    2000-03-01

    The Harvard Southern California Chronic Ozone Exposure Study measured personal exposure to, and indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations of, approximately 200 elementary school children 6-12 years of age for 12 months (June 1995-May 1996). We selected two Southern California communities, Upland and several towns located in the San Bernardino mountains, because certain characteristics of those communities were believed to affect personal exposures. On 6 consecutive days during each study month, participant homes were monitored for indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations, and participating children wore a small passive ozone sampler to measure personal exposure. During each sampling period, the children recorded time-location-activity information in a diary. Ambient ozone concentration data were obtained from air quality monitoring stations in the study areas. We present ozone concentration data for the ozone season (June-September 1995 and May 1996) and the nonozone season (October 1995-April 1996). During the ozone season, outdoor and indoor concentrations and personal exposure averaged 48.2, 11.8, and 18.8 ppb in Upland and 60.1, 21.4, and 25.4 ppb in the mountain towns, respectively. During the nonozone season, outdoor and indoor concentrations and personal exposure averaged 21.1, 3.2, and 6.2 ppb in Upland, and 35.7, 2.8, and 5.7 ppb in the mountain towns, respectively. Personal exposure differed by community and sex, but not by age group.

  11. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T; Pietrzak, Robert H; Snyder, Peter J; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  12. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  13. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  15. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  17. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children.

  18. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  19. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (planguage function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  20. Nutritional anaemia and malaria in preschool and school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumudu, C; Afolami, M; Igwe, C; Nwagwu, M; Keshinro, O

    2008-03-01

    The most common cause of anemia is a deficiency of iron; but it may also be caused by deficiencies of folates, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemias are not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pre-school and school- aged children in two rural areas of Odogbolu Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. A total of 177 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin and hematocrit were used to classify anemia. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serum ferritin was compared with standard methods of determining iron deficiency. Under-nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) was classified according to the National Centre for Health Statistics standards. Values below-2SD were defined as mild-moderate under-nutrition, and those below-3SD as severe malnutrition. Most of the children were anemic, 87.1%, having PCV values below the 32% cut-off and 95% with hemoglobin levels lower than the 11 g/dl, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 36% of the children were stunted, 18.3% wasted and 44.2% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than PCV in detecting anemic children. Although anemia was higher in boys and preschoolers compared to girls and school aged children, the difference was significant only in preschoolers (P? = ?.004). Anaemia was also significantly higher in Irawo village school than in Iloti (P? = ?.0001) The anemia detected in this population may be due more to under-nutrition than to malaria.

  1. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between DXA (n=875) and other adiposity measures including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, circumferences, and bioimpedance. We also computed correlations between lean body mass measures. Results 50.0% of the children were female and 36.5% were non-white. Mean (SD) BMI was 17.2 (3.1) and total fat mass by DXA was 7.5 (3.9) kg. DXA total fat mass was highly correlated with BMI (rs=0.83), bioimpedance total fat (rs=0.87), and sum of skinfolds (rs=0.90), and DXA trunk fat was highly correlated with waist circumference (rs=0.79). Correlations of BMI with other adiposity indices were high, e.g., with waist circumference (rs=0.86) and sum of subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (rs=0.79). DXA fat-free mass and bioimpedance fat-free mass were highly correlated (rs=0.94). Conclusions In school-aged children, BMI, sum of skinfolds, and other adiposity measures were strongly correlated with DXA fat mass. Although these measurement methods have limitations, BMI and skinfolds are adequate surrogate measures of relative adiposity in children when DXA is not practical. PMID:23799991

  4. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components.

  5. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  6. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  7. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  8. The strength and vulnerability of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children between the ages of 5 and 14 appear to have a lower risk of dying than both younger and older individuals. Objective: We looked for possible factors influencing the mortality rates of school-age children in Norway during the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, i.e., at a time of poverty and moderate food shortage - and before the general use of vaccines. Methods: We used Norwegian mortality data by age and sex, during the period of 1930-1954, from the Human Mortality Database and obtained the main causes of death, as well as age-specific data from different regions of Norway, from Statistics Norway. Results: Boys and girls aged 5-14 years had lower mortality rates than any other age group below 40, even during the German occupation. However, 5-14-year-old boys as well as 5-9-year-old girls had significantly increased mortality during 1941-1945 as compared to the previous decade. Mortality as a result of diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever, and measles increased more than five-fold, surpassing mortality as a result of accidents, whereas mortality from these infections only doubled in adults up to 39 years. During that same period, the body weight of schoolchildren aged 8-13 years dropped slightly. Conclusions: Proper nourishment, being of the utmost importance for a functioning immune system, is key to understanding the potential vulnerability of children at any age. Our study shows how vulnerable even the most resistant children can be. Contribution: The vulnerability of children 5-14 years old may not have been properly taken into account, as was also shown in the recent upward UN revision of 5-14 age mortality in low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  10. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age

  11. Arterial hypertension and pulse pressure in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Nechytailo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood arterial hypertension (AH has become a global problem not only for pediatrics, but also for public health in general. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension among school-age children and diagnostic value of pulse pressure. Materials and Methods. In total 848 children in 10–17 years of age (mean age – 13.9 ± 0.06 years, 45.4 % boys and 54.6 % girls from urban and rural areas of Chernivtsi region were examined in schools during screening for elevated blood pressure (BP. School-based ambulatory seated BP was measured by oscillometric automated recording devices with the age selection of cuffs. Elevated systolic (SAP or diastolic (DAP pressure was diagnosed in those children with indicators above the 95th percentile of age norms in accordance with the national normative values. In cases of elevated BP the measurements were verificated by aneroid device. Results. It has been established that the frequency of high blood pressure in the examined school students was 25.2 %, including 17.7 % of arterial hypertension (BP above 95 percentile and 7.5 % – pre-hypertension (90–95 percentile. The prevalence of hypertension varied with age subgroups and the highest level was in 16 years of age – 29.9 % with high blood pressure (21.9 % above 95 percentile and 8.0 % between the 90th and 95th percentiles. Increased SAP was combined with an increased DAP in 47.3 % of cases and in the study had a positive correlation with overweight (r = 0.27, p < 0.05 and negative with physical performance (r = -0.21, p < 0.05. The pulse pressure had significant correlations with SAP, AH and overweight and it could be used as additional diagnostic index of AH. Conclusions. The prevalence of elevated BP in our study is higher than in European countries and exceeds 20 % of the child population. The elevated BP in our children has positive correlation with overweight and the negative with physical performance. The

  12. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-01-01

    .... Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years...

  13. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. ...

  14. A Prospective Study of LINE-1DNA Methylation and Development of Adiposity in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Mar?n, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S.; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogot?, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5?12 years at baseline usi...

  15. Functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with high-dose dexamethasone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. A.; de Bok, Marijn; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Roze, Elise; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: Postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment is associated with adverse motor outcome. It is largely unknown as to what extent functional outcome at school age is affected. Aims: Our first aim was to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm-born children

  16. Supporting the moral development of pre-school aged[sic] children at nursery schools

    OpenAIRE

    Batistová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my dissertation was to describe the responsibilities of teachers in institutional pre-school education and how they bolster the moral development of pre-school age children, which takes place in the context of the children's mental progress and the formation of moral values gained from their families. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part describes the moral progress of pre-school age children, educational and institutional strategies to develop the moral consc...

  17. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... nematode parasitemia in the sampled population may be due to the periodic flooding experienced in the study area. Regular antihelminths administration to school aged pupils and improved environmental sanitation are recommended control measures. Keywords: Sex-related parasitemia, specific nematode parasitemia, ...

  18. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  19. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  20. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    .... Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia...

  1. Use of health tourism as a basis for improving physical condition of primary school age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halyna Butenko; Nataliia Goncharova; Volodymyr Saienko; Hanna Tolchieva

    2017-01-01

      The article is devoted to explanation and elaboration of recreation and health-improving technology embracing health tourism means for the cohort of primary school age children after the school hours...

  2. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Li; Ni Zhu; Lingxia Zeng; Shaonong Dang; Jing Zhou; Yijun Kang; Yang Yang; Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    .... The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China...

  3. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  4. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  5. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social advers...... regional differences prevail in prescribing practices for children facing social adversity, indicating that local cultures shape the interpretation and handling of children with ADHD-like behaviors.......Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...

  6. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5-12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the association of LINE-1 methylation with erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, vitamin A ferritin (an indicator of iron status) and serum zinc concentrations using multivariable linear regression. We also considered associations of LINE-1 methylation with socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Mean (± SD) LINE-1 methylation was 80.25 (± 0.65) percentage of 5-mC (%5-mC). LINE-1 methylation was inversely related to plasma vitamin A. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with retinol levels higher than or equal to 1.05 µmol/L showed 0.19% 5-mC lower LINE-1 methylation than children with retinol levels lower than 0.70 µmol/L. LINE-1 methylation was also inversely associated with C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation, and female sex. We identified positive associations of maternal body mass index and socioeconomic status with LINE-1 methylation. These associations were not significantly different by sex. Whether modification of these exposures during school-age years leads to changes in global DNA methylation warrants further investigation.

  7. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  9. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  10. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  11. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  12. School-Age Follow-Up of Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Iyenger, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were…

  13. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  14. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  15. Cartoons Influence towards Violence and Aggression in School Age Children in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odukomaiya, Elizabeth Ibukunoluwa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore how violence and aggression in cartoon affects school age children in Nigeria. The reason for embarking on this research is to know whether and to what extent cartoon on television makes school age children (both male and female) violent and aggressive. Children are exposed to cartoon at their tender age (4-12). Though it serves as a means of entertainment to them, children learn faster than adults, and their re-enactment of media messages is unri...

  16. [A prospective cohort study on injuries among school-age children with and without behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-chun; Ni, Jin-fa; Tao, Fang-biao; Wu, Xi-ke

    2003-08-01

    To study the annual incidence of injuries and the relationship between behavior problems and injuries among school-age children. A prospective cohort study on injuries for 1-year follow-up period was conducted among 2 005 school-age children selected by cluster sampling from three primary schools in Maanshan city. They subjects were divided into two groups with or without exposure according to behavior problems rated by the Rutter Child Behavior Questionnaire at the beginning of the study. Nonparametric test was performed to analyze the differences in injuries between the two groups of children, and the influential factors for injuries were analyzed with multi-classification ordinal response variable logistic regression model. The overall incidence rate for injuries in school-age children was 42.51%, while among children with and without behavior problems were 64.87% and 38.85%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups (u = -6.054, P = 0.000). However, the incidence rates of injuries in school-age children with antisocial (A) behavior, neurotic (N) behavior and mixed (M) behavior were 66.99%, 67.41% and 61.40%, respectively. No significant differences were found among them (u(A,N) = -0.052, P = 0.958; u(A,M) = -0.400, P = 0.689; u(N,M) = -0.364, P = 0.716). Multivariate analysis indicated that injuries in school-age children were associated with children behavior problems, maternal age at childbirth, bad conditions during mother pregnancy, education background of mother, prevention measures for safety at home and the child accompanied to travel between school and home by adults. Behavior problems of children seemed to be the major risk factors for injuries. Children with behavior problems represented a significant risk group for injuries among school-age children. When planning intervention strategies on injuries, behavior problems should be emphasized to ensure optimal effectiveness of intervention.

  17. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  18. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Association between migration and physical activity of school-age children left behind in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos-Lucio, Gabriela; Flores, Mario; Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly; Monterrubio, Eric; Henao, Santiago; Macias, Nayeli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rural communities of Mexico, the association between physical activity (PA) in school-age children and exposure to migration. We measured PA through a questionnaire validated in school-age children and used in Mexican National Surveys. Migration status was measured as the number of years a family member had been in the US, and the amount of remittances that family member had sent to their household in Mexico. We used multivariable linear regression to measure the association between physical activity and migration. School-age children who had a migrant family member spent less time on PA per day, especially recreation activities, compared to school-age children without the migrating influence. Also, children who belonged to a family that received remittances and their migrant relative lived ≥ 5 years in US were less likely to engage in PA. Exposure to migration may predict reduction in PA in school-age children left behind in Mexican rural communities from the State of Morelos. These findings call for PA-tailored interventions that consider household migration characteristics.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of corrective lenses among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Bruckman, David; Freed, Gary L

    2004-01-01

    No population-based data are available regarding the proportion of school-age children who have corrective lenses in the U.S. The objective of this study was to quantify the proportion of children who have corrective lenses (glasses or contact lenses) and to evaluate the association of corrective lenses with age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance status, and family income. Children 6 to 18 years of age were identified in the 1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. National estimates were made of the proportion with corrective lenses. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess factors that were associated with corrective lenses. Based on the 5,141 children in the 1988 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, an estimated 25.4% of the 52.6 million children between 6 and 18 years had corrective lenses. Girls had greater odds than boys of having corrective lenses (odds ratio, 1.41; p lenses. Compared with uninsured black or Hispanic children (odds ratio, 1), greater odds of corrective lens use was found among uninsured nonblack/non-Hispanic children (odds ratio, 2.29; p = 0.002) and black or Hispanic children with public (odds ratio, 1.67; p = 0.005) or private health insurance (odds ratio,1.77; p = 0.004). Among families with an income > or =200% of the federal poverty level, the odds of having corrective lenses increased with age (p lenses at 12 to 14 years was similar to 15- to 18-year olds (p = 0.93). The use of corrective lenses suggests that correctable visual impairment is the most common treatable chronic condition of childhood. Income, gender, and race/ethnicity, depending on insurance status, are associated with having corrective lenses. The underlying causes and the impacts of these differences must be understood to ensure optimal delivery of eye care.

  1. Resilience as a protective factor for the behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the relationships between resilience and behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and identifies factors associated with these behavioral problems. A total of 102 school-aged children suffering from chronic AD were administered a self-report questionnaire on resilience, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist, to measure their internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems. The means of the internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems of children with AD were 6.58 and 7.26, respectively. Both resilience and economic status were negatively correlated with the internalizing, r = -0.262, p Resilience was identified as the single potent variable affecting children's behavioral problems. The higher the children's resilience scores, the lower was the chance of both internalizing, β = -1.648, p = 0.034, and externalizing behavioral problems, β = -1.382, p = 0.041. To prevent possible behavioral problems in children with chronic AD, a care plan enhancing their resilience (i.e. promoting parenting skills and social supports for children) should be developed.

  2. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  3. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  4. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  5. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  7. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  8. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  9. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  11. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  12. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  13. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  14. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  15. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  16. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  17. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  18. Psycho-physical development of deaf school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statiev S.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Examined the psycho-physical development of deaf children and their adaptation to the world, analyzed the studies earlier. Shows the analysis of publications of various experts, we concluded that the problem is poorly understood and requires a solution, as it is currently very topical. Proved that the psycho-physical development of deaf children is low in comparison with hearing and speech development of many deaf people is not coming. It is established that such children find it difficult to adapt to the conditions of modern life and the need to develop different ways to improve the lives of deaf children.

  19. [Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in school-age children of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-hui; Shen, Xiao-ming; Jin, Xing-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Jiang, Fan; Yu, Xiao-dan; Qiu, Yu-lan

    2008-03-01

    To survey the sleep habits (bedtime, wake time), sleep duration, and sleep problems in school-age children of China. From November to December, 2005, a total of 19,299 school-age children from 55 elementary schools of 9 cities entered the study by a cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to investigate children's sociodemographic characteristics and sleep behaviors, respectively. The mean sleep duration was 9 hours and 10 minutes (9:10, SD:48 min) during the weekdays and 9:48 (SD: 63 min) during the weekends. In about 71.4% and 41.8% school-aged children the sleep duration per day did not reach the lowest criterion of 10 hours recommended by the Ministry of Education of China during weekdays and weekends, respectively. Sleep problems were common with prevalence ranging from 14.5% for sleep-disordered breathing to 75.3% for daytime sleepiness. Parasomnia (chi(2) = 13.76, P sleep-disordered breathing (chi(2) = 119.83, P sleep anxiety was more prevalent in girls than in boys (chi(2) = 19.42, P sleep problems were significantly associated with age. Inadequate sleep duration and sleep problems prevail among school-age children, which indicates that children's sleep health may be a major public health concern in China.

  20. Urinary schistosomiasis in school aged children of two rural endemic communities in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriode, Rukeme M; Idowu, Emmanuel T; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A; Mafe, Margaret A

    2017-09-29

    Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted among school-aged children and health care providers, probing their knowledge, attitude and practices on on-going control activities. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school-aged children was 65.3%. The prevalence was generally higher among females (68.8%) and children in the age groups 10-14 (69.9%). The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 5044 (mean=449.8) eggs/10ml of urine with a higher proportion having heavy infections (76.8%, P<0.05). Water contact was attested by 123 (49.0%) of the children; of these 123, 74 (60.1%) were infected. The children's knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis was deficient. The high prevalences reported in these communities require integrated approach to control which essentially should incorporate the provision of safe water supply and sanitary facilities, and health education in addition to the annual mass praziquantel distribution, to reduce transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep and neuropsychological functioning in school aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Simone Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and neuropsychological functioning in healthy, typically developing children and children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Three research questions were examined in this thesis. The first examined whether sleep disturbance is associated with specific deficits in executive functions or an overall deficit in executive functioning. The second research question examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and behaviour problems....

  2. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6 - 12 years. Results: A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight ...

  3. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    -school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  4. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  5. Elementary School Age Children's Comprehension of Specific Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Bonnie; And Others

    1985-01-01

    When examined as a group (80 linguistically normal children in grades K-6), comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. (Author/CL)

  6. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Treatment on the Cardiovascular Stress Response of Children at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karemaker, Rosa; Karemaker, John M.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke; Baerts, Wim; Veen, Sylvia; Samsom, Jannie F.; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal was to investigate cardiovascular responses to a psychosocial stressor in school-aged, formerly premature boys and girls who had been treated neonatally with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone because of chronic lung disease. METHODS. We compared corticosteroid-treated, formerly

  7. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  8. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  9. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Creativity and physical fitness in primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Pinillos, Felipe García; Pantoja Vallejo, Antonio; Berrios Aguayo, Beatriz

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between creativity and physical fitness in elementary school children. Data were collected from 308 primary school students in southern Spain, ranging in age from 8 to 12 years (mean, 9.72 ± 1.25 years). They completed a fitness test battery, and the Prueba de Imaginación Creativa para Niños (PIC-N; Creative Imagination Test for Children) to analyze creativity. Significant differences were found between the sexes. Boys had better physical fitness but there were no sex differences in creativity. On clusters analysis, the highly creative groups had better physical fitness. Creativity was correlated with physical fitness. Aerobic capacity was a predictor of creativity. There is an association between creativity and physical fitness in primary school children that may have important implications for academic achievement. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  12. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  13. Association between intersection characteristics and perceived crash risk among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gain; Park, Yuna; Kim, Jeongseob; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-12-01

    This research examined how environmental attributes near intersections influence the perceived crash risk among school-aged children, which provides information on the potential risks of pedestrian crashes that can guide the development of proactive countermeasures. In a sample of 799 children aged 10-12 years old in Korea, the environmental attributes of intersections perceived as having a high risk of producing crashes near elementary schools were investigated using standard negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial models.The results showed that a higher number of student crossings, a wider road width, the presence of crosswalks, student-friendly facilities at the intersection, and four-way intersections were significant and positively associated with perceived crash risk among school-aged children. The findings related to building characteristics indicated that a higher number of entrances at an intersection increased the perceived crash risk while higher visibility at the intersection reduced the perception of risk. Associations with traffic-calming measures were weak,suggesting that the measures used in the study areas were not effective in reducing the perceived crash risk. The results of a police-reported crash model showed that school-aged children have a relatively accurate perception of crash risk and that the perceived crash risk of school-aged children may provide valuable information on the intersection characteristics in need of attention near school sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  15. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  16. Dimensionality of Reading Skills with Elementary-School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 1,501 kindergarten to 5th-grade children who completed 3 measures of decoding, 3 measures of reading comprehension, and 3 measures of listening comprehension as part of a larger study were used to identify the dimensionality of reading skills across elementary school. A 1-factor (reading) model was the…

  17. Elimination of Vocal Abuse in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Forrest G.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on activities that the regular classroom teacher can incorporate into the speech arts curriculum that will help to eliminate the high incidence of vocal disorders in students. Includes a description of the mechanics of voice production and exercises designed to help children use their voices more efficiently. (FL)

  18. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  19. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  20. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  1. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Hashem; Amestejani, Morteza; Karamyar, Mohammad; Nikibakhsh, Ahmad-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. Methods A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Conclusion Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children. PMID:23550208

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  3. Surgical Abdomen in School Age Children: A Prospective Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical abdomen traverses all age groups. We sought to define the aetiology, patients' characteristics, and outcome of management amongst children Methods: Two years prospective review of patients aged 5-15 years managed for surgical abdomen at the Wesley Guilds Hospital Ilesa and Mishmael Medical ...

  4. Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Enhanced agglutinin to DO and DH may be a phenomenon associated with childhood malaria. Keywords: Anti-typhoid, Agglutinins, Malaria, Children Résume Introduction: Anticorps salmonelloses sont connues de réagir en travers avec d\\'autres antigènes y compris ceux de Escherichia coli. Les antigènes du ...

  5. Executive Dysfunction and Its Relation to Language Ability in Verbal School-Age Children With Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Robert M.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism. Participants were 37 children with autism and 31 nonautistic comparison participants who were matched on age and on verbal and nonverbal IQ but not on language ability, which was lower in the autism group. Children with autism exhibited deficits compared to the comparison group across all 3 domains of executive function that were assessed including working memory (B...

  6. Rational consumption of nutrients at school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, F.; Lupu, V. V.; Pallag, A.; Barz, C.; Fodor, K.

    2017-05-01

    Nutrition lies at the basis of life being a factor of permanent action by which the individual, respectively small or large communities have ensured their survival in relation to the environment. Food represents a natural component which provides the energy and the vitality of the body and helps preserve people’s health and welfare. Rational nutrition is closely related to the physical and mental development of the young persons, to the adults’ work capacity, to the maintaining, as long as possible, of the elderly’s health condition, to the prevention of some acute and/or chronic diseases.

  7. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...

  8. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely refl...

  9. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  10. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  11. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Altered gray matter volume and school age anxiety in children born late preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-11-01

    To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had magnetic resonance imaging scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area, and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the magnetic resonance imaging. LP children (n = 21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n = 87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Health in School-Aged Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child’s neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82% eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscale mean scores, total difficulties scores, and total impact scores were statistically significantly higher in the group of exposed children, compared with the reference group. In this hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol or other substances, the exposed group had an increased risk of mental health problems, compared with the reference group.

  14. Properties of the narrative scoring scheme using narrative retells in young school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using microstructural measures of vocabulary and grammar to predict NSS scores. While the NSS was significantly correlated with age and each of the microstructural measures, the hierarchical regression analyses revealed a unique relationship between vocabulary and narrative macrostructure. The NSS is an efficient and informative tool for documenting children's development of narrative macrostructure. The relationship between the NSS and microstructural measures demonstrates that it is a robust measure of children's overall oral narrative competence and a powerful tool for clinicians and researchers. The unique relationship between lexical diversity and the NSS confirmed that a special relationship exists between vocabulary and narrative organization skills in young school-age children.

  15. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  16. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  17. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  18. Comparing the Quality of Life of School-Age Children with and without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Keith, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    Quality of life of 76 school-age children with disabilities receiving education services in public schools was compared to that of 64 typical students enrolled in grades K-12. Scores of students with disabilities were lower on all scales of the Quality of Student Life Questionnaire, particularly on satisfaction, well-being, and social belonging.…

  19. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  20. Access to Information Technologies among School-Age Children: Implications for a Democratic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology among school-age children based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and suggests implications of the results for a democratic society. Highlights include computer literacy; access to computers outside of school, specifically in the home; and racial/ethnic differences. (Contains 10…

  1. A Prospective Inquiry into Technology Needs and Practices of School-Age Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBiervliet, Alan

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the technology needs of 560 Arkansas school-age children with disabilities indicated needs for technology in all identified areas of life functioning, a credit plan to assist in purchasing technology, more information relating to technology, and transportation services to receive technological devices. (Author/JDD)

  2. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  3. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  4. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  5. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, Denise A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with specific language impairment produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims: To determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence…

  6. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  7. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  8. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Olga E M; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S

    2012-08-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development and use of clinical prediction rules, (2) the European Respiratory Society Task Force classification of wheeze at preschool age, (3) published prediction rules developed to identify preschool children who will have asthma at school age, and (4) recommendations to improve asthma prediction. Prediction rules are currently created more frequently, yet their clinical use remains low. The classification of episodic wheeze and multiple-trigger wheeze in preschool children shows conflicting results as to whether episodic wheeze and multiple-trigger wheeze differ in clinical features and has limited value in predicting asthma at school age. Clearly, more studies are needed to confirm this. Currently available prediction rules aiming to identify preschool children having asthma at school age are of modest clinical value. Prediction can be improved by more precise definitions and measures and, ultimately, by more knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms. In the future, biomarkers and genomic risk profiles to develop personalized medicine might further improve asthma prediction, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  10. Children's Books, 1974: A List of Books for Preschool through Junior High School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Watt, Lois B., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists books for children of preschool through junior high school age. The books are divided into the following categories: "Picture and Picture-Story Books,""Stories for the Middle Group,""Fiction for Older Readers,""Folklore,""Poetry and Song,""Arts and Hobbies,""History, People, and Places,""Biography," and "Nature…

  11. Evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric indices of heights and weights were obtained from 411 school- aged children, (5-12 years old) in 5 villages (Asakraka, Awiseasu, Miaso, Oframase and Oworobong) during June 2012. Anthropometric parameters and influences that contributed to nutritional status (environmental, health facilities, availability ...

  12. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  13. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Ивановна Ковтюк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the development of somatic pathology

  14. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-12-08

    Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9.2years) were compared to 56 gender and age matched full-term children. Group differences on somatosensory registration tasks (Registration of Light Touch, Sensory Discrimination of Touch, Position Sense, Graphestesia), a computerized multisensory integration task, and the parent-reported Sensory Profile were investigated using t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. In comparison to full-term children, very preterm children are less accurate on somatosensory registration tasks, including Registration of Light Touch (d=0.34), Position Sense (d=0.31) and Graphestesia (d=0.42) and show more sensory modulation difficulties (d=0.41), including both behavioral hyporesponsivity (d=0.52) and hyperresponsivity (d=0.56) to sensory stimuli. Tactile discrimination and multisensory integration efficiency were not affected in very preterm children. Aspects of sensory processing were only modestly related. Very preterm children show sensory processing difficulties regarding somatosensory registration and sensory modulation, and preserved multisensory (audio-visual) integration. Follow-up care for very preterm children should involve screening of sensory processing difficulties at least up to school age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  16. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...

  18. Dyslipidemia in Overweight and Obese School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Dyslipidemia often affects overweight and obese adolescents and can be present along with hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This article is the third of six discussing the comorbidities of childhood obesity and will focus on the individual parts of the lipid profile and the impact of dyslipidemia on the heart and other body systems. Since few pharmacologic therapies are approved to treat dyslipidemia in children and adolescents younger than 18, treatment consists of lifestyle changes that can be supported and modeled by the school nurse. The school nurse can also be an advocate for a healthy lifestyle in the school district and community. More success in the treatment of dyslipidemia will be realized with less attention to changing the individual and more attention to changing the wider populations, including schools and the community. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Cortisol function among early school-aged homeless children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, J J; Wiik, Kristen L; Herbers, Janette E; Gunnar, Megan R; Masten, Ann S

    2010-07-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in Tobacco Smoking among Czech School-aged Children from 1994 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to examine trends in tobacco consumption among the Czech school-age population. METHODS: For the analysis, data from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children project, conducted between 1994 and 2014 were used. Trends in tobacco smoking were determined...... separately for boys and girls, applying the binary logistic regression with survey period as an independent variable for the smoking status. RESULTS: The analysis showed that there have been significant changes in adolescent tobacco smoking for the recent 20 years. While the share of current school......-aged smokers was continuously increasing since the mid-1990s, the trend reached its peak in the mid-2000s. CONCLUSION: In recent years, the prevalence of adolescent smokers has significantly declined in the Czech Republic. Despite this recent decline, adolescent smoking remains a major challenge...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of varicella serotesting versus presumptive vaccination of school-age children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, T A; Finkler, L J; Sorel, M E; Black, S B; Shinefield, H R

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of presumptive vaccination versus serological testing of school-age children (6 to 12 years) and adolescents (13 to 17 years) with a negative or uncertain history of varicella. Decision analysis model based on published and unpublished probabilities and costs. Hypothetical cohorts of 10,000 school-age children and 10,000 adolescents. Number of chicken pox cases prevented and cost per chicken pox case prevented. For school-age children, presumptively vaccinating would prevent 95% of the predicted chicken pox cases, would result in net savings when long-term and work loss costs were included, and would have a similar cost per case prevented as routinely testing before vaccination. For adolescents, presumptively vaccinating would be the most effective policy, and would prevent 99% of the projected chicken pox cases. A policy of routinely testing before vaccination would be the least effective policy for adolescents, preventing 81% of the predicted cases. However, even when long-term and work loss costs were taken into account, presumptively vaccinating adolescents had a relatively high cost of $329 per chicken pox case prevented and extremely high incremental costs per chicken pox case prevented compared with policies that involved serological testing. Results for school-age children were sensitive to the probability of previously having had chicken pox given a negative or uncertain history, to the rate of adherence to follow-up visits, and to vaccine price and test price. Results for adolescents were sensitive only to the rate of adherence to the first follow-up visit. Presumptively vaccinating all patients with a negative or uncertain history of varicella is projected to be a relatively cost-effective policy for school-age children but not for adolescents. However, further empirical studies of the accuracy of a negative or uncertain history of chicken pox in these age groups are needed.

  2. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, P<0.02) and atopic dermatitis (32% vs. 13%, P<0.01) by report. The parents of children with FA did not report anaphylaxis, but 48% had history compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  4. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  5. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  6. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5–12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the asso...

  7. Factors Related to Open Defecation Behavior Among School-age Children in West Lombok

    OpenAIRE

    Makhfudli, Makhfudli; Rachmawati, Praba Diyan; Andini, Saskiyanti Ari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Open defecation behavior is one cause of poor sanitation, which can lead to various diseases. Open defecation behavior related with cultural factors that become a habit in the daily life in a society which was then followed by their children. This study aimed to analyze factors related to the parental behavior of open defecation in school-age children based on the theory of transcultural nursing in Marce, Sedau Community Health Center Area, West Lombok Indonesia. Methods: This w...

  8. THEORETICAL BASSES OF SPEECH ACTIVITY OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Boryak

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming and correction of speech activity of mentally retarded children of primary school age. The author is presented an integrated system of correction of speech development on the basis of the results of the study of speech development level of mentally retarded children of primary school within the modern educational space. The present system has a block structure with comprises: 1. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the technology of formi...

  9. A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, John P; Riggins, Tracy; Black, Maureen M

    2010-03-01

    Studies through 6 years have shown no long-term direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on children's physical growth, developmental test scores, or language outcomes. Little is known about the effects of PCE among school-aged children aged 6 years and older. We reviewed articles from studies that examined the effects of PCE on growth, cognitive ability, academic functioning, and brain structure and function among school-aged children. Articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Medline, TOXNET, and PsycInfo databases from January 1980 to December 2008 with the terms "prenatal cocaine exposure," "cocaine," "drug exposure," "substance exposure," "maternal drug use," "polysubstance," "children," "adolescent," "in utero," "pregnancy," "development," and "behavior." Criteria for inclusion were (1) empirical research on children aged 6 years and older prenatally exposed to cocaine, (2) peer-reviewed English-language journal, (3) comparison group, (4) longitudinal follow-up or historical prospective design, (5) masked assessment, (6) exclusion of subjects with serious medical disabilities, and (7) studies that reported nonredundant findings for samples used in multiple investigations. Thirty-two unique studies met the criteria. Each article was independently abstracted by 2 authors to obtain sample composition, methods of PCE assessment, study design, comparison groups, dependent variables, covariates, and results. Associations between PCE and growth, cognitive ability, academic achievement, and language functioning were small and attenuated by environmental variables. PCE had significant negative associations with sustained attention and behavioral self-regulation, even with covariate control. Although emerging evidence suggests PCE-related alterations in brain structure and function, interpretation is limited by methodologic inconsistencies. Consistent with findings among preschool-aged children, environmental variables play a key role in moderating and

  10. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  11. Васкground development questionnaire quality of life for school age children with broncho-pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Ivasyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove feasibility of developing a questionnaire to assess quality of life for school-age children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature on the study of quality of life. Results: to assess quality of life using both general and specific questionnaires. The most of special are questionnaires designed for adults, and all pulmonary questionnaires designed for chronic diseases. There are of survey questionnaire for children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases. Conclusions: the proposed of us a questionnaire for children with broncho-pulmonary diseases include questions to determine the effect impact of symptoms of diseasea on motor activity and quality of life. In future we plans to cheak effectiveness of the application of this questionnaire for determine quality of life of children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases with goal to determine the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process

  12. Oscillometric blood pressure percentiles for Polish normal-weight school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to construct blood pressure (BP) references with the use of a validated oscillometric device for normal-weight, school-aged children and adolescents and to study BP predictors. BP was measured in 14 266 randomly selected, normal-weight Polish children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who were free of chronic disease, using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. BP percentiles were constructed for age and height simultaneously with the use of a polynomial regression model. The normative values of BP were compared with the US normal-weight reference, German oscillometric reference, and Polish auscultatory reference. Reference BP percentiles by sex, age and height are presented. At median height, the age-specific differences in the 90th BP percentiles compared with German oscillometric reference ranged in the case of boys from -3 to 2  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively, and in the case of girls from 0 to 3  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively. As compared to weight, waist circumference was stronger SBP predictor in low birth weight boys. The study provides BP references for oscillmetric device, based on a current, nationally representative sample of normal-weight Polish children and adolescents. The normative values of BP were compared taking into consideration the height and BMI differences, the pubertal spurt, the methods of BP measurement and percentile construction.

  13. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  14. School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

  15. Symbolization in the Structure of Abilities in Children of Preschool and School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa A.N.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the role of symbolization in educational activity in children of late preschool and early school age. The aim of the research was to compare the efficiency of using sign and symbolic means (i.e. schemes and models in the learning of some new content in preschool and early school age. The study involved 46 children of late preschool age from one of the Moscow kindergartens, 20 girls and 26 boys (M = 78 months; and 25 first grade students of one of the Moscow schools, 16 girls and 9 boys (M = 101 months. The study consisted of the following stages: carrying out tests of mental abilities and dividing the subjects into two subgroups within each age group (that is, two subgroups of preschool children and two subgroups of school children with equal levels of development of the explored abilities; conducting developmental lessons aimed at making the children familiar with phenomena characterizing phase transitions in states of aggregation of matter — with the help of symbolic means (in the experimental group or sign means (in the control group; carrying out a posttest, that is, measuring the level of development of the concepts of aggregate states in all subgroups. The outcomes of the research indicated that symbolization may actually be an effective means of constructing learning content both in preschool and in early school age.

  16. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.

  18. Grammatical Morphology in School-Age Children with and without Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Maura Jones; Karasinski, Courtney; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test Bedore and Leonard’s (1998) proposal that a verb morpheme composite may hold promise as a clinical marker for specific language impairment (SLI) in English speakers and serve as an accurate basis for the classification of children with and without SLI beyond the preschool level. Method The language transcripts of 50 school-age children with SLI (Mage = 7;9) and 50 age-matched typically developing peers (Mage = 7;9) were analyzed. Following the Bedore and Leonard procedure, three variables were measured: mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-morphemes), a noun morpheme composite, and a finite verb morpheme composite. Results Overall findings indicated that neither grammatical morpheme composite alone adequately discriminated the groups at this developmental level. Combining the noun and verb grammatical morpheme composite measures with MLU-morphemes resulted in good discriminant accuracy in classifying subgroups of the youngest children with and without SLI in the school-age sample. Conclusions We did not find that verb morphology alone served as a useful clinical marker of SLI in school-age children. Potential explanations for these findings and ideas for future research are discussed. PMID:21969530

  19. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (pschool meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake

  1. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  2. Computer and Computer Games in Relation to Children of Higher School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    In this work I am giving a point of view at the problematic of children in higher school age using computers. I describe both the positive and negative aspects that influents pubescent in the context of progress of information technologies. I focused on describing the term internet, virtual reality, virtual identity and the negative aspects of internet progress, especially cyber chicane and addiction. I dissected computer games - their origins, differences and description. Also I wrote about ...

  3. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  4. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  5. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  6. Narrative skill and syntactic complexity in school-age children with and without late language emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as 'late talkers' or as demonstrating 'late language emergence' (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had LLE move into the average range for narrative production, though studies have not examined narrative comprehension. It has also been argued that school-age children with LLE score in the average range on standardized tests of syntax, though studies have not examined performance in conversational contexts. This article compared school-age children with and without histories of LLE for performance on standardized narrative comprehension and production tasks, as well as the use of complex sentences and relative clauses in narration and conversation. Both complex syntax and relative clause use are reduced in children with specific language impairment (SLI), so these structures may be useful as indicators of linguistic weakness. The participants were twenty-two 8-year-old children, divided into two groups. Eleven children who had been diagnosed with LLE at 30 months were compared with a control group of 11 children with typical development (TD). All participants completed a standardized test of narrative comprehension and production and a 10-min conversational sample. Both narrative and conversational samples were analysed for the number of complex sentences and relative clauses. Overall results indicated that children with a history of LLE did not have comprehension or production scores that were significantly different from the TD group on the standardized narrative test; nor did groups differ for production of complex sentences or relative clauses in narrative samples. However, a significant difference was found for the production of complex sentences in conversational samples, with the children diagnosed with LLE producing fewer complex

  7. [Characteristics of attention in school-age children with mild autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Hong; Liu, Wen-Long

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of attention in school-age children with mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to provide a basis for clinical treatment. A total of 20 school-age children with mild ASD were enrolled, and the intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test (IVA-CPT) was used to assess their attention. A total of 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 40 healthy children were enrolled as controls. Compared with the normal control group, the ASD group showed significantly lower scores of full scale attention quotient, full scale response control quotient, visual/auditory full scale response control quotient, visual/auditory prudence quotient, auditory perseverance quotient, visual consistency quotient, visual/auditory vigilance quotient, visual attention quotient, visual speed quotient, number of correct visual/auditory reactions, and visual mean reaction time of the second and third phases (Pfull scale response control quotient and auditory consistency quotient (Page children with mild ASD have attention deficit mainly manifested as the defect in the ability to focus attention, which is similar to the defect in children with ADHD, but ASD children have a lower degree of attention control impairment compared with children with ADHD. The defect in the ability to focus visual attention is more severe than that in the ability to focus auditory attention, while there is no significant difference between the defects in visual and auditory attention control.

  8. Bullying in School-aged Children in Iceland: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2017-06-02

    We describe the frequency and variations in bullying among a representative national sample of school-age children and examine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with bullying. This study is based on a cross-sectional school-based survey-the Icelandic contribution to the international research network Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The study population included all students in Iceland in grades 6, 8 and 10 (mean ages: 11, 13 and 15years, respectively) (participation rate: 84%; n=11,018). The students completed an anonymous standardized questionnaire administered in the classroom. The self-reported frequency of being victimized by bullying at least 2-3 times every month was 5.5%. A younger age, speaking a foreign language at home, not living with one's parents, and living in a rural area, were all associated with higher frequencies of being bullied. Despite efforts to reduce bullying in school, experiences of being victimized through bullying are still too common among Icelandic school-age children. Stakeholders and school health administrators should consider sociodemographic antecedents when planning interventions to reduce bullying at school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  10. [Food preferences and nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio

    Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Stuttering in school-age children: a comprehensive approach to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaruss, J Scott; Coleman, Craig E; Quesal, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    This letter, prepared through a close collaboration between the authors and more than 100 colleagues, responds to a paper by the editor of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools that highlighted the need for research on treatment for stuttering in school-age children. Our response addresses 3 themes: First, we offer agreement with the editor's call for research because more evidence about treatment for children who stutter is certainly needed. Second, we provide an overview of recent literature, demonstrating that the majority of current treatments include strategies for helping children improve speech fluency in addition to helping them increase acceptance of their stuttering and diminish the negative consequences of the disorder. Third, we present several strategies designed to help clinicians respond to the individual needs of children who stutter in a data-based, comprehensive manner that focuses on minimizing the adverse impact of stuttering on children's educational endeavors, and on their lives as a whole. Much has been learned about the factors that contribute to the successful treatment of stuttering in school-age children, and evidence will continue to accumulate. Meanwhile, speech-language pathologists can help children increase their fluency while simultaneously minimizing the adverse impact of their speaking difficulties and helping them improve their overall communication.

  12. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  13. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  14. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years.

  16. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J A; Spirito, A; McGuinn, M; Nobile, C

    2000-02-01

    Relatively little is known about sleep habits, sleep disturbances, and the consequences of disordered sleep in school-aged children. This descriptive study examined a variety of common sleep behaviors in a group of 494 elementary school children, grades kindergarten through fourth, using a battery of sleep questionnaires that included parent, teacher, and self-report surveys. The prevalence of parent-defined sleep problems ranged from 3.7% (Sleep-Disordered Breathing) to 15.1% (Bedtime Resistance), with 37% of the overall sample described as having significant sleep problems in at least one sleep domain. Younger children were more likely than older children to have sleep problems noted by parents (particularly bedtime struggles and night wakings), as well as by teacher and self-report. Children tended to identify more sleep problems by self-report, particularly sleep-onset delay and night wakings, than did their parents. Overall, approximately 10% of the sample was identified by all three measures as having significant problems with daytime sleepiness. The results of this study emphasize the importance of screening for sleep disorders in this age group in the clinical setting. The need for consensus regarding the use of sleep screening instruments and the definition of "problem" sleep in school-aged children is also discussed.

  18. Sleep Behaviors and Sleep Problems in School-Aged Children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Fawima; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems can have a significant effect on children behaviors, emotional and cognitive developments. However, limited information is available regarding the sleep behaviors and sleep problems of school-aged children in Thailand. The purposes of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep problems and to describe sleep/wake pattern of Thai children. The school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 primary public schools selected from Bangkok and three regions of Thailand. The samples were selected from the first and fourth grades of each school. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used to evaluate sleep behaviors and sleep problems. Grade 1 children went to bed earlier and had longer weekday sleep duration comparing with grade 4 children. Sleep duration was significantly shorter in children living in Bangkok, comparing with those living in rural areas. Mean total CSHQ score was significant higher in grade 1 children, when comparing with grade 4 children (51.30 vs. 50.18; p = 0.026). Grade 1 children scored significantly higher on bedtime resistance (10.96 vs. 10.39; p = 0.004) and sleep anxiety subscale (6.68 vs. 6.41; p = 0.022), while grade 4 children scored significantly higher on sleep-onset delay subscale (1.41 vs. 1.23; p sleep problems was highest in the category of "falling asleep while riding in car or bus" (69.5%), followed by "awakening by others in the morning" (68.5%). Sleep problems were common in Thai school-aged children. The most common sleep problems were in the domains of daytime sleepiness and bedtime resistance and anxiety.

  19. Application of Neural Network Modeling to Identify Auditory Processing Disorders in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnamurti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available P300 Auditory Event-Related Potentials (P3AERPs were recorded in nine school-age children with auditory processing disorders and nine age- and gender-matched controls in response to tone burst stimuli presented at varying rates (1/second or 3/second under varying levels of competing noise (0 dB, 40 dB, or 60 dB SPL. Neural network modeling results indicated that speed of information processing and task-related demands significantly influenced P3AERP latency in children with auditory processing disorders. Competing noise and rapid stimulus rates influenced P3AERP amplitude in both groups.

  20. Features of Severe Bronchial Asthma Phenotypes in School-Age Children Predisposed to Overweigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Ivanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of inadequate control of severe bronchial asthma (BA is its phenotypic heterogeneity. Although the relationship between obesity and BA is certain, the mechanism of this phenotype of the disease is poorly understood. The objective of the study was to improve the efficiency of basic treatment for severe BA in school-age children predisposed to overweight based on an analysis of indicators of control, inflammatometry and spirometric characteristics. In a pulmonary department of regional clinical hospital (Chernivtsi, there were examined 18 children predisposed to overweight, whose body mass index exceeded the limits of 95% confidence interval (21.7 kg/m2 (I clinical group. Control group consisted of 39 patients with severe BA, who are not predisposed to overweight. It is proved that a predisposition to overweight in children with severe persistent BA adversely affect the indicators of achieving disease control. The lower efficacy of basic treatment in children predisposed to overweight is established that is due to a significantly greater share of school-age children with neutrophilic nature of bronchia inflammation in this group and airway hypersensitivity to histamine.

  1. The functioning of single women with breast cancer and their school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, F M; Zahlis, E H; Shands, M E; Sinsheimer, J A; Hammond, M A

    1996-01-01

    Although there are significant numbers of single women with breast cancer who are rearing children, there is no known study of their own or their school-aged children's adjustment to the illness. The purposes of this study are: 1) to describe the adjustment of single women to early stage breast cancer; 2) to contrast their responses to a comparable sample of married/partnered women; 3) and to document the psychosocial functioning of school-aged children when their single mother has breast cancer. Results obtained from questionnaire data from 22 single and 101 married/partnered women revealed that single women had significantly higher rates of depression; reported significantly higher numbers of illness-related pressures on their family; had a significantly higher proportion of young children scoring in the abnormal range on measures of self-worth and social acceptance; and reported lower quality in parenting their children. Interviews with single women revealed that many were burdened by feelings of self-deprecation because of their breast cancer, and many felt alone with the disease through the initial diagnosis period, during treatments, and through recovery. Evidence from this pilot study suggests that single women need early and immediate linkage into an informational and educational network and a viable adult support network.

  2. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Dyslipidemias in school-age chilean children: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Dyslipidemias are a key cardiovascular risk factor, and are increased since early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, characteristics of dyslipidemias and associated factors in a population of Chilean children. Cross-sectional study done in school-age children from Santiago, Chile (2009-2011). Parents answered questions about family medical history and children answered questions about physical activity. Anthropometry was performed and in a blood sample (12 hours fast) lipid profile, glycemia and insulinemia were measured. We recruited 2900 euglycemic children, 11.4 ± 0.97 years old, 52% girls. According to BMI, 22.5% were overweight and 15,3% had obesity. Considering recommended cut-off points for lipids, 69.3% were in acceptable range, 19.2% at risk and 11.5% at high cardiovascular risk. In total, 32% of the population had any clinical form of dyslipidemia: Isolated hypertriglyceridemia (9.4%), low HDL-C (7.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (6.24%) and mixed dyslipidemia (3.9%). Except for isolated hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemias were more frequent in girls (globally 36.2% vs. 27.4%, pobesity, insulin resistance and history of parental cardiovascular risk factors. In this population of Chilean school-age children, we found a high prevalence of dyslipidemia, and the principal determinant was weight excess. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Luminance- and Texture-Defined Information Processing in School-Aged Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Jessica B.; Jemel, Boutheina; Bertone, Armando; McKerral, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    According to the complexity-specific hypothesis, the efficacy with which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process visual information varies according to the extensiveness of the neural network required to process stimuli. Specifically, adults with ASD are less sensitive to texture-defined (or second-order) information, which necessitates the implication of several cortical visual areas. Conversely, the sensitivity to simple, luminance-defined (or first-order) information, which mainly relies on primary visual cortex (V1) activity, has been found to be either superior (static material) or intact (dynamic material) in ASD. It is currently unknown if these autistic perceptual alterations are present in childhood. In the present study, behavioural (threshold) and electrophysiological measures were obtained for static luminance- and texture-defined gratings presented to school-aged children with ASD and compared to those of typically developing children. Our behavioural and electrophysiological (P140) results indicate that luminance processing is likely unremarkable in autistic children. With respect to texture processing, there was no significant threshold difference between groups. However, unlike typical children, autistic children did not show reliable enhancements of brain activity (N230 and P340) in response to texture-defined gratings relative to luminance-defined gratings. This suggests reduced efficiency of neuro-integrative mechanisms operating at a perceptual level in autism. These results are in line with the idea that visual atypicalities mediated by intermediate-scale neural networks emerge before or during the school-age period in autism. PMID:24205355

  5. Vitamin A Deficiency Is Associated with Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Morbidity in School-Age Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Kathryn A.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5–12 y from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (≥30.0 μg/dL), vitamin A deficiency (morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to be determined. PMID:24500929

  6. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  7. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  8. Speech disruptions in the sentence formulation of school-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, Denise A; Leonard, Laurence B; Miller, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    Many school-age children with specific language impairment produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. To determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence formulation, might serve to distinguish children with specific language impairment from their typically developing peers at an age when grammatical accuracy was high. We analysed the rate of speech disruptions in simple sentence production in school-age children with specific language impairment and typically developing age-matched peers. We predicted that: (1) the specific language impairment group would exhibit more speech disruptions than the typically developing group as a result of reduced language proficiency even when grammatical accuracy was high; and (2) the specific language impairment group would demonstrate greater reductions in disruption frequency as compared with the typically developing group when given sentences that model the target syntactic structures. Twenty-eight children (17 specific language impairment, 11 typically developing, mean = 8;10 years) with no history of stuttering were presented with a series of picture pairs. The examiner described the first picture using a simple sentence and asked the child to repeat the sentence; the child then described the second picture. There were two priming conditions: Matching Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring different syntactic structures) and Different Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring different syntax structures). All testing was audio-recorded and speech disruptions (repetitions, revisions, fillers, long silent pauses) were transcribed and tabulated for each target response. The data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The specific language impairment group demonstrated a significantly greater number of speech disruptions when compared with the

  9. A Review of the Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Among School-Aged Children abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, John P.; Riggins, Tracy; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT Studies through 6 years have shown no long-term direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on children’s physical growth, developmental test scores, or language outcomes. Little is known about the effects of PCE among school-aged children aged 6 years and older. OBJECTIVE We reviewed articles from studies that examined the effects of PCE on growth, cognitive ability, academic functioning, and brain structure and function among school-aged children. METHODS Articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Medline, TOXNET, and PsycInfo databases from January 1980 to December 2008 with the terms “prenatal cocaine exposure,” “cocaine,” “drug exposure,” “substance exposure,” “maternal drug use,” “polysubstance,” “children,” “adolescent,” “in utero,” “pregnancy,” “development,” and “behavior.” Criteria for inclusion were (1) empirical research on children aged 6 years and older prenatally exposed to cocaine, (2) peer-reviewed English-language journal, (3) comparison group, (4) longitudinal follow-up or historical prospective design, (5) masked assessment, (6) exclusion of subjects with serious medical disabilities, and (7) studies that reported nonredundant findings for samples used in multiple investigations. Thirty-two unique studies met the criteria. Each article was independently abstracted by 2 authors to obtain sample composition, methods of PCE assessment, study design, comparison groups, dependent variables, covariates, and results. RESULTS Associations between PCE and growth, cognitive ability, academic achievement, and language functioning were small and attenuated by environmental variables. PCE had significant negative associations with sustained attention and behavioral self-regulation, even with covariate control. Although emerging evidence suggests PCE-related alterations in brain structure and function, interpretation is limited by methodologic inconsistencies. CONCLUSIONS Consistent with

  10. Effects of glutamine on brain development in very preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Pouwels, Petra J W; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-11-01

    The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the number of serious neonatal infections in very preterm children, which may benefit long-term brain development. The aims of the current follow-up study were to (1) determine the long-term effects of glutamine-enriched feeding in the first month after birth in very preterm children on measures of brain development at school age, and (2) elucidate a potential mediating role of serious neonatal infections. Fifty-two very preterm children who originally took part in a randomized controlled trial on enteral glutamine supplementation between day 3 and 30 after birth participated at a mean (SD) age of 8.6 (0.3) years. Measures of brain development included volumetric outcomes of major brain structures, as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter tracts. Glutamine supplementation in the first month was associated with medium-sized increases in white matter (d = 0.54, P = .03), hippocampus (d = 0.47, P = .02), and brain stem (d = 0.54, P = .04) volumes at school age. Exploratory analyses using an uncorrected P value indicated higher FA values of the bilateral cingulum hippocampal tract in the glutamine group. All differences were either strongly associated (hippocampus volume, brain stem volume, and FA values of cingulum hippocampal tract) or completely mediated (white matter volume) by the lower number of serious neonatal infections in the glutamine group. Short-term glutamine supplementation after birth increases white matter, hippocampus, and brain stem volumes in very preterm children at school age, mediated by a decrease in serious neonatal infections.

  11. Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Title: Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test Work objectives: The outcome of our work is comparison and evaluation of the initial and final swimming lenght in a test of long distance swimming. This test is taken during one swimming course. Methodology: Data which were obtained by testing a certain group of people and were statistically processed, showed the swimming level and performance of the young school age children. ...

  12. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  13. [Breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from families of high socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla de Siqueira, Renata; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2007-02-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from Brazilian families of high socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 555 students aged six to 14 years from a private school in the city of Sao Paulo. Obesity - the outcome variable - was defined as body mass index at or above the 85th centile plus sub scapular and triceps skin folds at or above the 90th centile using the sex and age specific standards of the US National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure was the frequency and duration of breastfeeding. Potential confounders, controlled for using multiple logistic regression, included child sex, age, birthweight, and dietary and physical activity patterns, and maternal age, body mass index, schooling, and practice of sports or physical exercise. Prevalence of obesity in the studied population was 26%. After confounder adjustment, the risk of obesity in children that had never been breastfed was twice that of other children (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.02; 4.16). There was no dose-response effect of duration of breastfeeding on prevalence of child obesity. Children who were never breastfed showed greater prevalence of obesity at school age. The absence of a dose-response effect in the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and prevalence of obesity and the still controversial findings regarding this association reported by other authors indicate a need for further studies on the subject, in particular studies with longitudinal design.

  14. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  15. Neuropsychology in Cameroon: first normative data for cognitive tests among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, N; Njamnshi, A K; Mayer, E; Sztajzel, R; Eta, S C; Doh, R F; Kengne, A-M; Ngamaleu, R N; Chanal, J; Verdon, V; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    Very few normative data on psychometric tests are available in sub-Saharan African countries, in spite of the obvious needs and potential benefits from psychological and neuropsychological examination in these contexts. The goal of the ongoing overall project is to assess the cognitive functioning of Cameroonian school-aged children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease. For this purpose, normative data on psychometric tests adapted to the Cameroonian cultural context had to first be established. 125 "healthy" school-aged Cameroonian children were recruited from public schools in the city of Yaounde and were given a battery of 14 cognitive tests assessing executive functions and memory. Criteria for tests inclusions were: simplicity of administration, few verbal demand, and broad cross-cultural applicability. Results allow concluding that the battery is appropriate for neuropsychological evaluation in Cameroon, with the exception of the Block Design test (WISC-IV) and a Verbal Phonemic Fluency test. A factor analysis shows a division of the tests in a four-factors model that is very consistent with the expected measures of the tests. Effects of gender, age, and education are also discussed. this study is the first to report normative data on neuropsychological tests among children in Cameroon and constitutes an initial step for the advancement of neuropsychology in this country in particular and in sub-Saharan Africa in general. The battery is currently used in Cameroon with children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease as an aid to detect cerebrovascular complications.

  16. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  17. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightChildren (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  19. Suitability of Asthma Education Materials for School-age Children: Implications for Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2017-08-09

    This study investigated the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidated how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended, and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorized as 9 brochures, 11 leaflets, and 5 videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas 8 were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognizing asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment, and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  1. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  2. Estimation of the frequency of meals consumed by children in early school age (living in Wloclawek)

    OpenAIRE

    Pujanek, Małgorzata; Ameryk, Monika; Koza, Jarosław; Szymelfejnik, Ewa; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Świątkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Pujanek Małgorzata, Ameryk Monika, Koza Jarosław, Szymelfejnik Ewa, Jankowska Katarzyna, Świątkowski Maciej. Estimation of the frequency of meals consumed by children in early school age (living in Wloclawek). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):545-556. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.836141 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4658 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Educa...

  3. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Syed; O. Yaw Addo; Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only ...

  4. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  5. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  6. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven's matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children's social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  8. Low-level Mercury Exposure and Risk of Asthma in School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Bae, Sanghyuk; Park, Hye Yin; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been reported to have adverse effects on the immune system. However, the association between Hg exposure and asthma remains unclear. We hypothesized that blood Hg concentrations are associated with asthma and immune system blood profile changes in school-age children. Between 2005 and 2010, we evaluated 4,350 Korean children at 7-8 years of age with no previous asthma diagnosis. Follow-up surveys were conducted twice, each 2 years apart, until 11-12 years of age. For every survey, we evaluated asthma through a questionnaire and blood profile. We analyzed the association of Hg concentration with asthma by logistic and Cox regression models and the association with blood profile by generalized additive and linear mixed models. Blood Hg concentrations at 7-8 years of age were associated with an increased risk of asthma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.6) at ages up to 11-12 years (n = 191). Hg concentration was also associated with wheezing (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.3), asthma medication use (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.97, 2.0), and airway hyperresponsiveness (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.3). Further adjustment for fish consumption did not change the results appreciably. Low-level Hg exposure was associated with asthma and blood profile changes in school-age children.

  9. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  10. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  11. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Cognitive process development in primary school age children with different types of ontogenesis. Course of correction

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    Maksimenko M.You.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient level of mental development of the child, formation of the emotional sphere, voluntary activities and socio-psychological skills are the main indicators of child readiness for schooling. It appears to be important to use the neuropsychological approach in diagnostic and correctional work. Correction of disturbed elements in higher mental functions performed to facilitate learning of educational material by children of primary school age with different types of ontogenesis, which makes it possible to increase adaptive capacity, the stress-resistance of children, and to ensure success in social relations. Presented program has been tested on primary school children with combined disorders of cognitive and emotional-personal spheres, studying in the system of inclusion in school №1321 «Kovcheg» of Moscow city.

  13. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  14. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  15. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  16. Psychometric testing of the modified Care Dependency Scale among hospitalized school-aged children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the modified Care Dependency Scale in a pediatric setting and to explore the extent of dependency of school-aged children regarding their self-care. The data were collected from 130 hospitalized children, aged 6-12 years. The reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha, which showed a high level of consistency. The subsequent inter-rater reliability revealed moderate-to-substantial agreement. The criterion-related validity was tested by comparing the sum scores of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and the Visual Analog Scale. Factor analysis was used to investigate the construct validity and resulted in a one-factor solution. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a valid and reliable measure that offers a comprehensive assessment from a nursing perspective and enables nurses to help children acquire independence.

  17. Eating behaviors among school-age children associated with perceptions of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sandra K; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R Weylin

    2005-01-01

    Eating has been theorized to be useful as a coping strategy in response to stressful situations. However, investigation of this behavior in children is limited. The present study is a secondary cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal data that were collected from cohorts of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grader students. Perceived stress was correlated with unhealthy eating behaviors (r = .13, p eating as a coping mechanism (r = .24, p eating as a coping mechanism most frequently, followed by African-American and Caucasian children. School-age children who experience high levels of stress may be at risk for developing unhealthy eating habits in order to cope; continued examination of these relationships is suggested. Future research should focus on the development of interventions to encourage positive coping mechanisms and healthy eating behaviors.

  18. Morphological analysis in school-age children: dynamic assessment of a word learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2007-07-01

    Morphological analysis is the ability to use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meanings of unfamiliar, morphologically complex words. Beginning in the early elementary grades and continuing into the college years, it is a primary strategy that is used to increase one's knowledge of difficult vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to investigate how well school-age children could use morphological analysis to explain word meanings. The study was also designed to examine individual differences in this domain in relation to children's broader literacy skills. The ability of 50 typically developing sixth-grade children to explain the meanings of 15 low-frequency morphologically complex words was measured using a dynamic assessment procedure. Children were individually interviewed and were asked to define each word. As needed, varying degrees of adult scaffolding were provided. Children were also assessed for their word knowledge and reading comprehension. Performance on the dynamic assessment task revealed a wide range of skill levels in these children and was positively related to the children's literacy levels. Although some children readily used morphological analysis to explain the meanings of unfamiliar words, others required greater amounts of adult scaffolding to be successful. Suggestions are offered for ways to employ dynamic assessment to examine children's ability to use morphological analysis as a word learning strategy.

  19. Longitudinal Impact on Quality of Life for School-aged Children with Amblyopia Treatment: Perspective from Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Xinhong; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Jingwei; Xu, Jinling; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during amblyopia treatment for school-aged children from children's perspective. School-aged children prescribed amblyopia treatment for the first time were recruited into the current study. Using a questionnaire, subjects' HRQOL was assessed before patching treatment, and at 8 weeks and 16 weeks after the commencement of patching treatment. Evaluation of visual function and psychosocial aspect was included in the questionnaire. Visual acuity and demographic data of the subjects were recorded. Forty-four children, aged 7-12 years, with anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study. Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye improved 1.90 (0.41-3.74) and 3.98 (2.22-5.11) lines at follow-up weeks 8 and 16, respectively. Both the total score and subscales of the questionnaire were reduced at the first follow-up and recovered at the second follow-up. Scores at week 16 were higher than those before treatment in the psychosocial aspect (p = 0.003), and lower in the visual function aspect (p children's perspective, the impacts on visual function and psychosocial aspect were significant in the first two months of treatment, and could be adapted during therapy for school-aged children. More attention should be paid to negative effects of treatment on daily life and study at the stage of amblyopia treatment for school-aged children. Meanwhile, necessary precautions should be taken to help reduce the impacts.

  20. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  1. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  2. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  3. Attention and written expression in school-age, high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Matthew C; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2016-12-09

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often also find writing challenging). To examine this issue, this study investigated the role of attention disturbance on writing in 155 school-age children across four diagnostic groups: high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) with lower ADHD symptoms (HFASD-L), HFASD with higher ADHD symptoms (HFASD-H), ADHD symptoms but no autism spectrum disorder symptoms, and typical development. Both HFASD subgroups and the ADHD group displayed lower word production writing scores than the typical development group, but the clinical groups did not differ. The HFASD-H and ADHD groups had significantly lower theme development and text organization writing scores than the typical development group, but the HFASD-L and typical development groups were not significantly different. The findings support prior research reporting writing problems in children with autism spectrum disorder but also suggest that children with HFASD-H may be at greater risk for writing difficulties than children with HFASD-L. Better understanding the role of attention in writing development could advance methods for assessment and intervention for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder at risk for writing difficulties. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Sleep duration, sleep regularity, body weight, and metabolic homeostasis in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Molfese, Dennis L; Gozal, David

    2011-02-01

    The goal was to explore the effects of duration and regularity of sleep schedules on BMI and the impact on metabolic regulation in children. Sleep patterns of 308 community-recruited children 4 to 10 years of age were assessed with wrist actigraphs for 1 week in a cross-sectional study, along with BMI assessment. Fasting morning plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also were measured for a subsample. Children slept 8 hours per night, on average, regardless of their weight categorization. A nonlinear trend between sleep and weight emerged. For obese children, sleep duration was shorter and showed more variability on weekends, compared with school days. For overweight children, a mixed sleep pattern emerged. The presence of high variance in sleep duration or short sleep duration was more likely associated with altered insulin, low-density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels. Children whose sleep patterns were at the lower end of sleep duration, particularly in the presence of irregular sleep schedules, exhibited the greatest health risk. Obese children were less likely to experience "catch-up" sleep on weekends, and the combination of shorter sleep duration and more-variable sleep patterns was associated with adverse metabolic outcomes. Educational campaigns, aimed at families, regarding longer and more-regular sleep may promote decreases in obesity rates and may improve metabolic dysfunction trends in school-aged children.

  5. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  6. The longitudinal relationship between generalized self-efficacy and physical activity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Joshi, Divya; King-Dowling, Sara; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E; Cairney, John

    2018-02-05

    Our understanding of the longitudinal relationship between generalized self-efficacy (GSE) and physical activity in children and youth is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GSE towards physical activity on sedentary behaviours and physical activity in school-aged children over time. A total of 2278 nine-year-old children (1120 girls and 1158 boys) were recruited at baseline and followed for seven waves of data collection from 2005 to 2008. All children completed questionnaires at each wave assessing their GSE (adequacy, predilection, and enjoyment), sedentary behaviours, free play, and organized activity. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate changes in physical activity and GSE within individuals over time, controlling for gender and motor ability. The results showed that participation in free play significantly increased over time, whereas organized activity significantly decreased over the same period. Children with high perceived adequacy and predilection had higher free play and organized activity participation relative to other children over time. However, the effect of perceived adequacy diminished over time, while the gaps between groups with different levels of predilection widened over time. While sedentary behaviours were lower over time in children with high predilection, these behaviours were consistently higher in children with high enjoyment. The differences in sedentary behaviours between groups increased over time for both predilection and enjoyment. This study highlights the importance of different components of GSE on physical activity participation. In addition, interventions targeting the enhancement of predilection may facilitate physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviours.

  7. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  8. BikeSafe: evaluating a bicycle safety program for middle school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Jonathan; Hotz, Gillian; Neilson, Valerie; Chandler, Lauren

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of a bicycle safety education curriculum for middle school age children in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities of bicyclists hit by cars in Miami-Dade County. The University of Miami BikeSafe(®) program includes a four day off-bike middle school curriculum that follows a train-the-trainer model, where a small number of staff trains a larger group of grades 6th-8th physical education teachers from various schools to teach the bike safety curriculum to their students. Subjects in this study included 193 students from 18 classes (3 per school) at 6 selected middle schools. Measures included a knowledge assessment of the curriculum that was administered to students pre- and post-curriculum implementation. Data were collected and analyzed with school and class period examined as predictors of post-score. A significant difference (p.05), suggesting that a standard intervention was applied. The BikeSafe educational curriculum was found to improve the bike safety knowledge of middle school aged children. Future efforts will focus on sustaining and expanding this program throughout Miami-Dade County and other high risk communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  10. Types of coordination and syntactic complexity in written discourse of younger school age children

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    IvanoviĆ Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time influential linguists considered language development to be basically completed by the age of five or six. Consequently, research on school age children and adolescents has been quite rare. However, during the last two decades, considerable effort has been made to understand the nature of writing processes among schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to explore writing competence of younger school age children by investigating compound sentences and coordinating conjunctions during the production of a written text. The most important thing in learning how to write is the development of a child's ability to produce and understand complex sentences of various kinds. Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences are often overused and traditionally seem to implicate poor syntactic ability. The examinees were divided in 4 age groups (181 pupils. Each examinee wrote 3 essays, so the whole corpus consisted of 543 texts in total. The analysis of the collected material included two levels: first we identified compound sentences and the number of clauses, and then the type of coordination was determined. The obtained results show the number and type of coordinated constructions which pupils from the first to the fourth grade of primary school produce. Also, coordinating conjunctions indicate the higher level of syntactic complexity of the text they are produced in. This research provides a new insight into syntactic competence of younger pupils in primary school.

  11. Follow-up of school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, G P; Venkataraman, P S; West-Wilson, K I; Faulkner, M J

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the outcome of school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in terms of nutrition, pulmonary function, and intelligence, and to compare the results with a preterm cohort matched for gestational age and birth weight, and with a term control group. Cross-sectional. Follow-up clinic at level III neonatal intensive care unit, university-affiliated hospital, Children's Hospital. Twelve children who had BPD as infants and 2 control groups of 12 children each. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure, pulmonary function, body composition measurements by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and Weschler intelligence test scores. Children with BPD had decreased forced expiratory volume at 1 second, decreased forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and decreased maximal expiratory flow velocity at 50% of vital capacity compared with age-matched normal inborn subjects (p = 0.025, p = 0.005, and p = 0.0013, respectively). Both children with BPD and matched preterm control children were shorter than infants in the term control group (p = 0.018). There were no significant differences in the other anthropometric parameters studied. The groups did not differ in resting energy expenditure. Lean body mass was lower in the BPD group compared with the term control groups (p = 0.017). Bone mineral content was lower in the BPD group compared with both the preterm and term control infants (p = 0.050 and p = 0.059, respectively). The mean performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and full-scale IQ scores in the BPD group were lower than in the term control group (p = 0.011 and p = 0.029, respectively). The proportion of children with borderline or intellectually deficient scores was significantly higher in the preterm group compared with the term group for verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ scales (p = 0.046, p = 0.018, and p = 0.048 respectively). The proportion of children with BPD who had borderline or

  12. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  13. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  14. Influence of physical activity on the posture of school age children

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    Laštro Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper posture is an indicator of good health, proper growth and development, which is why it is important to start learning about posture from the earliest age using various forms of physical activity. To establish the impact of physical activity on aspects of posture components of children of school age. The study included 120 subjects aged 10-16 years who were grouped into three groups, which was stratified equal number of boys and girls. The first group consisted of 40 children who are actively practice sports. The second group consisted of 40 children who are not actively practice sport a third group of 40 children with deformity of the spine. For research purposes, we used: test for assessing the degree of physical activity and test for the assessment of body posture. By applying multiple regression analysis, we found that there is an influence of different predictors on the dependent variables in all three categorically defined pattern. The strongest positive correlation was found in the first sample categorically defined between predictors warming up exercises in the training and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = 0.43. The strongest negative correlations were established also at first categorically defined pattern between predictors time spent at the computer and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = -0.35. It was found that there is a difference in the level of physical activity between the three categorically defined sample (F = 95.687, p = 0.01, and also the difference in posture between the three categorically defined sample (F = 10.93, p = 0.01. The results show the necessity of promotion of various forms of physical activity of children school age in order of their proper growth and development.

  15. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms on growth of preschool- and school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Ettinger, Anna K; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Strobino, Donna

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum adversely affect growth in preschool- and school-aged children. We used data from the US nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. We fit multivariable logistic regression models to study maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum (using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) in relation to child growth outcomes, ≤ 10% height-for-age, ≤ 10% weight-for-height, and ≤ 10% weight-for-age at 4 and 5 years. At 9 months, 24% of mothers reported mild depressive symptoms and 17% moderate/severe symptoms. After adjustment for household, maternal, and child factors, children of mothers with moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at 9 months' postpartum had a 40% increased odds of being ≤ 10% in height-for-age at age 4 (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.89) and 48% increased odds of being ≤ 10% in height-for-age at age 5 (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.13) compared with children of women with few or no depressive symptoms. There was no statistically significant association between maternal depressive symptoms and children being ≤ 1 0% in weight-for-height and weight-for-age at 4 or 5 years. Maternal depressive symptoms during infancy may affect physical growth in early childhood. Prevention, early detection, and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms during the first year postpartum may prevent childhood height-for-age ≤ 10th percentile among preschool- and school-aged children.

  16. Systematic review of self-concept measures for primary school aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Perception of their social environment and their future in institutionalized school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remetić, Mirjana; Tahirović, Husref; Loga, Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Family home and institutions for children without parental care represent the rearing-environments where, from the early years, whole human development goes on. It's known today that despite the recognized importance of inborn traits, the influence of child-rearing environments dominates current models of development. The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction with the rearing-environment of school-aged institutionalized children, their dominating feeling and if institutionalization affects life optimism for now and for the future. The study was conducted in two institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina who share the same care model imitating the traditional Bosnian families where the older children care for the younger siblings. We took as a sample 30 institutionalized children aged 8-12, and for the control group 60 children matched by age and sex. Parents, children and teachers who gave their informed consent answered the questionnaires. It was confirmed that children without parental care are vulnerable group and in a great risk who need urgent help of professional multidisciplinary team of their close and broad environment. Lack of social support cause the withdrawing and suffering and can lead soon or later to problematic behaviour.

  18. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

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    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  19. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: A Cross-sectional Population-based Comparison of Disease Severity in Preschool and School-age Children.

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    Inchley, Christopher Stephen; Berg, Are Stuwitz; Vahdani Benam, Afsaneh; Kvissel, Anne Katrine; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Nakstad, Britt

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes epidemics of upper respiratory disease and pneumonia. It is thought that M. pneumoniae usually causes milder upper respiratory disease in preschool children, with a greater chance of pneumonia in school-age children. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we present evidence that severe M. pneumoniae infection is more common in preschool children than previously thought. During an M. pneumoniae epidemic in our area, widespread health service and public awareness lead to extensive testing for M. pneumoniae. Medical records of hospital-referred M. pneumoniae-positive children were assessed retrospectively for respiratory disease and chest radiographic results. Severe disease was defined as supplementary oxygen or fluid requirement, mechanical ventilatory support or neurologic disease. Age-specific population figures were used to calculate incidence during the study period. Those who were 0-5-year-olds were considered preschool, whereas 6-17-year-olds were considered school-aged. Thirty-seven preschool and 55 school-age children were referred to the hospital and tested positive for M. pneumoniae. Twenty-two (60%) preschool and 23 (42%) school-age children had severe disease [incidence 56 vs. 29 per 100,000; relative risk: 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.4; P = 0.03]. Twenty (54%) preschool and 19 (35%) school-age children had severe pneumonia (incidence 51 vs. 24 per 100,000; relative risk: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). During an M. pneumoniae epidemic in Akershus and North Oslo in 2011-2012, preschool children infected with M. pneumoniae had significantly higher risk of severe disease, particularly severe pneumonia, when compared with school-age children. M. pneumoniae should be considered a potential pathogen in younger children with respiratory distress, particularly during an epidemic period.

  20. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  1. Built Environment Features that Promote Cycling in School-Aged Children.

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    Larouche, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Previous research shows that children and youth who cycle to/from school are more active and fitter than those who travel by motorized modes. However, rates of cycling are low in many countries, and a better understanding of the correlates of cycling may inform the development of future interventions. This review summarizes the current literature on the built environment correlates of cycling among school-aged children and youth. While both studies of transportation and recreational cycling were eligible, the majority of the 12 included studies focused on the trip to/from school and consistently indicated that shorter distance between home and school is associated with greater odds of cycling. However, little is known about the correlates of cycling for other purposes. Furthermore, other built environment features have not been studied enough to allow strong conclusions to be drawn. Recommendations for future studies are proposed to address the limitations of current evidence.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  3. Validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire among Brazilian Families of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Laís Amaral; Warkentin, Sarah; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Children's eating behaviors are influenced by parents, who are the first nutritional educators. The comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) was developed to measure feeding practices among parents, but has not yet been validated in Brazil, where child obesity rates are steeply increasing. The aim of the study was to test the validity of the CFPQ among Brazilian parents of school-aged children and propose a new version of the instrument. Transcultural adaptation included translation into Portuguese, back translation, content validity, testing for semantic equivalence, and piloting. Questionnaire data were obtained for 659 parents of 5- to 9-year olds. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and psychometric analyses (tests for internal consistency, factor correlations, item-discriminant and convergent validity, and test-retest reliability) were conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a poor fit of the data to the original 12-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis generated a 6-factor model composed of 42 items: healthy eating guidance, monitoring, restriction for weight control, restriction for health, emotion regulation/food as reward, and pressure. This factor solution was supported by internal consistency tests (α = 0.71-0.91) and factor correlations (ρ = -0.16 to 0.32). Item-discriminant and convergent validity tests showed that parents who used coercive practices had more overweight children and were more concerned about their child's weight (ρ = 0.09-0.40). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.45-0.77). Since parental practices are highly culturally and age group sensitive, it is essential to conduct careful evaluations of questionnaires when introduced into specific age groups within new cultural settings. This modified six-factor model of the CFPQ is valid to measure parental feeding behaviors of school-aged children in urban Brazilian settings.

  4. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  5. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

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    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  6. Current concepts and therapeutic strategies for allergic rhinitis in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common debilitating disorder that can adversely affect the quality of life and the academic performance of school-age children. Symptoms during the day can hamper concentration and lead to learning problems. Nocturnal symptoms can cause sleep loss and secondary daytime fatigue, further undermining a child's ability to function well during the school day Oral antihistamines are the foundation of pharmacologic therapy, but there are important differences between the agents. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the diagnostic and treatment challenges posed by AR in school-age children. The paper discusses and compares the available treatment modalities for this age group, with a focus on their beneficial and adverse effects. Pertinent articles were identified in the literature through a MEDLINE search (1990-2003). Keywords used were antihistamines cetirizine fexofenadine loratadine desloratadine intranasal corticosteroids and CNS effects. Results of numerous clinical trials of first-generation early second-generation and the newer antihistamines were identified. This review established that the socioeconomic costs of AR are considerable. In children aged > or =12 years, direct US expenditures (eg, physician visits, medications) in 1996 amounted to $2.3 billion. Indirect costs measured by variables such as missed school days and poor performance also have an impact Major concerns include underdiagnosis and inadequate treatment, increasing the risk of serious comorbid conditions such as asthma. Advantages and drawbacks of antihistamines show that first-generation agents (eg, hydroxyzine) are effective and readily available over the counter, but are associated with sedation and the potential for suboptimal dosing. Newer agents, such as cetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, and fexofenadine are effective and safer than the older drugs tie, no cardiotoxicity and less sedation). Of these, fexofenadine has been shown to be

  7. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

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    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  10. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  11. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  12. Association between obesity and behavioral/emotional disorders in primary school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

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    Clarissa J. Aditya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in children can increase the risks of various chronic diseases. Mental disorders associated with obesity in children include: depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, hyperkinetic disorders, and increased aggressiveness. This relationship is estimated due to vulnerable genetic expressions in obese individuals. This study aimed to find the association between obesity and behavioral/emotional disorder in primary school-aged children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 children at Menteng 1 Elementary School, Jakarta from July to September 2015. The study was conducted to find the association between the children’s nutritional status and behavioral/emotional disorders screened by the 17-item Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17. Chi square analysis was applied in this study.Results: The prevalence of obese children at Menteng 1 Elementary School, Jakarta reached 23.2%, which is higher than Jakarta’s prevalence (14%. 8.7% of the subjects were obese and 13.6% of them were having behavioral/emotional disorders. 20.0% of the obese subjects had behavioral/emotional disorders. The prevalence was higher for internalizing sub-scale, which was consistent with other studies. Association between obesity and behavioral/emotional disorders was significant for externalizing sub-scale (p=0.036. Externalizing problems caused by obesity might be affected by the social stigma of their peer group. However, obesity in children did not have a statistically significant relationship in internalization sub-scale, attention, and PSC-17 total score (p>0.05. No significant associations towards those sub-scales were thought to be influenced by other factors, playing a role in causing mental disorders in children.Conclusion: In general, obesity was not associated with behavioral and emotional disorders in children, but obesity was related to externalizing behavioral/emotional disorders.

  13. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

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    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  14. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  15. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

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    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  16. Validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire among Brazilian families of school-aged children

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    Laís Amaral Mais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Children’s eating behaviors are influenced by parents, who are the first nutritional educators. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ was developed to measure feeding practices among parents, but has not yet been validated in Brazil, where child obesity rates are steeply increasing. The aim of the study was to test the validity of the CFPQ among Brazilian parents of school-aged children and propose a new version of the instrument. Methods Transcultural adaptation included translation into Portuguese, back-translation, content validity, testing for semantic equivalence, and piloting. Questionnaire data were obtained for 659 parents of 5-to-9-year-olds. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and psychometric analyses (tests for internal consistency, factor correlations, item-discriminant and convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were conducted. Results Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a poor fit of the data to the original 12-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis generated a 6-factor model composed of 42 items: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Restriction for Weight Control, Restriction for Health, Emotion Regulation/Food as Reward, and Pressure. This factor solution was supported by internal consistency tests (α=0.71-0.91 and factor correlations (rho=-0.16 to 0.32. Item-discriminant and convergent validity tests showed that parents who used coercive practices had more overweight children and were more concerned about their child’s weight (rho=0.09 to 0.40. Test-retest reliability was acceptable (ICC=0.45 to 0.77. Conclusions Since parental practices are highly culturally- and age group-sensitive, it is essential to conduct careful evaluations of questionnaires when introduced into specific age groups within new cultural settings. This modified 6-factor model of the CFPQ is valid to measure parental feeding behaviors of school-aged children in urban Brazilian settings.

  17. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  19. Mental imagery and idiom comprehension: a comparison of school-age children and adults.

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    Nippold, Marilyn A; Duthie, Jill K

    2003-08-01

    Previous research has shown that transparent idioms (e.g., paddle your own canoe) are generally easier for children to interpret than opaque idioms (e.g., paint the town red), results that support the metasemantic hypothesis of figurative understanding (M. A. Nippold, 1998). This is the view that beyond exposure to idioms and attention to the linguistic context, the learner analyzes the expressions internally to infer meaning, a process that is easier to execute when the literal and nonliteral meanings overlap. The present study was designed to investigate mental imagery in relation to the discrepancy in difficulty between transparent and opaque expressions. Twenty familiar idioms, half transparent and half opaque, were presented to 40 school-age children (mean age = 12;3 [years;months]) and 40 adults (mean age = 27;0) who were asked to describe in writing their own mental images for each expression. The participants were also given a written multiple-choice task to measure their comprehension of the idioms. The results indicated that mental imagery for idioms undergoes a developmental process and is associated with comprehension. Although school-age children were able to report relevant mental images for idioms, their images were less sophisticated than those of adults and were more likely to be concrete and to reflect only a partial understanding of the expressions. In contrast, the images reported by adults were more likely to be figurative. The findings suggest that the mental images people report for idioms may serve as a barometer of their depth of understanding of the expressions.

  20. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenting styles and attachment in school-aged children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Su Re; Beilby, Janet M; Byrnes, Michelle L; Hennessey, Neville W

    2012-01-01

    Parental input has been described as influential in early childhood stuttering yet the exact nature of this influence remains equivocal. The present study aimed to examine whether quantitative measures of parenting styles, parent and peer attachment patterns, and parent- and self-reported child behaviour could differentiate between school-aged children who stutter (CWS) (n=10) and their fluent peers (n=10). In addition, qualitative individual semi-structured interviews with all CWS were conducted to gain insight into their life experiences and reflections in relation to stuttering. The interviews were classified into ancillary themes of school, peers and parents. Quantitative findings revealed that CWS perceived their parents with significantly lower attachment, particularly in relation to trust, and parents of CWS perceived their children with significantly higher maladjustments than fluent counterparts. Qualitative themes emerged pertaining to attitudes, perceptions and relationships with teachers, peers and parents, with consistent experiences of teasing and bullying reported as a consequence of the stutter. The majority of participants recounted frustration with the nature in which their parents attempted to remediate their stuttering. Collectively, these findings highlight imperative management considerations for school-aged CWS and their parents. The usefulness of quantitative and qualitative research paradigms is also emphasised. The reader will be able to: (1) identify themes associated with the impact a childhood stutter has on parent and peer relationships; (2) identify how the quality of the parent child relationship is influenced by parenting styles and attachment; and (3) discuss the clinical implications of the results for children who stutter and their families. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection Status and Physical Fitness of School-aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    unspecific and subtle, they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years11,12. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently13,14,15. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al.16 and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children17. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings13. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections. PMID:22951972

  3. [BREV: a rapid clinical scale for cognitive function evaluation in preschool and school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Vol, S; Livet, M O; Motte, J; Vallée, L; Gillet, P; Marquet, T

    2002-02-01

    BREV, standing for the French "Batterie Rapide d'Evaluation des Fonctions Cognitive", is a rapid test to screen children with disorders of higher functions and to define the patterns of these disorders. We describe here two phases of the validation procedure. The first phase consisted in measuring the internal validity of the scale by testing 500 normal school children free of disability. The validation process provided appropriate values for each of the 18 subtests assessing cognitive functions (oral language, non-verbal abilities, attention and memory, education and memory, educational achievment) in ten age groups from 4 to 8 years. All subtests with the same content for any revealed values which increased significantly with age. Inter-reliability was tested by retesting 70 children. The second phase of validation, comparing BREV results and those from a large classical neuropsychological battery, tested specificity and sensitivity. Each of the BREV subtests were correlated with the similar subtest of the classical battery. Correlations between verbal and non-verbal scores and verbal and performance intellectual quotient (Weschler scale) were very significant. Sensitivity and specificity of BREV were above 75p.100;. This confirms the reliability of this battery for children, with good sensitivity and specificity. BREV is a reliable test, with carefully established norms, appropriate for preschool and school-age children.

  4. School-age children's metalinguistic awareness of grammaticality in verb form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1990-03-01

    This study investigated 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children's ability to monitor grammaticality in the past progressive, perfect progressive, and perfect verb forms. The children achieved a significantly higher rate of accurate judgments monitoring grammatical forms that ungrammatical forms. Age was a significant factor in error identification. Eight-year-olds were substantially better at identifying ungrammatical forms than were their younger schoolmates. Verb form, in conjunction with type of anomaly, significantly varied with respect to ease of identification. Errors of the auxiliary and suffix were easier for children to identify than an adverbial error which required a sentence analysis to determine the incompatibility. The context surrounding ungrammatical verb forms significantly affected monitoring ability. Anomalous forms in unrelated sentences were easier to identify as ungrammatical than anomalous forms in sentences taken from a story the children had just heard. It appears that school-age children prefer to maintain the semantic intent of the message rather than critically search for grammatical errors.

  5. [Sleep duration among school-age children in Hungary and Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Réka; Lendvai, Zsófia; Pásti, Krisztina; Szeifert, Lilla; Szabó, J Attila

    2013-10-06

    Children's sleep duration is decreasing in the last decade. Despite of the well known negative consequences, there are no data on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The aim of the authors was to assess sleep duration of school-age children in Hungary and Romania. A self-edited questionnaire was used for the study. 2446 children were enrolled. All elementary and secondary schools in a Hungarian city, and one elementary and secondary school in a Romanian city took part in the study. Mean sleep duration was 8.3 ± 1.2 hours on weekdays. There was a significant difference between the two countries (Hungary vs. Romania, 8.5 ± 1.2 hours vs. 7.8 ± 0.9 hours, p = 0.001). Age correlated with sleep duration on weekdays (r= -0.605, p = 0.001), but not during weekend. This is the first study on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The difference between countries may be due to the difference in mean age or cultural and/or geographical differences.

  6. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children With SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points in time (T1, T2, T3) with 12-month intervals during a 2-year period. Participants were 30 monolingual Dutch children with SLI, age 6;5 (years;months) at T1; 30 typically developing peers, age 6;6 at T1; and 30 typically developing language-matched children, age 4;7 at T1. On the morphosyntactic accuracy measures, the group with SLI performed more poorly than both control groups. Error rates in the group with SLI were much higher than expected on the basis of mean length of T-units and scores on standardized language tests. Percentages of dummy auxiliaries remained high over time. No group differences were found for grammatical complexity, except at T3, when the group with SLI used fewer relative clauses than the typically developing peer group. The narrative analysis demonstrates different developmental trajectories for morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in children with SLI and typically developing peer and language-matched children. In the group with SLI, grammatical skills continue to develop.

  7. The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Lehmann

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06], thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.

  8. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Ja; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Ju Yeon; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jihyun

    2011-11-16

    We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  9. Sensorimotor and visual perceptual functioning in school-aged children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Y-P; Tsai, H-Y

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile and visual perceptual performance in school-aged (6-12 years) children with Williams syndrome (WS). The impacts of sensorimotor and visual perception on participation in WS were examined as well to guide research and evidence-based practices. A total of 38 children with WS aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated with measures of motor performance (Bruininks-Oseretsky of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition), sensory processing (Sensory Profile), visual perceptual abilities (Test of Visual Perception Skills-Third Edition) and activity participation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, School Function Assessment). Children with WS performed significantly less well on all sensorimotor and visual perceptual measures, and 71% of children scored in the impaired range on six or more (one third of ) out of 18 measures. They had weaker fine motor skills than gross motor skills. Sensory modulation was the most impaired among the sensory processing functions. Visual perceptions were all moderately impaired. All the sensorimotor measures and visual perceptual functions correlated to the cognitive functions (IQ) and linked to activity participation measures in WS. Our findings characterised the profiles of body functions (sensorimotor functions and visual organisation) of children with DS, and revealed their correlations with activity participation. Interventions focused on improving body functions are needed while stressing the acquisition of functional skills that increase participation in age-appropriate activities. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  11. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  12. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  13. Perceived Stress, Perceived Social Support, and Wellbeing among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skok, Anita; Harvey, David; Reddihough, Dinah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study considers how severity of disability, perceived stress, and perceived social support impact on the well-being of a group of mothers caring for school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Method: Forty-three mothers attending clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed and completed the…

  14. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  15. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  16. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Hsieh, RN, MSN

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children.

  18. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  19. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  20. Facial expressions in school-aged children are a good indicator of 'dislikes', but not of 'likes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.A.; Colindres, D.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Our pilot study sought to investigate whether facial expressions are a suitable and accurate method to assess food preferences in school-aged children. Six children, aged 5–13 years, tasted seven stimuli in randomized order: apple, sauerkraut, and beetroot juice, skimmed milk, asparagus solution, a

  1. The Second Digital Divide and Its Effect on African-American (K-12) School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of educators and parents of African-American (K-12) school-age children on how the children were using technology. The study was conducted in the Memphis City Public School System (MCS) and was limited to three schools in a school district. Common themes emerged from the analysis of…

  2. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  3. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age children in post-and pre-harvest season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Ram, D.; Ead, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the

  4. Observable Indicators of Flow Experience: A Developmental Perspective on Musical Engagement in Young Children from Infancy to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2005-01-01

    Flow experience is an optimal state determined by an individual's perception of high skill and high challenge for a given task. In this study, young children's flow experience is examined in four naturally occurring music learning environments: infants and two-year-olds in childcare settings, and school-age children in Suzuki violin and Dalcroze…

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  6. Prevalence of Thinness, Stunting and Anemia Among Rural School-aged Sudanese Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  8. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-11-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [An epidemiological survey of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-age children in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Ying; Gao, Mei-Hao; Yang, Chun-He; Zhang, Jia-Nan; Chen, Yan-Zhao; Song, Jin-Zhi; Zhuang, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Fei-Qiu

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavior problems among school-age children in Shenzhen City of Guangdong. A total of 10553 students in Grades 1-6 from different primary schools in Shenzhen City were assessed by Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Children showing abnormalities according to PSQ or TRS were further assessed according to the diagnostic standard for ADHD as laid out in the diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders- 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ). A total of 8193 PSQ and TRS assessments were completed. The children were aged from 7 to 13 years. The total prevalence rate was 7.60% by PSQ and 5.59 % by TRS. Four hundred and forty-two children were diagnosed having ADHD by DSM-Ⅳ, with a prevalence rate of 5.39%. There were significant differences in the prevalence rate of ADHD among children aged 7 to 13 years (χ2=21.613, PADHD in boys was significantly higher than in girls (6.65% vs 3.12%; Pbehavioral problems in children with ADHD. The prevalence of learning disorders was higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions The prevalence rate of ADHD in children from primary schools in Shenzhen City is 5.39%, and it is higher in children aged 7 to 9 years. Boys have a higher prevalence rates of ADHD than girls. Impulsion and hyperactivity, learning and conduct disorders are common problems in children with ADHD.

  10. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  11. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  12. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Aimee K.; Figaji, Anthony A.; Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA) where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI. Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices. Results: The descriptive results show that (1) more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2) the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3) two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4) there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5) more than half (n = 16) of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely to

  13. Trend analyses in the health behaviour in school-aged children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Molcho, Michal; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article presents the scope and development of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, reviews trend papers published on international HBSC data up to 2012 and discusses the efforts made to produce reliable trend analyses. METHODS: The major goal of this article....... CONCLUSION: The article present recommendations to take a number of the considerations into account. The considerations imply methodological challenges, which are core issues in undertaking trend analyses....... collecting data from adolescents aged 11-15 years, on a broad variety of health determinants and health behaviours. RESULTS: A number of methodological challenges have stemmed from the growth of the HBSC-study, in particular given that the study has a focus on monitoring trends. Some of those challenges...

  14. A pilot exploration of speech sound disorder intervention delivered by telehealth to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Johnson, Susan; Gabel, Rodney M; Taylor, Jacquelyn; Rowan, Lynne E; Alvares, Robin; Schenker, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention. Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002). Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting.

  15. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  16. Trends in Lifetime Cannabis Use among Czech School-aged Children from 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav; Ružbarská, Ingrid; Pavelka, Jan; Hamřík, Zdeněk; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine trends in the prevalence of lifetime cannabis use among the Czech 15-year old students. Data from the nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, conducted in the Czech Republic in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, were used. Trends in cannabis use among both boys and girls were modelled through binary logistic regression with period as a predictor of the lifetime cannabis use. The prevalence of lifetime cannabis use has significantly decreased among young Czechs, particularly among boys. Gender differences in cannabis use have been also gradually decreasing since 2002, with no significant differences between genders in recent period. Although there are positive changes in the prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, from the European perspective, Czech students still belong to those with significantly higher rates in this respect. Thus, alongside with the use of other substances, adolescent cannabis consumption remains an important challenge for the national public health policy.

  17. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  18. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  19. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  20. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  2. Helicobacter pylori in children with asthmatic conditions at school age, and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, W J; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, A M M; Holster, I L; de Jongste, J C; Jaddoe, V W; Hofman, A; Perez-Perez, G I; Moll, H A; Blaser, M J; Duijts, L; Kuipers, E J

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Western countries has been declining simultaneously with increases in childhood asthma and allergic diseases; prior studies have linked these phenomena. To examine the association between H. pylori colonisation in children and risk of asthma and related conditions at school age. We secondly examined additional effects of maternal H. pylori status by pairing with children's status. This study was embedded in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. We measured anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA antibodies in serum of children obtained at age 6 years, and of their mothers obtained during midpregnancy. Asthma or related conditions were reported for children at age 6 years. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses among 3797 subjects. In children, the H. pylori positivity rate was 8.7%, and 29.2% of these were CagA-positive. A child's colonisation with a CagA-negative-H. pylori strain was associated with an increased risk of asthma (Odds ratio 2.11; 95% CI 1.23-3.60), but this differed for European (3.64; 1.97-6.73) and non-European (0.52; 0.14-1.89) children. When taking into account maternal H. pylori status, only H. pylori-positive children with an H. pylori-negative mother had increased risk of asthma (2.42; 1.11-5.27), accounting for 3.4% of the asthma risk. Colonisation of a European child with a CagA-negative-H. pylori strain at age 6 was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, but there was no association for non-European children. The underlying mechanisms for the observed risk differences require further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  4. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  5. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  6. A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

    2000-05-01

    Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality.

  7. Co-exposure to environmental lead and manganese affects the intelligence of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Won; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to environmental levels of lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) has been associated with detrimental effects to neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the potential association between environmental levels of Pb and Mn on intelligence of children. The aims of the study were to investigate the association of community level of Pb and Mn with the intelligence of school-aged children, and to explore the implications of joint exposure to these two heavy metals. A cross-sectional examination of blood Pb and Mn concentrations was performed, and the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined for 261 Korean children aged 8-11 years. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and Mn were 1.73 microg/dL (SD=0.8; median=1.55; range=0.42-4.91) and 14.3 microg/L (SD=3.8; median=14.0; range=5.30-29.02), respectively. Both Pb and Mn showed significant linear relationship with full-scale IQ (Pb, beta=-0.174, p=0.005; Mn, beta=-0.123, p=0.042) and verbal IQ (Pb, beta=-0.187, p=0.003; Mn, beta=-0.127, p=0.036). Blood Pb (DeltaR(2)=0.03) and Mn (DeltaR(2)=0.01) explained 4% of the variances of the full-scale IQ and 5% of the variances of the verbal IQ. When Pb and Mn levels were entered as predictive variables, additive increase in the explained variances was observed. Finally, full-scale IQ and verbal IQ of the children with blood Mn>14 microg/L showed significant association with Pb, whereas group with Mn<14 microg/L did not, suggesting effect modification between Pb and Mn. The present study suggests the presence of additive interaction and effect modification between Pb and Mn on the intelligence of school-aged children, suggesting more attention should be paid to preventing the exposure of disadvantaged children to various combinations of toxic materials.

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki (PhD); Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  9. Executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; McGrath, Lauren M; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism. Participants were 37 children with autism and 31 nonautistic comparison participants who were matched on age and on verbal and nonverbal IQ but not on language ability, which was lower in the autism group. Children with autism exhibited deficits compared to the comparison group across all 3 domains of executive function that were assessed including working memory (Block Span Backward; Isaacs & Vargha-Khadem, 1989), working memory and inhibitory control (NEPSY Knock-Tap; Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998), and planning (NEPSY Tower; Korkman et al., 1998). Children with autism were less developed than the comparison group in their language skills, but correlational analyses revealed no specific association between language ability and executive performance in the autism group. In contrast, executive performance was positively correlated with language ability in the comparison group. This pattern of findings suggest that executive dysfunction in autism is not directly related to language impairment per se but rather involves an executive failure to use of language for self-regulation.

  10. Shared etiology of phonological memory and vocabulary deficits in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs (between the ages of 5 and 8 years) from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia. The authors applied the DeFries-Fulker ( DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Among children with isolated PM deficits, the authors found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, it appears that the PM-vocabulary relationship is caused by common shared environmental experiences. The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with low vocabulary for different reasons, 1 being more influenced by genes and another being more influenced by environment.

  11. Caffeine intake from carbonated beverages among primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna; Siuba-Strzelińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess caffeine intake from cola beverages and energy drinks, as well as the consumption frequency among primary-school-age children in relation to other dietary habits. The study included 329 children (aged 11-13 years) from five randomly selected schools in Warsaw. Caffeine intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire. The face-to-face interview method was selected. 89.7% of the children consumed carbonated beverages whom caffeine, of which nearly 24% consumed energy drinks. The median caffeine intake from carbonated beverages was 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, accounting for 4.8% of the recommended maximum daily intake from all dietary sources. Frequent consumers of cola drinks were often found to eat fast foods, as well as salty snacks. Caffeine intake in the studied group of children turned out to be at a safe level. The safe dose of caffeine does not mean that consumption of carbonated drinks should not raise any concerns. The recently established legal ban on selling unhealthy foods at school is a good idea, since the school should not be a place for improper dietary models.

  12. Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged children with a growth mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Hans S; Fisher, Megan E; Lin, Yanli; Lo, Sharon L; Danovitch, Judith H; Moser, Jason S

    2017-04-01

    Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset) are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERP) studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe) predicted higher post-error accuracy. Moreover, replicating adult work, growth mindset was related to greater attention to mistakes (larger Pe) and higher post-error accuracy. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that growth mindset increased post-error accuracy for children who did not attend to their errors. Together, these results demonstrate the combined role of growth mindset and neural mechanisms of attention allocation in bouncing back after failure among young children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

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    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  14. [ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND CARDIOMETABOLIC EVENTS AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Peña, Sandra Lidia; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Rubí Vargas, María; Terrazas Medina, Efraín Alonso; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora

    2015-10-01

    obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual. to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models. 33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events. among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  17. Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged children with a growth mindset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans S. Schroder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERP studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe predicted higher post-error accuracy. Moreover, replicating adult work, growth mindset was related to greater attention to mistakes (larger Pe and higher post-error accuracy. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that growth mindset increased post-error accuracy for children who did not attend to their errors. Together, these results demonstrate the combined role of growth mindset and neural mechanisms of attention allocation in bouncing back after failure among young children.

  18. Relationships between sleep disruptions, health and care responsibilities among mothers of school-aged children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2013-09-01

    Sleep problems are more common among children with disabilities. Mothers are likely to provide night-time care. Mothers of children with disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress and mental health issues compared with other mothers. Relationships between a child's sleep problems, and chronic maternal sleep interruption and subjective health have not been researched. Cross-sectional mail-out survey with follow-up phone call was used. Instruments included the Short Form 36 version 2 and instruments that measured maternal, child and sleep characteristics. Descriptive statistics examined characteristics of participants and correlation, and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine important maternal and child characteristics around sleep issues. All mothers (n = 152) cared for a school-aged child with a developmental disability including autism spectrum disorder (n = 94) and cerebral palsy (n = 29). Nearly half (49%) of the mothers were awoken more than 4 nights/week. Three distinct sleep groups were identified: no sleep interruption; sleep interruption once/night, 4 nights/week; and more frequent interruption. Mothers experiencing the most sleep interruptions reported significantly poorer health on six Short Form 36 version 2 dimensions. Night-time caregiving was associated with higher child care needs rather than children's diagnoses. Mothers who experienced more sleep interruption also participated less in health-promoting activities (active leisure, time with socially supportive others) during the day. This study identifies a group of mothers with chronic sleep interruption and demonstrates related poor maternal subjective health and lower participation in health activities that may service to support maternal health. Mothers with children with the highest daytime care needs also experienced high night-time care responsibilities. Changes to service provision are recommended to identify mothers in need of additional supports and services. © 2013

  19. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, M; B Ghalebaghi; MF Ghaleh Bandi; E Amintehrani; Sh Khodaie; Sh Shoaee; MR Ashrafi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old). Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bed...

  20. Physical activity, screen time and the risk of subjective health complaints in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Eimear; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2017-03-01

    Internationally, subjective health complaints have become increasingly prevalent in children. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of health complaints is needed to inform effective policies and strategies. This study explores if meeting physical activity and total screen time (TST) recommendations are associated with the risk of reporting health complaints weekly or more. The 2014 Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected questionnaire data from 10,474 10-17year olds. Children reported how often they experienced eight health complaints as less than weekly or weekly or more. Children who met moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations were active for 60min/day in the past seven days. Three types of screen based activity were categorised to reflect if children met TST recommendations of ≤2h/day. Poisson regression examined the association between meeting recommendations and the risk of health complaints. The prevalence of individual health complaints ranged from 20.4-44.3% in girls and from 10.1-35.4% in boys. Overall, 5.1% (4.5-5.6%) of girls and 8.7% (7.8-9.5%) of boys met both (physical activity and TST) recommendations, while two thirds of girls (67.3%, 66.1-68.5%) and over half of boys (55.0%, 53.5-56.6%) met neither recommendation. Not meeting TST recommendations was significantly associated with the risk of reporting health complaints while associations with physical activity were less apparent. Children who did not meet either recommendation had a significantly increased risk for six of the health complaints when compared to those who met both recommendations. As health complaints and poor lifestyle behaviours were common in children, population level measures are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  2. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  4. Predictors for Asthma Formation in School-Age Children in Ternopil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Burbela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Algorithm of screening diagnostics for bronchial asthma (BA to identify asthma susceptibility forces doctors of a first contact to a differentiated approach to the compilation of forecasting, individual treatment and rehabilitation programs. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. 121 children with asthma treated at Ternopil region children hospital during 2012–2016 were studied. The control group consisted of 226 adolescents, of which 76.55 % (n  =  173 apparently healthy children at the time of examination were secondary school urban students and 2.45 % (n  =  53 — rural students. The average age of patients investigated was 12.98 ± 2.80 years old and 12.36 ± 2.80 years old in the control group. The study was conducted with regard to the basic principles of the Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research and provisions GCH ICH, compliance with ethical principles and guidelines involving people as subjects set out in Belmont Report. Results and discussion. Based on a simple ranking value %AR factors playinbg a major role in causing asthma were considered as a level above 50 %. These predictors were: maintenance of diathesis manifestations after the first year of life, оbstructive bronchitis, passive smoking, burdened heredity for atopy, atopic dermatitis, high personal anxiety, high and medium situational anxiety, general school anxiety, social stress, frustration at needs to succeed, fear expression and fear of knowledge test, fear not to match to the expectations of others, low resistance to physiological stress, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, high (70 cu Robinson index. Seven contributing factors in the formation of BA level above 25 % were determined: atopic manifestations on the skin up to a year, the presence of phlegmatic temperament, and eutonia and vagotony according to the Kerdem index, Robinson index above average (71–75 cu. Conclusions

  5. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    XIA, Weiping; Shen, Lixiao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Meth...

  6. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Types of Lamp for Homework and Myopia among Chinese School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wu, Rong-Kun; Liu, Hu; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua

    2017-12-27

    We aim to determine the association of the types of lamp for homework including incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, and light-emitting diode (LED) lamp with the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children. 2346 grade 7 students from ten middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13 to 14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. Refractive error was measured with cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOL Master was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Information regarding the types of lamp for homework af``ter schools was collected by questionnaires. Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia, with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (P fluorescent lamps. There were no significant differences in myopia prevalence between children using incandescent and fluorescent lamps for homework. The population attributable risk percentage for myopia associated with using LED lamps for homework after schools was 11.2%. Using LED lamps for homework after schools might contribute to the development of myopia among school-aged children.

  8. Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Albonico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-school age children account for 10%-20% of the 2 billion people worldwide who are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm, and Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus (hookworms. Through a systematic review of the published literature and using information collated at World Health Organization headquarters, this paper summarizes the available evidence to support the recommendation that pre-school children should be included in regular deworming programmes. The first section describes the burden of STH disease in this age group, followed by a summary of how infection impacts iron status, growth, vitamin A status, and cognitive development and how STHs may exacerbate other high mortality infections. The second section explores the safety of the drugs themselves, given alone or co-administered, drug efficacy, and the importance of safe administration. The third section provides country-based evidence to demonstrate improved health outcomes after STH treatment. The final section provides country experiences in scaling up coverage of pre-school children by using other large scale public health interventions, including vitamin A programmes, immunization campaigns, and Child Health days. The paper concludes with a number of open research questions and a summary of some of the operational challenges that still need to be addressed.

  9. Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Marco; Allen, Henrietta; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis-Francesco; Savioli, Lorenzo

    2008-03-26

    Pre-school age children account for 10%-20% of the 2 billion people worldwide who are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus (hookworms). Through a systematic review of the published literature and using information collated at World Health Organization headquarters, this paper summarizes the available evidence to support the recommendation that pre-school children should be included in regular deworming programmes. The first section describes the burden of STH disease in this age group, followed by a summary of how infection impacts iron status, growth, vitamin A status, and cognitive development and how STHs may exacerbate other high mortality infections. The second section explores the safety of the drugs themselves, given alone or co-administered, drug efficacy, and the importance of safe administration. The third section provides country-based evidence to demonstrate improved health outcomes after STH treatment. The final section provides country experiences in scaling up coverage of pre-school children by using other large scale public health interventions, including vitamin A programmes, immunization campaigns, and Child Health days. The paper concludes with a number of open research questions and a summary of some of the operational challenges that still need to be addressed.

  10. Indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, O; Kirychuk, S P; Lawson, J A; Karunanayake, C; Cockcroft, D W; Willson, P J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C

    2017-03-01

    Current knowledge regarding the association between indoor mold exposures and asthma is still limited. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children. Parents completed a questionnaire survey of health history and home environmental conditions. Asthma cases had a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or current wheeze without a cold in the past 12 months. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Vacuumed dust samples were collected from the child's indoor play area and mattress. Samples were assessed for mold levels and quantified in colony-forming units (CFU). Sensitization to mold allergens was also determined by skin testing. Being a case was associated with family history of asthma, pet ownership, and mold allergy. Mold levels (CFU/m2 ) in the dust samples of children's mattress and play area floors were moderately correlated (r = 0.56; P mold levels (≥30 000 CFU/m2 ) in dust samples from play [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.03-6.43] and mattress (aOR) = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.11-8.00) areas were significantly associated with current asthma. In this study high levels of mold are a risk factor for asthma in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek Ozunan; Ozmen, Dilek; Cetinkaya, Aynur Cakmakci

    2014-07-08

    To investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) in elementary school aged children in Manisa. Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVIS) which was developed in Turkey is used. A total of 416 children, 216 (51.9%) male and 200 (48.1%) female were recruited in this study. Mean age of children was 10.35 ± 2.44 years (median10 years). Daytime UI frequency was 6.7% (28 child), nocturnal incontinence 16.6% (69 child) and combined daytime and nocturnal incontinence 4.1% (17 child). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nocturnal and or daytime UI between male and female gender. Mean DVIS score was 2.65 ± 3.95 and gender did not affect total DVIS points. The mean ages of achieving daytime bowel and bladder control were all significantly correlated with DVIS points. DVIS points were positively correlated with the history of UI of the family. Total points were increased when the father was unemployed. UI negatively influences health related quality of life of the family and child, so it is important that awareness of the UI and symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  13. Reading abilities in school-aged preterm children: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, Vanessa N; Adams, Jenna N; Tamaresis, John S; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-05-01

    Children born preterm (at ≤32wks) are at risk of developing deficits in reading ability. This meta-analysis aims to determine whether or not school-aged preterm children perform worse than those born at term in single-word reading (decoding) and reading comprehension. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between 2000 and 2013, which assessed decoding or reading comprehension performance in English-speaking preterm and term-born children aged between 6 years and 13 years, and born after 1990. Standardized mean differences in decoding and reading comprehension scores were calculated. Nine studies were suitable for analysis of decoding, and five for analysis of reading comprehension. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that children born preterm had significantly lower scores (reported as Cohen's d values [d] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) than those born at term for decoding (d=-0.42, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.27, preading comprehension (d=-0.57, 95% CI -0.68 to -0.46, preading comprehension (Q[1]=4.69, p=0.03) between preterm and term groups. Differences between groups increased with age for reading comprehension (Q[1]=5.10, p=0.02) and, although not significant, there was also a trend for increased group differences for decoding (Q[1]=3.44, p=0.06). Preterm children perform worse than peers born at term on decoding and reading comprehension. These findings suggest that preterm children should receive more ongoing monitoring for reading difficulties throughout their education. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Overweight/obesity among school aged children in Bahir Dar City: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Teferi; Tariku, Amare; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen

    2018-01-23

    Developing countries, including Ethiopia are experiencing a double burden of malnutrition. There is limited information about prevalence of overweight/obesity among school aged children in Ethiopia particularly in Bahir Dar city. Hence this study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated factors among school children aged 6-12 years at Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 634 children were included in the study. Multi stage systematic random sampling technique was used. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with overweight/obesity. The association between dependent and independent variables were assessed using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.3, 14.4) (out of which 8.8% were overweight and 3.1% were obese). Higher wealth status[adjusted OR = 3.14, 95% CI:1.17, 8.46], being a private school student [AOR = 2.21, 95% CI:1.09, 4.49], use of transportation to and from school [AOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.26,5.06], fast food intake [AOR = 3.88, 95% CI: 1.42,10.55], lack of moderate physical activity [AOR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.21,6.82], low intake of fruit and vegetable [AOR = 6.45, 95% CI:3.19,13.06] were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. This study revealed that prevalence of overweight/obesity among school aged children in Bahir Dar city is high. Thus, promoting healthy dietary habit, particularly improving fruit and vegetable intake is essential to reduce the burden of overweight and obesity. Furthermore, it is important to strengthen nutrition education about avoiding junk food consumption and encouraging regular physical activity.

  15. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

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    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  16. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  17. Lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children in Celaya, Guanajuato: An experimental study

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    Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor in chronic diseases, and its frequency among children in Mexico is increasing. Objective: To determine the effect of lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children from Celaya, Mexico.Methodology: For this experimental study, four schools were randomly selected. Children and parents participated voluntarily and signed consent forms. Two schools were chosen as the experimental group and the other two formed the control group. Age, gender, weight, height, BMI and blood pressure were recorded for each participant. Intervention: Children and parents were asked to walk in their schools for 30 minutes a day Monday through Friday and to attend 8 instructional sessions over a period of four months dedicated to the selection and preparation of meals. Statistical Analysis: The OR and 95% CI were calculated to determine the effect of the intervention; a Z-test for two proportions for overweight and obesity in the control and experimental groups were carried out for comparison.Results: 157 children were included in the experimental group and 144 in the control group. To compare the proportions of the overweight and the obese between the groups, a Z-test = - 0.36 (p-value 0.72 were obtained showing no effect of the intervention in lifestyle; OR =1.09, 95% CI (0.67, 1.77. It was adjusted according to the attendance to the sessions resulting in an OR = 2.00, 95% CI (0.69, 5.77, demonstrating that not attending the sessions was a confounder.Conclusions: Intervention in lifestyle should be measured over a longer period of time in order to determine what effects it may have on changes in body mass index.

  18. Sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Xu, Guangxing; Liu, Zhijun; Lu, Ning; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Entao

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to (1) characterize sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children, (2) determine the prevalence of their short sleep duration and sleep disturbances based on clinical cutoffs, and (3) examine possible factors (socio-demographic factors and emotional/behavioral problems) that are associated with sleep disturbances. A large representative sample of 912 children aged 6-14years was recruited from Shenzhen, China. Their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The mean bedtime was 9:45pm (SD=1h 11min), mean wake-up time was 7:03am (SD=31min), mean sleep duration was 9h 14min (SD=46min), and 23.8% of the children had sleep duration children suffered from global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Bedtime resistance (22.9%), sleep anxiety (22.1%), sleep duration (21%) and daytime sleepiness (20%) were the most prevalent sleep disturbances; followed by sleep disordered breathing (12.1%), parasomnias (9.4%), sleep onset delay (6.9%), and night waking (5.2%). The prevalence of specific sleep disturbances ranged from 3.2% (falling asleep while watching television) to 81.9% (awakening by others in the morning). Correlations between most domains of sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems were statistically significant (pchildren. Sleep disturbances are associated with gender, school grade, co-sleeping, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  20. Reading comprehension of ambiguous sentences by school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-08-22

    Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration-a multi-component view-to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8-14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23). Participants completed a written ambiguous sentence comprehension task in which participants had to integrate context to determine the correct homonym meaning via picture selection. Both comprehension products (i.e., offline representations after reading) and processes (i.e., online processing during reading) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with ASD, similar to their TD peers, integrated the context to access the correct homonym meanings while reading. However, after reading the sentences, when participants were asked to select the meanings, both groups experienced semantic interference between the two meanings. This semantic interference hindered the children with ASD's sentence representation to a greater degree than their peers. Individual differences in age/development, word recognition, vocabulary breadth (i.e., number of words in the lexicon), and vocabulary depth (i.e., knowledge of the homonym meanings) contributed to sentence comprehension in both children with ASD and their peers. Together, this evidence supports a multi-component view, and that helping children with ASD develop vocabulary depth may have cascading effects on their reading comprehension. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Like their peers, children with ASD were able to integrate context, or link words while reading sentences with

  1. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Azupogo, Fusta; Nagasu, Miwako; Creemers, Noortje; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-01-01

    Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010) and rainy season (May 2011) among the same school-age children (SAC) in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis. The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P sex, occupation (household head and mother) and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001) and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001) were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001). Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS in different seasons. Since DDS is a proxy indicator of micronutrient intake, the difference in DDS may reflect in seasonal differences in dietary

  2. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  3. Narrative quality measures in school-age children referred for language assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Mikolajczyk, Elizabeth V

    2016-08-01

    Measures of narrative quality hold promise for clinical language assessment. However, more information is needed on the validity of such measures within clinical populations. This study examined aspects of validity for two clinically-available narrative quality measures, the Narrative Scoring Scheme and a holistic scoring method, within a diverse group of children referred for speech-language assessment. Assessment records from 72 school-age children were retrospectively analysed. Narrative quality scores from oral narrative language samples were examined for expected qualities including growth with age, similarity across groups defined by gender and linguistic background and relations with other measures of language ability including norm-referenced test scores and microstructural language sample measures. External validity was supported by unbiased scores across gender and linguistic background. Concurrent, criterion-related validity was supported by strong correlations between narrative quality and some microstructural measures, as well as by the similarity in performance between the two tools. However, the expected relation with age was not present and there were few correlations between narrative quality scores and norm-referenced language tests, showing limitations in construct and criterion-referenced validity. Results provide an independent validation of these two tools and may guide clinicians looking to assess narrative quality.

  4. Diversity in gut bacterial community of school-age children in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Jiro; Watanabe, Koichi; Jiang, Jiahui; Matsuda, Kazunori; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Haryono, Pri; La-ongkham, Orawan; Sarwoko, Martinus-Agus; Sujaya, I. Nengah; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Kang-Ting; Chen, Yen-Po; Chiu, Hsueh-Hui; Hidaka, Tomoko; Huang, Ning- Xin; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kurakawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Sonomoto, Kenji; Tashiro, Kousuke; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Chen, Ming-Ju; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Liao, Chii-Cherng; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Rahayu, Endang S.; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Asia differs substantially among and within its regions populated by diverse ethnic groups, which maintain their own respective cultures and dietary habits. To address the diversity in their gut microbiota, we characterized the bacterial community in fecal samples obtained from 303 school-age children living in urban or rural regions in five countries spanning temperate and tropical areas of Asia. The microbiota profiled for the 303 subjects were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, each driven by Prevotella (P-type) or Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides (BB-type), respectively. Majority in China, Japan and Taiwan harbored BB-type, whereas those from Indonesia and Khon Kaen in Thailand mainly harbored P-type. The P-type microbiota was characterized by a more conserved bacterial community sharing a greater number of type-specific phylotypes. Predictive metagenomics suggests higher and lower activity of carbohydrate digestion and bile acid biosynthesis, respectively, in P-type subjects, reflecting their high intake of diets rich in resistant starch. Random-forest analysis classified their fecal species community as mirroring location of resident country, suggesting eco-geographical factors shaping gut microbiota. In particular, children living in Japan harbored a less diversified microbiota with high abundance of Bifidobacterium and less number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may reflect their living environment and unique diet. PMID:25703686

  5. Gender differences in reading in school-aged children: an early ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Language lateralization in the auditory modality occurs relatively early in pre-school children. Instead, lateralization of linguistic processes involved in reading develops more slowly in parallel with learning to read. In adults there is limited evidence that language lateralization differs across genders. With the present experiment we aimed at demonstrating that gender-related lateralization difference begins earlier, in school-aged children, with characteristics similar to those observed in adults. To this aim, 14 boys and 14 girls aged 10 participated in a linguistic experiment including Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic tasks. Early potentials evoked by single-word reading revealed a posterior negative wave peaking at 230 msec, corresponding to the N150-Recognition Potential, and a more anterior and late N350. Boys showed a bilateral N150 in all tasks, whereas girls' N150 was right lateralized in both the Phonological and the Orthographic tasks. In the later interval (300-400 msec) boys' N350 was left lateralized over anterior sites during the Phonological task and girls exhibited bilateral activation in all tasks. Results support the hypothesis that a reduced left language lateralization can be functionally detected in females since the first years of development of reading skills.

  6. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modifications of adiposity in school-age children according to nutritional status: a 20-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Tatiane K; Ferrari, Gerson Luis M; Silva Júnior, João Pedro da; Silva, Leonardo José da; Oliveira, Luís C; Matsudo, Victor K R

    2012-05-01

    To analyze adiposity changes in school-age children over a 20 year-period, according to nutritional status. The study is part of the Ilhabela Longitudinal Mixed Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness. A sample of 1,095 school students of both sexes, from 7 to 10 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a) at least one complete assessment in one of the analyzed periods; (b) to be in prepubertal stage of sexual maturation; (c) to be apparently healthy. The periods analyzed were 1990/1991 (initial), 2000/2001 (10 years) and 2010/2011 (20 years). The variables analyzed were: body weight, height and adiposity through individual analysis of each skinfold. Children were classified as eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to the curves of body mass index for age and sex proposed by the World Health Organization. The statistical analysis used was one-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffé's post-hoc test, with p nutritional status was controlled, showing that individuals who have similar body mass indexes may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue. In both sexes, the increase was higher in the overweight group, and mainly in central skinfolds.

  8. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  9. Enhancing Asthma Self-Management in Rural School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn

    2016-06-01

    To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal resolution: performance of school-aged children in the GIN - Gaps-in-noise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos do; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Time resolution hearing skill is the minimum time necessary to solve acoustic events, which is fundamental for speech understanding, and which may be assessed by gap-detection tests, such as the Gaps-in-noise test (GIN). the purpose of this study was to verify the performance of time processing ability in children with no hearing and/or education difficulties by applying the GIN test in both genders and ages from 8 to 10 years. a prospective cross-sectional contemporary cohort. The GIN test was applied to 75 school-aged children separated into three groups by age. The findings showed no statistical differences among age groups or ears. Males had slightly better responses than females on the percentage of correct responses only. The gap threshold and percentage of correct responses were calculated regardless of the ear, gender or age, and were respectively 4.7ms and 73.6%. Based on a 95% confidence interval, the cut-off criterion for normal and abnormal performance was 6.1ms for the mean gap detection threshold and 60% for the percentage of correct responses.

  12. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  13. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schencke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant difference can be observed in terms of self-identity or perceived social support between children who own a dog and children who don’t. However, it is significant that children who perceive themselves as unpopular have a stronger bond with their pets than those who perceive themselves as popular.

  14. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  15. Peer Problems Mediate the Relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder and Behavioral Problems in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Bos, Klaus; Jascenoka, Julia; Jekauc, Darko; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the relationship between developmental coordination disorder, peer problems, and behavioral problems in school-aged children where both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were considered. We assumed that the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and…

  16. Efficacy of the Lexicon Pirate Strategy Therapy for Improving Lexical Learning in School-Age Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsch, Hans-Joachim; Marks, Dana-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Lexicon Pirate was originally developed as a strategy intervention programme to treat lexical disorders of pre-school children. To evaluate the therapy's effectiveness for school-age students, a randomized controlled trial (RCT, N = 157) was conducted. Based on a pre--post-test design, the programme's impacts were compared with a control group…

  17. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting: A r...

  18. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  19. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  20. Early motor repertoire is related to level of self-mobility in children with cerebral palsy at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Cioni, Giovanni; Einspieler, Christa; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Pascale, Rosa; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the predictive value of the early motor repertoire for the level of self-mobility in children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school age. Method Video recordings were made at 11 to 17 weeks post-term of 37 preterm infants (20 males, 17 females) who later developed CP. The early motor

  1. Home uroflowmetry biofeedback in behavioral training for dysfunctional voiding in school-age children: a randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Aart J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.; Winkler, Pauline L. H.; Dik, Pieter; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the added value of home uroflowmetry for biofeedback training compared to added attention and standard therapy in a multicomponent behavioral training program for voiding disorders in school-age children. Little is known about the role of biofeedback by home uroflowmetry for dysfunctional

  2. Homelessness and Its Relation to the Mental Health and Behavior of Low-Income School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, John C.; Bassuk, Ellen L.; Weinreb, Linda F.; Brooks, Margaret G.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relationship between housing status and depression, anxiety, and problem behaviors among elementary school-aged children from low-income, single-parent, female-headed families. Found that mother-reported problem behaviors were above normal levels for both homeless and poor, housed youths, but self-reported depression and anxiety were…

  3. Serum Copper Status in School-Age Children and Pregnant Women in China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Li, Weidong; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-10-01

    Serum copper is an insensitive but reliable biomarker reflecting the change of copper nutritional status in both depleted and replete populations. The current study aimed to establish the reference values of serum copper in school-age children and pregnant women in China and to explore the adequate range of serum copper for both these two categories of people. A multistage, stratified, random sampling combined with probability proportionate to regional size sampling method was employed. A total of 4019 subjects (2736 school-age children and 1283 pregnant women) were selected from China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012 (CNHS 2010-2012). The concentration of serum copper was determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The adequate range of serum copper was determined by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives. The median concentration of serum copper was 1140.9 μg/L with a range of 746.7-1677.6 μg/L for school-age children and 1933.4 μg/L with a range of 947.4-3391.4 μg/L for pregnant women. The adequate range of serum copper was 905.7-1440.7 μg/L for school-age children and 1308.8-2537.8 μg/L for pregnant women. These parameters represent an essential prerequisite for the assessment of copper nutritional status, as well as nutrition interventions.

  4. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  5. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study

  6. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  7. Anaemia and intestinal parasitic infections among school age children in Behera Governorate, Egypt. Behera Survey Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtale, F; Nabil, M; el Wakeel, A; Shamy, M Y

    1998-12-01

    Anaemia is considered a serious public health problem in Egypt, although updated population-based data are lacking. Similarly, data on prevalence and intensity of infection with intestinal parasites, which are considered one possible cause of anaemia, are available only from small, unrepresentative sample surveys. The present research was implemented on an entire Governorate representative sample. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia and intestinal parasites in the area and to evaluate the role of each parasite in the epidemiology of anaemia among school age children. At the end of the survey, results of faecal analyses from direct smear and the Kato-Katz examination techniques were available from 1844 and 1783 children respectively, as well as haemoglobin levels measured by spectrophotometer from 1238 children aged 6-12 years. The prevalence of anaemia in the area was high (90 per cent), but very few serve forms were detected (< 2 per cent). Prevalence of intestinal parasites was high only for protozoa (Giardia intestinalis 24.7 per cent Entamoeba histolytica 17.5 per cent) and Schistosoma mansoni (20.7 per cent). From analysis of the results, Fasciola infection appeared to be highly endemic, even among children (3 per cent), and emerged as the factor most strongly correlated with low levels of haemoglobin (p < 0.0001). The effect of Fasciola on haemoglobin levels was related to the intensity of infection with this parasite. The role of S. mansoni as a risk factor for anaemia was supported by the present study. Among the protozoa, G. intestinalis was significantly correlated with low haemoglobin levels (p < 0.05). The present results substantiated similar findings from smaller studies. In future research, the relationship between Fasciola infection and anaemia needs to be studied with a well-controlled longitudinal design.

  8. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Ubiali

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing.P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation.P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values.Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  9. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiali, Thalita; Sanfins, Milaine Dominici; Borges, Leticia Reis; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing. P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation. P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values. Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  10. The Influence of Familiarization on Physical Fitness Test Results in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbik, Ivan; Sporiš, Goran; Štefan, Lovro; Madić, Dejan; Trajković, Nebojša; Valantine, Irena; Milanović, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions. Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch). The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991. Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the

  11. Empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshen, J S; Minnes, P

    2005-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of the term 'empowerment' in clinical literature to describe both a desirable process and the outcome of service delivery, the term remains more of a theoretical than practical construct. This study examined the factors that contribute to empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities (DD) using the Double ABCX model of family adaptation contrasted with the linear ACBX model. Parents of children with (n = 100, 97% mothers) and without (n = 100, 98% mothers) DD completed questionnaires relating to child behaviour problems, parent stress and well-being, and formal and informal support. Structural equation modelling was used Parents of children with DD reported more child behaviour problems, more stress, less well-being and more social support than parents of children without DD. Structural equation modelling supported the ACBX model for both groups. A linear relationship was found in which parent well-being and resources mediated the relationship between the stressor (child behaviour problems) and the outcome (empowerment). The results of the current study support Hastings and Taunt's assertion in 2002, in that empowerment was adequately explained using a traditional model of family functioning. The significant prediction offered by the parent's resources points to the need to deliver services in a manner that is more family-centred. In the education system, this means providing parents with clear messages regarding the schools goals, clarifying the parent's rights and responsibilities, including the parent in planning and decision making, respecting their knowledge as caregivers and supporting their hopes for their child.

  12. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  14. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME) in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME. Methods Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB. Results Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to

  15. Visual status and prevalence of eye disorders among school-age children in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine N. Ekpenyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the types and prevalence of eye problems among school-age children in Cross River State (CRS, Nigeria.Method: The study design was a cross-sectional analytic survey of 2418 school children aged 6–17 years from seven public and three private schools in CRS, selected using the multistage random sampling technique. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee, CRS Ministry of Health, Nigeria. The following tests were carried out on all children enrolled in the study: researcher-administered semi-structured questionnaires, LogMAR visual acuity measurements, external and internal eye examinations, non-cycloplegic auto-refractions, retinoscopy and subjective refractions. Quality assurance was carried out to validate the data collected, and data were analysed using SPSS and EPI info.Results: A total of 2418 school children were enumerated, and 2110 (87.3% were examined; 1117 (52.9% were girls, and 1250 (59.2% were 6–11 years old, while 860 (40.8% were 12–17 years old, and 77% attended public schools. The majority, 1895 (89.9% of the children examined, had never had an eye examination. The prevalence of eye diseases among the school children was 32.1%, and the major causes were conjunctivitis 397 (18.8%; confidence interval [CI] 19.2–13.0, refractive error 243 (11.5%; CI 10.2–13.0, glaucoma suspects 52 (2.5%; CI 1.9–3.2, amblyopia 7 (0.3%; CI 0.0–0.7 and corneal opacity 4 (0.2%; CI 0.1–0.5. Analysis using chi-square tests and logistic regression shows a positive higher association of refractive error in private (16.7% than public schools (9.9% (crude odds ratio [COR] 1.8150; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.9129, p < 0.001, higher socio-economic status of parents (COR 2.3402, AOR 1.9819, p < 0.001, older age group (COR 1.7258, AOR 1.8202, p < 0.001 and girls (13.1% versus boys (9.8% (COR 0.7200, AOR 0.7144, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Physical and eye health examination of children before school entry is

  16. Evaluation of Adaptive Noise Management Technologies for School-Age Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Duke, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Jones, Christine; Rakita, Lori

    2017-05-01

    with adaptive noise management exceeded the decrement obtained when the signal arrived from behind. Most participants reported better subjective SIRs when using adaptive noise management technologies, particularly when the signal of interest arrived from in front of the listener. In addition, most participants reported a preference for the technology with an automatically switching, adaptive directional microphone and adaptive noise reduction in real-world listening situations when compared to conventional, omnidirectional microphone use with minimal noise reduction processing. Use of the adaptive noise management technologies evaluated in this study improves school-age children's speech recognition in noise for signals arriving from the front. Although a small decrement in speech recognition in noise was observed for signals arriving from behind the listener, most participants reported a preference for use of noise management technology both when the signal arrived from in front and from behind the child. The results of this study suggest that adaptive noise management technologies should be considered for use with school-age children when listening in academic and social situations.

  17. Low level exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Surette, Céline; Cormier, Pierre; Foucher, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    and cognitive development in this sample of school-age children although the data suggest there might be sex-specific associations. Given the low levels of exposure and sex-specific associations, a larger sample size would have been required to increase the statistical power and better characterize the relations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea in Thai school-age children: prevalence and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuntaseree, W; Rookkapan, K; Kuasirikul, S; Thongsuksai, P

    2001-09-01

    We studied the prevalence of habitual snoring and its associations with tonsillar size, allergic rhinitis, obesity, and parental smoking, as well as prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) in a sample of 1,142 children aged 6-13 years (mean, 7.25 +/- 0.58) from seven randomly selected schools in Hat yai, Southern Thailand. Eighty-five (8.5%) of the children were habitual snorers; the prevalence was the same in boys and girls. Significant and independent association was present between snoring and allergic rhinitis with an odds ratio of 5.27 (95% CI, 1.57-17.77). The odds ratio was significantly increased to 2.65 (CI, 1.31-5.39), 5.72 (CI, 2.67-12.25), and 11.06 (CI, 1.91-63.84) in children with tonsillar size of 2+, 3+, and 4+, respectively. Of the 85 habitual snorers, 69 could be contacted by telephone call or by hospital visit. Eight of these were reported to have at least one of the following symptoms: difficulty breathing during sleep, stop breathing at night, restless sleeping and frequent awakening, sleeping with the head tipped back, and a tendency to breathe through the mouth rather than the nose. Polysomnographic studies in these 8 children demonstrated an apnea/hypopnea index of 0.6-4.7 per hr. Seven children met the criteria for OSAS. Thus, our estimate of the prevalence of OSAS among Thai schoolchildren was 7/1,008 (0.69%). We have shown that the prevalence of habitual snoring was 8.5%, and the prevalence of OSAS in a sample of Asian school-age children in Southern Thailand was 0.69%, which was similar to that observed in Western populations. An association of snoring with tonsillar size or allergic rhinitis was demonstrated. All but one of the snoring children with sleep-related symptoms had OSAS, but all were mild cases. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  20. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan K Desai

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test, demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05. After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score, children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1 * min(-1 had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively. This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their

  1. Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown.We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden.In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls, air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs.A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 - 15.65 µg/m(3 was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.1, 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 - 2.3, 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 - 4.7, and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.3, accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.8 compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs.We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively.

  2. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  3. Impact of divorce on the quality of life in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann, Alfredo; Busaniche, Julio; Llera, Julián; De Cunto, Carmen; Wahren, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess psychosocial quality of life in school-age children of divorced parents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a community hospital. Children 5 to 12 years old from married families and divorced families were included. Child quality of life was assessed through maternal reports using a Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. A multiple linear regression model was constructed including clinically relevant variables significant on univariate analysis (beta coefficient and 95%CI). Three hundred and thirty families were invited to participate and 313 completed the questionnaire. Univariate analysis showed that quality of life was significantly associated with parental separation, child sex, time spent with the father, standard of living, and maternal education. In a multiple linear regression model, quality of life scores decreased in boys -4.5 (-6.8 to -2.3) and increased for time spent with the father 0.09 (0.01 to 0.2). In divorced families, multiple linear regression showed that quality of life scores increased when parents had separated by mutual agreement 6.1 (2.7 to 9.4), when the mother had university level education 5.9 (1.7 to 10.1) and for each year elapsed since separation 0.6 (0.2 to 1.1), whereas scores decreased in boys -5.4 (-9.5 to -1.3) and for each one-year increment of maternal age -0.4 (-0.7 to -0.05). Children's psychosocial quality of life was affected by divorce. The Child Health Questionnaire can be useful to detect a decline in the psychosocial quality of life.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Audio-Verbal, Visual and Motor Memory in School-Age Children with Perinatal Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryacheva T.G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of memory features for children of primary school age with perinatal central nervous system lesions in history, in particular, hypoxia. These results were compared with those obtained in a study of healthy peers. The study involved 32 children aged 6 to 8, of which 16 children had a o perinatal hypoxia in history and 16 without CNS perinatal pathology. Based on these results, it was found that children who have suffered hypoxia have a lower playback volume and productivity modal-specific forms of memory, which are subject to greater influence of interfering effects than that of healthy children.

  5. Some of the Strongest Predisposing Factors on the Behavior of Tooth Brushing among Iranian School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghaffari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral Health is a criterion for general health. Oral diseases have a chronic process as well as multifactorial nature. Predisposing factors are the strongest factors in behavior formation at personal level. The aim of this study was to determine the strongest predisposing factors affecting oral health behavior among Iranian school age children. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 441 students (9-12 years old in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Researcher-made questionnaire was used as data collection tool designed based on the reviewing scientific references, text and qualitative research, consisted of three parts including 8 demographic questions, 8 predisposing factors (Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceived Susceptibility, Severity and Benefits, Subjective Norms, Motivation to Comply and Observational Learning and checklist of weekly behavior of tooth brushing. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results Mean score of majority of constructs, except for Knowledge, were at optimum level. Frequency of tooth brushing behavior of twice and more per day was equal to 66.1%. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between tooth brushing behavior and Knowledge of students (r=0.1, P

  6. Proposition and confirmation of set of tests designed for the selection of early school age children talented for sport aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    KLÍMOVÁ, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my work is to create and consequently to confirm set of tests for early school age children, which would make easier the selection of children to sport aerobics clubs. The proposed set of tests includes five - point evaluation scales and is divided to the two parts. Both parts for general kinetic skills and specific kinetic skills include six tests. Measured results were transformed into well-arranged tables and graphs and for better statement value an individual contestant tes...

  7. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu Lucía; Shamah-Levy Teresa; Monterrubio Eric A; Ramírez-Silva Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino Raquel; Rivera Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administer...

  8. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scheduled physical activity is associated with better academic performance in Chilean school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Raquel; Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Orellana, Yasna; Almagiá, Atilio; Lizana, Pablo; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to examine the association between systematic physical activity and academic performance in school kids after controlling for potential sociodemographic and educational confounders. In a random sample of 1271 students from urban Santiago, attending 5th and 9th grade, who took the 2009 System for the Assessment of Educational Quality (SIMCE) tests, we measured physical activity habits, anthropometric characteristics, and socioeconomic status. Academic performance was measured by the standardized SIMCE tests. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between the allocation of time to weekly scheduled exercise, potential confounding factors, and individual academic performance. About 80% of students reported less than 2 hours of weekly scheduled exercise, while 10.6% and 10.2% reported 2 to 4 hours/week and more than 4 hours/week, respectively. Devoting more than 4 hours/week to scheduled exercise significantly increased (P academic performance was associated with a higher allocation of time to scheduled exercise in school-age children.

  10. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dieting patterns and related lifestyles of school-aged children in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Nolan, Geraldine; Kelleher, Cecily; Friel, Sharon

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in food habits and lifestyle behaviours by dieting status among young people in Ireland. Cross-sectional survey. Participants responded to a self-completion questionnaire designed by researchers on the World Health Organization's collaborative study - Health Behaviour in School Aged Children. Pupils were selected by school and classroom and the sample was stratified to be representative of the geographical distribution of school students in Ireland. Data were collected by teachers from school pupils in their classrooms. Data were collected from 187 schools which included 8497 pupils (51% girls) aged 9-17 years. While a minority of pupils (12% of girls, 4% of boys) reported that they were on a diet to lose weight, a substantial proportion (28% of girls, 18% of boys) said that they should be on a diet. Dieters reported consuming unhealthy foods less frequently than non-dieters, but did not report an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Rather, some categories of dieters reported higher levels of coffee and tobacco use and lower exercise levels than non-dieters. The results could indicate substitution of unhealthy foods by other unhealthy behaviours as opposed to an increased consumption of healthier foodstuffs, and suggest that both smoking and exercise need to be addressed alongside nutrition in youth health promotion.

  12. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  13. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  14. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  15. MEDIA WORLD AS ENVIRONMENT OF SOCIALIZATION OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sagan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wide involvement of children of primary school age to information and communication environment requires the creation of a scientific substantiated system of childs integration in to this environment. The article deals with the issue of using media education for primary school pupils preparing for life in the modern information age, the perception of different information, obtaining the ways of communication on the basis of non-verbal communication forms by technical means. Involving primary school pupils to computer technologies highlights the issue of their socialization in the information environment. The article deals with the process of socialization as a process of an individual integration into society by mastering his or her elements of culture, social norms and values, which are formed on the basis of socially significant features of a person. Generalization of researches, existing experience let identify the main directions of a teacher’s activity for successful socialization of a primary school pupil in modern information and communication environment.

  16. Language, Reading, and Math Learning Profiles in an Epidemiological Sample of School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F.; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities. PMID:24155959

  17. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  18. Effects of internet addiction on heart rate variability in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pi-Chu; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Sheen, Tzong-Chyi; Chen, Su-Ru

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has been gaining worldwide popularity in recent years, but a loss of control over Internet use might lead to negative impacts on our daily lives. This study explored the effects of Internet addiction on autonomic nervous system function through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This was a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 240 school-aged children who completed the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires. Spectral analysis was used to measure HRV. Independent t test was used to compare differences in characteristics and HRV between groups. A 2-way analysis of variance was used to examine group differences in HRV. Internet addicts had significantly lower high frequency (HF) percentage, logarithmically transformed HF, and logarithmically transformed total power and significantly higher low frequency percentage than did nonaddicts. Internet addicts who had insomnia had higher low frequency percentage and lower HF percentage, logarithmically transformed HF, and logarithmically transformed total power compared with nonaddicts who did not have insomnia. Internet addiction is associated with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. The autonomic dysregulation associated with Internet addiction might partly result from insomnia, but the mechanism still needs to be further studied.

  19. The relationship between Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and uneven intellectual development in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Melling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found correlations between uneven intellectual development and autistic symptom severity but thus far each study has looked only at specific types of discrepancy score and results have been inconsistent. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and the British Ability Scales (second edition to look for a correlation between autistic-like traits and an overall index of unevenness based on three types of discrepancy score, namely: discrepancies between IQ subscales; discrepancies between IQ domain scores; and, discrepancies between overall IQ and word-level literacy skills. The AQ scale was designed to measure autistic-like symptoms both in those with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and at all levels across the general population. The study sample was therefore not restricted to children with an ASD. The 106 school age participants had a mean IQ of 97 (SD 19.6 and a mean AQ (child version score of 69.6 (SD 24.6. After controlling for IQ, each of the three intellectual discrepancy types accounted for unique variance in AQ with a large overall effect size. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies are recommended to examine how far uneven intellectual development may be an analogue for aberrant cortical connectivity.

  20. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  1. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  2. [Impact of allergic airway diseases on risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X D; Shen, C; Li, K; Ji, Y T; Li, S H; Jiang, F; Shen, X M; Li, F; Hu, Y

    2017-07-02

    Objective: To investigate the impact of allergic airway diseases on the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age children. Method: Used stratified cluster sampling method, school-age children in first to sixth grade in primary schools in 9 randomly selected cities including Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi'an, and Wuhan were enrolled in the study. Interview of parents with questionnaires, which included school-age individual and family social environment questionnaire (including history of diagnosed ADHD, allergic rhinitis, and bronchial asthma) and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), were finished and collected during November to December in 2005.Diagnosed allergic rhinitis and asthma by specialist were independent variables and divided into following three categories as no allergic diseases (neither allergic rhinitis nor asthma), single allergic disease (allergic rhinitis or asthma), and combined allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis and asthma). Diagnosed ADHD as dependent variable, binary logistic regress model was used to analyze the risks of ADHD in school-age children. Result: Totally 23 791 questionnaires were handed out, while 22 018 were collected. The children had an average age of (8.8±1.8) years, within which 10 869 were male, and 11 021 were female. The risk ratios of ADHD were 2.197 (95%CI: 1.823-2.648) and 3.150 (95%CI: 2.082-4.760) in children with single allergic disease and combined allergic diseases separately. There was no significant difference after adjusting for the factor of sleep habits, as the risk ratios were 2.055 (95%CI: 1.683-2.508) and 3.140 (95%CI: 2.061-4.784) in children with single and combined allergic airway disease separately. Conclusion: Allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma increased the risk of ADHD, not depending on sleep habits. Hence, allergic airway diseases could be independent risk factors of ADHD.

  3. Perception and practice of child labour among parents of school-aged children in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Uchendu, O C

    2010-05-01

    The problem of child labour has lingered on in many countries because of the complex combination of social, cultural and economic factors involved. Parents play a critical role in child labour as it provides much needed extra income for the family. This study was carried out among parents of school-aged children in an urban, low-income community to determine the factors associated with child labour and attitudes to child labour in the community. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban community in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to parents of school-aged children. A total of 473 parents were interviewed. They were aged between 23 and 56 years, mean 37.9 years. Thirty-nine per cent of parents indicated that they thought their school-aged children should work. More women than men, those from polygamous homes and those with lower educational status held this view. Reasons given for wanting their children to work were to supplement family income, 45%, to gain experience, 35% and to help in family business, 10%. In all, 236 (50%) respondents reported that their school-aged children were working. Parental factors associated with practice of child labour were polygamous marriage, low educational status, unskilled or partly skilled occupation and large family size. Seventeen per cent of parents with working children were not satisfied with their children's work conditions and complained of low earnings, long working hours, work on school days and unsafe work environment. Measures suggested to control child labour include addressing the issue of household poverty, public enlightenment about the ills of child labour and free education up to junior secondary level. Enforcement of child labour laws was the least mentioned. We conclude that control of child labour should be a multifaceted approach involving poverty alleviation, family planning to reduce family size and free, compulsory education up to junior secondary level. Public

  4. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. G. Bulygina; A. A. Parakhoni

    2015-01-01

    Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background...

  5. Elevated manganese exposure and school-aged children's behavior: a gender-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; de Carvalho-Vivas, Chrissie F; Viana, Gustavo F S; Ferreira, Junia R D; Nunes, Lorena S; Mergler, Donna; Abreu, Neander

    2014-12-01

    High levels of waterborne manganese have been associated with problematic behavior in school-aged children, however to date this has not been reported for children exposed to airborne manganese. The objective of the present study was to examine behavioral traits among children with exposure to airborne manganese from a ferro-manganese alloy plant, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. The study included 34 boys and 36 girls, aged 7-12 years, living in two communities within a 3-km radius from the plant. For each child, hair manganese levels (MnH) and blood lead (PbB) levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Children's Behavior Check List (CBCL) (Portuguese version validated in Brazil) was administered to parents or caregivers, providing scale scores of internalizing (withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed scales), externalizing (disruptive and aggressive) behaviors and a separate scale for attention problems. Median and range for MnH and PbB were 11.48 μg/g (range: 0.52-55.74); 1.1 μg/dL (range: 0.5-6.1), respectively. Spearman correlation analyses showed that several behavioral indices were significantly correlated with MnH levels for girls, but not for boys: total externalizing behavior (rho=0.484 vs rho=0.041) and attention problem scores (rho=0.542 vs rho=0.003) coefficients were significantly at pIQ. Total externalizing behaviors and attention problem scores were significantly associated with girls' MnH levels but not with boys'. Adjusting for maternal IQ, the β-coefficients for LogMnH associations with total externalizing and attention problems are 8.85 (95%CI 2.44-15.24) and 4.03 (95%CI 1.50-6.56) for girls. For boys, after adjusting for age, the β-coefficients are 0.08 (95%CI 11.51-11.66) and -0.05 (95%CI 4.34-4.25), respectively. The findings of this study suggest a positive association between elevated Mn exposure and externalizing behavioral problems and inattention, with girls

  6. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin Barry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood is linked to increased risk of obesity and type II diabetes later in life. Using three nationally representative surveys of dietary intake, we investigated beverage patterns and trends among US school-aged children from 1989/91 to 2007/08. Methods 3, 583 participants ages 6-11 y old were included. We reported per capita trends in beverage consumption, percent consuming, and amount per consumer for the following categories of beverages: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB, caloric nutritional beverages (CNB and low calorie beverages (LCB. Statistically significant differences were tested using the Student's t test in Stata 11. Results While per capita kcal contribution from total beverages remained constant over the study period, per capita consumption of SSBs increased and CNBs decreased in similar magnitude. The substantial increase in consumption of certain SSBs, such as fruit drinks and soda, high fat high sugar milk, and sports drinks, coupled with the decrease in consumption of high fat low sugar milk was responsible for this shift. The percent consuming SSBs as well as the amount per consumer increased significantly over time. Per capita intake of total milk declined, but the caloric contribution from high fat high sugar milk increased substantially. Among ethnicities, important differences in consumption trends of certain SSBs and 100% juice indicate the complexity in determining strategies for children's beverage calorie reduction. Conclusions As upward trends of SSB consumption parallel increases in childhood obesity, educational and policy interventions should be considered.

  7. Bisphenol A exposure and asthma development in school-age children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Hong, Yun-Chul; Bae, Sanghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of bisphenol A on various health outcomes has been extensively examined, few studies have investigated its effect on asthma. We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenol A in school-age children was associated with wheezing and asthma. Participants included 127 children aged 7-8 years without a previous asthma diagnosis in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Three surveys were conducted, each 2 years apart. Bisphenol A concentration was measured at the baseline survey, and PC20, which is defined as the methacholine concentration that induces a decrease in FEV1 of 20% from baseline, was measured at every survey. Associations between bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years of age and wheezing, asthma, and PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years were examined using generalized estimating equations, a marginal Cox regression model, and a linear mixed model. The log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years was positively associated with wheezing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.31; P = .02) and asthma (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.00; PBisphenol A was also negatively associated with PC20 (ß = -2.33; P = .02). When stratified by sex, the association between bisphenol A and asthma remained significant only in girls (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-2.76; Pbisphenol A concentrations at 7-8 years old were positively associated with wheezing and asthma and negatively associated with PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years.

  8. Well-being, gender, and psychological health in school-aged children.

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    Savoye, Isabelle; Moreau, Nathalie; Brault, Marie-Christine; Levêque, Alain; Godin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a well-documented phenomenon, gender differences in psychological health complaints in adolescence are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to test factors related to well-being as explanatory factors of gender differences in psychological complaints (feeling low, irritability or bad temper, nervousness, and sleeping difficulties) in adolescence. This study was based on the 9(th) Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, conducted in 2010 in the Wallonia-Brussels Federation, Belgium, on 9-24 year olds. Using logistic regression analyses, we studied gender differences in psychological complaints through well-being factors (life satisfaction, self-confidence, helplessness, and body image), across age categories, and examined the variation of female excess after taking into account each factor. The four well-being factors together explained more than half of the female excess in feeling low. However, there were still significant gender differences in feeling low for children over 13. Among 13 to 15-year-olds, there were no gender differences in irritability after adjustment. An important decrease in gender differences in nervousness was observed in the multivariate analyses, although there was still significant female excess in nervousness increasing from 13 years old. After full adjustment, only gender differences in sleeping difficulties among 13-15-year-olds remained significant. For all psychological complaints studied, self-confidence caused the most important decrease in gender difference. This study showed that factors related to well-being could mediate the association between gender and psychological complaints, and pointed to the importance of taking into account well-being factors in the analyses of the aetiology of gender differences in psychological complaints. However, our results suggested that future research should explore additional explanations for gender differences in psychological complaints.

  9. A computer-based auditory sequential pattern test for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Natalie A; Smales, Caroline J; Rickard, Kurt L

    2013-05-01

    One type of test commonly used to assess auditory processing disorders (APD) is the Frequency Pattern Test, in which triads of pure tones of two different frequencies are presented, and participants are required to accurately report the sequence of tones, typically using a verbal response. The test is widely used clinically, but in its current format, is an under-exploited means of addressing some candidate processes, such as temporal ordering and frequency discrimination, which might be affected in APD. Here we describe a computer-based version of an auditory pattern perception test, the BirdSong Game, which was designed to be an engaging research tool for use with school-aged children. In this study, 128 children aged 6-10 with normal peripheral hearing were tested. The BirdSong Game application was used to administer auditory sequential pattern tests, via a touch-screen presentation and response interface. A conditioning step was included prior to testing, in order to ensure that participants were able to adequately discriminate between the test tones, and reliably describe the difference using their own vocabulary. Responses were collected either verbally or manually, by having participants press cartoon images on the touch-screen in the appropriate sequence. The data was examined for age, gender and response mode differences. Findings on the auditory tests indicated a significant maturational effect across the age range studied, with no difference between response modes or gender. The BirdSong Game is sensitive to maturational changes in auditory sequencing ability, and the computer-based design of the test has several advantages which make it a potentially useful clinical and research tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Invasive Procedures in Preterm Children: Brain and Cognitive Development at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Bjornson, Bruce H.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin P.V.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Brant, Rollin; Synnes, Anne R.; Cepeda, Ivan L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants (born 24–32 weeks’ gestation) undergo numerous invasive procedures during neonatal care. Repeated skin-breaking procedures in rodents cause neuronal cell death, and in human preterm neonates higher numbers of invasive procedures from birth to term-equivalent age are associated with abnormal brain development, even after controlling for other clinical risk factors. It is unknown whether higher numbers of invasive procedures are associated with long-term alterations in brain microstructure and cognitive outcome at school age in children born very preterm. METHODS: Fifty children born very preterm underwent MRI and cognitive testing at median age 7.6 years (interquartile range, 7.5–7.7). T1- and T2-weighted images were assessed for the severity of brain injury. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor sequences were used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter (WM) maturation, from 7 anatomically defined WM regions. Child cognition was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–IV. Multivariate modeling was used to examine relationships between invasive procedures, brain microstructure, and cognition, adjusting for clinical confounders (eg, infection, ventilation, brain injury). RESULTS: Greater numbers of invasive procedures were associated with lower FA values of the WM at age 7 years (P = .01). The interaction between the number of procedures and FA was associated with IQ (P = .02), such that greater numbers of invasive procedures and lower FA of the superior WM were related to lower IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive procedures during neonatal care contribute to long-term abnormalities in WM microstructure and lower IQ. PMID:24534406

  11. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

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    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  12. Association of socioeconomic stratification with plasmatic markers of lipoperoxidation and antioxidants in Venezuelan school-age children.

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    Ruiz-Fernández, Nelina; Bosch, Virgilio; Giacopini, Maria Isabel

    2016-12-30

    To establish association between socioeconomic status and plasmatic markers of lipoperoxidation and antioxidants in Venezuelan school-age children from the middle-class and in critical poverty. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 114 school-age children (aged 7-9). The socioeconomic status, dietary intake of macro and micro-nutrients, weight, height, lipid profile, indicators of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were determined. The daily average intake of energy, carbohydrates and vitamin A, and the percentage of energy obtained from carbohydrates was significantly higher in middle-class children compared to critical poverty children (p antioxidant levels were frequently deficient in both strata. The concentrations of circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.016-1.179; p= 0.017) and Vitamin C (OR: 3.21, CI 95%: 1.104-9.938; p= 0.032) were associated to the socioeconomic status independently of gender, family history of premature coronary artery disease, triglicerides, Vitamin C and E dietary intake and count of white blood cells. The socioeconomic status was associated to circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein and Vitamin C in Venezuelan school-age children, The results suggested the need to improve the dietary intake of antioxidants in both studied socioeconomic groups.

  13. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

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    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  14. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  15. [Depression and related factors in mothers of school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ling; Tsai, Shiau-Ting; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2015-02-01

    The mothers of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder tend to experience depression at higher levels because of the poor social interaction and deviant behaviors of their children. These depressed mothers often harm themselves and negatively impact their family and community. This study examines maternal depression and its related factors in the mothers of school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling of 100 mothers of school-age children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was developed. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire that included the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), social support scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The Pearson product moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze data. The findings showed that almost half of the mothers with school-aged ADHD children suffered higher pa-renting stress and that 34% required professional psychiatry referral. In addition, 40% of the participants suffered from depression. Higher levels of parenting stress were associated with a higher incidence of depression (r = .647, p support had lower depression levels (r = -.327, p maternal depression. 'Maternal stress' was the most significant predictor, with a total explained variance of 41.9% (R(2) change = 41.9%). The results of this study are intended to help medical staff better care for the mothers of school-aged children with ADHD. These results will assist in the evaluation of maternal depression, parenting stress, and levels of required social support. It will especially help in the evaluation of maternal depression symptoms of those mothers of low socioeconomic status with high parenting stress. Providing these mothers with parental training, education on effective parenting and discipline strategies, and better social support may effectively reduce maternal depression, which will help minimize the negative

  16. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  17. Cognition in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of population-based data on specific cognitive profiles in childhood epilepsy. This study sought to determine the frequency of impairments in global cognition and aspects of working memory and processing speed in a population-based sample of children with "active" epilepsy (on antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs), and/or had a seizure in the last year). Factors significantly associated with global and specific difficulties in cognition were also identified. A total of 85 (74% of eligible population) school-aged children (5-15 years) with "active" epilepsy underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including assessment of global cognition, working memory, and processing speed. Scores on cognitive subtests were compared via paired-samples t tests. The factors associated with cognitive difficulties were analyzed via linear regression. A total of 24% of children were functioning below IQ 50, and 40% had IQ scores below 70. Scores on the Processing Speed Index were significantly lower than scores on the Verbal or Performance indexes on Wechsler instruments. The Coding subtest was a significant weakness compared with the other Wechsler subtests. A total of 58% of children displayed "memory underachievement" (memory score 1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four administered working memory subtests. Factors significantly associated with globally impaired cognition included being on polytherapy (β = -13.0; 95% CI [-19.3, -6.6], p = .000) and having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; β = -11.1, 95% CI [-3.0, -19.3], p = .008). Being on polytherapy was also associated with lower scores on the working memory and processing speed composite scores. Having developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was associated with a lower score on the processing speed composite. There is a high rate of global and specific cognitive difficulties in childhood epilepsy. Difficulties are most pronounced in aspects of working memory and processing speed

  18. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  19. A prospective study of LINE-1DNA methylation and development of adiposity in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5-12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys.

  20. Assessment of selenium nutritional status of school-age children from rural areas of China in 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Piao, J; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Yun, C; Yang, C; Yang, X

    2016-03-01

    To assess the selenium nutritional status of 3458 school-age children recruited from rural areas using the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 and 2012 (CNHS 2002 and CNHS 2012). The serum selenium concentration was determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The prevalence of dietary selenium intake insufficiency was calculated according to the formula suggested by and the estimated average requirements of the new Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. The percentage of low selenium was based on the cutoff values with a serum selenium concentration below the threshold limit of clinical importance in coronary and cardiovascular diseases (selenium concentration was 64.3 μg/l in the CNHS 2002 and 74.2 μg/l in the CNHS 2012. The median calculated dietary selenium intake was 26.7 μg/day in the CNHS 2002 and 33.2 μg/day in the CNHS 2012 together with a 61.1% and 52.8% dietary selenium intake insufficiency in the CNHS 2002 and in the CNHS 2012. In addition, the percentages of low selenium (selenium nutritional status of school-age children was significantly improved in the CNHS 2012 versus the CNHS 2002. However, the health risk for selenium malnutrition in school-age children remains a potential problem affecting children's health.

  1. Iris colour in relation to myopia among Chinese school-aged children.

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    Pan, Chen-Wei; Qiu, Qin-Xiao; Qian, Deng-Juan; Hu, Dan-Ning; Li, Jun; Saw, Seang-Mei; Zhong, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the association of iris colour and myopia may provide further insights into the role of the wavelength of lights in the pathophysiology of myopia. We aim to assess the association of iris colour and myopia in a school-based sample of Chinese students. Two thousand three hundred and forty-six Year 7 students from 10 middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13-14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. We obtained standardised slit lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris colour (higher grade denoting a darker iris). Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOLMaster (www.zeiss.com) was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (p iris colour tended to have a higher prevalence of myopia, a more myopic refraction and a longer AL. Dose-response relationships were observed in all regression models (p for trend iris colour was associated with more myopic refractive errors and longer ALs among Chinese school-aged children and this association was independent of other known myopia-related risk factors. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

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    De-Kun Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L, at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65. The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test. Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  3. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  4. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

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    Sana Syed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%, n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%, n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%, n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02 and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007. In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001 and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001. In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005, lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005, ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001, and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02. While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  5. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

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    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  7. Attentional control and executive functioning in school-aged children: Linking self-regulation and parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Andrea M; Dekker, Marielle C; Ziermans, Tim B; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-10-09

    Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control. In addition, children of parents who asked relatively more open-ended than closed-ended questions showed better performance on inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility tasks. Curvilinear relations indicated the presence of an optimal amount of closed-ended and elaborative questions by parents-that is, not too few and not too many-which is linked to increased performance on attentional and inhibitory control in children. Higher parental intrusiveness and more frequent elaborative questioning were associated with decreased inhibitory control in younger children, whereas no such negative associations were present in older children. These results suggest that susceptibility to certain parenting strategies may shift with age. Our findings underscore the importance of adaptive parenting strategies to both the age and needs of school-aged children, which may positively affect their self-regulation skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ARTICULATION CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SLI IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

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    Ana POPOSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  9. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes of eye movemeters after appropriate treatment for 7~12 year old school-age myopic children

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    Xi-Xi Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the changes of eye movement parameters before and after appropriate treatment for school-age myopic children, try to investigate possible mechanism and obtain the most appropriate protocol for juvenile myopia. METHODS: After getting the parents consent, 50 school-age children(age 7~12 years oldwith visual acuity ect. All the subjects were treated with appropriate treatment including measuring refraction under cyclopedia, dropping raceanisodamine eye drops 1~2 drops three times per day, adjusting spectacle parameters to appropriate range, etc. Before and 6mo after appropriate treatment, eye movement parameters including positive and negative relative accommodation, amplitude of accommodation and sensitivity of accommodation were measured with the comprehensive refractometer.RESULTS: There are statistical significance in the amplitude of accommodation, the positive relative accommodation and the sensitivity of accommodation(PP>0.01. CONCLUSION: Appropriate treatment can save more accommodative amplitude and will benefit myopia progression.

  11. Elevated prevalence of malnutrition and malaria among school-aged children and adolescents in war-ravaged South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchuk, Rhianna; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Emerging as a sovereign state from decades of civil war, the Republic of South Sudan now faces poverty, a lack of health care infrastructure, a high burden of infectious diseases and a widespread food insecurity. School-aged children and youth, in particular, represent a high-risk demographic for malnutrition and infectious diseases. We screened 109 school-aged children and youth for nutritional status and malaria antigenaemia in Akuak Rak, South Sudan, and found a large proportion of underweight (77/109 = 73%) and prevalent malaria (44/109 = 40%). There was no significant association between malnutrition and malaria. This study represents one of the few published reports on child and youth nutritional status and malaria prevalence in South Sudan since its independence. The implementation of nutrition and malaria screening combined with evidence-based interventions in schools could help target this high burden vulnerable group.

  12. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

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    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  13. Co-sleeping in school-aged children with a motor disability: a comparative population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, David; Newman, Christopher John

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of co-sleeping in school-aged children with a motor disability compared with the school-aged general population. A questionnaire on demographic characteristics and co-sleeping habits, along with the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), was sent to parents of children aged between 4 years and 18 years followed in our tertiary paediatric neurorehabilitation clinic, and to school-aged children in a representative sample of state schools. We analysed responses for 245 children with motor disability (142 males, 103 females; mean age 10y 6mo, standard deviation [SD] 3y 10mo, range 4-18y) and 2891 of the general population (1484 males, 1497 females; mean age [SD] 9y 6mo [3y 5mo], range 4-18y) (response rates 37% and 26% respectively). Cerebral palsy was the most common diagnosis among children with motor disability. Weekly co-sleeping was significantly more common in children with motor disability than in the general population (11.8% vs 7.9% respectively, p=0.032). Special care of the child with motor disability at night, mainly addressing epilepsy, was reported as a cause of co-sleeping by two-thirds of parents. Factors associated with co-sleeping in the motor disability group were age, housing crowding, severe visual impairment, and pathological sleep according to the SDSC. Co-sleeping is common among children with motor disability. It is influenced by personal and medical factors, as well as the requirements for special care at night. Therefore, health professionals should explore sleeping arrangements in families of children with motor disability. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  14. [Association between development of hypertension and nutrition in school-age children in Fengdu County of Chongqing, China].

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    Ma, Su-Juan; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Ting; Xu, Jia-Pei; Tang, Yi; Liu, You-Xue; Chen, Jie

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between the development of hypertension and nutrition in school-age children in Fengdu County of Chongqing, China. A total of 8 033 children from 2 public primary schools in Fengdu County of Chongqing, whose registered residence was in the subdistricts where the two schools were located, were selected as study subjects using cluster random sampling. Body height, body weight, and blood pressure were measured, and the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary survey. The association between body mass index (BMI), dietary nutrients, and the development of hypertension in children was analyzed. A total of 7 538 children were enrolled for analysis. The detection rates of obesity, overweight, and hypertension were 9.11%, 12.27%, and 11.83% respectively. In children with obesity and overweight, the detection rate of hypertension was 33.62% and 17.84% respectively, 4.02 and 2.13 times that in normal children. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis revealed that increased intake of calcium and sodium increased the risk of hypertension (OR=1.003 and 1.002 respectively), while the increased iron intake and calcium intake per unit body weight reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=0.979 and 0.926 respectively). The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in school-age children in Fengdu County of Chongqing is high. BMI and dietary nutrients are closely associated with the development of hypertension in children. Active control of body weight, adjustment of dietary structure, and limitation of sodium intake should be adopted to reduce the development of hypertension in school-age children.

  15. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children as an appropriate indicator of its prevalence in the community

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    Ana Paula Braz Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children (6-15 years from the endemic area of Pernambuco were evaluated both as a target group for and an indicator of schistosomiasis control in the community. Parasitological data were drawn from baseline stool surveys of whole populations that were obtained to diagnose Schistosoma mansoni infection. Nineteen representative localities were selected for assessing the prevalence of schistosomiasis among individuals in the following age groups: 0-5, 6-15, 16-25, 26-40 and 41-80 years. For each locality, the prevalence in each age group was compared to that of the overall population using contingency table analysis. To select a reference group, the operational difficulties of conducting residential surveys were considered. School-aged children may be considered to be the group of choice as the reference group for the overall population for the following reasons: (i the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this age group had the highest correlation with the prevalence in the overall population (r = 0.967, (ii this age group is particularly vulnerable to infection and plays an important role in parasite transmission and (iii school-aged children are the main target of the World Health Organization in terms of helminth control. The Schistosomiasis Control Program should consider school-aged children both as a reference group for assessing the need for intervention at the community level and as a target group for integrated health care actions of the Unified Health System that are focused on high-risk groups.

  16. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Preference and Popularity of Individual Sport Activities among Older School - Age and Teenage Children in Kolín

    OpenAIRE

    Keltner, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic called "Preferences and Popularity of Individual Sports Branches by Children of Older School and Junior Age in Kolín". In the theoretic part I focused on definition of the main terms which occur in the name of the thesis as preferences, popularity, sports branch, children of older school age and children of junior age. Discovered data were processed on the basis of quantitative method via questionnaire survey and the evaluation was carried out via spre...

  18. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  19. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Abebayehu Tora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families.A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs, with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers.Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non-governmental organizations providing socio

  20. Hearing Technology Use and Management in School-Age Children: Reports from Data Logs, Parents, and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha J; Ricketts, Todd A; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    Consistency of hearing aid and remote microphone system use declines as school-age children with hearing loss age. One indicator of hearing aid use time is data logging, another is parent report. Recent data suggest that parents overestimate their children's hearing aid use time relative to data logging. The potential reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Because school-age children spend the majority of their day away from their parents and with their teachers, reports from teachers might serve as a valuable and additional tool for estimating hearing aid use time and management. This study expands previous research on factors influencing hearing aid use time in school-age children using data logging records. Discrepancies between data logging records and parent reports were explored using custom surveys designed for parents and teachers. Responses from parents and teachers were used to examine hearing aid use, remote microphone system use, and hearing aid management in school-age children. Thirteen children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss between the ages of 7 and 10 yr and their parents participated in this study. Teachers of ten of these children also participated. Parents and teachers of children completed written surveys about each child's hearing aid use, remote microphone system use, and hearing aid management skills. Data logs were read from hearing aids using manufacturer's software. Multiple linear regression analysis and an intraclass correlation coefficient were used to examine factors influencing hearing aid use time and parent agreement with data logs. Parent report of hearing aid use time was compared across various activities and school and nonschool days. Survey responses from parents and teachers were compared to explore areas requiring potential improvement in audiological counseling. Average daily hearing aid use time was ∼6 hr per day as recorded with data logging technology. Children exhibiting greater degrees of hearing loss and

  1. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitric oxide (NOX) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (Ppollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  2. Word Learning during Reading: Effects of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Wagovich, Stacy A.; Manfra, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Most vocabulary growth during the school-age years occurs incidentally. However, little is understood about the influence of language skills on word knowledge growth during reading. Using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, we examined incidental word learning through reading, considering the presence/absence of supportive context and…

  3. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive…

  4. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

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    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  5. The prevalence and sociodemographic risk factors of enuresis nocturna among elementary school-age children

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    Yusuf Cetin Doganer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Many etiological reasons are blamed for enuresis nocturna (EN. The aim of this study was to research prevalence and severity of EN among elementary school-age children and sociodemographic risk factors related to it. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in three elementary schools in Ankara, Turkey between January and May 2011. It was planned to have 2500 students of 6-14 ages in the study. The questionnaire, which consisted of questions, aiming to evaluate the EN condition of participants and their characteristics, were distributed to the parents. It was observed that 2314 participants′ questionnaires (92.56% were in accordance with evaluation criteria. Statistical Analysis: The relation between EN and the sociodemographic factors was evaluated through Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of 2314 participants was 9.21 ± 2.08. 48.5% (n = 1123 of the students were male and 51.5% (n = 1191 were female. While the general EN prevalence was 9.9% (n = 230; 10.7% (n = 120 for males, as 9.2% (n = 110 for females. Statistical significant difference was determined between the two groups, with EN and without EN, regarding age groups (P < 0.001, education level of parents (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and the number of sibling (P = 0.002, income level (P < 0.001, and positive family history (P < 0.001. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that there was a significant difference only between EN and age groups (odds ratio [OR] =4.42, P < 0.001, education level of mother (OR = 2.13, P = 0.017 and family history (OR = 0.12, P < 0.001. Conclusions: As a consequence, such factors as age groups, education level of parents, positive family history could be accepted as a risk of concerning EN. It is important to perform a detailed evaluation on population, carrying risk of having EN.

  6. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests in a school-age hearing screening programme - analysis of 76,429 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Piotr H; Wlodarczyk, Andrzej W; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Pilka, Adam; Jedrzejczak, Wiktor W; Olszewski, Lukasz; Bruski, Lukasz; Niedzielski, Artur; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT). The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008-2010, exactly 235,664 children (7-12-years-old) were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  7. A review of non-strabismic accommodative and vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 2: Accommodative anomalies

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    Samuel O. Wajuihian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2, anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  8. Identifying risk factors for predicting caries in school-aged children using dental health information collected at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P; Fraser-Lee, N J; Shimono, T

    2001-01-01

    The study was done to identify toddlers who have an increased risk of developing dental decay at school age. Six variables-Cariostat score, mother's ethnicity, evidence of baby bottle tooth decay, mother;s dental health status, toddler's age at first tooth, and frequency of brushing - showed a significant association with decay status at school age with odds ratios ranging from 1.89 to 2.63. The Cariostat score and the frequency of brushing remained significant in a logistic regression. No interaction terms were significant. The Cariostat caries activity test would be a useful screening tool for identifying toddlers most likely to develop decay or could be used periodically as the deciduous molars erupt and become colonized with oral bacteria. The findings confirm that good oral hygiene practices can have an impact on future dental health, and caregivers should be encouraged to brush young children's teeth regularly.

  9. A systematic review of electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training in school-age children with auditory processing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy; Henning, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training (AT) in school-age children with (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD). A systematic review. Searches of 16 electronic databases yielded four studies involving school-aged children whose auditory processing deficits had been confirmed in a manner consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010) and compared to a treated and/or an untreated control group before and after AT. A further three studies were identified with one lacking a control group and two measuring auditory processing in a manner not consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010). There is limited evidence that AT leads to measurable electrophysiological changes in children with auditory processing deficits. The evidence base is too small and weak to provide clear guidance on the use of electrophysiological outcomes as a measure of AT outcomes in children with auditory processing problems. The currently limited data can only be used to suggest that click-evoked AMLR and tone-burst evoked auditory P300 might be more likely to detect such outcomes in children diagnosed with (C)APD, and that speech-evoked ALLR might be more likely to detect phonological processing changes in children without a specific diagnosis of (C)APD.

  10. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMIsedentary lifestyle, 57.2%. The percentage of non-intact families was 23.5%. Approximately 48.7% of the mothers had a non-acceptable educational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.66) is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of malnutrition in children under five and school-age children in Milot Valley, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, S R; Gray, E S; Previl, H; Forrester, J E

    2014-12-01

    This research aims to provide child malnutrition prevalence data from Haiti's Milot Valley to inform the design and implementation of local health interventions. This cross-sectional study measured underweight, stunting, and wasting/thinness using international growth standards. Anthropometric measurements (height/length and weight) were taken on a convenience sample of 358 children aged 0-14 years. Participants were recruited through door-to-door field visits at five recruitment sites in the Milot Valley, including individuals in the waiting area of the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic at Hôpital Sacré Coeur. Caregivers were asked questions about the child's health history, including past and current feeding practices. Combining moderate and severe forms of malnutrition, 14.8% of children under five were stunted, 15.3% were wasted, and 16.1% were underweight. Among children 5-14 years of age, 14.1% were stunted, 7.6% were thin (low body mass index (BMI)-for-age), and 14.5% were underweight. For children under five, 42% of mothers ended exclusive breastfeeding before the recommended six months. This study illustrates the local magnitude of childhood malnutrition and can serve as a resource for future child health interventions in the Milot Valley. To fight malnutrition, a multipronged, integrated approach is recommended, combining effective community outreach and monitoring, inpatient and outpatient nutrition therapy, and expanded partnerships with nutrition-related organizations in the region. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship Between Sensory-Processing Disorders and Sleep Disturbances in School-Aged Autistic Children in Shiraz, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Autism is a neurological disorder that limits communication, socialization, and participation of children in symbolic play. Sensory processing disorders are common characteristics (45% to 96% of children with pervasive development disorders, including. Sleep disorders are also more prevalent in autistic children than in normal children. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sensory processing disorders and sleep disturbances in school-aged autistic children. Patients and Methods This study is quantitative, observational, and cross-sectional. 35 school-aged autistic children in Shiraz, Iran were selected using cluster sampling. A demographic questionnaire, short sensory profile (SSP, and the sleep disturbance scale for children (SDSC were used. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Pearson chi-square were used during data analysis. Results Results shows that autistic children show clear differences from normal function (74.3%, possible differences with normal function (20%, and normal function (5.7% in their total sensory processing scores. 95.3% of autistic children had some degrees of abnormal sensory processing disorder. Also, 68.6% of the participants suffered from sleep disorders. However, there was no relationship between sensory processing disorders and sleep disturbances in children with autism (P value = 0.83. Also, there was no correlation between the subscales of sensory processing disorders and the subscales of sleep disturbances. Conclusions The results showed that despite the simultaneous high prevalence of sleep disturbances and sensory processing disorders in children with autism, there isn’t a significant relationship between the two conditions among these children.

  13. Understanding concepts in sign language and speech of deaf and hard-of-hearing children of elementary school age

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Tamara; Dimić, Nadežda; Isaković, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Sign language is a natural means of expression for deaf children. While communicating with a deaf child one should use speech followed by gestures until the child learns the spoken word and understands its meaning. The deaf child learns how to pronounce a word and its meaning, i.e. the idea that the word denotes, simultaneously. The aim of the research was to examine the level of acquisition of the sign language and speech by deaf and hard-of- hearing children of the elementary-school age, an...

  14. Development of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention as a Novel Approach for Pediatric Obesity in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Chantelle N; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Despite being the focus of widespread public health efforts, childhood obesity remains an epidemic worldwide. Given the now well-documented consequences of obesity for childhood health and psychosocial functioning, as well as associated morbidity in adulthood, identifying novel, modifiable behaviors that can be targeted to improve weight control is imperative. Enhancing children's sleep may show promise in assisting with weight regulation. The present paper describes the development of a brief behavioral sleep intervention for school-aged children, including preliminary findings of this work as well as areas for future study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  16. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D.; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  17. Sodium Intake among US School-Aged Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Zerleen S; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah A; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Burdg, Jinee P; Moshfegh, Alanna; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Gunn, Janelle P; Mugavero, Kristy; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Population proportions of sodium intake from major food categories, places, and eating occasions. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling. Wald F tests and t tests were used to examine differences between subgroups. Average daily sodium intake was highest among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (3,565±120 mg), lowest among girls (2,919±74 mg). Little variation was seen in average intakes or the top five sodium contributors by sociodemographic characteristics or weight status. Ten food categories contributed to almost half (48%) of US school-aged children's sodium intake, and included pizza, Mexican-mixed dishes, sandwiches, breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. More than 80 food categories contributed to the other half of children's sodium intake. Foods obtained from stores contributed 58% of sodium intake, fast-food/pizza restaurants contributed 16%, and school cafeterias contributed 10%. Thirty-nine percent of sodium intake was consumed at dinner, 31% at lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top 10 food categories contributing to US schoolchildren's sodium intake during 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation. Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the US food supply. Published by Elsevier

  18. Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM): A new measure of everyday memory functioning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Majerus, Steve; Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM's four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity. Finally, comparisons between Q-MEM profiles of children with learning disabilities and typically developing children revealed significant differences. Therefore, the Q-MEM is a promising measure for identifying memory problems in children.

  19. Persistent asthma phenotype related with late-onset, high atopy, and low socioeconomic status in school-aged Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Lee, Si Hyeon; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Young-Ho; Yoon, Jisun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-02-23

    Treatment guidelines for asthma have been established based on asthma severity; there are limitations in the identification of underlying pathophysiology and prediction of prognosis in heterogeneous phenotypes of asthma. Although the complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors affect the development and progression of asthma, studies on asthma phenotypes considering environmental factors are limited. This study aimed to identify asthma phenotypes using latent class analysis including environmental factors in school-age children. We included 235 children (6-8 years) with parent-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma from the Children's HEalth and Environmental Research (CHEER) study, which is a 4-year prospective follow-up study with 2-year intervals. At every survey, pulmonary function tests, methacholine challenge tests and blood tests with questionnaire were conducted. Four asthma phenotypes were identified. Cluster 1 (22% of children) was characterized by high prevalence of atopy and mild symptoms; subjects in cluster 2 (17%) consisted of less atopy and normal lung function, but intermittent troublesome; cluster 3 (29%) experienced late-onset atopic troublesome asthma with decreased lung function in combination with low socioeconomic status; and cluster 4 was associated with early-onset and less-atopic infrequent asthma. Late-onset, high atopy, and low socioeconomic status are associated with troublesome persistent asthma phenotype in school-age children. Environmental factors might be implicated in the clinical heterogeneity of asthma. Asthma phenotypes considering diverse factors might be more helpful in the identification of asthma pathogenesis and its prevention.

  20. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  1. National Trends in Hemoglobin Concentration and Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese School-Aged Children, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette

    2017-04-01

    To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: a comparison with children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group. To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups. Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI. For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for. The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  3. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sue Grogan-Johnson; Gabel, Rodney M.; Jacquelyn Taylor; Rowan, Lynne E.; Robin Alvares; Jason Schenker

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman &...

  4. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China: e67928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  5. Television viewing and its association with health-related quality of life in school-age children from Montería, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Arango

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence of significant associations between high TV viewing time and poor HRQoL among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia, which were independent of physical activity and weight.

  6. [Effects of a rich emotionally-satisfying childbirth experience of mothers on their later parental attitudes and behavior in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki; Kaga, Makiko; Misago, Chizuru; Takehara, Kenji; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a rich, emotionally-satisfying childbirth experience (CBE) of mothers on the behavior of school-age children using longitudinal data measured from immediately to 7 years and 6 months after birth. The results of structural equation modeling revealed the following: 1) giving birth in a midwifery center enhances emotional satisfaction with CBE, 2) a rich CBE of mothers was associated with parental warmth, 3) parental warmth during early childhood increased prosocial behavior and reduced behavioral problems in school-age children, and 4) temperamentally difficulty in early childhood were linked to later behavioral problems in school-age children. Thus, a rich CBE and parental warmth were suggested to be factors contributing to the good behavior of school-age children.

  7. The impact of maternal prenatal smoking on the development of childhood overweight in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Mamudu, H M; Wu, T

    2013-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy likely increase the risk of childhood overweight. Childhood overweight is influenced by socioeconomic characteristics of mothers. Characteristics of child at birth determine the likelihood of overweight. Children of mothers who smoked 1 year before birth (including pregnancy) were likely to be overweight during school ages than those of mothers who never smoked. Confirmation that socioeconomic characteristics of mothers influence the likelihood of childhood overweight during school age. Smoking cessation should be targeted at mothers 1 year before birth to improve their health status and that of offspring. To examine associations between maternal smoking and overweight among school-aged children and also identify mothers and offspring characteristics that affect children's weight. We used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCY). Childhood overweight was defined as having Body Mass Index (BMI) of 85th percentile or above. Smoking patterns among mothers were assessed by questioning smoking behaviour 1 year before birth of the target child: never or ever smoking. Standardized procedures were used to measure height and weight. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analysis. Descriptive results showed that children of mothers who smoked anytime within 1 year before birth were more likely to be overweight and have higher BMI percentile averages. GEE results showed that children of mothers who were ever smokers 1 year before birth were more likely to be overweight (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.94) and have higher BMI percentile averages (β = 4.46, P = 0.036) from grades 1 through 6 than those of mothers who were never smokers. Additionally, the level of mother's education and birth weight were significantly associated with childhood overweight. Confirmed relationships between maternal

  8. Downstream effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy: nonverbal IQ and brain morphology in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; El Marroun, Hanan; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2014-07-01

    Although maternal hypothyroxinemia is suggested to be related to various adverse consequences in a child's neurodevelopment, the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy and children's nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ). Furthermore, we explored whether global brain volumes, cortical thickness, and brain surface area differed between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and healthy controls. The study included a large population-based prospective birth cohort in The Netherlands. A total of 3727 mother-child pairs with data on prenatal thyroid function at less than 18 weeks of gestation and nonverbal IQ at 6 years participated in the study. In 652 children, brain imaging was performed at 8 years of age. Maternal hypothyroxinemia was defined as free T4 in the lowest 5% of the sample, whereas TSH was in the normal range. At 6 years, children's IQ was assessed using a Dutch test battery. Global brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area were assessed using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. The children of mothers with hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy scored 4.3 points IQ lower than the children of mothers with normal thyroid status (95% confidence interval -6.68, -1.81; P = .001). After adjustment for multiple testing, we did not find any differences in brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and controls. Our findings confirm a large adverse effect of maternal hypothyroxinemia on children's nonverbal IQ at school age. However, we found no evidence that maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with differences in brain morphology in school-age children.

  9. Prevalence of Necator americanus infection and risk factors among school-age children in Mirab Abaya District, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Ketema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine prevalence of hookworms, species identification, risk factors and its contribution to anemia in school-age children. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections was conducted among 423 school-age children in three primary schools. Data on socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Stool samples were processed using Kato-Katz thick smear technique and hemoglobin values were determined by HemoCue on capillary blood. Finally, positive samples containing ova of hookworms were cultured by modified Harada-Mori technique for species identification. Results: Overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 10.4% (44/423. The predominant species identified was Necator americanus (43/44. Prevalence of anemia among the children was 4.5%. Hookworm infection was not significantly associated with anemia (P = 0.98, however, lack of footwear showed significant association with hookworm infection (AOR = 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.172-4.867; P = 0.02. Conclusions: We conclude hookworm infection is relatively high among schoolchildren. Although our result shows no significant association between the infection and anemia, the observed prevalence of hookworm and anemia warrants a serious health problem among study participants. Proper intervention methods that include health education, personal and environmental hygiene are recommended. If possible children should be encouraged to wear shoes regularly.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Su, Wen-Jen; Cho, Yen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV) placement. This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Persuasion in school-aged children: How does it change if the persuadee is the mother or the peer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees. Conversely, with the peers, children adopted a greater variety of persuasive strategies, engaging in lower-order tactics. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.

  12. Obesity Prevention and Treatment in School-aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults—Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.

    2015-01-01

    The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation’s health. PMID:26161007

  13. Obesity Prevention and Treatment in School-aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults-Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B

    The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation's health.

  14. The Importance of Sleep: Attentional Problems in School-Aged Children With Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing (TD) children, sleep problems have been associated with day-time attentional difficulties. Children with developmental disabilities often suffer with sleep and attention problems, yet their relationship is poorly understood. The present study investigated this association in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Actigraphy and pulse oximetry assessed sleep and sleep-disordered breathing respectively, and attention was tested using a novel visual Continuous Performance Task (CPT).Attentional deficits were evident in both disorder groups. In the TD group, higher scores on the CPT were related to better sleep quality, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and fewer desaturation events. Sleep quality, duration, and SpO2 variables were not related to CPT performance for children with DS and WS.

  15. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016. Children's anxiety and parental anxiety were measured before the entrance of the patients to the operating room via Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. The data was analyzed in SPSS, version 16, using the relevant statistical tests. Results: The results of Pearson product-moment correlation test showed a positive correlation between children's anxiety and fathers' state anxiety and between children's anxiety and mothers' state anxiety (r=0.27, r=0.41; P=0.005, P=0.040, respectively. However, no statistically significant relationship was observed between children's anxiety and parents' trait anxiety, age of children, as well as parents' educational level, occupation, and level of trait anxiety. Implications for Practice: Considering the association between parents' state anxiety and children's anxiety, implementing preoperative interventions to prepare parents for surgery is recommended.

  17. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  18. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Boas, Malene; Jensen, Tina K; Grandjean, Philippe; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Andersen, Helle R

    2011-09-20

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role