Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.
This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…
Parise, Leigh M.; Corrin, William; Granito, Kelly; Haider, Zeest; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Cerna, Oscar
While high school graduation rates are on the rise nationwide, too many students still never reach that milestone, with 7,000 on average dropping out every day. Recognizing that many students need additional support to succeed in school, Communities In Schools (CIS) works to provide and connect students with integrated support services to keep…
Hudson, Suzanne; Hudson, Peter; Adie, Lenore
Universities and teacher employment bodies seek new, cost-effective ways for graduating classroom-ready teachers. This study involved 32 final-year preservice teachers in an innovative school--university partnership teacher education programme titled, the School-Community Integrated Learning (SCIL) pathway. Data were collected using a five-part…
Foster, M.; Kratzer, D.
The New Mexico High School Supercomputing Challenge is an academic program dedicated to increasing interest in science and math among high school students by introducing them to high performance computing. This report provides a summary and evaluation of the first five years of the program, describes the program and shows the impact that it has had on high school students, their teachers, and their communities. Goals and objectives are reviewed and evaluated, growth and development of the program are analyzed, and future directions are discussed.
Campo, Stacey Elizabeth
The community school model is rooted in John Dewey's (1902) conceptualization of the public school as a hub for the community. This work has evolved over a hundred years and recently experienced prominence in the public eye as a fundamental component of New York City's school turnaround policy. This dissertation describes findings and…
Homlong, Lisbeth; Rosvold, Elin O; Haavet, Ole R
To study associations between healthcare seeking in 15-16-year-olds and high school dropout 5 years later. Longitudinal community study. Data from a comprehensive youth health survey conducted in 2000-2004, linked to data from national registries up to 2010. 13 964 10th grade secondary school students in six Norwegian counties. Logistic regression was used to compute ORs for high school dropout. The total proportion of students not completing high school 5 years after registering was 29% (girls 24%, boys 34%). Frequent attenders to school health services and youth health clinics at age 15-16 years had a higher dropout rate (37/48% and 45/71%), compared with those with no or moderate use. Adolescents referred to mental health services were also more likely to drop out (47/62%). Boys with moderate use of a general practitioner (GP) had a lower dropout rate (30%). A multiple logistic regression analysis, in which we adjusted for selected health indicators and sociodemographic background variables, revealed that seeking help from the youth health clinic and consulting mental health services, were associated with increased level of high school dropout 5 years later. Frequent attenders (≥4 contacts) had the highest odds of dropping out. Yet, boys who saw a GP and girls attending the school health services regularly over the previous year were less likely than their peers to drop out from high school. Adolescents who seek help at certain healthcare services can be at risk of dropping out of high school later. Health workers should pay particular attention to frequent attenders and offer follow-up when needed. However, boys who attended a GP regularly were more likely to continue to high school graduation, which may indicate a protective effect of having a regular and stable relationship with a GP.
In 2007, Walter P. Webb Middle School faced a crisis. One evening in January, the superintendent at the time held a meeting at the school in Austin, Texas, to let students, parents, teachers, and community members know that at the end of the academic year, their school would close. Thanks to a new state law focused on accountability, the…
Chastonay, P; Zesiger, V; Klohn, A; Soguel, L; Mpinga, E K; Vu, Nv; Bernheim, L
Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes. A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students' perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years. The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a vast majority of students. Behavior evaluation was not assessed per se, but specific testimonies show that students have been marked by their community experience. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations (eg, students teaching other students), new developments in the curriculum (eg, partnership with the University of Applied Health Sciences), and interaction between students and the community (eg, student development of a website for a community health
Full Text Available P Chastonay,1,2 V Zesiger,1 A Klohn,1 L Soguel,3 E K Mpinga,1,4 NV Vu,2 L Bernheim5 1Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, 2Unit of Development and Research in Medical Education, University of Geneva, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, 3Nutrition and Dietetics Department, University of Applied Sciences, Geneva, 4Swiss School of Public Health, Zurich, 5Department of Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland Background: Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes. Methods: A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students' perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years. Results: The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a
Capers, Natasha; Shah, Shital C.
In this article, Shital Shah, who supports community schools as assistant director for educational issues at the American Federation of Teachers, and Natasha Capers, a coordinator for the New York City Coalition for Educational Justice (CEJ), a parent-led collaborative of unions and community organizations, discuss the community schools movement…
Green, Terrance L.
For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug
Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…
Ruffin, Verna D.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.
Because educators continue to face challenges when seeking to educate all children, there is a growing recognition that schools must work with communities to maximize their collective educational potential (Murphy, Beck, Crawford, Hodges, & McGauphy, 2001). Although community schools are still in the emergent stages of development, their emphasis…
Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel
This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…
Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane
What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…
Preston, Jane P.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…
Bogers, Toine; Greifeneder, Elke
the reviewer pool more representative of the iSchool community as a whole by including more women and more researchers from Asian institutions. Other recommendations are to improve the continuity of the reviewer pool and to provide clearer instructions to reviewers to ensure that written reviews explicitly...... cover all the aspects represented by the review scores. The results of our study provide the iSchool community with a descriptive analysis of its community and a better understanding of its review process.......A fair review process is essential to the success of any scientific conference. In this paper we present an analysis of the reviewing process of the 2014-2015 iConferences as well as a demographic analysis of the iConference community as a whole. The results show a clear need for making...
Biddle, Julie K.
The goal of the Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) is to develop schools in which all children achieve at high levels and all members of the school community engage in developing and fulfilling the school's vision. But to fully implement the ASP model, a school must become a learning community that stresses relationships, shared values, and a…
Sami, E.; Vichayanrat, T.; Satitvipawee, P.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Result: Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2 percent) with mean DMFT 0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6 percent of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5 percent). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Conclusion: Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries. (author)
The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.
Disentangling the Correlates of Drug Use in a Clinic and Community Sample: A Regression Analysis of the Associations between Drug Use, Years-of-School, Impulsivity, IQ, Working Memory, and Psychiatric Symptoms.
Heyman, Gene M; Dunn, Brian J; Mignone, Jason
Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status), years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of-school, psychiatric symptoms, and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects (low IQ and/or high impulsivity) who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of "zeroes" in the data sets. Cragg's Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in community samples.
Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong
Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.
Full Text Available The organizational context of charter schools may facilitate the formation of a strong teacher community. In particular, a focused school mission and increased control over teacher hiring may lead to stronger teacher professional communities. This paper uses the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey to compare the level of teacher community in charter public and traditional public schools. It also estimates the effect of various charter policy variables and domains of school autonomy on teacher community. Charter school teachers report higher levels of teacher community than traditional public school teachers do, although this effect is less than one-tenth of a standard deviation and is dwarfed by the effect of a supportive principal, teacher decision-making influence, and school size. Charter public schools authorized by universities showed lower levels of teacher community than those authorized by local school districts. Teachers in charter schools that have flexibility over tenure requirements and the school budget report higher levels of teacher community. This study reveals that charter schools do facilitate the formation of strong teacher communities, although the effect is small. The analysis also suggests that the institutional origin of the charter school and specific areas of policy flexibility may influence teacher community.
American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.
The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…
Full Text Available Background: One of the authors living in Yelagiri Hills incidentally noticed that the one government school and two hostels there, were facing acute issues with performance and multiple student health issues. Hence the action research was undertaken to address the problem and simultaneously to empower the local community. Methods: It was a mixed-method action research study comprising of quantitative surveys (before- after design and qualitative approach (participatory intervention. At baseline survey 177 children in two residential hostels and one government school were examined using a locally adapted Global School based Student Health Survey questionnaire. The hemoglobin level was estimated using WHO hemoglobin color scale. The participatory interventions were carried out through School Health Committee. Periodic health checkup with hemoglobin levels and school performance were examined. After one year, 230 children were examined in the follow up survey using the same questionnaire. Results: There was significant improvement in the personal hygiene and reduction in related morbidity among the children. The number of students of hemoglobin level less than 12gm% decreased from 31.4% to 11.3%.The number of students of hemoglobin level more than or equal to 12gm% increased from 68.6% to 88.7%. There was significant decline in anemia from 31.4% from baseline to 11.3% at follow up survey. There was also significant decrease in the malnutrition. Conclusion: The need based participatory health promoting school initiative for tribal children at Yelagiri hills led to a significant improvement in the school performance and general health conditions of the children. The school health committee has played a vital role in the sustainability of the project. The action research could bring positive improvements in health status of school children through active participation of students, parents, teachers and community members.
American School Board Journal, 1982
In Avon (Indiana), a community lacking public buildings, a middle school was built with community uses in mind. The swimming pool, gymnasium, and commons area can be blocked off for community use by using floor-to-ceiling gates. The school's heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems are also energy-efficient. (Author/MLF)
Sedo, Julie; Hindle, Douglas R.
A rural Saskatchewan K-12 school developed a schoolwide sense of community and a solid relationship with the larger community by setting new directions, team building, and building bridges with parents and the community. Positive staff behaviors, school appearance, and cross-grade interactive projects were critical to the success of the plan. (TD)
Cronin, Sarah; Ohrtman, Marguerite; Colton, Emily; Crouse, Brita; Depuydt, Jessica; Merwin, Camille; Rinn, Megan
Research in understanding effective strategies to develop stakeholder engagement is needed to further define the school counselor role and best outreach practices. School counselors are increasing their daily technology use. This study explores how school counselor technology use is related to school-family-community partnerships. School…
US Department of Education, 2009
This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…
Dove, Meghan K.; Zorotovich, Jennifer; Gregg, Katy
Family involvement in a child's education is a complex system that extends beyond the presence of partnerships between families, schools, and the community (Epstein, 2011). By measuring families' feelings of connectedness and membership to the school community, this study explores families' motivations for participating in their child's learning…
Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.
The Bruderhof communities in the United States have organized their own private schools with a distinctly Christian philosophy of education, adding to the interesting mix of American private and religious schools. Rooted in early 20th century German pedagogy, romanticism, and shared responsibility, Bruderhof schools represent the essence of a…
Jaycox, Lisa H; Stein, Bradley D; Wong, Marleen
Schools are well positioned to facilitate recovery for students exposed to community or school violence or other traumatic life events affecting populations of youth. This article describes how schools can circumvent several key barriers to mental health service provision, outcomes that school interventions target, and the role of the family in school-based services. It includes a description of the history of schools in facilitating recovery for students exposed to traumatic events, particularly related to crisis intervention, and the current status of early intervention and strategies for long-term recovery in the school setting. Challenges and future directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Four years ago, the author assumed the job of Director of Education for a school serving elementary children who had been traumatized by homelessness and associated problems, such as family, domestic, or community violence. The paper relates the struggle of her staff to create a healing school out of a chaotic program that lacked both an effective…
Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks
School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth
Green, Terrance L.
Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…
Cintya Arely Hernández-López
Full Text Available In the present study is to weight the learning communities, starting to know the approach that has a school in the Chihuahua state to become a learning community, expecting describe how the school gathers the elements to operate as such. The method that was in use was the study of case, resting on the technologies of observation, interview and survey, same that complemented each other with the information that came from the survey and from the analysis of the “portafolio”. The case of study though it presents characteristics that demonstrate inside a community of learning as quality, collaborative work however the institution does not possess the opening and the participation of the involved ones, being an obstacle for the consolidation and benefit of the educational community; ith what there meets distant the possibility that this politics to turn to the school in a community of learning could be consolidate.
Karanxha, Zorka; Agosto, Vonzell; Black, William R.; Effiom, Claudius B.
This case involves dilemmas for educational leaders who may face the process of school consolidation brought on by decreased funding and demands for accountability. We highlight the challenges and opportunities to collaborate within and across diverse communities and schools with varying expressions of cultural, political, ethical, and…
Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan
Purpose: The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative as well as qualitative data were gathered from seven teacher…
Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan
Purpose – The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative as well as
Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Community schools are quickly increasing in number, but there is no evidence whether they are more effective than traditional schools. No study has empirically compared community schools to other schools. This study reviews the literature on the effectiveness of community schools. We focus on their
Ortiz-Marrón, Honorato; Ortiz-Pinto, Maira Alejandra; Cuadrado-Gamarra, José I; Esteban-Vasallo, María; Cortés-Rico, Olga; Rey-Gayo, Loreto; Ordobás, María; Galán, Iñaki
The childhood obesity epidemic is a worldwide public health problem which starts at very early ages. The aim of this study was to determine the persistence of and variation in overweight and obesity among a cohort of children followed up from 4 to 6 years of age. The data were drawn from the ELOIN (Longitudinal Childhood Obesity Study), a population-based cohort in the Community of Madrid, Spain. A total of 2435 children were involved. Weight and height were objectively measured and standardised at 4 (2012-2013) and 6 years of age (2014-2015) by 31 purpose-trained pediatricians. Three reference criteria were used: the World Health Organization (WHO-2006), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF-2000), and Spanish tables of the Orbegozo Foundation 2004, were used to define "absence of excess weight", overweight and obesity. According to the above three classification criteria, between the ages of 4 and 6 years the prevalence of overweight increased from 5.7%-16.5% (range of the 3 criteria) to 8.9%-17.0%, and obesity increased from 3.0%-5.4% to 6.1%-10.1%. Three out of every 4 obese children at age 4 years persisted with obesity at age 6 years, whereas 20.6%-29.3% who were overweight became obese. A total of 8.0% to 16.1% of children maintained "excess weight" (overweight/obesity), 7.9% to 11% were new cases, and 2.2% to 5.9% showed remission. Excess weight increased between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Important variations were observed in weight status susceptible to intervention during well-child visits. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…
, but sometimes affects school children. Children pres- ent with itchy white papules on the genitalia, the glans and prepuce or the vulva. Initially there is some red- dish or purplish inflammation around the white lesions, which become wrin-.
Worrell, Travis G.
School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...
Sepanik, Susan; Corrin, William; Roy, David; Gray, Aracelis; Fernandez, Felix; Briggs, Ashley; Wang, Kathleen K.
Too many students in high-poverty, urban communities drop out of high school, and too few graduate prepared for college and careers. Three national organizations--Talent Development Secondary, City Year, and Communities In Schools--have formed "Diplomas Now" in an effort to transform urban secondary schools so fewer students drop out and…
Business, education and community leaders are working together to create alternative career pathways for young people who are not profiting from the four-year college track. The new Pathways to Prosperity Network brings together the Pathways to Prosperity Project at Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE), Jobs for the Future (JFF) and six…
This article reports on the growing challenge of managing community groups using educational facilities for meetings, athletics, and special events. It describes how, by using an online scheduling software program, one school district was able to track payments and save time and money with its event and facility scheduling process.
Prof.Dr. E. Verbiest
In this contribution we report about a project about Professional Learning Communities.This project combines development and research. In this contribution we pay attention to the effect of the organisational capacity of a school on the personal and interpersonal capacity and to the impact of a
Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan
A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…
Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.
School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.
Community Partnership School (CPS) serves 90 to 95 students annually in preK-5th grade. Of these, 100 percent are African American or multiracial, and all qualify for free or reduced-price lunch. Community Partnership School began as a collaboration between Germantown Academy, which had trouble recruiting low-income students to its suburban…
Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka
participation can include the possibility of the community challenging the social order at school, and the educational policies and practices. When addressing community participation, counter-participating and non-participating can be also considered as legitimate forms of participating. Originality/value......Purpose - The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning health education and health promotion at schools, particularly with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach - Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural...... – The study contributes to an understanding of policy implementation and the implications of a HPS approach to health education and health promotion in small rural schools....
Macridis, Soultana; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique; McComber, Alex M; Jacobs, Judi; Macaulay, Ann C
School-based physical activity (PA) interventions, including school active transportation (AT), provide opportunities to increase daily PA levels, improves fitness, and reduces risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Based on a community-identified need, the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project, within an Indigenous community, undertook school travel planning to contribute to PA programming for two elementary schools. Using community-based participatory research, the Active & Safe Routes to School's School Travel Planning (STP) process was undertaken in two schools with an STP-Committee comprised of community stakeholders and researchers. STP activities were adapted for local context including: school profile form, family survey, in-class travel survey, pedestrian-traffic observations, walkability checklist, and student mapping. STP data were jointly collected, analyzed and interpreted by researchers and community. Traffic-pedestrian observations, walkability and parent surveys identified key pedestrian-traffic locations, helped develop safe/direct routes, and traffic calming strategies. In-class travel and mapping surveys identified a need and student desire to increase school AT. The STP-Committee translated findings into STP-action plans for two schools, which were implemented in 2014-2015 school year. Combining CBPR with STP merges community and researcher expertise. This project offered evidence-informed practice for active living promotions. Experience and findings could benefit Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
School counselors and special educators in rural areas working together can be a powerful team to help schools create a positive school community. In one rural school community, they partnered with faculty and staff to implement a School Wide Positive Behavior support program to improve student outcomes. The counselor and special educator, through…
薛雅慈（曉華） Ya-Ci (Hsiao-Hua Selena Hsueh
of learning through a learning community, and numerous schools have participated in this learning community program. The traditional learning style of speaking while students listen is expected to change. In this qualitative study, student experiences and how they changed under the guidance of a learning community were investigated by conducting interviews, and potential problems in the learning method were identified. Five teachers from a junior high school, in which the learning community method was adopted in their classes, participated in this study. The results of positivist analysis indicate that the implementation of a learning community is expected to be a valuable educational method under the 12-Year Basic Education system. Both the researcher and the teachers observed changes in student learning caused by the use of various teaching strategies. Six crucial findings were derived from this research. (1 The methods used by junior high school teachers for promoting collaborative learning in their classes are comprehensive and diversified. (2 Based on the learning community proposed by Professor Manabu Sato, the most widely used method in practice among junior high school teachers is collaborative learning. (3 The collaborative learning technique used by junior high school teachers is typically cooperative learning, which focuses on group discussion and expression rather than on listening, connecting, and referring to the text, as argued by Sato. (4 Regarding junior high school students, the greatest benefit produced by collaborative learning is the cultivation of motivation and teamwork. (5 Inferior students who were previously unacquainted with their classmates attained achievements through collaborative learning. (6 Overall, the teachers enhanced student learning, and changed the learning style of the students in a positive manner.
San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.
This essay provides an overview of the huelga schools established in Houston, Texas, in 1970. For 2 years, from 1970 to 1972, the Mexican American community opposed the Houston Independent School District's plan to integrate the schools by pairing so-called White Mexican Americans with African American students. While they protested this decision,…
Gross, Judith M. S.; Haines, Shana J.; Hill, Cokethea; Francis, Grace L.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Turnbull, Ann P.
School-community partnerships play an essential role in successful schools, often providing supports and resources to meet staff, family, and student needs that go beyond what is typically available through school. Reciprocally, community partners benefit from their relationships with schools, including learning about schools' inclusive culture.…
Miočinović Ljiljana Đ.
Full Text Available The paper discusses Kohlberg’s view of moral education, how it was developing and changing over time. Starting from a theoretical postulate that thinking constitutes the essence of morality and from empirical findings of the stage development of moral judgment, in his early works Kohlberg defines moral education as "encouraging the natural course of moral judgment development". As a principal method of work, Kohlberg recommends the encouragement of a cognitive conflict by means of discussing hypothetic moral dilemmas. Criticisms that he is over-intellectualizing moral education, getting acquainted with a collective upbringing in kibbutz's, active participation in work in schools and prisons and finding that moral judgment and acting in everyday life is a response to the prevailing moral atmosphere of a group are leading to the changes in moral education goals and development of a new approach known as "just community". Now a group is in the focus of moral education, not an individual any longer, the major area of studies being group norms and expectations. The "just community" approach does not remain only at the classroom level discussing hypothetical moral dilemmas but directly influences the structure of school justice i.e. its rules and discipline, processes they are passed as well as the rights and duties of both teachers and students. Its goal is no longer to develop moral judgment of an individual student but to develop a group as moral community founded upon the norms of trust, participation and collective responsibility.
Vailancourt, Kelly; Amador, Andria
Building effective school community partnerships requires recognition of barriers along with time and commitment from both the school district and community agencies to overcome those barriers. It may seem overwhelming to fully address each of the challenges while attempting to implement each element of effective school partnerships all at once,…
Valli, Linda; Stefanski, Amanda; Jacobson, Reuben
School-community partnerships have shown promise as an educational reform effort. In these partnerships, schools expand their traditional educational mission to include health and social services for children and families and to involve the broader community. Such partnerships have been found to enhance student learning, strengthen schools and…
Finnigan, Kara S.; Lavner, Mark
This study seeks to understand community member participation in and influence over an urban school district's school closure process. Data from interviews with School Board members, district administrators, and community members, as well as district documents and newspaper articles suggest that district administrators limited participation…
The topic of networking the learning community with home-school links is addressed in four papers: "Internet Access via School: Expectations of Students and Parents" (Roy Crotty); "The School Library as Community Information Gateway" (Megan Perry); "Rural Access to the Internet" (Ken Eustace); and "NetDay '96:…
Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David
Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…
Kong, Alberta S; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L
In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Redd, Zakia; Princiotta, Daniel; Stratford, Brandon; Caal, Selma; Li, Weilin; Murphy, Kelly; Coffey, Amelia; Carrington, Nicholas; Carney, Rachel; Oster, Maryjo; Horton, Susannah
J.C. Nalle is a Community School located in the Marshall Heights neighborhood of Ward 7 in Washington, D.C. The community in which J.C. Nalle is located, historically one of the more economically disadvantaged areas of the city, has experienced a number of changes in recent years. This report of evaluation findings begins with an introduction to…
Mickahail, Bethany K.
A qualitative research highlights how parent driven "communities of support" create lasting change in schools and communities, through the unique blend of the two methodologies, oral history and educational criticism and connoisseurship. In recent years, schools and communities are unusually impacted by an escalating wave in the diagnosis and…
Lorence, James J.
This document discusses the roles of secondary schools, two-year colleges, and the upper level university in the University of Wisconsin System. Because of close ties with the host communities, Wisconsin's two-year institutions are uniquely situated to function as community resources. The paper discusses the advantages of a collaborative…
John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2015
This brief is part of a series that shares findings from a research collaboration between the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University and Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) focused on understanding implementation of the community school model in the district. This brief highlights findings related to…
The number of supplementary schools in England serving minority communities continues to grow. They are popular with the parents of such communities because they often feel their children are disadvantaged in mainstream schools and not afforded the opportunities or the learning environment that is conducive to their children achieving their full…
Pradhan, Uma; Shrestha, Shivana; Valentin, Karen
and community. This article questions the simplistic assumption through an ethnographic study of community-school relationship in Nepal. While these relationships may conflict with the kind of reciprocity assumed in school governance policies, we argue that this disjunctured reciprocity, firstly, reflects...
Admiraal, W.; Heemskerk, I.M.C.C.; Roceanu, I.
Teacher communities are claimed to contribute to the improvement in the practices of teaching and schooling as well as individual teacher development and the collective capacity schools. How to define, design and support teacher communities is however still unclear. In this expert study, experts
Itzhaki, Yael; Itzhaky, Haya; Yablon, Yaacov B.
Background: While extensive research has been done on high-school dropouts' adjustment, there is little data on dropouts from closed religious communities. Objective: This study examines the contribution of personal and social resources to the adjustment of high school dropouts in Ultraorthodox Jewish communities in Israel. Method: Using a…
Many of our schools are situated in communities characterized by high levels of disadvantage, presenting a range of challenges. One possible response is to acknowledge this disadvantage and to try to address some of the problems it raises for students. Another is for the school to be proactive, recognizing the challenges faced by the community and…
Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher
Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.
Grady, Kevin Richard
This study employed multiple regression modeling to examine the success of 63 California elementary schools in terms of (a) school-community social capital, (b) student academic performance, (c) student behavioral incident rate, and (d) teacher turnover rate with respect to the extent of school-community partnership programs. Also of interest to…
Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan
This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the…
TOTTEN, W. FRED
THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO HELP PEOPLE LEARN HOW TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS, IT IS THE CENTER OF SERVICE FOR ALL THE PEOPLE OF A COMMUNITY REGARDLESS OF AGE, RACE, RELIGION, ETHNIC BACKGROUND, OR SOCIOECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES. SCHOOL FACILITIES AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL ARE AVAILABLE FOR SERVICE TO PEOPLE AT ALL TIMES OF THE DAY ON ALL DAYS OF…
Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Gill Lewin,2 Hilary O’Connell,3 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 3Independent Living Centre WA, Perth, WA, Australia Background: A million older people living in Australia receive community care services each year due to experiencing functional or mental health difficulties. This group may be at greater risk of falling than similar-aged people not receiving services. However, there is limited falls prevention research for this population.Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the falls prevalence rates of older people from 10 Australian community care organizations and compare current falls prevention data to a study 10 years prior that utilized the same 10 organizations. This study also identified factors associated with falling for this population.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, in which 5,338 questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of community care recipients aged ≥65 years. Results: A total of 1,991 questionnaires were returned (37.3%, with 47.7% of respondents having fallen in the previous year, and 32.7% in the month prior to completing the questionnaire, similar to 10 years prior. Community care clients had a 50% higher falls rate than that reported for similar-aged people not receiving services, and this remained unchanged over the last 10 years. Eighty-six per cent of fallers had fallen once or twice, and 60% reported being injured. Thirty-six per cent of respondents reported not being able to get up independently, and only 27.4% of fallers were referred to a falls prevention program (significantly fewer than 10 years ago; 95% CI: 0.821–6.366, p=0.01. Balance issues (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.288–3.290, p=0.003 and perceived risk of falling in the future being “definite” (OR: 6.42, 95% CI: 1.890–21.808, p=0.003 or “unsure” (OR: 3
Davis, Patricia W.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
Parental and community involvement in Title I schools is limited by occurrence and the absence of positive motivation. When parents are involved in the life of a school, children receive the message that education is important and the school is a vital commodity. With this involvement, a culture is developed that encompasses the children,…
Purpose: The prevalence, risk factors and effects of work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly urbanising community in south west Nigeria was assessed. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 386 Junior Secondary School students was conducted.
Lesneskie, Eric; Block, Steven
This study utilizes the School Survey on Crime and Safety to identify variables that predict lower levels of violence from four domains: school security, school climate, parental involvement, and community involvement. Negative binomial regression was performed and the findings indicate that statistically significant results come from all four…
Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne
In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…
One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…
Curcic, Svjetlana; Gabel, Susan L.; Zeitlin, Virginia; Cribaro-DiFatta, Shannon; Glarner, Carmel
In this paper, we address building inclusive communities by looking at school as a community, as a place where students participate in learning and also learn to participate in the life of a community and life in a broader inclusive society. At the international level, policies increasingly position education as a business organisation, with…
Neumann, Linda; Combe, Laurie; Lambert, Patrice; Bartholomew, Kim; Morgan, Susan; Bobo, Nichole
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) be knowledgeable about and participate in the implementation of Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) approach in the educational setting (ASCD & Centers for Disease Control…
This study aims to investigate students' perceptions about democratic school climate and sense of community in school. In line with this purpose, it aims to find answers to the following questions: How democratic do students find the school climate? What is students' sense of belonging level at school? What is the academic success level of…
In October 2005,the European Community and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and UNMIK on behalf of Kosovo signed the Treaty establishing the Energy Community, which role is to provide for the creation of a single energy market and the mechanism for the operation of markets. This document first presents the energy situation and challenges in south-western Europe, and then recalls the role of the Energy Community, its organization, legislation and first results. It then discusses the enlargements of the Community in eastern Europe, Turkey, Caucasus and central Asia, and examines its possible perspectives following the enlargement (success or dilution) and its future role
The aim of this anthropological study was to create an understanding of school-related violence experienced by adolescents in the context of chronic poverty in a South African community. Qualitative methods of data collection such as participant observation, interviews, and group discussions were utilized for data collection. Sixteen children and three adults in turn kept diaries and wrote reports during the research period of three and one-half years (June 1992-December 1995). All the Standard seven pupils (N = 76) of the local school completed a self-concept questionnaire and wrote two essays about themselves and their lives, respectively. The ideology and structures of apartheid created a context of impoverishment and structural violence to which children were exposed. The school was one of the social institutions where children were subjected to structural, psychological, and physical violence on a daily basis. Violent behavior or discipline was justified as being just and an effective teaching practice by authoritarian parents and teachers. The manifestations of poverty included emotional erosion, a negative self-concept, and reactive violence. School-related violence was structurally interwoven with the very fabric of the social hierarchy of the school set-up and was sanctioned as an effective strategy to gain social control and discipline children. Poverty in itself provided the breeding-ground for violence at home and in the school. Children were caught up in a vicious circle of pro- and reactive violence and socialized to accept violence as an instrument of empowerment. Recommendations for possible intervention and further research are offered.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — School enrollment data are used to assess the socioeconomic condition of school-age children. Government agencies also require these data for funding allocations...
At Davis Vocational Technical High School in Lincoln (Rhode Island) students in such areas as carpentry, culinary arts, and cosmetology provide free services to the community and gain valuable experience. (Author/JM)
Gillenwaters, Jamila Najah
University-school-community partnerships represent a collaborative model of urban educational reformation inclusive of all the organizations that impact urban education. Co-constructed relationships among communities, schools, and universities have the potential for redistributing hierarchical power, thereby enabling all partners to contribute to…
Henderson, Ailsa; Brown, Steven D.; Pancer, S. Mark; Ellis-Hale, Kimberly
In 1999, the Ontario provincial government introduced into its high school curriculum a requirement that students complete 40 h of volunteer community service before graduation. At the same time, the high school curriculum was shortened from five years to four. Consequently, the 2003 graduating class of Ontario high school students contained two…
McClintock, Joy H.
Student interest prompted the formation of a Speaker's Bureau in Seminole Senior High School, Seminole, Florida. First, students compiled a list of community contacts, including civic clubs, churches, retirement villages, newspaper offices, and the County School Administration media center. A letter of introduction was composed and speaking…
Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna
The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…
Klein, Esther Dominique
Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…
Burns, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Jody K.; Kimmel, Sue C.
To properly prepare pre-service school librarians, school library educators in online courses must provide opportunities for collaborative engagement. This collaborative education should also recognize the pedagogical benefit of the organic formation of communities of practice that develop within areas outside of curriculum content. This…
Bower, Wilma; And Others
Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…
Hallinan, Maureen T.; Kubitschek, Warren N.; Liu, Ge
Communally organized, as opposed to bureaucratically organized, schools are expected to provide significant advantages to students in terms of their cognitive and social growth. However, for students to avail themselves of these benefits, they need to experience school as a community. One factor that may influence whether students view their…
Dikkers, Amy Garrett
Recent research on parental involvement has explored connections between parental involvement in school and children's academic achievement. While many schools have active parent organizations and a base of parents who offer additional support, others struggle to make connections with their parents or community members. Even in places with active…
Describes the creation and operation of Project Chrysalis, a community, service-learning school transformed from row houses, where children can learn, work, and gain inspiration from artists and social entrepreneurs involved with Houston's Project Row Houses. Personal narratives of two teachers highlight the school's and students' accomplishments…
Swinburn, B; Malakellis, M; Moodie, M; Waters, E; Gibbs, L; Millar, L; Herbert, J; Virgo-Milton, M; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; de Silva-Sanigorski, A
Childhood obesity has been increasing over decades and scalable, population-wide solutions are urgently needed to reverse this trend. Evidence is emerging that community-based approaches can reduce unhealthy weight gain in children. In some countries, such as Australia, the prevalence of childhood obesity appears to be flattening, suggesting that some population-wide changes may be underway. A community-based intervention project for obesity prevention in a rural town appears to have increasing effects 3 years after the end of the project, substantially reducing overweight and obesity by 6% points in new cohorts of children, 6 years after the original baseline. An apparent and unanticipated 'spillover' of effects into the surrounding region appeared to have occurred with 10%-point reductions in childhood overweight and obesity over the same time period. A 'viral-like' spread of obesity prevention efforts may be becoming possible and an increase in endogenous community activities appears to be surprisingly successful in reducing childhood obesity prevalence. The long-term evaluations of community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions are needed to determine their sustainability and scalability. To measure the impacts of the successful Be Active Eat Well (BAEW) programme in Victoria, Australia (2003-2006), 3 years after the programme finished (2009). A serial cross-sectional study of children in six intervention and 10 comparison primary schools in 2003 (n = 1674, response rate 47%) and 2009 (n = 1281, response rate 37%). Height, weight, lunch box audits, self-reported behaviours and economic investment in obesity prevention were measured. Compared with 2003, the 2009 prevalence of overweight/obesity (World Health Organization criteria) was significantly lower (P investment in obesity prevention in intervention schools was about 30 000 Australian dollars (AUD) per school per year, less than half the amount during BAEW. By contrast, the
Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna
Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…
National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017
Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines how community partners can support school climate improvements. Organizations and individuals can partner with schools in many different ways--from delivering or coordinating direct services to students and families inside or…
Somprach, Kanokorn; Tang, Keow Ngang; Popoonsak, Pongtorn
This study aimed to explore the role of essential leadership styles of school principals in encouraging teachers' participation in professional learning communities (PLCs) in basic education schools in northeastern Thailand. It aimed to identify the nine leadership styles practiced by school principals and teachers' participation in PLCs, and to…
Russo, Charles J.
In "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garrett F." (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that continuous nursing constitutes a "related service" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The case involved a 16-year-old who has been paralyzed since early childhood. Cost per student could be $20,000 to…
Full Text Available This paper outlines a research towards an initial assessment of the stage of the PLC in secondary schools in Malaysians secondary school with teachers as the main focus. A brief philosophy of the importance of learning organization and its development in various countries was reviewed and incorporated by the current situations, leading to the objectives and methodology for this study. The result showed the teachers can be active in their learning and improving their schools as to enhance the learning performance of the students in the first four characteristic dimensions refer to the practice of shared values, goals, mission and vision among teachers which play an important role in shaping the PLC in secondary school.
Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne
Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…
The literature identifies three main types of peer associations: cliques, crowds, and dyadic friendships. When schools create learning communities, an additional type of peer association may emerge that is not based on interactions but instead is based on membership in a shared community. The aim of this study is to qualitatively explore the…
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…
Haines, Shana J.; Gross, Judith M. S.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Francis, Grace L.; Turnbull, Ann P.
Partnerships between school staff, families, and community members are vital for ensuring the success of all students in inclusive schools. This article reports the results of a synthesis of two original studies: one study that examined the perspectives of family members and another study that examined the perspectives of community partners in…
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016
The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…
Community involvement in education has been viewed as a - by no means uncontroversial - means for enabling local members to deepen their participation in the decision-making relevant to their schools by playing a constructive role in the process. On the basis of a study carried out in Ghana, the present contribution to this discussion examines various matters involved in delegating the management of an Alternative Primary Education program to two traditional communities in the north of that country. It also explores how community members, school authorities, the sponsoring non-governmental organization and members of the local management committee themselves perceive such an approach to school management. Issues raised include whether inexperienced and even illiterate local citizens should be allowed to manage their schools, the conflicts which such management often entails and, finally, in what ways it might be beneficially promoted.
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Walling, A D; Sutton, L D; Gold, J
To determine the current administrative relationships between medical schools and community preceptors, with special emphasis on arrangements for academic appointment, review, and promotion. In 1999, administrative contacts at all 126 U.S. allopathic medical schools were mailed a ten-item questionnaire to elicit information concerning the current practices of the schools regarding community preceptors, who were defined as volunteer or part-time physician faculty, primarily practicing at non-university-owned facilities, who contribute to medical students' and/or residents' education in various specified ways. Responses were received from 71 (56%) of the schools; they were in general a representative sample of U.S. medical schools. The numbers of preceptors per school ranged from 40 to 3,500. Sixty-seven percent of reporting schools identified clinical departments as the main administrative interface with preceptors. Only three schools used a central office; none exclusively used a regionalized system. Forty-four schools (63.8%) reported using formal written criteria for all preceptor appointments. Sixty-six schools (93%) used consistent academic titling systems, with 83.3% using titles including the word "clinical." Thirty-three schools (47.8%) reported that their departments conducted regular preceptor reviews; an additional 28 reported reviews by some departments. Preceptors were eligible for promotion at 94.4% of the responding schools. At 46.8%, specific promotion criteria exist; four schools were developing such criteria. Preceptors' interest in academic promotion was perceived to be moderate or low. A substantial proportion of U.S. medical schools have taken action to recognize preceptors as a unique faculty group. The comments received indicate that this is an active area of development in faculty affairs policy.
Bahr, Steven; Sparks, Dinah
This Statistics in Brief summarizes the changes from the 1998-99 to the 2012-13 school years in the average age of public schools, ratings of satisfaction of the environmental quality of school facilities, the cost to put school buildings in good overall condition, and short-range plans to improve school facilities. In addition to providing…
Cavatta, Jerry C., Comp.; Borgrink, Henry, Comp.
The purpose of this report is to provide a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools. Data on school district characteristics (40-Day Average Daily Membership; and percent in kindergarten, bilingual, Chapter 1, and special education programs), teacher characteristics (pupil-teacher ratio, salaries,…
Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Brown, K Stephen; Lee, Derrick; Sabiston, Catherine; Nykiforuk, Candace; Eyles, John; Manske, Steve; Campbell, H Sharon; Thompson, Mary
We identified the most effective mix of school-based policies, programs, and regional environments associated with low school smoking rates in a cohort of Canadian high schools over time. We collected a comprehensive set of student, school, and community data from a national cohort of 51 high schools in 2004 and 2007. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict school and community characteristics associated with school smoking prevalence. Between 2004 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 13.3% to 10.7% in cohort schools. Predictors of lower school smoking prevalence included both school characteristics related to prevention programming and community characteristics, including higher cigarette prices, a greater proportion of immigrants, higher education levels, and lower median household income. Effective approaches to reduce adolescent smoking will require interventions that focus on multiple factors. In particular, prevention programming and high pricing for cigarettes sold near schools may contribute to lower school smoking rates, and these factors are amenable to change. A sustained focus on smoking prevention is needed to maintain low levels of adolescent smoking.
Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul
Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…
Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl
This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This report consolidates information from multiple data sources including PPS, PDE and Pittsburgh charter schools. Data is obtained through downloads from the web...
This paper discusses an attempt to establish community literacy procedures in an Eastern Cape community school. The school hosts the Additive Bilingual Education (ABLE) project, a cooperation between UK and South African universities and the school trust. The community literacy strand of the project encourages family members to contribute oral…
Riley, Kathryn A.
School leaders in highly disadvantaged urban communities across the globe walk a tightrope, caught between the needs of communities and the requirements of national policies. This article aims to enrich our understanding of the potential of school-community relationships. It examines the policy discourse on urban schools and the practice of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years, middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years, and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Results Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3% had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (χ2 = 7.8, df = 2, p 2 = 11.68, df = 2, p Conclusion In this community sample of children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...
Kulago, Hollie Anderson
The three purposes of this qualitative research study were to: Create a platform for Dine youth to describe their community in their own words; identify effective partnerships between the school and community to promote academic success for Dine youth; and critique the colonizing ways of an old order of Western research that contributed to the…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...
Ornstein, Allan C.
This book is divided into four chapters. The first examines the concepts and issues related to understanding social systems and how the schools can be viewed as a social system. The differences between centralization and decentralization, as well as systems-analysis and management-control approaches are also explored. In the next chapter, we are…
Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…
This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…
Full Text Available Each school is part of the community and at the same time, a provider of education services. This makes school a Learning Community for both teachers and students. While in the case of students this is a mission accomplished, in that of teachers’ things seem to be a bit more difficult. The latter ones should see themselves as members of a Professional Learning Community (PLC, where each teacher should cooperate with the other to achieve common goals, engage in common research activities for the progress of their school, take part in evaluating school results and propose plans to improve them etc. This research aimed to identify teachers’ perception of the role of school as a Professional Learning Community, to identify how school boards support and encourage this idea through participative management and to identify lines of joint research in which teachers are involved. The instrument used was a questionnaire having 30 close-ended items, administered to pre-university teachers from Bihor county, Romania. The implementation period was January to June 2016. The results show that there is collaboration between the same subject area teachers, who form committees to discuss, analyse and propose solutions. The research has also showed that more effort is required to improve collaboration between more experienced teachers and those who are at the beginning of their career, to improve collaboration between different subject area teachers by getting them to engage in joint projects, but above all, there is a need for a greater involvement of teachers, of school boards in managing schools so that participative management is achieved.
Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya
Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…
Miller, Peter M.
Family homelessness has been on the rise throughout the United States in recent years. As a result, more schools and communities than ever are challenged to serve students whose lives are touched by instability, uncertainty, and crisis. To date, there has been little inquiry into how families' particular places of homelessness might shape school…
Hudson, Sue; Hudson, Peter
Reviews into teacher education call for new models that develop preservice teachers' practical knowledge and skills. The study involved 9 mentor teachers and 14 mentees (final-year preservice teachers) working in a new teacher education model, the School-Community Integrated Learning (SCIL) pathway, and analysed data from a Likert survey with…
Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly
Drawing primarily on interview data from a 5-year ethnography on the school experiences of Mexican immigrant children in a New Latino Diaspora community, we explore how their teachers understood and responded to increasing deportation-based immigration practices affecting children's lives. We illustrate how teachers fell along a continuum…
Middlesex Community Coll., Middletown, CT.
Through a collaborative effort between Middlesex Community College (MxCC) and Haddam-Killingworth High School (HKHS), students taking specific high school courses in television production, broadcast journalism, electronics, and photography are granted college credit by MxCC upon admission to the college's Broadcast Communication Program. The…
Charest, Brian C.; Bell, Lauren D.; Gonzalez, Marialuisa; Parker, Veronica L.
In this paper we tell a story about how we partnered with a Chicago high school in order to turn the school inside out by displaying larger-than-life teacher portraits and statements at street level throughout the community. This paper explores how public art and activism can help teachers and students develop notions of civic literacy and…
Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.
A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…
Reviews findings from a Journalism Education Association study comparing the American College Testing (ACT) Program standardized scores, writing samples, and Language Arts Survey responses of students who were involved in high school journalism programs with students who were not. Urges community college journalism educators to support high school…
Moran, Kristen; Bodenhorn, Nancy
Perceptions and experiences of elementary school counselors' collaborative efforts with community mental health providers are examined through this exploratory phenomenological study. Ten participants engaged in two in-depth interviews. Collaboration was considered an effective way to increase services to students and their families. Six themes…
Doolittle, Gini; Sudeck, Maria; Rattigan, Peter
If professional learning communities offer opportunities for improving the teaching and learning process, then developing strong professional development school (PDS) partnerships establish an appropriate framework for that purpose. PDS partnerships, however, can be less than effective without proper planning and discussion about the aims of those…
Admiraal, W.; Lockhorst, D.
Purpose - Teacher communities might create excellent conditions for teacher learning in schools, such as a teacher dialogue. The way teachers perceive and interpret these conditions seems to be crucial for their effects on learning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test the
Krumm, Bernita L.; Curry, Katherine
Utilizing the conceptual framework of cross-boundary leadership, researchers conducted this qualitative case study to gain a better understanding of district-level leaders' actions and attitudes that led to meaningful, sustainable partnerships between the school, families, and community. Administrators in two urban, two suburban, and two rural…
In the past decade, there has been increased scholarly interest in the purpose and functions of community language schools, also known as heritage, supplementary or complementary schools. In particular, previous studies have focused on schools operating in minority communities deriving from Asian and Eastern-European countries, showing that…
Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein
This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.
Duque, Diana L.
The Capacity Building Special Alternatives Program, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year of operation, functioned at seven schools in a community school district of Manhattan (New York). The project served 195 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) whose native languages were Albanian,…
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8-10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11-13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14-16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3%) had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (chi2 = 7.8, df = 2, p children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Weiss, Michael J.; Mayer, Alexander K.; Cullinan, Dan; Ratledge, Alyssa; Sommo, Colleen; Diamond, John
Community colleges play a vital role in higher education, enrolling more than one in every three postsecondary students. While their market share has grown over the past 50 years, students' success rates remain low. Consequently, community college stakeholders are searching with mounting urgency for strategies that increase rates of success. We…
Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…
Most independent African states are now, like Lesotho, about forty years old. What has become of foreign languages such as French that once thrived under colonial rule albeit mostly in schools targeting non-indigenous learners? In Lesotho French seems to be the preserve of private or “international” schools. Can African ...
Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer
This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…
When participants in the 2016 St Louis River Summit identified their roles and described their interactions with the estuary on the 50-year timeline, they were illustrating the community that built and is now implementing the Remedial Action Plan. From its inception, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement required that AOCs be collaborations between technical experts on remediation and restoration and the concerned public. Together, experts and the public form the community that runs through each AOC. Without such a community there is no way to gauge the success of BUI removal or AOC delisting in terms of associated social and health benefits. Community interactions are necessary in all stages of the journey to delisting to foster agreements, resolve conflicts, and to mobilize resources necessary to solve pressing environmental challenges. A social network analysis of the timeline responses was used to describe interactions of the community that runs through the SLRE. Self-identified managers and scientists were less likely than citizens and educators to form social networks. When social networks were present they typically included recreation as a major node. This suggests that while interactions among community members and the resource were diverse and widely distributed, a segment of the community remained professionally cloistered. These people clearly make important contributions to the science or management of the estuary, but constrain their further int
Bruner, Mark W; Chad, Karen E; Beattie-Flath, Jodie A; Humbert, M Louise; Verrall, Tanya C; Vu, Lan; Muhajarine, Nazeem
This study monitored the physical activity behavior of adolescent students over a ten month school year. Physical activity was assessed at two month intervals using self-report and objective (Actical accelerometers) measures. Self-report results (n = 547) indicated a decline in physical activity throughout the school year for all grades and genders. The decline was attributed largely to a decrease in organized activity participation. Objective physical activity results (n = 40) revealed a significant decline in activity in the latter half of the school year (February to June). Declining physical activity was attributed to a decrease in vigorous activity which was consistent across grade and gender. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of promoting consistent opportunities for adolescents to be active throughout the school year.
Describes the cooperative relationship between the Komsomol (All-Union Leninist Communist League of Youth), the Pioneers, and the schools, with specific reference to their mutual responsibilities in the Lenin Year. (JB)
McFarland, Jenny; Pape-Lindstrom, Pamela
Community colleges are significant in the landscape of undergraduate STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) education (9), including biology, premedical, and other preprofessional education. Thirty percent of first-year medical school students in 2012 attended a community college. Students attend at different times in high school, their first 2 yr of college, and postbaccalaureate. The community college pathway is particularly important for traditionally underrepresented groups. Premedical students who first attend community college are more likely to practice in underserved communities (2). For many students, community colleges have significant advantages over 4-yr institutions. Pragmatically, they are local, affordable, and flexible, which accommodates students' work and family commitments. Academically, community colleges offer teaching faculty, smaller class sizes, and accessible learning support systems. Community colleges are fertile ground for universities and medical schools to recruit diverse students and support faculty. Community college students and faculty face several challenges (6, 8). There are limited interactions between 2- and 4-yr institutions, and the ease of transfer processes varies. In addition, faculty who study and work to improve the physiology education experience often encounter obstacles. Here, we describe barriers and detail existing resources and opportunities useful in navigating challenges. We invite physiology educators from 2- and 4-yr institutions to engage in sharing resources and facilitating physiology education improvement across institutions. Given the need for STEM majors and health care professionals, 4-yr colleges and universities will continue to benefit from students who take introductory biology, physiology, and anatomy and physiology courses at community colleges. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Adler, Corey; Chung-Do, Jane; Ongalibang, Ophelia
The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) focuses its youth violence prevention efforts on community mobilization by partnering with Kailua High School and other local community groups. This paper describes the development and activities of the Safe School Task Force (SSTF) and the lessons learned. In response to concerns of school, community members, and students, the SSTF was organized to promote student leadership in raising awareness about problems related to violence. Collaboration among the school, community, and the university places students in leadership roles to reduce school violence and enhances their self-efficacy to improve their school environment. To increase SSTF effectiveness, more attention must be paid to student recruitment, consistent community partnerships, and gaining teacher buy-in. This partnership may be useful in multicultural communities to provide students the opportunities to learn about violence prevention strategies, community mobilization, and leadership skills.
Service-learning (SL) is an experiential teaching method that combines instruction with community service, with the aim of enriching students' academic learning, interpersonal skills and sense of responsibility while making meaningful contributions to the community. However, measuring outcomes of service-learning projects is difficult. This article reports on the perceptions of 18 third-year undergraduate nursing students who took part in a pilot service-learning project targeting tobacco use in a local elementary school. Faculty members evaluated the program's outcomes by engaging students in structured reflection on the program about its relevance to their future careers as practicing professionals, especially in community-based settings. The students' perceptions were elicited through three sets of reflective assignments following the project. Findings from the reflective assignments suggest that the pilot program was successful in enhancing the students' academic, social, and personal development while building a partnership between the school of nursing and key players in the community, including school-based nurses, teachers, administrators, families, and community leaders. The author suggests that service-learning projects can help nursing students accomplish key developmental tasks of the college years (such as building their competence, autonomy, and integrity), while helping impart the skills and values they will need as they graduate and seek professional nursing roles.
Small schools are often the hub of many rural communities. In the school space, a multiplicity of social, economic and political relationships are sustained, which enhance the vitality of the community. As such, the relationship between small schools and communities is often presented as a powerful one; however, too often as a harmonious, natural…
Hughes, Rosemary; Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Rowland, Jeannette; Lin, Joshua
When schools, families, and communities work together, student outcomes are better. This brief focuses on the ways family and community engagement can enhance schools' efforts to improve outcomes for ELLs and highlights specific strategies schools can use to more effectively engage families and communities.
Blank, Martin J.; Villarreal, Lisa
The modern-day community schools movement reached a new plateau in 2008 when Randi Weingarten made community schools a central element of her platform as the new president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). The AFT's action was a milestone on a journey that began a decade earlier, when advocates for community schools determined that it…
Community schools have a long history of helping students succeed in school by addressing the problems they face outside of school. But without specific data on students and the full range of their needs, community schools cannot be as effective as they would like to be. Driven by the desire to make more data-informed decisions, the Children's Aid…
Pedersen, Jeff; Yager, Stuart; Yager, Robert
This study focuses on the understandings educators developed from two schools concerning how distributed leadership involving a select group of students affected the climate and community of their schools. Findings suggest that student-led leadership roles within the school community have an impact on creating a positive school-wide climate; a…
Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko
School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…
Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky
Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…
Custer, Bradley D.
In 1989, Congress passed the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments to address illegal alcohol and drug abuse on college campuses. To receive federal funding, each college must comply by implementing an alcohol and drug prevention program, but the federal government and some colleges have paid little attention to this policy. Recently,…
Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Rimamchika, Musa; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Nnanubumom, Andy Angela; Godiya, Andrew; Emmanuel, Pembi
Good personal hygiene in primary school children could be effective towards preventing infectious diseases. This work examined personal cleanliness of primary school children in Banki based on the following variables: bathing, state of uniforms, hair, nails and oral hygiene. One hundred and fifty primary school children in Banki community were selected using the cluster random sampling method. Analysis of variance was used to compare means and to test for significance of data, and coefficient of correlation to investigate the relationship between cleanliness and age of subjects. There were 87 (58 %) boys and 63 (42 %) girls in a ratio of 1.4:1. Ninety six (64 %) pupils belong to low socioeconomic class. Whereas, 53 (35.3 %) were found within 11-13 years age group, the overall mean age was 9 years (Standard deviation [SD] was 2.2), 95 CI (7.0 - 11.0) years. Comparing means for the different categories of personal hygiene, there was significant difference (F= 61.47, p personal cleanliness in our participants improved with age, and a positive significant correlation was observed between age and personal cleanliness in (r = 0.971, p = 0.026). In conclusion, significant number of primary school pupils in Banki community had good personal hygiene, which was observed to be directly proportional with age. Therefore, all efforts towards quality health education on personal hygiene as a means of primary prevention of illnesses in primary school pupils should be sustained.
Antonio Bustos Jiménez
Full Text Available In the paper the notions of participation and community empowerment in rural schools are analysed through reflection on experiences conducted in different countries. Reference is made to ducational models of participatory development which, from the viewpoint of excellence, result in increasing educational outcomes and higher rates of satisfaction among the targeted rural populations. Taking as point of departure agents which are considered potential generators of knowledge in rural areas, we examine the process of incorporating the wealth of the rural context. The difficulties that the community group usually faces for its legitimacy as a source of input in rural areas are also shown. Finally, we discuss how the teaching staff can positively contribute to their process of joining the school life.
Thana, Aduldej; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The STEM education is new issue of teaching and learning in school setting. Building up STEM education professional learning community may provide some suggestions for further collaborative work of STEM Education from grounded up. This paper aimed to clarify the building up STEM education learning community in Khon Kaen Wittayayon (KKW) School setting. Participants included Khon Kaen University researchers, Khon Kaen Wittayayon School administrators and teachers. Methodology regarded interpretative paradigm. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview and document analysis. Data was analyzed to categories of condition for building up STEM education professional learning community. The findings revealed that the actions of developing STEM learning activities and research showed some issues of KKW STEM community of inquiry and improvement. The paper will discuss what and how the community learns about sharing vision of STEM Education, supportive physical and social conditions of KKW, sharing activities of STEM, and good things from some key STEM teachers' ambition. The paper may has implication of supporting STEM education in Thailand school setting.
Licari, Frank W; Evans, Caswell A
This review of U.S. dental schools' clinical curricula suggests that the basic structure of clinical education has not changed significantly in the past 60 years, although important developments include the introduction of competency-based education and community-based clinical education. Most dental schools still have a two-year preclinical curriculum and a two-year clinical curriculum, and most schools still operate a large clinical facility where students receive the bulk of their clinical education and assessment for graduation. In those clinics, dental students are the main providers of patient treatment, with faculty serving in supervisory roles. In addition, a major portion of the entire dental curriculum continues to be dedicated to student education on the restoration of a single tooth or replacement of teeth. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
This paper draws on a three-year critical ethnography which interrogated intersections of social class, school and identity in an urban Irish community. The focus here is on the psycho-spatial disidentifications, inscriptions and class fractioning enacted throughout the school and community of Portown by a cohort of succeeding students from this…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Marcílio Souza Carneiro
Isolated communities in the urban environment still use medicinal plants, but such knowledge is not always passed on to new generations. In this scenario, we propose a study with students, teachers, and community residents from Córrego da Ema, Amontada, Ceará, Brazil, aiming to know the wisdom of medicinal plants in a small rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid region. We interviewed the medicinal plant connoisseurs, named as local experts, by using the “snow ball” method. We applied questionnaires to investigate Elementary School students’ knowledge on medicinal plants (pre-tour. These actions provided a basis for planning guided-tours, activities aimed at 51 students, which we carried out along with the 10 experts and 2 local school teachers, whose results (post-tour were assessed by using the same pre-tour questionnaire. Most local experts were women (80%, their families had many people and low education level, factors that contribute to using medicinal plants. Experts cited 35 medicinal plant species. Students cited 24 pre-tour plant species and 28 post-tour plant species. Students increased their knowledge, as there was also a post-tour increase in therapeutic indications and preparation methods, as mentioned. The school played an important role in appreciating this intangible heritage, because it enabled actions involving formal and informal education.
Marcílio Souza Carneiro
Full Text Available Isolated communities in the urban environment still use medicinal plants, but such knowledge is not always passed on to new generations. In this scenario, we propose a study with students, teachers, and community residents from Córrego da Ema, Amontada, Ceará, Brazil, aiming to know the wisdom of medicinal plants in a small rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid region. We interviewed the medicinal plant connoisseurs, named as local experts, by using the “snow ball” method. We applied questionnaires to investigate Elementary School students’ knowledge on medicinal plants (pre-tour. These actions provided a basis for planning guided-tours, activities aimed at 51 students, which we carried out along with the 10 experts and 2 local school teachers, whose results (post-tour were assessed by using the same pre-tour questionnaire. Most local experts were women (80%, their families had many people and low education level, factors that contribute to using medicinal plants. Experts cited 35 medicinal plant species. Students cited 24 pre-tour plant species and 28 post-tour plant species. Students increased their knowledge, as there was also a post-tour increase in therapeutic indications and preparation methods, as mentioned. The school played an important role in appreciating this intangible heritage, because it enabled actions involving formal and informal education.
Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide
This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…
Adriana Del Rosario Mejías Vetancourt
Full Text Available The present research has as main objective to generate a theoretical approach of the Joint Environmental Promotion from the Triad: School, Family, Community Primary School "Cinqueña III" town Barinas state of Barinas. The nature of this research is supported by the phenomenological qualitative approach critical partner paradigm. Key informants were considered five (05, which were chosen at the discretion of the investigator, according to the actors who are considered binding: a manager, a teacher, a representative, a member of the school board, a member of the community council. Among the techniques of information collection are: participant observation and qualitative depth interview. As techniques for analyzing information categorization, coding and triangulation, accompanied by descriptive and interpretative phase it is contemplated. Then, a comparative matrix is made to analyze the information collected and shall determine the findings as a result of addressing the issue of research in the Basic School Cinqueña III, municipality of Barinas Barinas state.
Egan, Cate A; Webster, Collin; Weaver, R Glenn; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David; Russ, Laura; Nesbitt, Danielle; Vazou, Spyridoula
Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews. There were no significant differences between intervention classrooms and control classrooms MI promotion. Differences approaching significance (U=5, p=0.04, d=1.2) were observed when comparing classrooms that received two (community of practice, community-based participatory research) or three components (two components plus service learning) of the intervention and classrooms that received one (community of practice) or no components. Qualitative findings revealed that teachers in classrooms that were more successful responded more favorably to the intervention components than teachers in classrooms that were less successful. Quantitative and qualitative results supported the effectiveness of community-based participatory research as a component of PACES. This study provides information about MI process variables in the context of a CSPAP intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article will describe ways in which communities react to severe crises, both on a local and on a national level. Based on experiences in Israel over the past twenty years, including recent traumatic events such as the assassination of prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and the terrorist suicide bombings, and on an intervention in Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the bombing of the Jewish Community Centre in July 1994, a model is presented to describe different stages of reaction. The importance of the creation and development of community prevention and intervention programs is stressed. Emphasis is placed on the role of the schools and the school psychologists in developing and implementing such programs, and on their critical role in dealing immediately with crisis situations and their aftermaths. The prevention program emphasizes the fostering of inner strengths and resources in children and teachers (‘inoculation’, and makes provision for dealing with emotional support for the professionals in charge of helping the community in times of crisis. Finally, a model for the future development of the profession of school psychology into a broader community service is proposed.
In 2006, the American Optometric Association Community Health Center Committee surveyed schools/colleges of optometry in the United States and its territories to assess collaborations between community health centers and optometric institutions. The survey investigated the number and structure of affiliations that existed between Federally Qualified Health Centers and schools/colleges of optometry in the United States. The survey reached the schools through the American Optometric Association Faculty Relations Committee or personal contact (Inter-American University of Puerto Rico). The survey showed wide variation in affiliations of community health centers with optometry programs. Six schools had no affiliations, whereas the remaining 11 ranged from 1 to 14. Information relating to 37 community health centers was reported. Results showed that schools utilized community health centers for fourth-year students in 5 schools, and both third- and fourth-year students in the remaining 6 schools. Schools vary regarding how precepting is managed with either full-time faculty (64.9%) or adjunct faculty. Business models also vary between schools. Affiliations between school/colleges of optometry and community health centers differ considerably. Optometric affiliations with community health centers can result in increased access to eye care for underserved populations and increased clinical experience for optometry students and residents. Opportunities exist to establish additional affiliations. Educational benefits and costs associated with affiliations should be explored before entering into a collaborative model of eye care delivery.
Achmad Riyadi Alberto
Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated by the development of information and communication technology (ICT in the library world so rapidly that allows libraries in the present to develop its services into digital-based services. This study aims to find out the school community’s perception of library apps developed by Riche Cynthia Johan, Hana Silvana, and Holin Sulistyo and its influence on library empowerment at the library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Library apps in this research belong to the context of m-libraries, which is a library that meets the needs of its users by using mobile platforms such as smartphones,computers, and other mobile devices. Empowerment of library is the utilization of all aspects of the implementation of libraries to the best in order to achieve the expected goals. An analysis of the schoolcommunity’s perception of library apps using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM includes: ease of use, usefulness, usability, usage trends, and real-use conditions. While the empowerment of the library includes aspects: information empowerment, empowerment of learning resources, empowerment of human resources, empowerment of library facilities, and library promotion. The research method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative approach. Population and sample in this research is school community at SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Determination of sample criteria by using disproportionate stratified random sampling with the number of samples of 83 respondents. Data analysis using simple linear regression to measure the influence of school community perception about library apps to library empowerment. The result of data analysis shows that there is influence between school community perception about library apps to library empowerment at library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung which is proved by library acceptance level and library empowerment improvement.
Keck, Patricia C.; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F.; Castillo, Keila D.
Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by…
Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L
This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum.
Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.
This publication reports on the effects of school desegregation in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools 15 years after desegregation was introduced and focuses on the quality of education available for minorities. In particular, the report looks at desegregation and educational outcomes, interracial and human relations, the effect of housing…
Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.
City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…
Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz
The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.
Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...
Wheeler, Leone; Guevara, Jose Roberto; Smith, Jodi-Anne
Effective partnerships across different stakeholders are essential to the collaboration required for learning cities to contribute to sustainable development. Through partnerships, formal educational institutions, such as schools and universities, play a vital role in establishing and sustaining learning cities, often by facilitating the meaningful participation of different local community members. The research presented in this article examines the characteristics of effective school-community partnerships in the literature and compares it to the results of a three-year research study which examined 16 case studies of school-community partnerships in the state of Victoria in Australia. Using participatory action research, the researchers identified four approaches to implementing partnerships for sustainability, explored challenges to achieving an idealised partnership, and made recommendations for establishing successful partnership networks. The researchers propose that partnerships be viewed as a dynamic resource rather than merely a transactional arrangement that addresses the identified challenges of time, funding, skills and personnel. Furthermore, the use of "partnership brokers", such as local government or non-government organisations, is recommended to expand the current school-centred approach to partnerships. These insights aim to contribute to providing quality education and lifelong learning through partnerships - outcomes crucial for establishing and sustaining learning cities.
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti
The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…
Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert
The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…
Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.
We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…
Walker, Charles R.
The Lancaster (PA) school district is working with the Chamber of Commerce and industry to bring resource persons into classrooms and to provide staff for adult career retraining. Program objectives include identifying areas for school/community interaction and mutual gain. Partnership benefits are shared among business, community and schools: to…
Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to ...
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159
Genet, Russell M.; Boyce, Pat; Buchheim, Robert; Collins, Dwight; Freed, Rachel; Harshaw, Richard; Johnson, Jolyon; Kenney, John; Wallen, Vera
For the past decade, Cuesta College has held an Astronomy Research Seminar. Teams of high school and community college students, with guidance from instructors and advanced amateur astronomers, have made astronomical observations, reduced their data, and submitted their research results to appropriate journals. A variety of projects, using modest-aperture telescopes equipped with low-cost instruments, are within reach of motivated students. These include double star astrometry, variable star photometry, and exoplanet transit timing. Advanced scientific knowledge and mastery of sophisticated experimental skills are not required when the students are immersed within a supportive community of practice. The seminar features self-paced, online learning units, an online textbook (the Small Telescope Astronomical Research Handbook), and a supportive website sponsored by the Institute for Student Astronomical Research (www.In4StAR.org). There are no prerequisites for the seminar. This encourages everyone—including underrepresented minorities and persons with disabilities—to participate. Each participant contributes as their time, talents, and experience dictates, thus replicating the modern, professional research team. Our spring 2015 seminar was the largest yet. Volunteer assistant instructors provided local in-person leadership, while the entire seminar met online for PowerPoint presentations on proposed projects and final research results. Some 37 students from eight schools finished the seminar as coauthors of 19 papers published in the January 2016 volume of the Journal of Double Star Observations. Robotic telescopes devoted to student research are coming online at both Concordia University and the Boyce Astronomical Robotic Observatory, as is a central online sever that will provide students with uniform, cost-free reduction and analysis software. The seminar has motivated many of its graduates to pursue careers in science, engineering, and medicine, often with
Kennedy, Carla Jane; Keeffe, Mary; Gardner, Fiona; Farrelly, Cathleen
Death can be considered a social taboo, a common source of fear and public avoidance. School communities are not immune to this, as the topic of death is constantly avoided. It is vital to understand how we can socially and culturally cultivate a positive regard for death, dying and bereavement in our school communities. Community members need to…
McShane, Ian; Watkins, Jerry; Meredyth, Denise
There is increasing interest in making more effective use of schools as community hubs, both in Australia and internationally. Investment in shared facilities aims to engage parents and local communities in schooling, encourage civic participation, co-ordinate educational and community services and overcome disadvantages of location or service…
White, Susan C.
We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…
Reading standards are regarded by many as the true yardstick by which to measure school effectiveness, and the relative standards achieved by different generations are often debated by adults. Some young people do not perceive reading to be of anything like such importance, however, using digital communication habitually and easily. Each year a…
The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.
In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…
Job, Jennifer G.
In 1920, the "High School Journal" had been up and running for a year and cost 15 cents an issue. Robert Goddard was ridiculed by the "New York Times" for predicting space travel (a retraction was printed in 1969), small countries like Ireland and Romania were fighting for their own governments, and American women voted for the…
... services means special education and related services that— (1) Are provided to a child with a disability... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...
Laurin, Isabelle; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chartrand, Sébastien
This article presents a modelling of the collective decision-making process by which a community-based population-level intervention transformed the organization of early childhood services in a Montréal community from 2001 to 2006. Multisectoral players from a childhood/family issue table. The chosen territory is one of the most multi-ethnic and poorest neighbourhoods of Montréal. The intervention being examined is Understanding the Early Years (UEY), a Canada-wide initiative aiming to strengthen communities' capacity to use quality information to support the thought process relating to the organization of early childhood services. Twelve Canadian regions took part, including Montréal. The time chart for the collective decision-making process presents the events that significantly influenced the procedure: establishment of an intersectoral working committee, production of a portrait of the neighbourhood, think tank, development and implementation of the Passage maison-école [home-to-school] and Femmes-Relais [relay women] projects, retreats, and inclusion of school readiness as a priority focus area in the neighbourhood's three-year action plan. Also presented are the contextual factors that influenced decision making: the neighbourhood's cooperation and coordination history, the researcher's involvement, financial support and shared leadership. The benefits of UEY-Montréal in this territory extended beyond 2006. With respect to current priorities for action in early childhood, this territory is a good example of mobilization for school readiness.
Full Text Available This project was the second phase of a two-phase study of teachers’ knowledge of community in an urban, private boys’ day school in Canada. The first phase examined a teacher’s perception of her classroom community, and this phase asked teachers and administrators in the same school about their perceptions of school community. We found that the school created and implemented an organizational structure designed to foster and sustain a professional community. However, administrators and teachers conceptualized, understood, and experienced community in different ways. Administrators saw community as a management tool to generate support for the school’s objectives. Teachers experienced community as social support that served as a remedy for professional isolation. Neither group based its view on community as a capacity-building, reflective process leading to a generative professional community.
Devetak, Iztok; Drofenik Lorber, Erna; Juriševič, Mojca; Glažar, Saša
This study explored the differences between eight-year elementary school pupils (before the curriculum reform) and nine-year elementary school pupils (soon after the curriculum reform) in Slovenia, as regards specific chemistry knowledge and motivation to learn chemistry. Altogether, 191 elementary school pupils participated in the study. The results show that pupils of nine-year elementary school are not significantly better at chemistry knowledge test scores than eight-year elementary schoo...
Harris, Donna M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez
This study documents the important role school and community-based programs have for sustaining the persistence of Latina/o high school students in an urban, low achieving school district. Consensus among student participants revealed these programs provided a safe space where students were able to develop "confianza" (mutual trust) with…
Thomas, Melinda; Rowe, Fiona; Harris, Neil
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that characterise effective school-community partnerships that support the sustainability of school health initiatives applied within a health-promoting schools approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study used an explanatory case study approach of five secondary schools…
Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.
Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra
Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.
Medina, Nilda; Fernández, Gisely; Cruz, Tania; Jordán, Natalia; Trenche, Maryanes
School violence is a worldwide public health issue with negative effects on education. Official statistics and reports do not include daily occurrences of violent behavior that may precede severe incidents. This project aimed to engage school community members in the development, validation, and implementation of an observation instrument to identify characteristics of school violence in two Puerto Rican schools. The role of school community members in all phases of the research is described. The input of community partners contributed to enrich the process by providing insight into the problem studied and a more informed framework for interpreting results. Taking into account distinctive features of each particular school made results meaningful to the school community and fostered a sense of empowerment of community members as they recognized their knowledge is essential to the solution of their problems.
Record, Vincent N.
Purpose: The study aimed to define common characteristics of successful school-community partnerships supporting the improvement of academic achievement in public elementary schools. Based on the perceptions of elementary school administrators, this study identified important factors of, barriers to, and benefits of successful school-community…
This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and community…
Lomos, C.; Hofman, R.H.; Bosker, R.J.
Secondary school teaching is organized in departments and effective departments functioning as collaborative teams have been associated with effective schools. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship of mathematics departments perceived as professional communities and student achievement
Brill, John R; Jackson, Thomas C; Stearns, Marjorie A
To provide an opportunity for fourth-year students at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison to immerse in urban community medicine during a 34-week program. This experience enhances the integrity of the fourth year as well as merges medicine and public health perspectives in medical education as called for by the Medicine and Public Health Initiative. A limited number of fourth-year Wisconsin medical students have the opportunity to select a one-year, continuity-based preceptorship at the Milwaukee clinical campus with a focus in one of three domains: family medicine, internal medicine, or women's health. Students participate in the following clinical activities: a one-year, integrated preceptorship (one to three half days per week in a primary preceptor's office), medicine subinternship, senior surgery clerkship, selectives (16-20 weeks of clerkships relevant to preceptorship focus area), and one month of out-of-city electives. Complementing this community-based clinical experience is the opportunity to develop an increased appreciation for urban community health issues and resources by participating in a required urban community medicine clerkship and a mentored student scholarly project focusing on an aspect of urban community medicine and population health. All students begin the year in July with a four-week urban community medicine clerkship, which is based on the St. Luke's family practice residency's community medicine rotation and arranged by residency faculty. They conduct a "windshield survey" of a Milwaukee neighborhood, observing health hazards and identifying assets, and then present these observations to others in the clerkship. During this first month, students are introduced to the work of a variety of social service agencies, the Milwaukee City Health Department, and the Aurora Health Care/UW community clinics, which serve the state's most diverse zip codes. They meet with providers and researchers who share their expertise in
Keck, Patricia C; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F; Castillo, Keila D
Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by conducting school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs at their campuses. Knowing the effect of SLIV programs on student absenteeism may motivate school nurses and district administrators to conduct such vaccination programs. This study examines the impact of an SLIV program on elementary school absenteeism in an inner city school district with a predominantly Hispanic population. Using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, we analyzed data from 3,775 records obtained by stratified random sampling. Results of the study indicate that students vaccinated through an SLIV program have fewer absences than unvaccinated students. A surprising result of the study shows that students vaccinated through an SLIV program had fewer absences than students vaccinated elsewhere. These results are of particular importance to school nurses who work with large Hispanic populations. Our study illustrates one way that a school nurse can assess the effect of an SLIV program on absenteeism.
This paper is a preliminary examination of historical shifts in U.S. discourses of school architecture as they relate to curricular reforms and inventions on new pedagogical techniques. The paper begins by sketching the current parameters of discourses on school architecture and notes some of the key arguments of reform taken up by educators and…
Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel
Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.
accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...... in general. Objectives The aim of the present thesis was to assess food level reporting accuracy in Danish 11-year-old children’s self-reported school lunch consumption, and the aim was operationalized in following objectives. 1- To identify food items clustering by lunch format (Preliminary analyses) 2......- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how reporting...
The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…
Mulder, Saskia F.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
This longitudinal study focused on clarifying the direction of effects between social anxiety and victimization in a community-based sample. In addition, we studied the moderating effect of gender on this association. A total of 1,649 children (45% boys, approximately 12 years old) of 65 secondary-school classes participated in the study.…
In January of 2002, President George Bush implemented the No Child left behind act that required all students to be proficient on state standards by the year 2014. One way a school district in Oklahoma met these new requirements was through the implementation of the principles of a Professional Learning Community. This case study was designed…
Bruno, B. C.; Wiener, C.
Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) engages elementary school students and their parents and teachers in hands-on science. Through this evening program, we educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their local communities. In the process, we hope to inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and girls, to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. Hawaii and the Pacific Islands will be disproportionately affected by the impacts of global climate change, including rising sea levels, coastal erosion, coral reef degradation and ocean acidification. It is therefore critically important to train ocean and earth scientists within these communities. This two-hour program explores ocean properties and timely environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching) which are particularly relevant to island communities. The Ocean FEST program ends with a career component, drawing parallel between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. The take-home message is that we are all scientists, we do science every day, and we can choose to do this as a career. Ocean FEST just completed our pilot year. During the 2009-2010 academic year, we conducted 20 events, including 16 formal events held at elementary schools and 4 informal outreach events. Evaluation data were collected at all formal events. Formative feedback from adult participants (parents, teachers, administrators and volunteers) was solicited through written questionnaires. Students were invited to respond to a survey of five questions both before and after the program to see if there were any changes in content knowledge and career attitudes. In our presentation, we will present our
Rye, J A; Chester, A L
In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.
Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review the role of a psychodynamic psychologist integrated in a community outpatient clinic of a Psychiatric Department. It describes the characteristics of a psychodynamic intervention that is complementary to the psychiatric approach while sharing a common goal –the suffering patient – and enhancing the knowledge and understanding of several domains like psychopathology, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and integration. Furthermore it describes how the use of Psychological Assessment led to the formulation of specific individual psychotherapies, spanning 14 years of clinical practice. The paper concludes with some considerations regarding the integration of Psychodynamic Psychology in a multidisciplinary mental health team, addressing issues such as the boundaries between technical characteristics, the appropriateness of language to other disciplines and psychodynamic implications of the different features of this clinical setting.
Njomo, D W; Masaku, J; Mwende, F; Odhiambo, G; Musuva, R; Matey, E; Thuita, I G; Kihara, J H
In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters. To assess the local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for programme implementation, a qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in four-sub-counties of coastal region. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were administered to 40 purposively selected opinion leaders so as to explore their perceptions of awareness creation sources, adequacy of information given, length of period of awareness creation and period between which information is given and drugs are administered. Separate IDIs were administered to pre-school teachers (41), community health extension workers (34) and primary school teachers (38). To elicit more information, 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) categorized by gender and age were conducted among parents of school-age children. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed manually by study themes. The most commonly reported source of information was school pupils. Due to low literacy levels, use of posters was regarded as ineffective and religious institutions, town criers and vernacular radio stations considered more effective. The information given during programme implementation was considered inadequate and use of complementary methods to reach all targeted children including the non-enrolled, and relay adequate information reported as important. Use of school and chief's meetings with health personnel being present was mentioned as a useful method that would allow for interaction with participants indicating that they
Cornman, Stephen Q.; Keaton, Patrick; Glander, Mark
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2010-11, fiscal year 2011 (FY 11). The F-33 survey is a school district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the…
Maliyamkono, T. L.
In newly independent countries where traditional theories of educational policy have continued to be followed, education has persisted as little more than a sophisticated mechanism for the recruitment of elites, and there has been an increased dependence on the advanced industrial nations for aid, experts and educational models. Tanzania, however, has attempted to break away from traditional strategies, and the author here describes and analyses the impact of two of the most far-reaching reforms — Education for Self-Reliance, and Decentralization — on national goals and policies. President Nyerere enunciated the objectives for Education for Self-Reliance in 1967 as relating education to rural life, correcting the elitist bias of education, and changing negative attitudes among students towards agriculture and rural life. Five major programmes of reform covering primary and secondary education, teacher and higher education, and examinations were to be pursued, ensuring a closer integration of schools with local communities, e.g., through school farms and co-operative shops, and making curricula directly relevant to local needs. A policy of Decentralization is being implemented, allowing, theoretically at least, a much greater participation at community level in decision-making. In primary and adult education this has already been effected to some extent, though there is evidence to suggest that decentralization in some regions and districts has resulted in the creation of local bureaucratic machinery for control, defeating the intention of the reform. Decentralization of secondary and teacher education is likely to follow, leaving only higher education centrally controlled for manpower training and allocation purposes. Finally the author discusses the question of the transferability of the Tanzanian reforms.
Hindle, Rawiri; Hynds, Anne; Averill, Robin; Meyer, Luanna; Faircloth, Susan
We propose the use of an ontological perspective to shift current thinking about the phenomenon of home/school partnerships, particularly through an examination of school leaders (leadership team)--community relationships that seek to better serve Indigenous students and their communities. We reanalysed focus group interviews of indigenous Maori…
Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn
We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…
German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…
Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Alsbury, Thomas L.; Fan, Jingjing
This study explores participant experiences at two contrasting high schools in a large, urban school district in crisis who implemented mandatory community-based learning (CBL) (e.g. community service, work-based internships) as a policy of reform. Rawls' theory of justice as fairness is used to examine capacity of the district formal policy to…
Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.
Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…
Jacobson, Linda; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Brown, Janet; Naviasky, Heather
This "Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools" report updates the community school case studies through a description of ongoing developments in Cincinnati, OH; Evansville, IN; Multnomah County, OR; and Tulsa, OK and adds to that knowledge base of early learning and…
C. E.S. Rocha
Full Text Available The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks Rocha, C. E. S.1; Büttenbender, M. D.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,2 1Grupo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Práticas de Ensino, UNIPAMPA, RS. 2Laboratório de Estudos Físico Químicos e Produtos Naturais, UNIPAMPA, RS. INTRODUCTION: Many teachers make use of textbook to lead content in the classroom. The chemistry books introduce concepts that should relate biochemistry to students in schools. It is important that this first contact turns out into an encouraging experience for the students, because once it worked as expected it arouses interest and makes the students see themselves curious to delve into the subject. The research aims to evaluate the presence of related concepts in biochemistry textbooks in chemistry in high school, over 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to perform this study, we analyzed the following content related to biochemistry: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in the books "Chemistry - Structure of Matter and Organic Chemistry" of the year 1993 and the book "Chemistry in approach to daily life" of the year 2012 with the purpose of verifying the changes in the content of biochemistry in the last 20 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the 90s, as used in the book, concepts and explanations are introduced in a very objective approach, making a total of 22 pages. The current largest is 23 pages with experiments and curiosities. Through analysis we found that current textbooks present the same issues related to biochemistry, however, a greater amount of data, bringing students to more examples and applications in everyday life. Today we see that the contents and processes are most exploited and that there is a concern on the importance of the study of issues that relate to biochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the biochemistry textbooks has been more attractive in recent years, contextualizing content with the daily life of
Brown, A L
In this article, a program of research known as Fostering Communities of Learners is described. This program is in place in several schools and classrooms serving inner-city students from 6 to 12 years of age. Based on theoretical advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, the program is successful at improving both literacy skills and domain-area subject matter knowledge (e.g., environmental science and biology). Building on young children's emergent strategic and metacognitive knowledge, together with their skeletal biological theories, the program leads children to discover the deep principles of the domain and to develop flexible learning and inquiry strategies of wide applicability.
Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239
Ruff, R R; Niederman, R
The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.
... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...
Full Text Available Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran.In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method.In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144 and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26 number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87 of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8. Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks.The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.
Kazemian, Reza; Ghasemi, Hadi; Movahhed, Taraneh; Kazemian, Ali
Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran. In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method. In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144) and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26) number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87) of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8). Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks. The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.
Gray, Julie; Kruse, Sharon; Tarter, C. John
This study tested the role of enabling school structures, collegial trust and academic emphasis in the development of professional learning communities (PLCs) in a low-income school district. The empirical study was based upon the perceptions of teachers and principals as provided by survey responses (N = 67 schools). While enabling school…
Oser, Rick; Beck, Ellen; Alvarado, Jose Luis; Pang, Valerie Ooka
A comprehensive school and community wellness plan was developed and implemented to transform "Lemon Grove Academy" for the Sciences and Humanities, an urban school, where student achievement and faculty satisfaction has soared. The school has become the center for the local neighborhood where culture, language, and equity are valued.…
Villarreal, Victor; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia
Schools have played an increasingly central role in providing mental health services to youth, but there are limitations to the services that are available through school-based mental health professionals. Thus, collaboration with non-school-based community mental health providers is oftentimes necessary. As collaboration can address limitations…
King, Kristi McClary
A Coordinated School Health Program maximizes a school's positive interaction among health education, physical education, health services, nutrition services, counseling/psychological/social services, health school environment, health promotion for staff, and family and community involvement. The purpose of this semester project is for…
Colomer, Soria Elizabeth
Based on a qualitative study documenting how Spanish teachers bear an especially heavy burden as unofficial translators, interpreters, and school representatives, this article documents how some Latina high school Spanish teachers struggle to form social networks with Latino students in new Latino school communities. Employing social frameworks,…
The 1992-93 school year was the third year of the Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program of the Austin (Texas) schools; the project is funded by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Apple Computer Inc. Grants from these corporations were used to equip three elementary schools with IBM equipment and one with Apple…
Zimmerman, Marc A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Stoddard, Sarah; Miller, Alison L.; Hutchison, Pete; Franzen, Susan; Rupp, Laney
We report on an effectiveness evaluation of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) program. YES applies empowerment theory to an after-school program for middle school students. YES is an active learning curriculum designed to help youth gain confidence in themselves, think critically about their community, and work with adults to create positive…
Abraham, Nath. M.; Ememe, Ogbonna N.
This study investigates Effective School-Community Relations as a key Performance Indicator (KPI) of Secondary Schools Administrator in Aba South District, Nigeria. Descriptive survey method was adopted. All the 248 teachers made up the population and sample in a purposive sampling technique representing 100% of the entire population as sample. A…
Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M
State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.
Charlevoix, D. J.; Dutilly, E.
In 2013, UNAVCO, a facility co-sponsored by the NSF and NASA, received a five-year award from the NSF: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE). Under GAGE, UNAVCO's Education and Community Engagement (ECE) program conducts outreach and education activities, in essence broader impacts for the scientific community and public. One major challenge of this evaluation was the breadth and depth of the dozens of projects conducted by the ECE program under the GAGE award. To efficiently solve this problem of a large-scale program evaluation, we adopted a deliberative democratic (DD) approach that afforded UNAVCO ECE staff a prominent voice in the process. The evaluator directed staff members to chose the projects they wished to highlight as case studies of their finest broader impacts work. The DD approach prizes inclusion, dialogue, and deliberation. The evaluator invited ECE staff to articulate qualities of great programs and develop a case study of their most valuable broader impacts work. To anchor the staff's opinion in more objectivity than opinion, the evaluator asked each staff member to articulate exemplary qualities of their chosen project, discuss how these qualities fit their case study, and helped staff to develop data collection systems that lead to an evidence-based argument in support of their project's unique value. The results of this evaluation show that the individual ECE work areas specialized in certain kinds of projects. However, when viewed at the aggregate level, ECE projects spanned almost the entire gamut of NSF broader impacts categories. Longitudinal analyses show that since the beginning of the GAGE award, many projects grew in impact from year 1 to year 5. While roughly half of the ECE projects were prior work projects, by year five at least 33% of projects were newly developed under GAGE. All selected case studies exemplified how education and outreach work can be productively tied to UNAVCO's core mission of promoting geodesy.
Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.
Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B
Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.
Dietrich, Cecile; Lichtenberger, Eric; Kamalludeen, Rosemaliza
This study explored the relative importance of participation in high school career and technical education (CTE) programs in predicting community college outcomes. A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used to predict community college outcome attainment among a random sample of direct community college entrants. Results show that…
Auerbach, Susan, Ed.
School leaders are increasingly called upon to pursue meaningful partnerships with families and community groups, yet many leaders are unprepared to meet the challenges of partnerships, to cross cultural boundaries, or to be accountable to the community. Alliances are needed among educators, families, and community groups that value relationship…
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…
Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna
BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12...
Dinka Čorkalo Biruški
Full Text Available The year 2007 marked the 10th anniversary of the Erdut Agreement, which, among other issues, regulated the rights of the Serbian minority in the Croatian Danube region to education in their mother tongue and the Cyrillic script. In practice, this agreement separates the children in schools according to the ethnic principle, so that Croatian and Serbian children attend separate educational programs, thus preventing their interethnic contact also in a school which is their everyday environment. At the same time, the city of Vukovar has become an ethnically divided community in which out-of-school contacts among children are not encouraged either. The objective of this study is to compare attitudes towards several aspects of education in Vukovar that were assessed twice, in 2001 and 2007. In the first study, 718 pupils in the 6th and 8th grades of elementary school, and the 2nd grade of secondary schools participated, together with 953 parents and 113 teachers lecturing on the so-called “national group of subjects”. The children attended the educational program either in the Croatian or in the Serbian language. In the follow-up study, 703 pupils of the same age participated, with an additional sample of pupils from the 1st grade of secondary school, and a total of 849 parents and 88 teachers. Attitudes towards school integration, out-of-school social integration of children, multiculturalism and assimilation of minorities were assessed, as well as preferences for the three options in which the education of ethnic minorities in Croatia can be organized. The results showed small but consistent and statistically significant convergence over the period of six years in attitudes of the majority and the minority groups regarding some aspects of education and out-of-school relations. The implications of separated schooling of children in Vukovar for current and future inter-ethnic relations in the community are discussed.
Masset, Edoardo; Gelli, Aulo
Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through "home-grown" school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children's education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance. This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a "home-grown" school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly process monitoring visits, spot
Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Pears, Gillian; Baweja, Shilpa; Vona, Pamela; Tang, Jennifer; Kataoka, Sheryl H
This study explored parent engagement in an evidence-based treatment, the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), which was delivered in a school setting. To examine the successes and challenges in engaging parents in this school-based program, we conducted qualitative interviews by phone to obtain data from clinicians, parents, and other school personnel across eleven schools from 3 different regions of the United States. Almost all of these schools served low-income and ethnically diverse communities. We describe general impressions of parent engagement, parent reactions and preferences with regard to CBITS, barriers to parent engagement, and how to overcome barriers from multiple perspectives. Parent engagement across schools varied, with extensive outreach and relatively good parent engagement in CBITS described in some schools, while in other schools, efforts to engage parents were not as consistent. Implications for future efforts to engage parents in school-based treatments are discussed.
Knight, Margaret E.
Previous school-community research in American Indian communities has demonstrated that "isolation" or lack of communication between school staff and community parents has contributed to the failure of educating American Indian children. To validate this research in the Southwest, a diary indicating the out-of-school activities was…
Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H
The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.
Kobza Cee E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.
Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B
In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Kickin' Asthma, a school-based asthma curriculum designed by health educators and local students, which teaches asthma physiology and asthma self-management techniques to middle and high school students in Oakland, CA. Eligible students were identified through an in-class asthma case identification survey. Approximately 10-15 students identified as asthmatic were recruited for each series of the Kickin' Asthma intervention. The curriculum was delivered by an asthma nurse in a series of four 50-minute sessions. Students completed a baseline and a 3-month follow-up survey that compared symptom frequency, health care utilization, activity limitations, and medication use. Of the 8488 students surveyed during the first 3 years of the intervention (2003-2006), 15.4% (n = 1309) were identified as asthmatic; approximately 76% of eligible students (n = 990) from 15 middle schools and 3 high schools participated in the program. Comparison of baseline to follow-up data indicated that students experienced significantly fewer days with activity limitations and significantly fewer nights of sleep disturbance after participation in the intervention. For health care utilization, students reported significantly less frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations between the baseline and follow-up surveys. A school-based asthma curriculum designed specifically for urban students has been shown to reduce symptoms, activity limitations, and health care utilization for intervention participants.
This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…
Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun
The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.
Full Text Available This study attempts to show how the creation of an innovative scenario, introducing video games and online communities as educational resources in the classroom, facilitates the development of new literacies in the context of participatory culture. The experience described was carried out during the 2010-2011 academic year in a secondary school located in Madrid. The workshop was organized using a social simulation video game, The Sims 3, and the online community Play and Learn, created specifically for this project. From an ethnographic perspective, the article focuses mainly on analyzing what happened outside the game sessions, when the students became involved in the online community after interacting with the game in the classroom. The fact that they participated in a virtual conversational space (through a forum serves to support the game and encourage reflection from all participants. The results show that social relationships were developed within the online community, where individual contributions proved especially important for group discussion. Participation made it possible for students to become aware of the speech and rules of the game and to improve the acquisition process of new literacies.
Ehrich, Kristine; Ceranic, Tara; Liu, Judith
As part of a Community Service-Learning Faculty Scholars Program, University of San Diego business faculty members created community engagement projects that connected students with the local community, exposed them to the realities of a global business world and showed the inherent value of community engagement. By utilizing service-learning and…
Haffke, Louise Marie; Damm, Paula; Cross, Barbara
During the 2013-2014 school year, the Shaker Heights, Ohio City school district was mandated to change its evaluation process as part of the Race to the Top initiative. Although not required by the federal or state Departments of Education, the Shaker Heights City school district tasked all members of their faculty and staff, including school…
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other
This report commemorating the fifth anniversary of the HUD-DOT-EPA Partnership for Sustainable Communities shows how the three agencies are changing their policies and removing barriers to help communities.
Spengler, John O; Connaughton, Daniel P; Maddock, Jason E
In underserved communities, schools can provide the physical structure and facilities for informal and formal recreation as well as after-school, weekend, and summer programming. The importance of community access to schools is acknowledged by authoritative groups; however, fear of liability is believed to be a key barrier to community access. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of liability risk and associated issues among school administrators in underserved communities. A national survey of school administrators in underserved communities (n=360, response rate of 21%) was conducted in 2009 and analyzed in 2010. Liability perceptions in the context of community access were assessed through descriptive statistics. The majority of respondents (82.2%) indicated concern for liability should someone be injured on school property after hours while participating in a recreational activity. Among those that did not allow community access, 91% were somewhat to very concerned about liability and 86% believed that stronger legislation was needed to better protect schools from liability for after-hours recreational use. Among those who claimed familiarity with a state law that offered them limited liability protection, nearly three fourths were nevertheless concerned about liability. Liability concerns are prevalent among this group of school administrators, particularly if they had been involved in prior litigation, and even if they indicated they were aware of laws that provide liability protection where use occurs after hours. Reducing these concerns will be important if schools are to become locations for recreational programs that promote physical activity outside of regular school hours. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klatt, Gosia; Angelico, Teresa; Polesel, John
School partnerships support the effective provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the senior years of secondary schooling, to a varying degree, in most OECD nations. However, the nature and quality of these partnerships vary considerably from school to school and, indeed, from nation to nation (see Murray and Polesel, "Eur J…
Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…
Kinari, Toshiyasu; Kanjin, Yuichi; Furuhata, Toru; Tada, Yukio
This paper reports two lectures of the first year experience, ‧Lecture on Life in Campus and Society‧ and ‧Freshman Seminar‧ and discusses their effects. Both lectures have been given freshmen of the school of mechanical engineering, Kanazawa University in H20 spring term. The former lecture is aimed at freshmen to keep on a proper way in both social and college life. It consists of normal class and e-learning system lectures. E-learning system examination requires students to review the whole text book and that seems to have brought better results in the survey. The latter seminar is aimed at freshmen to get active and self-disciplined learning way through their investigation, discussion, presentation, writing work, and so on.
Wyatt Lawrence A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by
Viviane Maia Araújo
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate occupational accidents that occurred during the first 10 years of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR Dental School. Methods: A documental study based on secondary data from the Notification Center of Occupational Accidents of UNIFOR Dental School, reported in the last 10 years. The variables included characteristics of the accidents and of the injured, besides the type of instrument and the resulting injury. Results: Were recorded 160 occupational accidents divided by location, function of the injured and type of accident. It was observed that 63.1% of cases occurred in the Multidisciplinary Clinic, 23.1% in the Integrated Clinic, 8.8% in the laboratories, 1.9% at home, 1.25% in the Surgical Center, 1.25% in the Material Sterilization Central and 0.6% during the training outside university. Concerning the injured, 90.6% of the victims were undergraduates, 5.0% staff, 3.8% teachers and 0.6% patients. Regarding the injury, 40.6% were penetrating bloody injuries, 11.9% cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% cutting non-bloody injuries, 5% burns, 5% penetrating bloody injuries/cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% were injuries with maceration, 1.9% injuries causing ocular trauma and 0.6% of an incident of dog bite. Conclusion: It was concluded that penetrating injuries were prevalent and these occurred mostly in the multidisciplinary clinic, where students of earlier periods of dental course work, indicating that the experience in dental practice generates more care with safety.
Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.
This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate
Cornman, Stephen Q.; Noel, Amber M.
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2008-09 (fiscal year [FY] 2009). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2009-10, fiscal year 2010 (FY 10). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…
Some of the most complicated issues facing school districts across the country revolve around resource allocation and student assignment planning. Determining school attendance boundaries, selecting sites for new schools, closing existing ones, balancing seat utilization while minimizing travel costs, and achieving socioeconomic diversity are all…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore supportive and shared leadership structures at schools as a function of school culture policies and procedures. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted at three secondary schools in the Midwestern USA. Administrators and teachers were interviewed, professional learning…
Orzel, Courtney Leigh
High standards and expectations for all students drive current school reform efforts which target accountability measures and focus on standardized tests, leaving many American students, particularly those who have been traditionally underserved and marginalized, feeling excluded and silenced in school. Thus, it is important for school leaders to…
Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue
This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Lance, Keith Curry; Kachel, Debra E.
Since 1992, a growing body of research known as the school library impact studies has consistently shown positive correlations between school librarians and library programs and student achievement. The authors review the findings from these studies and discuss how school leaders can ensure they are making the best use of their librarians'…
Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.
A progress report reviews the Milwaukee School Board's continuous program of acquiring sites and building schools. An itemized listing of 140 completed construction projects is supplemented with pertinent facts and figures, including--(1) growth factors affecting school building needs, (2) resultant increases in the physical plant, staff and…
Full Text Available Background: Training programs and providing essential information such as preborn educational programs for women, unmarried girls are essential as the most important prevention methods for control and prevention of health outcomes and disability. The current study conducted to assess the training effectiveness of Prevention Disability Package in high school girls in a community trail.Materials and Methods: A community trial executed among 1,339 high school girls in Qom, Iran. Subjects were the students that training in 10th and 11th years of education. All of students in each class from all majors were included in the study. According to sampling framework, 55 classes selected randomly assigned to lecture (1264 girls [94.4%], 4 (3% girls to CD-based group and 35 (2.6% girls to control group. Data collection was conducted by a standard and valid questionnaire. Analysis of variance test was used to compare the mean of knowledge score among three groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used to control the confounding variables.Results: There were significant differences among three groups according to the total score of awareness of disability. Therefore, the mean score of in handicap, musculoskeletal diseases, pregnancy dimensions, and total knowledge about disability causes was higher than in lecture group than CD-based and control groups (P
Gene M Heyman
Full Text Available Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status, years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of- school, psychiatric symptoms and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects ( low IQ and/or high impulsivity who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent less than 14 years in school. Smoking and drinking had a different correlational structure. IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of zeroes in the data sets. Cragg’s Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in
Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical
Editor-in-Chief Xi-Cheng Zhang celebrates Optics Letters' 40th anniversary by discussing the Journal's success and clarifying an editorial policy that balances the Journal's high standards with the fulfillment of its mission to support the greater optics and photonics community.
Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.
Prendergast, Mark; O'Meara, Niamh
The Irish education system is unique in an international context as it sets aside a full school year for a transition and youth development programme in the middle of secondary education. The Transition Year (TY) programme is an optional, full time programme offered in the majority of secondary schools. Each school designs its own programme,…
Joseph A. MOYNIHAN
Full Text Available Transition Year is a unique and exciting programme situated in the middle of the six year second level education system in Ireland. Since its introduction in 1974, the programme has experienced unprecedented growth now being offered in over 80% of schools on the island. Transition Year seeks to emphasize alternative learning methodologies including self-directed learning and experiential learning; intellectual, social and personal development; community and inter-school communications; exposure to careers education and the world of work. The latter occurs predominantly through actual work experience. This paper situates and explains the Transition Year Programme in Irish education as well as outlining the significance of the essential work experience component. Transition Year work experience is the bridge that connects young people in the classroom with adult life and the world of work.
Full Text Available The most important consequence of sleep disorders in children is cognitive dysfunction that leads to study, family and social disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 364 students were selected randomly in both sexes male and female with equal numbers. Data were collected using TUCASA questionnaire. Results: Results showed the revalence of sleep disorders as follows: mouth breathing 35/7%, sleep talking 24/7%, habitual snoring 20/3%, nightmare 19/8%, sleep teeth grinding 15/9%, secondary enuresis 8/2%, primary nocturnal enuresis 7/1%, sleep apnea 6/6%, sleep walking 6/6% and excessive daytime sleepiness 10%. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant relation between primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis and male sex, and both disorders were more in boys (p-value=0. 004. Between other disorders, and sex and age there was not significant relation. In this study between teeth grinding and snoring, sleep apnea and snoring, open mouth breathing and snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, sleep duration and time of sleep of parents, there was significant relation (p-value<0. 001. Conclusion: According to findings, mouth breathing was the most common sleep disorder in our subjects and had a significant relation with sleep snoring. So due to treating ability of nonmedical therapy in sleep disorders, it is recommended to increase parents information about necessity of medication and its effect on children cognition.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore supportive and shared leadership structures at one Indonesian Islamic boarding school (Pesantren as a function of school culture policies and procedures in a professional learning community in the disctrict. A qualitative study was conducted at one Pesantren located in Jambi, an Indonesian province in west part of Sumatra island. We interviewed three administrators and five teachers to get in-depth information about the purpose of this paper. The interview transcriptions were translated, coded, divided into themes, and elaborated in the findings of the paper. The findings of study conclude that Pesantren leaders in the perspective of the participants must provide supportive and shared leadership structures for teachers in order to create positive cultures and effective a professional learning community for the development of the Pesantren. Leaders of the Pesantren must directly cooperate with teaching staff to provide policies and procedures for teachers in the leadership structure to directly impact school improvement through professional learning community collaborative attempts. This study was conducted based on the school culture and professional learning communities literature by exploring existent policies and practices in schools as unique cases. This study is significant to the community as specific cases informing educational leaders especially in Islamic education on mechanisms that may be leveraged to ensure successful implementation of policies and procedures on the leadership and school culture of a professional learning community literature.
Ngalam, Jabi Jack
This thesis investigates the role of rural primary school teachers in community development activities within an integrated rural education centres project (IRECs) in southern Sudan. The study explores five areas of importance for an extended teacher's role in rural areas: (i) the school or community environment, (ii) community perception of the teacher's role and its expectations of the school, (iii) teachers' perception of their own role in the community, (iv) teachers' ...
Ramon J. Baez
Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.
Lee, Jasper S., Ed.; Wood, Charles B.
The manual was intended primarily for use by lay instructors and assistants involved in the daily operation of school-community canneries under the supervision of a high school agricultural education instructor. The first half deals in detail with the fundamentals of food preparation and cannery operation. Food preservation by canning, sanitation…
Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn
This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…
This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…
Larsen, Charles D.; Larsen, Michael D.; Handwerker, Lisa B.; Kim, Maile S.; Rosenthal, Murray
Background: The objective of the study was to quantitatively compare school- and community-based dental clinics in New York City that provide dental services to children in need. It was hypothesized that the school-based clinics would perform better in terms of several measures. Methods: We reviewed billing and visit data derived from encounter…
Shaner, Robert G.
Professional learning communities (PLC) have been identified as scaffolds that can facilitate, support, and sustain systemic change focused on improving student achievement. PLCs represent the application of the theoretical constructs of the learning organization within the framework of schools and school systems. Little is known about the change…
Bullis, Michael; Egelston-Dodd, Judy
Issues relevant to the school-to-community transition of deaf adolescents were identified and subsequently prioritized by 339 deafness professionals. Issues receiving highest priority were related to joint planning efforts among schools, departments of vocational rehabilitation, and families; training of independent living skills; and development…
Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…
Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Begay, Mary Helen; Bradley, Brian; McCarty, Nellie; Nelson, Jacob; Gamble, Armanda; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Bernita; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Smith, Jody; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Whitehair, Marsha; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg
A study examined the challenges faced by Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) and outlying communities on the Navajo Reservation in their efforts to adequately provide educational opportunities for their transfer students with special needs. Interviews were conducted with six students from 4th grade through high school; seven parents; special…
Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John
Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…
Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar
Increasingly, international and national statements are calling for the development of local sustainability scenarios within partnerships between schools and their communities. The present study addresses the question of reciprocity in such partnerships, by comparing the sustainability agendas underlying schools' educational programs to the…
Reyes, Pedro, Ed.; Scribner, Jay D., Ed.; Scribner, Alicia Paredes, Ed.
The current poor condition of education for Hispanic students need not exist. This book reports on high-performing schools along the Texas-Mexico border that have achieved schoolwide success by creating communities of learners. Three elementary, three middle, and two high schools in the border region were selected for study based on the following…
Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential
This article examines the role of community-based schools of nursing in the promotion of public health and research in poverty-stricken areas. This was a three-phase study (questionnaire and key-informants' interviews) that surveyed representatives of prelicensure associate and baccalaureate nursing schools (n=17), nursing-school key informants (n=6) and community leaders (n=10). A 13-question web-based survey and semi-structured interview of key informants elicited data on demographics, nursing program design, exposure of faculty and students to various research and health promotion methods, and beliefs about student involvement. Nursing schools participated minimally in community-based health promotion (CBHP) and community-based participatory research saw reduced need for student involvement in such activities, cited multiple barriers to active community collaboration, and reported restricted community partnerships. CBHP was recognized to be a valuable element of health care and student education, but is obstructed by many barriers. This study suggests that nursing schools are not taking full advantage of relationships with community leaders. Recommendations for action are given. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Askell-Williams, Helen; Cefai, Carmel; Skrzypiec, Grace; Wyra, Mirella
The role of school teachers in promoting students’ mental health is receiving increasing international attention. However, before venturing into schools with new initiatives such as mental health promotion, it is essential to take into account local contextual affordances and constraints. One issue is whether teachers and other school community stakeholders believe that activities related to mental health promotion are within teachers’ realms of responsibility and capabilities. This paper rep...
Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William
To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from
Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William
Objective To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. Design and data sources An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Study selection Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Results Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors’ knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Conclusions Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for ‘Tomorrow's Doctors’, a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. Strengths and limitations of this study This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed
Skeat, J; Wake, M; Ukoumunne, O C; Eadie, P; Bretherton, L; Reilly, S
Pre-school communication problems are common, with implications for school readiness and educational achievement. Help is available from a variety of community healthcare providers. This study examined the extent to which help is received, and the predictors of service receipt. Prospective community study, in Melbourne, Victoria. At age 4 years, we assessed the speech, receptive and expressive language and fluency of 1607 children and gave feedback to their parents. At age 5 years, 983 families provided data on service use for communication problems between and 4 and 5 years. We compared service use between participants with and without impairment, and used logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between potential predictors (gender, socio-economic status, maternal education, English-speaking background status, family history of speech and language problems and parent concern) and service use (binary outcome). Data were available for both communication status and service use for 753 children. Only 44.9% of the 196 children with communication impairment received help from a professional. Furthermore, 7% of the 557 that did not meet criteria for communication impairment nevertheless received help from a professional. Parent concern was the strongest predictor of service use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.0; 95% CI: 5.6-14.8). Both over- and under-servicing for communication problems were evident. This study shows that accessing help for communication problems requires more than simply informing parents about the problem and having services available; there is a need for systematic support to get the right children to services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark
Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.
O'Donnell, Deborah A; Roberts, William C; Schwab-Stone, Mary E
Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. A school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. Students reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. Community-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization
Abbey, Antonia; Pilgrim, Colleen; Hendrickson, Peggy; Buresl, Sue
Evaluates family-based substance abuse prevention program implemented in a rural community for families with middle school students. In comparison with nonparticipants, students had higher family cohesion, less family fighting, greater school attachment, higher self-esteem, and believed alcohol should be consumed at an older age, at one-year…
Ozer, Emily J; Lavi, Iris; Douglas, Laura; Wolf, Jennifer Price
This review provides a comprehensive investigation of the pattern and strength of findings in the literature regarding the environmental moderators of the relationship between exposure to community violence and mental health among children and adolescents. Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in our analysis of family, school, and community variables as moderators. Dependent variables included internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, substance use). Effect sizes for the interactions of exposure to violence and potential moderators were summarized by their patterns of protective processes. The majority of studies in the literature examined family characteristics as moderators of the exposure to violence-symptom relationship, rather than school- or community-level factors. Our results indicated more consistent patterns for (a) close family relationships and social support for internalizing symptoms and (b) close family relationships for externalizing symptoms. Overall, the most common type of protective pattern was protective-stabilizing, in which youth with higher levels of the environmental attribute demonstrate relative stability in mental health despite exposure to violence. We found no consistent evidence that parental monitoring-a dimension inversely associated with exposure to violence in prior studies-moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and symptoms. The study emphasizes the importance of strengthening family support for young people's exposure to community violence; more research is needed to provide a solid evidence base for the role of school and community-level protective factors for youth exposed to violence.
The purpose of this reputation-based, multiple-site case study was to explore professional learning communities' impact on teacher classroom practice. The goal of this research was to describe the administrator and teachers' perceptions with respect to professional learning communities as it related to teacher practice in their school. Educators…
A study examined the role of education in outmigration from the rural coastal community of Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. Data gathered on 756 Grade 6 students who left Digby Neck Consolidated School between 1957 and 1992 were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 36 of those former students, 12 area educators, and community members. Findings…
Education is a complex social practice. In the United Kingdom context, schooling is further nested within the complex social practices of community governance, quasi-market public choice, and religion. This essay explores the shifting definitions of community and education in the context of the Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015, which places…
Shaia, Wendy E.; Finigan-Carr, Nadine
Community schooling is an effective tool for combating the effects of poverty by integrating academic, social service, health, and economic supports for students, families, and community members. But this is complex work, requiring extraordinarily careful planning and assessment. This article suggests a planning framework that can help community…
Community-based learning (CBL) is a structured approach to learning and teaching that connects meaningful community experience with intellectual development, personal growth, and active citizenship. Enthusiasm for CBL is emerging in Australia and elsewhere because it is seen as the following: strategy for whole-school reform, especially in…
Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim
BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient
Koo, Sarai; Nishimura, Trisha S.
Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT), the authors report on narratives of education collected from three young Asian women living in and attending a predominately Latina/o community and school. The authors explored how Asians and Latina/o groups intersect in a majority minority community. Specifically, they sought to understand: (1) How young…
Lawson, Jennifer E.
This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…
Gaudioso, Jennifer A.
Perceptions of School Principals on Participation in Professional Learning Communities as Job-Embedded Learning Jennifer Gaudioso Principal Professional Learning Communities (PPLCs) have emerged as a vehicle for professional development of principals, but there is little research on how principals experience PPLCs or how districts can support…
Oakton Community Coll., Des Plaines, IL.
This 1996 annual report from Oakton Community College in Illinois was prepared to inform the community about the college's operations and finances, but in a more condensed, user friendly format than the comprehensive financial report. It includes statements from the board chairman and president, a mission statement, and a description of the board…
The purposive sampling technique was used to select 116 Head-teachers from the schools. Data was collected using 'School Activities Time-Mix of Head Teachers Checklist (SATMHTC)' to find out the amount of time spent daily on each administrative task. The findings revealed that head teachers spent a lot of time on ...
Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt
in the social everyday life children moves across. To understand the way in which children participate within the school start, we need to know about children’s participation possibilities within the social everyday life of the school and further more to be informed of the social life and the children’s former...
Serious re-examination of participatory traditions of democracy is long overdue. Iconically central to such traditions of democratic education is the practice of whole School Meetings. More usually associated with radical work within the private sector, School Meetings are here explored in detail through two examples from publicly funded…
Mitchell, Martin L.; Brendtro, Larry K.
Periodic mass school shootings and the steady slaughter of youth on the streets of our cities are both products of cultures of violence. The authors highlight key factors that promote or prevent such acts, beginning with the little-known account of a young boy who perpetuated the most deadly school violence in history.
Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Annenberg Inst. for School Reform.
The primary organizational structure for a city's schools is the district. Its critics, however, consider that dysfunction was designed into school districts structure by virtue of their history. District structure was built on the notions that intelligence was innate, that the "scientific management" model produced optimal results, and that…
Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona
A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…
The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.
Felner, Robert D.; Favazza, Antoinette; Shim, Minsuk; Brand, Stephen; Gu, Kenneth; Noonan, Nancy
Describes the School Transitional Environment Project and its successor, the Project on High Performance Learning Communities, that have contributed to building a model for school improvement called the High Performance Learning Communities. The model seeks to build the principles of prevention into whole school change. Presents findings from…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…
Chiang, Rachelle Johnsson; Meagher, Whitney; Slade, Sean
Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model calls for greater collaboration across the community, school, and health sectors to meet the needs and support the full potential of each child. This article reports on how 3 states and 2 local school districts have implemented aspects of the WSCC model through collaboration,…
Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Y W
A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes was launched in June 2010 with the aim of promoting the benefits of smoke-free homes to all school-aged children (aged 6-18), and indirectly to their parents and family members. The 1-year project included health talks on a smoke-free life; the distribution of educational leaflets; slogan and visual art competitions; and a health fair held in June 2011. Two sets of questionnaires were developed to solicit a resolution and action from the participants regarding the establishment of a smoke-free home, and their decision to stay smoke-free. This is a paper to report on the activities of this project, the attempts to reach out to school-aged children, and their indications of agreement with, support for, and commitment to promoting smoke-free homes. The project reached an estimated 12,800 school-aged children in Hong Kong. A large proportion of those received educational leaflets (69.6-88.2 %). Of those who participated in the health fair, 69.7-87.6 % agreed to promote the concept of smoke-free homes to friends and family. More primary than secondary students pledged to not take up smoking (90.8 vs 85.8 %). About 82 % of those who had experimented with smoking pledged to stop. A small proportion of them reported already having established a smoke-free policy at home (14.9 %), placed a 'No Smoking' sign at home (16.4 %), informed visitors of their smoke-free policy at home (12.9 %), and asked visitors to dispose of lit cigarettes before entering their home (15.9 %). This community-wide school health project on the benefits of smoke-free homes reached a large number of students, and indirectly to family members, and home visitors. Public health efforts of this kind should be continued to reach younger generations and the general public.
Full Text Available In March 2011, a triple earthquake-tsunami-nuclear disaster rocked northeasternJapan. In this article, the impact of these three disasters on schools,teachers and children will be analysed, with a particular focus on the role ofteachers in saving lives and leading communities, and the role of schools assites and agents of community and citizenship in the disaster situation. Thearticle is structured around four themes, namely, the role of school leadersand teachers, the role of schools as sites of community, changing mediarepresentations of children and communities in the wider national context,and the birth of global citizenship as a meaningful concept. Primary datafrom visits to schools in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture inJapan in July 2011 and December 2011 are combined with analysis ofsecondary sources written in Japanese to paint a clear picture of thedifferent roles served by teachers and schools at different points in timeduring and after the disasters. This provides insights not only into postdisastercommunities, but also into the role of teachers and function ofschools as agents and sites of community and citizenship in Japanesesociety.
Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy
Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
John, James Rufus; Mannan, Haider; Nargundkar, Subrat; D'Souza, Mario; Do, Loc Giang; Arora, Amit
Regular dental attendance is significant in maintaining and improving children's oral health and well-being. This study aims to determine the factors that predict and influence dental visits in primary school children residing in the rural community of Lithgow, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. All six primary schools of Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementing water fluoridation in 2014. Children aged 6-13 years (n = 667) were clinically examined for their oral health status and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on fluoride history, diet, last dental visit, and socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the independent predictors of a 6-monthly and a yearly dental visit. Overall, 53% of children visited a dentist within six months and 77% within twelve months. In multiple logistic regression analyses, age of the child and private health insurance coverage were significantly associated with both 6-monthly and twelve-month dental visits. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was significantly associated with a 27% higher odds (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.54) of a 6-monthly dental visit. It is imperative that the socio-demographic and dietary factors that influence child oral health must be effectively addressed when developing the oral health promotion policies to ensure better oral health outcomes.
Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Ajzenman, Nicolas; Orsola-Vidal, Alexandra
This paper analyzes a randomized experiment that uses novel strategies to promote handwashing with soap at critical points in time in Peru. It evaluates a large-scale comprehensive initiative that involved both community and school activities in addition to communication campaigns. The analysis indicates that the initiative was successful in reaching the target audience and in increasing the treated population's knowledge about appropriate handwashing behavior. These improvements translated into higher self-reported and observed handwashing with soap at critical junctures. However, no significant improvements in the health of children under the age of 5 years were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Morrow, S A; Bates, P E
This study examined the effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on acquisition and generalization of a community laundry skill by nine students with severe handicaps. School-based instruction involved artificial materials (pictures), simulated materials (cardboard replica of a community washing machine), and natural materials (modified home model washing machine). Generalization assessments were conducted at two different community laundromats, on two machines represented fully by the school-based instructional materials and two machines not represented fully by these materials. After three phases of school-based instruction, the students were provided ten community training trials in one laundromat setting and a final assessment was conducted in both the trained and untrained community settings. A multiple probe design across students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the three types of school instruction and community training. After systematic training, most of the students increased their laundry performance with all three sets of school-based materials; however, generalization of these acquired skills was limited in the two community settings. Direct training in one of the community settings resulted in more efficient acquisition of the laundry skills and enhanced generalization to the untrained laundromat setting for most of the students. Results of this study are discussed in regard to the issue of school versus community-based instruction and recommendations are made for future research in this area.
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2012.1. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) Revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…
Cornman, Stephen Q.
This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…
E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)
textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by
Sandhaug, Maria; Andelic, Nada; Langhammer, Birgitta; Mygland, Aase
The aim of this study was to examine community integration by the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) 2 years after injury in a divided TBI sample of moderately and severely injured patients. The second aim was to identify social-demographic, injury-related and rehabilitation associated predictors of CIQ. A cohort study. Outpatient follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with moderate (n = 21) or severe (n = 36) TBI were examined with the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) at 2 years after injury. Possible predictors were analysed in a regression model using CIQ total score at 2 years as the outcome measure. The Community Integration Questionnaire. At 2 years follow-up, there was significant difference between the moderately and severely injured patients in the productivity scores (p productivity level than the severely injured patients. Marital status, injury severity and rehabilitation after injury were associated with community integration 2 years after TBI.
Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William
McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. During the 6 month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n = 80); a student online PA interest survey (n = 465); a PA and nutrition survey among 5(th) (10-11 years) and 8(th) graders (13-14 years) with questions adapted from the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (n = 442, response rate = 82.2%); six semi-structured school and community focus groups (n = 44); school site visits (n = 11); and BMI screening (n = 550, response rate = 69.7%). One third of children in McDowell County meet the national PA minimum of 60 minutes daily. At least 40% of 5(th) and 8(th) graders engage in electronic screen activity for 3 hours or more every day. The prevalence of obesity in 5(th) graders is higher in McDowell County than the rest of WV (~55% vs. 47% respectively). SWOT analyses of focus group data suggest an overall interest in PA but also highlight a need for increase in structured PA opportunities. Focus group data also suggested that a central communication (e.g. internet-based) platform would be beneficial to advertise and boost participation both in current and future programs. Schools were commonly mentioned as potential facilities for public PA participation throughout the county, both with regards to access and convenience. School site visits suggest that schools need more equipment and resources for before, during, and after school programs. An overwhelming majority of participants in the McDowell CHOICES needs assessment were interested to participate in more PA programs throughout the county as well as to improve opportunities for the provision of such programs. Public schools were widely recognized as the hub
Kim, Sook-Young; Joung, Sun-Ei; Hwang, Chung-Il
This study was done to comparatively analyze the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea. Ten university 4-yr nursing schools were selected based on universities in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010 or "2009 Korea's Best Universities-Top 10" published by Joong-Ang Daily. Ten college 3-yr nursing schools were selected based on colleges in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010. 1) Generally 4-yr nursing schools maintained the relationships between organizational philosophy/purposes and subjects in the general education curriculum. But 3-yr nursing schools did not. 2) In 4-yr nursing schools there was a relatively higher credits ratio of general education curriculum and selective courses than in 3-yr nursing schools. 3) In 4-yr nursing schools variety of courses was relatively higher than 3-yr nursing schools. 4) In 4-yr nursing schools, operating conditions were relatively better (number of tenure professors, ratio of professors to students, Identification of exclusive organization in charge of the general education curriculum) for the general education curriculum than 3-yr nursing schools. The results identify significant differences in the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea, indicating that 3-yr nursing schools should make efforts to improve the good quality of general education curriculum.
Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.; Sheldon, Steven B.
Purpose: This study tests key constructs of sociocultural and organizational learning theories with quantitative methods to better understand the nature and impact of district and school leadership and actions on the quality of programs of family and community involvement. Research Design: Survey data from a "nested" sample of 24 districts and 407…
When CHN students engage with communities through service learning, a school-readiness intervention may serve as a powerful tool to provide parents with the support that is needed to empower them with the skills to contribute towards their children’s early childhood development. It may improve the parent–child relationship which is critical in the development of children.
Maring, Elisabeth F; Koblinsky, Sally A
Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly low-income African American students completed open-ended interviews. Selected schools were in geographic areas with high violent crime levels. Consistent with an ecological risk and resilience framework, findings revealed that teachers experienced challenges and adopted coping strategies at the individual, family, school, and community levels. Teachers employed a number of strategies associated with resilience, such as prayer and seeking support from family and colleagues, but also engaged in some avoidant strategies, such as emotional withdrawal and avoiding difficult students. Findings suggest interventions to improve school safety and reduce the negative impact of violence-related stressors. Teacher training in behavior management, effective school leadership, improved school security, peer mediation, expanded mental health services, and parent involvement may promote resilience among both teachers and their students. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Goodchild, G A; Faulks, J; Swift, J A; Mhesuria, J; Jethwa, P; Pearce, J
Universal infant free school meals (UIFSM) were introduced in September 2014 and are available to all key stage 1 (4-7 years) children attending state-maintained infant and primary schools in England. The present study aimed to investigate the school-based factors, child and family socio-demographic characteristics, and parental beliefs associated with UIFSM take up in an urban community. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was completed in October to November 2015, amongst parents whose children attended eligible schools in Leicester, England. A questionnaire about school meals was also completed by each school. Parents reported their child did not take (non-UIFSM, n = 159) or took (UIFSM, n = 517) a UIFSM on most days. The non-UIFSM group were more likely to be White-British, have a higher socio-economic status, have English as a first language, and involve their child in the decision over whether or not to take UIFSM, compared to the UIFSM group. Cluster analysis revealed that non-UIFSM parents were either concerned over quality of meals and what/how much their child ate, concerned only by what/how much their child ate or whether their child did not like the food provided. Two subsets of parents in the UIFSM group were either very positive about UIFSM or appeared to take meals because they were free. Schools used a variety of measures to increase and maintain UIFSM take up. Parents like to have control over what their child eats at school and children need to enjoy their school meals. Using a range of interventions to target subsets of parents may help local authorities, schools and caterers to increase UIFSM take up. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Franck, Karen L.; Barnes, Shelly; Harrison, Julie
Poverty simulations can be effective experiential learning tools for educating community members about the impact of poverty on families. The project described here includes survey results from three simulations with community leaders and teachers. This project illustrated how such workshops can help Extension professionals extend their reach and…
Urrieta, Luis, Jr.
This article presents ethnographic data of US Mexican-indigenous heritage children's transnational experiences during return visits to Mexico. US-born children and youth's acquisition of transnational diasporic community knowledge, in this article, is studied as a form of "smartness." Diasporic community knowledge is defined as the…
Leone, Claudio; And Others
Clinically examined and interviewed 847 elementary students (ages six to 19 years) to determine their nutritional status and acceptance of school food. Findings indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition and high rates of students coming to school with no food, nonacceptance of the school lunch, and strong preference for salty food.…
My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…
In response to educational needs in the waste management industry that were expressed by companies located in Oak Ridge and Knoxville, Tennessee, Roane State Community College has developed an associate degree program in environmental health technology as well as related noncredit programs offered by the Waste Management Training Center. The degree program contains three options: health physics, industrial hygiene, and waste management technologies. Roane State's involvement in these programs was a direct response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) model concept. This model brings together the resources of the DOE, regulatory agencies, private industry, higher education, and various contractors to resolve waste disposal and waste cleanup problems. Firms such as International Technology, Scientific Ecology Group, and Bechtel National enhanced Roane State's awareness of the nature of some of the environmental problems these and many other firms are working to resolve
Simons, Abigail; Koekemoer, Karin; Niekerk, Ashley van; Govender, Rajen
The risk of pedestrian injury is compounded for children living in low-income communities due to factors such as poor road and pedestrian infrastructure, reliance on walking as a means of transport, and compromised supervision. Parents play an important role in child pedestrian safety. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of child pedestrian variables on parental discomfort with regard to letting their child walk to and from school and on the frequency of adult supervision. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sample from 3 schools participating in a pedestrian safety school initiative. The schools are situated in low-income, high-risk communities in the City of Cape Town. A parent survey form was translated into isiXhosa and sent home with learners to those parents who had consented to participate. The response rate was 70.4%, and only parents of children who walk to and from school were included in the final sample (n = 359). Child pedestrian variables include the time taken to walk to school, parental rating of the child's ability to safely cross the road, and the frequency of adult supervision. More than half of parents reported that their child walked to and from school without adult supervision. About 56% of children took less than 20 min to walk to school. Most parents (61%) were uncomfortable with their child walking to school, although the majority of parents (55.7%) rated their child's ability to cross the road safely as better or significantly better than average (compared to peers). The parents did not perceive any differences in pedestrian risk factors between boys and girls or between younger (6-9 years) and older (10-15 years) children. The time spent by a child walking to school and parents' perceptions of their child's road-crossing ability were found to be significant predictors of parental discomfort (in letting their child walk). Younger children and children who spent less time walking were more
Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Viga-de Alva, Dolores; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Molina-Segui, Fernanda
We use complex network theory to study the differences between the friendship concepts in elementary school and university students. Four friendship networks were identified from surveys. Three of these networks are from elementary schools; two are located in the rural area of Yucatán and the other is in the urban area of Mérida, Yucatán. We analyzed the structure and the communities of these friendship networks and found significant differences among those at the elementary schools compared with those at the university. In elementary schools, the students make friends mainly in the same classroom, but there are also links among different classrooms because of the presence of siblings and relatives in the schools. These kinds of links (sibling-friend or relative-friend) are called, in this work, "mixed links". The classification of the communities is based on their similarity with the classroom composition. If the community is composed principally of students in different classrooms, the community is classified as heterogeneous. These kinds of communities appear in the elementary school friendship networks mainly because of the presence of relatives and siblings. Once the links between siblings and relatives are removed, the communities resembled the classroom composition. On the other hand, the university students are more selective in choosing friends and therefore, even when they have friends in the same classroom, those communities are quite different to the classroom composition. Also, in the university network, we found heterogeneous communities even when the presence of sibling and relatives is negligible. These differences made up a topological structure quite different at different academic levels. We also found differences in the network characteristics. Once these differences are understood, the topological structure of the friendship network and the communities shaped in an elementary school could be predicted if we know the total number of students
This article reports findings from the first year of a longitudinal, mixed-methods case study of a large teaching school alliance in England. This national initiative is intended to drive improvement at system level by grouping schools around formally designated teaching schools. These "alliances" work collaboratively to share learning,…
McCormac, Mary E.
Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…
Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean
This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.
Full Text Available Background: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. Aim: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Results: Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Conclusion: Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.
THOMAS, GEORGE ISAIAH
THIS REPORT EXPLORES PLANS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ORGANIZATION BASED UPON THE LENGTHENING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR TO REDUCE BY ONE OR MORE YEARS THE TOTAL PERIOD OF SCHOOLING. PRACTICAL INFORMATION IS PRESENTED CONCERNING (1) THE CONTINUOUS SCHOOL YEAR PLAN, (2) THE TRIMESTER PLAN, (3) THE QUADRIMESTER PLAN, (4) THE MODIFIED SUMMER SCHOOL…
Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian
Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.
This study was designed to assess the extent to which children served by the Model Schools Division Preschool Program developed socially, intellectually, physically and emotionally during the 1973-74 school year. This evaluation was also designed to measure the appropriateness of the learning environment and the amount of services provided by the…
Carmen ÁLVAREZ ÁLVAREZ
Full Text Available This article reflects on the interrelationships that exist between two educational projects of today: service-learning (ApS and learning communities (CdA. The ApS is an educational methodology applied worldwide where a single project combines a learning based on experience with the implementation of a service to the community. CdA is a school transformation project to achieve that the information society does not exclude any person, constituting a reality in more than one hundred and ninety schools in Spain and Latin America. Between the two, it is possible to show differences, especially in what refers to its theoretical substrates, but in actual teaching practice in schools there is some harmony, particularly in the so closely that they cultivate both projects with the school community. Therefore, we conclude that service-learning and learning communities can occur as two innovative and relevant today projects which can be mutually enriching: because for both the approach school-community-environment and volunteering is essential.
Full Text Available The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1 What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2 In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD, violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.
In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...
Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz
Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure
Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra
Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.
In many rural areas, both communities and schools are threatened by decreasing population and changing economic conditions. To boost both the local economy and student achievement, a growing number of rural schools are turning to entrepreneurial education. In school entrepreneurship programs, students create small businesses under the guidance of…
Szilagyi, Peter G; Schaffer, Stanley; Rand, Cynthia M; Goldstein, Nicolas P N; Hightower, A Dirk; Younge, Mary; Eagan, Ashley; Blumkin, Aaron; Albertin, Christina S; DiBitetto, Kristine; Concannon, Cathleen; Vincelli, Phyllis; Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Humiston, Sharon G
Influenza vaccination rates among children are low and novel strategies are needed to raise coverage. We measured the impact of school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) on coverage, examined whether SLIV substitutes for practice-based influenza vaccination ("substitution"), and estimated whether a second year of experience with SLIV increases its impact. We implemented a stepped wedge study design with schools as clusters. In Year 1, we randomly allocated schools to SLIV or control. In Year 2, all schools performed SLIV. We used emails (suburban schools) or backpack fliers (both urban and suburban schools) to notify parents, and offered web-based (suburban) or paper-based vaccination (urban) consent forms. Local health department nurses administered SLIV vaccinations and billed insurers. We analyzed state immunization registry data to measure influenza vaccination rates. 42 schools (38,078 children) participated over 2 years. Overall vaccination rates were 5 and 7 percentage points higher among SLIV- school children versus control-school children in suburban (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49 in Years 1-2 SLIV vs. Year 1 control schools) and urban schools (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.36), respectively, adjusting for prior year's vaccination and other covariates. While no substitution occurred among children attending suburban schools, some substitution occurred among children attending urban schools, although overall vaccination rates were still higher in urban schools due to SLIV. Compared to an initial year of SLIV, more children were vaccinated in a second year of SLIV at urban (8.3% vs. 6.8%, aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47) but not suburban schools (3.5% vs. 2.7%, aOR 1.24, 95% CI 0.98-1.57). In this stepped wedge trial, SLIV increased overall influenza vaccination rates in suburban and urban schools. Some substitution for primary care vaccination occurred in urban settings. A second year of SLIV expanded its reach slightly in urban schools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier
... Include children in family activities like walking the dog, washing the car, or mowing the lawn. Sign ... visit www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-communication-programs/win/Pages/community-groups-organizations.aspx Find ...
Clark, Elizabeth; Buswell, Sue Ann; Morgitan, Judith; Compton, Linda; Westendorf, Georgene; Chau, Elizabeth
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) has the educational and clinical background to coordinate the necessary school health services to provide students with the same health, nutrition, and safety needs while attending…
Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Howat, Holly; Curtis, Nikki; Landry, Shauna; Farmer, Kara; Kroll, Tobias; Douglass, Jill
This article examines school and school district-level efforts to reopen schools after significant damage from hurricanes. Through an empirical, qualitative research design, four themes emerged as critical to the hurricane recovery process: the importance of communication, resolving tension, coordinating with other services and learning from the…
Full Text Available The research aimed to gain insights into the quality of four-year program vocational high school (VHS in Indonesia compared to four-year program VHS. This research was conducted based on the school graduate standard, business sector and industrial sector (or Dunia Usaha dan Dunia Industri (DUDI – or the performance of the graduates and alumni (the graduates’ satisfaction. The research was conducted using Discrepancy Evaluation Model using 16 VHSs (eight four-year program VHSs and eight three-year program VHSs. The result shows that from the standpoint of the school, the graduates of the four-year program VHS are higher in quality than those of the three-year program VHS. The four-year program VHS graduates are more qualified in seven aspects: teamwork, discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, confidence, creativity, and leadership. Meanwhile, using DUDI standpoint, the four-year program VHS graduates are also higher in quality than the three-year program VHS graduates. In addition, the four-year program VHS graduates are better in the quality of their discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, practical skills, confidence, carefulness, creativity, and leadership. The four-year program VHS graduates have a higher level of satisfaction in terms of income than the three-year program VHS graduates. The higher quality of the four-year program VHS graduates has resulted from longer duration of the internship program (PKL that provides them with reliable experience and skills concerning work-related problem-solving activities.
Full Text Available This article outlines environment friendly features, climate responsive features and construction features of a prototype school building constructed using green building technology. The school building has other additional features such as earthquake resistant construction, use of local materials and local technology. The construction process not only establishes community ownership, but also facilitates dissemination of the technology to the communities. Schools are effective media for raising awareness, disseminating technology and up-scaling the innovative approach. The approach is cost effective and sustainable for long-term application of green building technology. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes that such construction technology will be instrumental to build culture of safety in communities and reduce disaster risk.
Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario
The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.
Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna
Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.
Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi
To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.
It has been 54 years already, ever since the Nursery school was founded in March 1961, that the Staff Association together with the teachers, the managerial and the administrative staff, welcomes your children at the start of the school year. On Tuesday, 30 August 2016, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School opened its doors again for children between four months and six years old. The start of the school year was carried out gradually and in small groups to allow quality interaction between children, professionals and parents. This year, our structure will accommodate about 130 children divided between the nursery, the kindergarten and the school. Throughout the school year, the children will work on the theme of colours, which will be the common thread linking all our activities. Our team is comprised of 38 people: the headmistress, the deputy headmistress, 2 secretaries, 13 educators, 4 teachers, 11 teaching assistants, 2 nursery assistants and 4 canteen workers. The team is delighted...
Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kasab, Dimma
The purpose of this investigation was to qualitatively describe high school students' reasons for their science dispositions (attitude, perception, and self-confidence) based on their long-term experience with innovative technology-embedded environmental research projects. Students in small groups conducted research projects in and out of school with the help of their teachers and community experts (scientists and engineers). During the 3-year period of this nationally funded project, a total of 135 students from five schools in a mid-west State participated in research activities. Of the 135 students, 53 students were individually interviewed to explore reasons for their science dispositions. Students' reasons for each disposition were grouped into categories, and corresponding frequency was converted to a percentage. The categories of reasons were not only attributed to the use of innovative technologies in environmental research but also the contexts and events that surrounded it. The reasons that influenced students' science dispositions positively were because engaging in environmental research projects with technology contributed to easing fear and difficulty, building a research team, disseminating findings, communicating with the community, researching with scientists, training by teachers, and acknowledging teachers' knowledge. These results advanced how and why students develop science dispositions in the positive direction, which are as follows: building science teacher capacity, developing a community of inquirers, and committing to improve pedagogical practices.
Full Text Available For quite some time, Slovenian society has been preserving a specific model of social organisation rooted in the communal form. In functioning as a socio-cultural centre of the local community the school greatly surpassed its primary role of educating children. The process of urbanisation that has reached rural areas brought very interesting changes to the previously expanded function of the local school. We examined how, today, schools perceive a need to connect with and engage in their local environments. The perceptions of connections and their real modalities do differ and the ways in which schools respond to the needs of the localities (and vice versa depend on the prevalent model of social organisation. Exceptions to this are more significant in localities where the school might be one of very few public institutions or the only public institution present at the local level. Although the schools wish to motivate and engage local residents also in other environments, they often lack the time and energy to do so. The results of qualitative analysis indicated that merging or closing local schools could have negative demographic and socio-cultural consequences. At the same time, the analysis pointed to unrealised potential in the localities lacking tradition, such as new urban areas where the school could be the crucial element in the social organisation of the local community.
Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey, however, have focused extensively on the association between household-level factors and school participation, ignoring the role of the broader environment in which children live. Using a recent, large-scale and nationally representative data set, this paper investigates school participation at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey, giving specific attention to community- level factors. In taking into account socioeconomic context variables using the multilevel modelling method, this study contributes significantly to current school participation literature in Turkey. The author's findings highlight the importance of community/context factors in explaining low school enrolment in Turkey. The results of the study can help policy makers develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic context and school participation, and enable them to make more appropriate decisions for improving school participation across the country.
Meurer, J R; McKenzie, S; Mischler, E; Subichin, S; Malloy, M; George, V
Program planners developed an educational program to improve the health of children with asthma in grades three to five in Milwaukee (Wis.) Public Schools. During 1997-1998, 1,400 students from 74 elementary schools participated in the Awesome Asthma School Days education program. In a cross-sectional survey, about 40% of children reported play interrupted and sleep disturbed by asthma, more than 50% of children reported exposure to smoke in their home, most children lacked asthma self-care tools, and most children with persistent symptoms did not use an anti-inflammatory inhaler. The educational program improved students' expectations about normal play and sleep and improved their understanding of asthma. Leaders in Milwaukee used the survey results to develop a community action plan. The educational program, surveys, community partnerships, and strategic plans can be replicated in other schools.
Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...
Lovely, Suzette; Buffum, Austin G.; Barth, Roland S.
Today's workforce comprises distinct generational cohorts-Veterans, Baby Boomers, Gen-Xers, and Millennials. "Generations at School" provides educators with the knowledge and tools to create and sustain true collaboration, teamwork, and consensus. Suzette Lovely and Austin G. Buffum introduce the traits and tipping points of these diverse age…
Gallavan, Nancy P.; Bowles, Freddie A.
Elementary teacher Ms. Huff realized that her third grade students were limited in their knowledge and experiences related to gardening. Most of today's young learners in the United States do not live on farms, and few families maintain gardens. Only a few of Ms. Huff's students could say they had a family garden. In schools, students learn about…
Leonardi, Bethy; Staley, Sara
Schools tend to be unsafe, unsupportive places for LGBTQ youth. Generally, teachers and administrators are provided little professional development (professional development) focused on gender and sexual diversity. Efforts to provide educators with gender and sexual diversity-focused professional development are slowly expanding, but still too…
... for children to be ready and able to learn, they need academic, social, and health supports. The.... Mental health counseling services; and 12. Adult education, including instruction of adults in English as...) how the academic, social and/or health services provided would align with and support the school...
O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.
With the dawn of the Information Age, schools, along with other organizations, must take note of the varied ways individuals and groups in society are communicating. Today, with the many forms of communication, most information is made public in real time. In a qualitative national study in the United States, respondents identified positive and…
School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…
This essay contends that there are fundamental connections between a nation's political arrangements and its educational efforts on behalf of youth. Though the common school architects of the nineteenth century recognized these connections, they were profoundly forgotten in a later Darwinian milieu that suggested--our allegiance to democracy…
Illinois Community College Board, 2006
Data about compensation received by employees in Illinois' 48 Illinois public community colleges are gathered by the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB). Data in the Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report reflect the census date of October 1, 2005. Data are presented by peer groups with statewide totals. Most of the 25 tables in this report contain…
Smith, Kylie A.; Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Kefalianos, Elaina; Hearne, Anna; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and…
Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.
Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…
Holt, Laura L.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
An analysis of the problems pertaining to the adoption of a year-round calendar for high schools, along with the advantages of year-round education (YRE), are examined. It provides a literary review (including historical contexts), types of calendars, benefits, administrative problems, and societal benefits. For the study, 28 schools responded to…
The aim of the study was to identify the nature and extent of the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at the University of the Witwatersrand. The investigation was done at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level high school physical science and first-year chemistry syllabuses were compared. The testing ...
Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl
The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…
Duffy, Bernadette; Fotinatos, Nina; Smith, Amanda; Burke, Jenene
The research reported in this paper investigates why teachers in regional primary schools in the Ballarat region of Victoria, Australia, are choosing to outsource the teaching of sexuality education. A survey was conducted of 29 Year 5 and Year 6 teachers from local primary schools. The teachers provided information about: their confidence in…
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the year-round calendar on student performance in Texas middle schools as measured by achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. In the State of Texas, 15 schools served students in grades six through eight using the year-round calendar in 2009-2010. The 15…
Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.
A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…
Community colleges serve the noble mission of making higher education accessible to a broader spectrum of society than traditional 4-year institutions. A side effect of this broad access is a lower level of student preparedness for success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. This work describes our efforts to…
Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates students' personal needs. As a result these schools cooperate more with external organizations, stimulate parental involvement in the educational process and organize more extracurricular activities. ...
Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine
The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice....
Since 1991, the National Education Commission on Time and Learning has been examining the quality and adequacy of student learning time. Innovations being considered address provision of additional learning opportunities, children's well-being, employee productivity concerns, and efficient use of school facilities. Promising practices include the…
Mielke, H.W.; Berry, K.J..; Mielke, P.W.; Powell, E.T.; Gonzales, C.R.
In New Orleans, the elementary school system is divided into attendance districts with established boundaries that define student enrollment among schools. This study concerns environmental quality as defined by amount of soil metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, and V) in attendance district elementary school communities (n=111) paired with learning achievement as measured by individual test scores (n=32,741) of students enrolled at each school. The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) 4th grade scores measure learning achievement for English language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. The best fit between environmental quality and higher learning achievement is found to be inversely associated with the sum of the metals or multiple metal accumulations (MMA) in New Orleans communities. The P values for MMA partitions for ELA, SOC, MAT, and SCI are 0.57x10 -7 , 0.29x10 -8 , 0.41x10 -6 , and 0.17x10 -8 , respectively. Efforts to prevent childhood metal exposure should improve New Orleanians' learning achievement as measured by the LEAP scores and thereby enhance the socioeconomic situation in contaminated communities. This study establishes global relationships between LEAP scores in schools and soil metal concentrations in school neighborhoods. However, these data do not allow relating of the LEAP scores with metal levels for individual students
Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Buxton, Cory A.; Harman, Ruth
Rapid migration shifts, anti-immigrant discourses in the public sphere, and harsh immigration policies have posed daunting challenges for immigrant students, their families, their teachers, and their communities in the 21st century. Trends in public discourse and law enforcement in the United States mirror developments in European countries with…
Kimberly Monk; Jessica Bourdeau; Michele Capra
In the effort to augment hospitality and tourism education beyond classroom instruction and internships, the added instructional methodology of community service learning is suggested. Service learning is an instructional method where students learn and develop through active participation in organized experiences that meet actual needs, increasing their sense of...
Mindich, Dan; Lieberman, Ann
Teacher professional development is one of the most powerful influences on student achievement, and professional learning communities can be an excellent vehicle for high-quality PD. Mindich and Lieberman examine ways to implement effective PLCs. Education research has found that collegial work is connected to teachers' professional growth and…
Results: Eating the uncooked food as a cause for soil transmitted infections constituted 27.16% (63) followed by 16.38% (38) not using latrines, 15.95% (37) eating left ... The study also found out that the community perception towards the de-worming programme was good because the de-worming programme improved the ...
Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...
A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…
Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew
Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…
Research points to greater demands on the family to take part in and arrange family life to support their children’s school life – and solutions to children’s problems in class are increasingly designed to include the parents. Debates in relation to parental collaboration can be seen as expressions...... of conflicts about how Danish schools should prioritize, what is relevant in relation to learning, how children’s difficulties ought to be understood, and who is responsible. Therefore, the question of parental collaboration constitutes an interesting opportunity to discuss theoretical questions related...... to the challenge of conceptualizing the conflictual collaboration between parties positioned in a distribution of responsibility and influence. The paper takes departure in that the different parties perspectives on the problems are connected in a ‘common matter’ as well as differentiated by the different tasks...
Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Goldshore, Matt; Solomon, Barry S; Guyer, Bernard; Grason, Holly
To compare community involvement of pediatricians exposed to enhanced residency training as part of the Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative (CPTI) with involvement reported by a national sample of pediatricians. A cross-sectional analyses compared 2008-2010 mailed surveys of CPTI graduates 5 years after residency graduation with comparably aged respondents in a 2010 mailed national American Academy of Pediatrics survey of US pediatricians (CPTI: n = 234, response = 56.0%; national sample: n = 243; response = 59.9%). Respondents reported demographic characteristics, practice characteristics (setting, time spent in general pediatrics), involvement in community child health activities in past 12 months, use of ≥1 strategies to influence community child health (eg, educate legislators), and being moderately/very versus not at all/minimally skilled in 6 such activities (eg, identify community needs). χ(2) statistics assessed differences between groups; logistic regression modeled the independent association of CPTI with community involvement adjusting for personal and practice characteristics and perspectives regarding involvement. Compared with the national sample, more CPTI graduates reported involvement in community pediatrics (43.6% vs 31.1%, P .05). Differences in involvement remained in adjusted analyses with greater involvement by CPTI graduates (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.7). Five years after residency, compared with their peers, more CPTI graduates report having skills and greater community pediatrics involvement. Enhanced residency training in community pediatrics may lead to a more engaged pediatrician workforce. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Walsh, Mary E; Galvin, Rose; Loughnane, Cliona; Macey, Chris; Horgan, N Frances
Although acute stroke care has improved survival, many individuals report dissatisfaction with community reintegration after stroke. The aim of this qualitative meta-synthesis was to examine the barriers and facilitators of community reintegration in the first year after stroke from the perspective of people with stroke. A systematic literature search was conducted. Papers that used qualitative methods to explore the experiences of individuals with stroke around community reintegration in the first year after stroke were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of papers. Themes, concepts and interpretations were extracted from each study, compared and meta-synthesised. From the 18 included qualitative studies four themes related to community reintegration in the first year after stroke were identified: (i) the primary effects of stroke, (ii) personal factors, (iii) social factors and (iv) relationships with professionals. This review suggests that an individual's perseverance, adaptability and ability to overcome emotional challenges can facilitate reintegration into the community despite persisting effects of their stroke. Appropriate support from family, friends, the broader community and healthcare professionals is important. Therapeutic activities should relate to meaningful activities and should be tailored to the individual stroke survivor. Stroke survivors feel that rehabilitation in familiar environments and therapeutic activities that reflect real-life could help their community re-integration. In addition to the physical sequelae of stroke, emotional consequences of stroke should be addressed during rehabilitation. Healthcare professionals can provide clear and locally relevant advice to facilitate aspects of community reintegration, including the return to driving and work.
Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the progression of refractive errors of pupils in Hetian Road primary school of Shanghai Zhabei community and analyze the relationship between refractive errors progression and relative factors. METHODS:All the 6-12 years old in-school pupils in Hetian Road primary school of Shanghai Zhabei community were invited in the study. The participates were examined first-visit in May 2011 and second-visit in May 2012. All the 303 pupils(606 eyeswere investigated the age, height(H, weight(W, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, diopter of spherical(DS, diopter of cylinder(DC, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(AL, and corneal curvature(K. The progression of refractive condition was described and the relevant factors were analyzed.RESULTS:Among 606 eyes, the progression of average SE was -0.45±0.60D and the progression of average AL was 0.32±0.25mm. The progression of SE diopter was positively correlated with the progression of AL(r=0.409, PP=0.004. The youngest pupils with 6-8 years old, had the fastest progression of AL(0.39±0.24mm, PP>0.05. The incidence of poor sight(UCVACONCLUSION:Myopia is the main progression of refractive error in the pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Shanghai Zhabei community. AL and growth development is closely related to the progression of refractive errors.
Carissimi, Alicia; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Dresch, Fabiane; da Silva, Lilian Corrêa; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12.81 ± 2.56 years; 58.6% female). From this sample, 80 participants were randomly selected for saliva collection to measure melatonin and cortisol levels. Circadian sleep parameters were assessed by self-reported sleep and wake up schedules and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. The outcomes, salivary melatonin and cortisol levels, were measured in morning, afternoon and night saliva samples, and behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The main results revealed that morning school start time decreased the secretion of melatonin. Morning melatonin levels were significantly positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays and on weekends. Afternoon melatonin levels were positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekends in the morning school students. Conversely, in the afternoon school students, night melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays. Cortisol secretion did not correlate with circadian sleep parameters in any of the school time groups. In conclusion, school start time influences melatonin secretion, which correlated with circadian sleep parameters. This correlation depends on the presence of psychiatric symptoms. Our findings emphasize the importance of drawing attention to the influence of school start time on the circadian rhythm of children and adolescents.
Roy M Anderson
Full Text Available The London Declaration on neglected tropical diseases was based in part on a new World Health Organization roadmap to "sustain, expand and extend drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control by 2020". Large drug donations from the pharmaceutical industry form the backbone to this aim, especially for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs raising the question of how best to use these resources. Deworming for STHs is often targeted at school children because they are at greatest risk of morbidity and because it is remarkably cost-effective. However, the impact of school-based deworming on transmission in the wider community remains unclear.We first estimate the proportion of parasites targeted by school-based deworming using demography, school enrolment, and data from a small number of example settings where age-specific intensity of infection (either worms or eggs has been measured for all ages. We also use transmission models to investigate the potential impact of this coverage on transmission for different mixing scenarios.In the example settings <30% of the population are 5 to <15 years old. Combining this demography with the infection age-intensity profile we estimate that in one setting school children output as little as 15% of hookworm eggs, whereas in another setting they harbour up to 50% of Ascaris lumbricoides worms (the highest proportion of parasites for our examples. In addition, it is estimated that from 40-70% of these children are enrolled at school.These estimates suggest that, whilst school-based programmes have many important benefits, the proportion of infective stages targeted by school-based deworming may be limited, particularly where hookworm predominates. We discuss the consequences for transmission for a range of scenarios, including when infective stages deposited by children are more likely to contribute to transmission than those from adults.
McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou
Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897
Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.
Full Text Available This article examines data on student achievement and school demographics not explored by the researchers who have promoted Community School District 2 (CSD 2 as a model of urban school reform that should be replicated elsewhere. Data on achievement indicate a remarkable degree of social and racial stratification among CSD 2's schools and levels of achievement that closely correlate with race, ethnicity, and poverty. In addition, when CSD 2's scores on state and city tests of mathematics are compared with results from CSD 25 in Queens, a school district that serves a population demographically similar, the superiority of its functioning becomes questionable. The article explains why the design of research on CSD 2 illustrates the perils to both research and policy when university-based researchers assume the role of “cheerleader” (Cuban, 1988, promoting reforms they have aided in implementing and assessing.
Kogan, L R; Stewart, S M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Hellyer, P W
Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate's coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee's immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year
Full Text Available Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution. Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than
Fowell, S. J.; Rittgers, A.; Stephens, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Peters, H.; Snow, E.; Wartes, D.
GeoFORCE Alaska is a four-year, field-based, summer geoscience program designed to raise graduation rates in rural Alaskan high schools, encourage participants to pursue college degrees, and increase the diversity of Alaska's technical workforce. Residents of predominantly Alaska Native villages holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) bring valuable perspectives to decisions regarding management of cultural and natural resources. However, between 2010 and 2015 the average dropout rate for students in grades 7-12 was 8.5% per year in the North Slope School District and 7% per year in the Northwest Arctic School District. 2015 graduation rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. Statewide statistics highlight the challenge for Alaska Native students. During the 2014-2015 school year alone 37.6% of Alaska Native students dropped out of Alaskan public schools. At the college level, Alaska Native students are underrepresented in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) science departments. Launched in 2012 by UAF in partnership with the longstanding University of Texas at Austin program, GeoFORCE applies the cohort model, leading the same group of high school students on geological field academies during four consecutive summers. Through a combination of active learning, teamwork, and hands-on projects at spectacular geological locations, students gain academic skills and confidence that facilitate high school and college success. To date, GeoFORCE Alaska has recruited two cohorts. 78% of these students identify as Alaska Native, reflecting community demographics. The inaugural cohort of 18 students from the North Slope Borough completed the Fourth-Year Academy in summer 2015. 94% of these students graduated from high school, at least 72% plan to attend college, and 33% will major in geoscience. A second cohort of 34 rising 9th and 10th graders entered the program in 2016. At the request of corporate sponsors, this cohort was recruited from both the
Zink, Therese; Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Brooks, Kathleen D
Professionalism is now an explicit part of the medical school curricula. To examine the components that are part of developing professionalism during the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) experience, a 9-month rotation in a rural community during the third year of medical school. Two researchers analysed 3 years of essays for themes. IRB approval was obtained. Themes were organized using Van de Camp's model of professionalism. Students described how patients taught them about illnesses, the affects on their lives and the lives of their families. Preceptors role-modelled how to relate to patients with compassion and respect (Professionalism Towards the Patient). As a member of the health care team, clinic and hospital staff taught students how to be a good team member (Towards Other Health Care Professionals). Shadowing preceptors in their roles as physicians and community members, students learned about their responsibilities to the community (Towards the Public). Multiple opportunities for self-evaluation and reflection taught students to know themselves and find balance between work responsibilities and their personal lives (Towards Oneself). The RPAP appears to create a supportive learning environment that incorporates psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas and time for reflection - an ideal environment for developing professionalism.
Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A
Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hildebrand, Deana A; Blevins, Priscilla; Carl, Lillian; Brown, Barbara; Betts, Nancy M; Poe, Tiffany
Use the Community Readiness Model (CRM) to develop and evaluate a contextually appropriate pilot culinary training program for school nutrition staff members. Mixed methods to guide intervention development. Six school districts in rural and urban areas of a southwestern state. School nutrition staff (n = 36; female; 20 years' experience). Pre- and post-training assessments used the CRM. Findings from the pre-assessment were used to develop the pilot culinary training intervention. Readiness to integrate new food preparation methods into existing practices. The researchers used t and Wilcoxon tests to compare overall readiness and dimension scores (P ≤ .05). Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the discussion component of the assessments. Overall readiness increased from vague awareness to preparation (P = .02). Improved dimensions were knowledge of efforts (P = .004), leadership (P = .05), and knowledge of issues (P = .04). Themes included barriers, leadership, and motivation. The CRM was useful for developing and evaluating a contextually appropriate and effective culinary training program for school nutrition staff. Future efforts should address the provision of additional resources such as on-site chefs, small equipment grants, and engaging school stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holly, Cheryl; Porter, Sallie; Kamienski, Mary; Lim, Aubrianne
Nearly 1,300 children in the United States die because of firearm-related injury each year and another 5,790 survive gunshot wounds, making the prevention of firearm-related unintentional injury to children of vital importance to families, health professionals, and policy makers. To systematically review the evidence on school-based and community-based gun safety programs for children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic review. Twelve databases were searched from their earliest records to December 2016. Interventional and analytic studies were sought, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, as well as before-and-after studies or cohort studies with or without a control that involved an intervention. The low level of evidence, heterogeneity of studies, and lack of consistent outcome measures precluded a pooled estimate of results. A best evidence synthesis was performed. Results support the premise that programs using either knowledge-based or active learning strategies or a combination of these may be insufficient for teaching gun safety skills to children. Gun safety programs do not improve the likelihood that children will not handle firearms in an unsupervised situation. Stronger research designs with larger samples are needed to determine the most effective way to transfer the use of the gun safety skills outside the training session and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn.
Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan
This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…
University-school-community collaborations are little documented despite being advocated across third-level institutes. Researchers identify the need for quality university-school-community collaborations to tackle a host of social inequalities while also addressing innovative approaches to teaching and learning. This study involved the…
Olivier, Dianne F.; Huffman, Jane B.
As the Professional Learning Community (PLC) process becomes embedded within schools, the level of district support has a direct impact on whether schools have the ability to re-culture and sustain highly effective collaborative practices. The purpose of this article is to share a professional learning community conceptual framework from the US,…
In post-Jomtien phase, community participation in school education management has appeared as one of the most prominent features in all educational development programmes at global level. In line with this trend, India has also placed a significant focus on local communities in school management through various programmes such as LokJumbish,…
In this article, I engage critical discourse analysis of in-depth, semistructured interviews with 4 Hmong community leaders to illumine their perspectives on the role of subtractive schooling in the struggles of Hmong students, parents, and the ethnic community as a whole. I reveal their understanding of the exclusionary practices of school that…
Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.
This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…
Sulkowski, Michael L.; Joyce, Diana J.
Many college students display academic and social-emotional needs that are not being addressed by extant university supports. School psychologists who work in postsecondary settings and have expertise in providing psychoeducational services may be uniquely positioned to help many of these students. However, few school psychologists currently work…
Alemán, Enrique, Jr.; Freire, Juan A.; McKinney, Ashley; Delgado Bernal, Dolores
This article provides a snapshot in time of teacher perceptions, school culture, and partnership building. We delineate how teachers perceive our partnership's purpose and its role in transforming school culture. Second, we describe how teachers express the life expectations they have and the possibilities they hope for their students and the…
Evans, Michael; Fisher, Linda
The aim of this paper is to give an account of the response of secondary schools to the primary school foreign language teaching initiative recently introduced by the UK government. The paper also explores defining features of the process of cross-phase interaction and the role that knowledge and collaborative practice plays in generating change…
Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo
The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Single entry communities (SECs and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. Parental-reported data was collected from 11 elementary schools on ATS rates (n = 1217. SECs and cul-de-sacs were quantified for each school zone. Logistic regression models were used to predict ATS. 23.9% of students reported ATS all of the time and 31.4% some of the time. SECs per school zone ranged from 0 to 25 (mean = 11.9. Cul-de-sacs ranged from 12 to 315 (mean = 138.3. Some ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61, parental education (high school: p = 0.004;OR = 0.53, some college: p = 0.001;OR = 0.50, 4 year degree: p = 0.004;OR = 0.52 and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99. A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.61, parental education (high school: p = 0.002;OR = 0.51, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45 and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.96 predicted some ATS. All ATS use was predicted by distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58, parental education (Grades 9–11: p = 0.05;OR = 0.61, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.45, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.41, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.38 and SECs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.97. A separate model using distance from school (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.58, parental education (Grades 9–11: p = 0.041;OR = 0.59, high school: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.47, some college: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.44, 4 year degree: p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.43 and cul-de-sacs (p ≤ 0.001;OR = 0.99 predicted all ATS. Current findings reveal that both SECs and cul-de-sacs were predictors of ATS beyond distance. Students
Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha
Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...
Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong
We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...
As a result of globalisation and mass migration, suburbs and schools around the world are becoming increasingly multiethnic, multilingual places. Yet there is still relatively little linguistic research on how language is used in everyday interaction in these multilingual communities. In this paper, I explore the strengths and limitations of…
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted an HIA at the German Gerena Community School in Springfield, MA. HIA is a six-step systematic process that uses an array of data sources, analytic methods and stakeholder input to determine the potential health effects of...
Teacher professional development (TPD) can benefit teachers in classrooms. This study contributes to an understanding of TPD processes where there is sufficient technology integration through teacher participation in a school-based community. It assesses the effectiveness of TPD and its potential problems. Qualitative research methods are used to…
Kisiel, James F.
If we truly wish to promote science or STEM education, then it would seem that the joining of resources and expertise from the communities of formal schooling and informal science education institutions or ISEIs (museums, aquariums, and the like) would be an important early step. Yet creating such connections between teacher and museum remain a…
This qualitative study sought to identify and define aspects of the educational and community culture that underlie a Mennonite School music programme, facilitate students' motivation to continue participation, and contribute to individual and group identity. Four interrelated institutions provided context for student music participation:…
Melville, Wayne; Wallace, John
This article investigates the metaphorical duality that exists when school subject departments are concurrently conceptualized as both communities and organizations. Employing a narrative methodology, we use the metaphorical duality to examine the manner in which science teachers negotiate two key aspects of their work; professional learning and…
Zhang, Jia; Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung
This quantitative study investigated and compared the development of professional learning communities in schools located in two Chinese cities, namely, Shanghai and Mianyang. The two cities have significant differences in terms of educational, economic, social, and cultural development. While Shanghai is a directly controlled municipality in East…
Desmond, Cheryl T.
The influence of paternalism upon a community's school district participation is discussed in this historical case study. Interviews and historical research explore the impact of the "welfare capitalism" of the Endicott Shoe Corporation and International Business Machines on Harrison City, New York, from 1890 through the present. An analysis of…
The 1986 Education Act required that business community members in England and Wales be appointed to the governing boards of local public schools. Since the passage of the law, the idea of sponsored governors has developed. Sponsored governors receive financial supported from their companies to serve on the boards. A survey of employees of three…
Because schools, communities, and families play interconnected roles in the crucial mission of educating children, they must find ways to work together as educational partners. Providing parents with information and resources to support their children's education is a cornerstone of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This sourcebook is based on…
Webb, Nancy Boyd
Play therapy is a highly adaptable treatment method that can be modified according to children's ages, circumstances, and settings in which counseling occurs. Play therapy may be used in schools, community settings, and homes to help children following the death of a significant other. After reviewing basic developmental factors that affect…
Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher
Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…
Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.
The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…
Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio
The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…
This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…
Morgan, Haydn J.; Bush, Anthony J.
Reducing social exclusion through interventions designed to sustain school engagement is a key aim of the education and social policy of any government. This paper is a response to the call for there to be more focused empirical sports coaching research through examining the transformative potential of community-based sports coaches to support…
Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian; Smith, Gregory C.; Palmieri, Patrick A.
We examined patterns and predictors of perceived need, use, and unmet need for mental health services by custodial grandchildren within the school-based and community-based delivery sectors. Data were from a national sample of 610 grandmothers caring for grandchildren ages 6 to 17 in the absence of biological parents. Overlapping use of services…
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On
Unlike past research which has mainly examined whole school or whole department professional learning communities, this study focused on factors related to effective collaborative practices within teacher learning teams. Our main objective was to ascertain the roles of team value orientations (collectivism and power distance) and team collegiality…
Matthews, Vivienne Kaye D.; Calvert, Philip J.
Joint use libraries in New Zealand are generally found in the form of School and Community Libraries, primarily in rural areas, but there is little information available about their effectiveness or success. Research was undertaken by surveying all identified joint use libraries in New Zealand and then following this with detailed Case Studies of…
Valli, Linda; Stefanski, Amanda; Jacobson, Reuben
School-community partnerships are currently in the forefront of place-based urban reform efforts. But the literature on these partnerships indicates a variety of models that require different commitments and resources. Through a close review of the literature, we developed a typology of four partnership categories organized from the least to the…
Leue, Mary M.
This volume contains a collection of essays, reflections, and other writings (many of which originally appeared in several journals) on the relations among self and school and community. The first selection is an obituary of Fritz Perls, a leader of Gestalt therapy. The second essay, "A Social and Political Reassessment of the Work of Wilhelm…
Reath Warren, Anne
This article reports on language narratives in the ecology of a Vietnamese community language school (VCLS) in Australia. The study takes a dialogical perspective, where the stories about language that informants in the research setting tell are understood to shape and be shaped by the contexts in which they are told. Systematic analysis of…
... challenges such as poverty, violence, poor physical health, and family instability can become education... success and foster student engagement. When characterized by stable leadership and a strong instructional... sustaining effective full-service community schools. There is greater potential impact when full-service...
Heers, Marieke; Van Klaveren, Chris; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors determine student dropout. Community schools recognize this and aim to modernize education such that it better accommodates
Heers, M.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates
Bader, Barbara; Horman, Judith; Lapointe, Claire
In this study, we examine how transformative leadership enables students from a low-income and multicultural neighbourhood to learn about democracy, responsible citizenship, and community engagement at school. As part of a graduate seminar on critical pedagogy and cultural studies in education, in-depth group interviews were conducted with…
Phusavat, Kongkiti Peter; Delahunty, David; Kess, Pekka; Kropsu-Vehkapera, Hanna
Purpose: The study aims to examine the issues relating to workplace learning at the upper secondary school level. This study is based on the two questions. How should the professional/peer-learning community or PLC be developed and deployed to help strengthen in-service teacher training? The second question is what are the success factors which…
Baker, Jean M.
This book examines the challenges facing gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual youth, suggesting ways to bring about significant and positive differences in homes, schools, and communities. It presents the experiences of such children, in their own words, as they gradually discover they are different from most other children in their sexual…
Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…
Haines Lyon, Charlotte
In this paper, I will reflect on the initial reconnaissance, action, and reflection cycle of my doctoral research, exploring Community Philosophy as a tool for critical parental engagement in a primary school (Elliot, 1991). I will examine how I reflexively engaged with my influence on participants, which then significantly influenced the framing…
Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun
This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
D. Gavin Luter
Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which a program guided by the principles of critical pedagogy, which seeks to develop critical consciousness, is associated with the improved academic performance of students attending a low-performance middle-school in Buffalo, New York. The students were enrolled in an in-school academic support program called the Community as Classroom, which used critical project-based learning to show students how to improve neighborhood conditions. The study found that the Community as Classroom program bolstered student engagement as reflected in improved attendance, on-time-arrival at school, and reduced suspensions. Although class grades did not improve, standardized scores, particularly in Math and Science, dramatically improved for these students from the lowest scoring categories. We suspect that given increased student engagement and dramatically improved standardized test scores, teacher bias might be the cause of no improvements in class grades. We conclude that critical pedagogy, which leads to increased critical consciousness, is a tool that can lead to improved academic performance of students. Such a pedagogy, we argue, should be more widely used in public schools, with a particular emphasis on their deployment in Community Schools.
Background In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration. PMID:21864404
Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark
In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further
Pavlović Biljana M.
Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of
For a quarter of a century the School for Nuclear Engineering at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre has provided further education in all areas of nuclear engineering. The courses are attended by all kinds of people: school teachers, shift managers in nuclear power stations and engineers from the Third World, for example. (orig.) [de
South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.
IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…
Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf
the children about the respiratory system in CF. They take physiotherapi together and go to the swimmingpool. The dietician and the nurse teach the children about the digestive system in CF and they cook together. The children learn about genetics, liver problems, infertility etc from the doctor and the nurse......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive status of pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai and analyze the relationships between visual acuity and relative factors. METHODS: All the in-school students of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai were involved in the study. Four hundred and sixty pupils out of 465 pupils were investigated(The rate was 98.9%. There were 445 pupils with fully data collection. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, age, height(H, weight(W, body mass index(BMI, diopter of spherical(S, diopter of cylinder(C, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(ALand corneal curvature(Kwere examined. The refractive status was described and the influence of relative factors was analyzed. UCVA measurement uses the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, recording by decimal number, then transform into LogMar vision for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, the average age was 9.49±1.47 year, SE was -0.85±1.82D and UCVA was +0.09±0.28. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 40.9% and 58.9%, respectively. With getting older, the prevalence of myopia increased with the average myopic SE developing significantly(P=0.000. UCVA and AL increased in the same time, SE decreased gradually(PPCONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was high in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai. Visual acuity is closely related to AL and growth factors.
Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter
Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…
Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.
It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…
Over a year, a small group of high school students risked their afternoons and summer to participate in a science program that was "much different from science class." This was one of several after-school programs in Oakland and Richmond that the author was leading as an instructor with the East Bay Academy for Young Scientists (EBAYS). Students…
Formal schooling is less than 100 years old in the Kivalliq region of Nunavut. In the last three decades, efforts to reflect and value Inuit culture in northern schools have increased, in light of concerns over whether the dominant culture's education system was appropriate or effective for Inuit children. These efforts have resulted in varying…
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a participative diagnostic evaluation from a qualitative approach regarding the relationship between a primary school in Santo Domingo del Roble de Santa Bárbara de Heredia, Costa Rica and the community. The study included the participation of four teachers from upper and lower levels, as well as five parents, who are also part of two school committees, Patronato Escolar, in charge of overseeing school funds and Junta Educativa, in charge of overseeing educational matters. Some structural aspects that were considered included the curricular guidelines established by the Ministry of Public Education in regards to this topic, as well as practical teaching procedural aspects related to the communication between the school, the family and the community and school participation in rural community development projects, as an educational institution that offers and participates in formal and informal education activities and promotes community gathering by providing the facilities and resources for their improvement. Information was obtained through qualitative techniques, such as in-depth interviews and discussion groups. Data was analyzed based on three categories: professional formation, institutional outreach, and educational practice. It was concluded that the school lacks a community diagnostic or an institutional educational project that would allow for the development of concrete actions to address school and community needs. In addition, the school, represented by its teachers as leading figures, is required to participate in the organization and development of school and community projects. Teachers’ participation in the rural community is characterized by qualities, attitudes and values such as teaching vocation, leadership, organization, commitment, transparency, trust, humanism, and identification with the rural community.
Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To identify the prevalence and family and community-level predictors of comorbid speech-language difficulties and socioemotional and behavioral (SEB difficulties across a population of children at school entry.The School Entry Health Questionnaire is a parent survey of children's health and wellbeing, completed by all children starting school in Victoria, Australia (N = 53256. It includes parental report of speech-language difficulties, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (behavior, and numerous family and community variables. Following univariate analysis, family and community risk characteristics were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify the associated relative risk of comorbid speech/language and SEB needs. The influence of experiencing multiple risk factors was also examined.20.4% (n = 10,868 began school with either speech-language or SEB difficulties, with 3.1% (n = 1670 experiencing comorbid needs. Five factors predicted comorbidity: the child having witnessed violence; a history of parent mental illness; living in more deprived communities; and the educational attainment of each parent (independently. The relative risk of comorbidity was 6.1 (95% Confidence Interval: 3.9, 9.7 when a child experienced four or more risk factors, compared to those with no risk factors.The risk of comorbidity in early childhood is associated with a range of family and community factors, and elevated by the presence of multiple factors. Children growing up in families experiencing multiple, complex needs are therefore at heightened risk of the early development of difficulties likely to impact upon schooling. Early identification of these children offers opportunities for appropriate and timely health and education intervention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5-14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD. The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. CONCLUSIONS: The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process.