WorldWideScience

Sample records for school year scores

  1. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  2. Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores Predict Reading Performance Throughout the School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzam, Saskia; Dale, Philip S; Wagner, Richard K; DeFries, John C; Cederlöf, Martin; O'Reilly, Paul F; Krapohl, Eva; Plomin, Robert

    2017-07-04

    It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education ( EduYears ) to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample of 5,825 unrelated individuals. EduYears GPS accounts for up to 5% of the variance in reading performance at age 14. GPS predictions remained significant after accounting for general cognitive ability and family socioeconomic status. Reading performance of children in the lowest and highest 12.5% of the EduYears GPS distribution differed by a mean growth in reading ability of approximately two school years. It seems certain that polygenic scores will be used to predict strengths and weaknesses in education.

  3. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.

  4. Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores Predict Reading Performance throughout the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzam, Saskia; Dale, Philip S.; Wagner, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Cederlöf, Martin; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Krapohl, Eva; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education ("EduYears") to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample…

  5. School Breakfast Score Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    The School Breakfast Program supplies federal funds to schools and residential child care institutions who provide breakfasts to children. This status report compares the performances of states to each other and to the nation as a whole in school breakfast participation. States are grouped in categories of the 10 top- and bottom-ranked…

  6. Oral hygiene KAP assessment and DMFT scoring among children aged 11-12 years in an urban school of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Basaria, Nadia; Katpar, Shahjahan

    2011-04-01

    To assess the oral hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices among school children and evaluate their DMFT (Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth) scores. Cross-sectional study. A private school of Karachi from March to April 2008. Convenient sample comprising 300 students of grade 6 within the age group of 11-12 years was selected. A knowledge, attitude and practices survey questionnaire based on quantitative indicators was filled by the students. Clinical examination was done for DMFT. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 11. Associations were assessed using chi-square test and a p-value of importance of a dentist's role in maintaining their dental health. Only a few students (11.3%) had familiarity with dental floss. A statistically significant association was found between frequency of brushing and children's knowledge of the problems related to irregular tooth brushing (p < 0.001). The attitude of school children towards dental health and dental service utilization is determined by certain social and cultural factors. The mean DMFT of 1.27 showed that there must have been some poor oral practices that are contributing towards a higher mean.

  7. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  8. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  9. How does preclinical laboratory training impact physical examination skills during the first clinical year? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected objective structured clinical examination scores among the first two matriculating classes of a reformed curriculum in one Polish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerszcz, Jolanta; Stalmach-Przygoda, Agata; Kuźma, Marcin; Jabłoński, Konrad; Cegielny, Tomasz; Skrzypek, Agnieszka; Wieczorek-Surdacka, Ewa; Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chmura, Kaja; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Surdacki, Andrzej; Nowakowski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    As a result of a curriculum reform launched in 2012 at our institution, preclinical training was shortened to 2 years instead of the traditional 3 years, creating additional incentives to optimise teaching methods. In accordance with the new curriculum, a semester-long preclinical module of clinical skills (CS) laboratory training takes place in the second year of study, while an introductory clinical course (ie, brief introductory clerkships) is scheduled for the Fall semester of the third year. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are carried out at the conclusion of both the preclinical module and the introductory clinical course. Our aim was to compare the scores at physical examination stations between the first and second matriculating classes of a newly reformed curriculum on preclinical second-year OSCEs and early clinical third-year OSCEs. Analysis of routinely collected data. One Polish medical school. Complete OSCE records for 462 second-year students and 445 third-year students. OSCE scores by matriculation year. In comparison to the first class of the newly reformed curriculum, significantly higher (ie, better) OSCE scores were observed for those students who matriculated in 2013, a year after implementing the reformed curriculum. This finding was consistent for both second-year and third-year cohorts. Additionally, the magnitude of the improvement in median third-year OSCE scores was proportional to the corresponding advancement in preceding second-year preclinical OSCE scores for each of two different sets of physical examination tasks. In contrast, no significant difference was noted between the academic years in the ability to interpret laboratory data or ECG - tasks which had not been included in the second-year preclinical training. Our results suggest the importance of preclinical training in a CS laboratory to improve students' competence in physical examination at the completion of introductory clinical clerkships during

  10. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  11. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  12. Different Clinical Features and Lower Scores in Clinical Scoring Systems for Appendicitis in Preschool Children: Comparison with School Age Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chun Woo; Kang, Joon Won; Kim, Jae Young

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the clinical features of appendicitis in preschool children and to explore clinical appendicitis scoring systems in this age group. Methods We retrospectively collected data on 142 children, aged 10 years or younger, with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis based on surgical and pathologic findings. Enrolled subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 (preschool children aged ≤5 years, n=41) and Group 2 (school children aged >5 to ≤10 years, n=101). Data analyzed include...

  13. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence....... In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster......-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  15. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal leadership studies have indicated that leadership can play an important role in augmenting students' achievement scores. One significant influence that can affect achievement scores is the leadership style of the principal. This study focuses on fourth-grade achievement scores within urban elementary schools and explores the relationship…

  16. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  17. 9+ The Year-Round School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  18. The Changes of Students’ Toefl Score After One Year Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BINUS students are supposed to increase their English competence indicated by their TOEFL scores. This paper aims to observe the differences between studens TOEFL scores obtained when they entered BINUS and the scores after they joined TOEFL courses at BINUS for one year. The participants were 121 students. The data for the entrance test were taken from the BINUS data center and the final test data were taken from their final test at English class. The data were analysed using statistics especially the descriptive statistics, comparing means, and correlation. To support the quantative data, a set of questionnaires was distributed to those 121 students. The results show that the students’ TOEFL scores have increased significantly in the final test compared to those in the entrance test. The low achiever students showed a better performance than the higher ones. Students’ motivation and background support their English study. Students proved to have the most problem in listening. The results of the research are expected to be the input for English lecturers to improve their teaching especially the existence of SALLC (Self Access Language Learning Center. 

  19. Admission Scores as a Predictor of Academic Success in the Fiji School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala, Christian C.; Swami, Niraj S.; Lal, Nilesh; Hussain, Shagufta

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Fiji ends with the Form 7 examination. Predictive validity for academic success of Form 7 scores which form the basis for admission into the Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery programme of the Fiji School of Medicine was examined via a cohort of 129 students. Success rates for year 1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 90.7…

  20. Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

    2014-03-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P student satisfaction with anatomy, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, reading after class and near exam time, and duration of sleeping periods near exam time (R = 0.773, R(2) = 0.598, P student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P satisfaction.

  1. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  2. Investigating Kindergarteners' Number Sense and Self-Regulation Scores in Relation to Their Mathematics and Turkish Scores in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivrendi, Asiye

    2016-01-01

    Number sense and self-regulation are considered foundational skills for later school learning. This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of kindergarten children's number sense and self-regulation scores on their mathematics and Turkish language examination scores in the 5th and 6th grades. The participants in this study were 5th grade…

  3. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  4. Greenness and school-wide test scores are not always positively associated – A replication of "linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the 'greenness' of school surroundings using remote sensing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H.E.M. Browning; Ming Kuo; Sonya Sachdeva; Kangjae Lee; Lynne Westphal

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies find vegetation around schools correlates positively with student test scores. To test this relationship in schools with less green cover and more disadvantaged students, we replicated a leading study, using six years of NDVI-derived greenness data to predict school-level math and reading achievement in 404 Chicago public schools. A direct replication...

  5. Comparing Slovenian year 8 and year 9 elementary school pupils’ knowledge of electrolyte chemistry and their intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, Iztok; Drofenik Lorber, Erna; Juriševič, Mojca; Glažar, Saša

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the differences between eight-year elementary school pupils (before the curriculum reform) and nine-year elementary school pupils (soon after the curriculum reform) in Slovenia, as regards specific chemistry knowledge and motivation to learn chemistry. Altogether, 191 elementary school pupils participated in the study. The results show that pupils of nine-year elementary school are not significantly better at chemistry knowledge test scores than eight-year elementary schoo...

  6. Do Multiple Mini-Interview and Traditional Interview Scores Differ in Their Associations With Acceptance Offers Within and Across Five California Medical Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Hall, Theodore R; Kelly, Carolyn J; Peterson, Ellena M; Wofsy, David; Franks, Peter

    2018-03-20

    In single-school studies, multiple mini-interview (MMI) and traditional interview (TI) scores are associated with acceptance offers. Unexamined is whether scores at one school are associated with acceptance at other schools; such analyses would mitigate single-school design biases and better estimate how well interviews capture desired applicant attributes. Using data from the five California Longitudinal Evaluation of Admissions Practices (CA-LEAP) public medical schools, the authors examined associations of MMI and TI scores with acceptance offers within and across schools. The analyses included applicants who interviewed at ≥1 CA-LEAP school during the 2011-2013 admissions cycles, when three CA-LEAP schools employed TIs and two employed MMIs. Interview scores were standardized (z-scores: mean = 0, SD = 1) and associations with acceptance offers were examined within and across schools in analyses stratified by school, adjusting for applicant sociodemographics, academic metrics, year, and total number of interviews. Of 4,993 applicants interviewed, 428 (8.6%) interviewed at both MMI schools, 681 (13.6%) at ≥2 TI schools, and 1,327 (26.6%) at ≥1 MMI and ≥1 TI school. For each school, acceptance was associated with interview score at that school and also with interview scores at the other four schools. Cross-school associations of MMI versus TI scores with acceptance did not differ statistically. Interview score at a given CA-LEAP school was associated with acceptance at the other four schools, with no significant differences in associations for MMIs versus TIs. The findings suggest both MMIs and TIs captured attributes valued by admissions teams across CA-LEAP schools.

  7. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  8. Indiana Third Grade Reading ISTEP+ Scores Comparisons in a Public Elementary School to a Public Elementary Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Cassandra D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference with student achievement at third grade in reading with a traditional public school as compared to a public charter school; both schools were a part of the Southwest Region School Corporation. This quasi-experimental study compared third grade ISTEP+ scale scores in…

  9. School Breakfast Score Card 1991-1992. (Second Edition.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingling-Clemmons, Michele A.; Kittlaus, Ann K.

    The School Breakfast Program supplies federal funds to schools and residential child care institutions that provide breakfasts to children. This status report compares the performance of each state to the performance of other states and of the nation as a whole in school breakfast participation. The first section examines overall outcomes, taking…

  10. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

  11. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  12. PRIMARY SCHOOL (5 - 10 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    , but sometimes affects school children. Children pres- ent with itchy white papules on the genitalia, the glans and prepuce or the vulva. Initially there is some red- dish or purplish inflammation around the white lesions, which become wrin-.

  13. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  14. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  15. Science Scores in Title I Elementary Schools in North Georgia: A Project Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Ramon

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)'s emphasis of reading, language arts, and mathematics (RLA&M) and its de-emphasis of science has been a source of great concern among educators. Through an objectivist and constructionist framework, this study explored the unforeseen effects of the NCLB on public science education among Title I (TI) and non-Title I (NTI) students. The research questions focused on the effects of NCLB on Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in the high-stakes subjects of reading, language arts, mathematics and the low stakes subject of science among TI and NTI 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students in a north Georgia County during the 2010/2011 school year. This study also compared instructional time TI and NTI teachers dedicated to science. A causal-comparative quantitative methodology was used to analyze Georgia's public domain CRCT scores. Three independent-samples t tests showed that TI schools exhibited significantly lower Science CRCT scores than did NTI students at all grade levels (p need students with strong science foundations. Further study is recommended to analyze the factors associated with this science gap between TI and NTI students.

  16. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  17. English Language Arts Scores among Sixth Grade Students Enrolled on an Elementary versus Middle School Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, La-Trice

    2013-01-01

    A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's hierarchy of…

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps Score High Marks in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Renewable Energy Lab (DOE).

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are showing their value in providing lower operating and maintenance costs, energy efficiency, and superior classroom comfort. This document describes what GHPs are and the benefits a school can garner after installing a GHP system. Three case studies are provided that illustrate these benefits. Finally, the Department…

  19. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  20. Factor Analysis of Temperament Category Scores in a Sample of Nursery School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, John F.; Simonds, M. Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Mothers of children attending nursery schools completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) from which scores for nine temperament categories were derived. Found membership in groups based on factor scores independent of sex, socioeconomic class, age but not ordinal birth position. (Author)

  1. The Reliability and Structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in German Pre-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Andrea; Kammermeyer, Gisela; Roux, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, R. C., K. M. La Paro, and B. K. Hamre. 2008. "Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Manual Pre-K." Baltimore, MD: Brookes) and the quality of interactional processes in a German pre-school setting, drawing on a sample of 390…

  2. An Integrated Model of Academic Self-Concept Development: Academic Self-Concept, Grades, Test Scores, and Tracking over 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Murayama, Kou; Arens, A. Katrin; Parker, Philip D.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Our newly proposed integrated academic self-concept model integrates 3 major theories of academic self-concept formation and developmental perspectives into a unified conceptual and methodological framework. Relations among math self-concept (MSC), school grades, test scores, and school-level contextual effects over 6 years, from the end of…

  3. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  4. Social Skills Scores: The Impact of Primary School Population Characteristics and Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Karien; Kamerling, Margje

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine to what extent and why parental involvement as well as characteristics of ethnic school population influence social skills scores (social position, behavioural skills) of students. Design/methodology/approach: The study used the COOL5-18 database (2010) that included 553 Dutch primary schools and nearly 38,000…

  5. Middle School Characteristics That Predict Student Achievement, as Measured by the School-Wide California API Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Josie Abaroa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through quantitative research, effective middle school characteristics that predict student achievement, as measured by the school-wide California API score. Characteristics were determined using an instrument developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), which asked middle…

  6. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Marchant; Sharon E. Paulson

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., r...

  7. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  8. Analysis of School Leaders Licensure Assessment Content Category I-V Scores and Principal Internship Self-Assessment Scores for ISLLC Standards I-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) sub-scores with principal interns' self-assessment sub-scores (ISA) for a principal internship evaluation instrument in one educational leadership graduate program. The results of the study will be used to help establish the effectiveness of the current principal internship program,…

  9. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  11. Predictive score of sarcopenia occurrence one year after bariatric surgery in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voican, Cosmin Sebastian; Lebrun, Amandine; Maitre, Sophie; Lainas, Panagiotis; Lamouri, Karima; Njike-Nakseu, Micheline; Gaillard, Martin; Tranchart, Hadrien; Balian, Axel; Dagher, Ibrahim; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Naveau, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to generate a predictive score of sarcopenia occurrence one year after bariatric surgery. We conducted an observational prospective cohort study on a total of 184 severely obese patients admitted to our institution to undergo sleeve gastrectomy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area at the third lumbar vertebrae (SMA, cm2) was measured from the routinely performed computed tomography. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as follows: SMA/height2 (cm2/m2). Sarcopenia was defined as an SMI predictive sarcopenia occurrence scores were constructed using SMA and gender (SS1 score) or SMI and gender (SS2 score). The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of the SS2 score was significantly greater than that of the SS1 score for the diagnosis of postoperative sarcopenia occurrence (0.95±0.02 versus 0.90±0.02; ppredictive value of 83%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. In the group of patients without baseline sarcopenia, the SS2 score had still an excellent AUROC of 0.92±0.02. A cut-off of 0.55 predicted development of sarcopenia one year after sleeve gastrectomy in these patients with a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 88%, and negative predictive value of 95%. The SS2 score has excellent predictive value for the occurrence of sarcopenia one year after sleeve gastrectomy. This score can be used to target early intensification of nutritional and dietetic follow-up to the predicted high-risk population.

  12. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.

  13. A histopathological score on baseline biopsies from elderly donors predicts outcome 1 year after renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birgitte G; Federspiel, Birgitte H; Sørensen, Søren S

    2012-01-01

    wall thickness of arteries and/or arterioles. Nineteen renal baseline biopsies from 15 donors (age: 64 ± 10 years) were included and following consensus the histopathological score was 4.3 ± 2.1 (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.81; confidence interval: 0.66-0.92). The donor organs were used......Kidneys from elderly deceased patients and otherwise marginal donors may be considered for transplantation and a pretransplantation histopathological score for prediction of postoperative outcome is warranted. In a retrospective design, 29 baseline renal needle biopsies from elderly deceased donors...... Danish donors a histopathological score on baseline renal needle biopsies, with at least ten glomeruli and one artery present, predicts graft function 1 year after transplantation....

  14. Assessing the benefits of five years of different approaches to treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis: A SCORE project in Northern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Phillips

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches.This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ≥21% S. haematobium infection by urine dipstick. Each village was randomly allocated to one of six possible combinations of community-wide treatment (CWT, school-based treatment (SBT, and/or drug holidays over a period of four years, followed by final data collection in the fifth year. The most intense intervention arm involved four years of CWT, while the least intensive arm involved two years of SBT followed by two consecutive years of PZQ holiday. Each study arm included 25 villages randomly assigned to one of the six treatment arms. The primary outcome of interest was change in prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium among 100 children aged 9-to-12-years that were sampled each year in every village. In addition to children aged 9-to-12 years, 100 children aged 5-8 years in their first-year of school and 50 adults (aged 20-55 years were tested in the first and final fifth year of the study. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection was evaluated by two filtrations, each of 10mL, from a single urine specimen.In total, data was collected from 81,167 individuals across 149 villages in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, Northern Mozambique. Overall PZQ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium infection from Year 1 to Year 5, where the average prevalence went from 60.5% to 38

  15. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…

  16. Physical activity, stress, and metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Gentile, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37). Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r adolescents.

  17. Longitudinal associations between physical activity and depression scores in Swedish women followed 32 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Lindwall, M; Gustafson, D R; Östling, S; Hällström, T; Waern, M; Skoog, I

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies consider dynamic associations of changes in physical activity and reciprocal relationships. This study aimed to perform comprehensive evaluations of relationships between physical activity and depression scores in women followed from mid- to late life. The Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden, provided repeated measures of self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms between 1974 and 2005 (baseline N = 676, 84.5% response rate). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and physical activity was evaluated by the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale. Latent growth curve analyses were used to evaluate associations of change, and cross-lagged models were used to study the reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression scores. At baseline, lower levels of physical activity were related to higher depression scores. Individuals with decreasing physical activity over time evidenced higher depression scores at 32-year follow-up. Higher average baseline depression score was related to declining levels of physical activity at subsequent examinations. Reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depression. It is important to address individual changes in physical activity and not merely absolute levels of physical activity in relationship to depression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Cardiovascular risk by Framingham and SCORE in patients 40-65 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Justicia, Jorge; Pascual, José M

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and treatment implications of 2 cardiovascular risk stratification systems in a population of patients 40-65 years old. 929 non diabetic patients (40-65 years old) (51% female) with no evidence of previous cardiovascular disease were included in the study. The risk of cardiovascular death was assessed with the charts of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and coronary risk by the Framingham function (National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults -NCEP-ATP-III-). Patients were considered of high risk if risk of cardiovascular death was >or= 5% and coronary risk was > 20%, respectively. 4.1% of patients were considered as high risk by SCORE and 2.5% by Framingham. Only 0.2% of females were classified as high risk with either system. 8.2% and 4.8% of male population were considered as high risk by SCORE and Framingham, respectively. There was a low level of concordance between both systems. Patients classified as high risk by SCORE but not by Framingham were older, smoke less and had a better lipid profile. According to European Guidelines 28% of male and 23% of female were candidates to hypolipemic treatment, that proportion was higher, 43% of males and 28% of females, by NCEP-ATP-III guidelines. In Spanish patients 40-65 years old, SCORE charts almost duplicate the number of high risk individuals compared to Framingham. although the number of patients candidates to hypolipemic treatment is lower with the European than ATP-III guidelines. Differences were more evident in male.

  19. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  20. The Effects of a Voice Education Program on VHI Scores of Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Ahmadi, Akram; Drinnan, Michael; Saadatmand, Najme; Fatahi, Elahe; Jalalipour, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    Teachers seem to be vulnerable to voice disorders because of excessive use of their voice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a voice education program on the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI) scores of elementary school teachers in the Persian education system. This was a semi-experimental study, performed in Shiraz public schools. Ten schools were selected on their similarity in number of students and teachers, and allocated at random to training or control groups. Sixty-one teachers in the training group and 66 teachers in the control group completed the VHI in the first week. Teachers in the trained group received voice education for 4 weeks, and then continued to follow the program for a further 4 weeks. The control group received no training. After 8 weeks, all subjects completed the questionnaire again. Compliance was good for all practices except "breathing exercises" and "using amplifiers" where it was exceptionally poor. Teachers in the training group improved significantly in total VHI score (from 14.2 to 6.8), whereas the control group showed a significant worsening (from 10.1 to 13.7). These effects were significant (P teachers, even without dysphonia, in the middle of their teaching. Such a program may have a place in the Persian education system. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.

  2. Factors affecting Mathematics achievement of first-year secondary school students in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwanuka, Henry Nsubuga; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Anumendem, Dickson Nkafu; Namusisi, Speranza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the sources of variability in Mathematics achievement of Ugandan students at the student, classroom and school level. The Mathematics score and questionnaire responses of 4,819 first-year secondary school students (Grade Seven, about 14-15 years old) from 78 classrooms of 49 schools were analysed. A three-level linear model was used. The results indicate that out of the total variance in Mathematics achievement 68.8%, 14.2% and 17.0% are situated at student, classroom and ...

  3. Skin autofluorescence as proxy of tissue AGE accumulation is dissociated from SCORE cardiovascular risk score, and remains so after 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiessen, Ans H; Jager, Willemein; ter Bogt, Nancy C W; Beltman, Frank W; van der Meer, Klaas; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J

    2014-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF), as a proxy of AGE accumulation, is predictive of cardiovascular (CVD) complications in i.a. type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal failure, independently of most conventional CVD risk factors. The present exploratory substudy of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL)-project addresses whether SAF is related to Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk estimation (% 10-year CVD-mortality risk) in overweight/obese persons in primary care, without diabetes/renal disease, and if after 3-year treatment of risk factors (change in, Δ) SAF is related to ΔSCORE. In a sample of 65 participants from the GOAL study, with a body mass index (BMI) >25-40 kg/m2, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia, but without diabetes/renal disease, SAF and CVD risk factors were measured at baseline, and after 3 years of lifestyle and pharmaceutical treatment. At baseline, the mean SCORE risk estimation was 3.1±2.6%, mean SAF 2.04±0.5AU. In multivariate analysis SAF was strongly related to age, but not to other risk factors/SCORE. After 3 years ΔSAF was 0.34±0.45 AU (phistory of CVD compared to 54 persons without CVD (p=0.002). Baseline and 3-year-Δ SAF are not related to (Δ)SCORE, or its components, except age, in the studied population. ΔSAF was negatively related to Δweight. As 3-year SAF was higher in persons with CVD, these results support a larger study on SAF to assess its contribution to conventional risk factors/SCORE in predicting CVD in overweight persons with low-intermediate cardiovascular risk.

  4. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  5. Effect of Religious Attendance on Years of Schooling in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…

  6. Evaluating the Promise of Single-Track Year-Round Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two single-track year-round elementary schools in Durham, North Carolina, established in discrete attendance zones. Remediation and enrichment activities were provided during intersession. Low-SES students were overrepresented in remediation sessions. Student outcomes data (end-of-grade reading and math test scores) suggest that…

  7. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children’s Achievement Trajectories Over 4 Years: A Piecewise Growth Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closely matched 1 retained with 1 promoted child (n = 97 pairs) on the basis of propensity scores constructed from 72 background variables and compared g...

  8. Association between scores in high school, aptitude and achievement exams and early performance in health science college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alwan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was carried out to assess the correlation between admi-ssion criteria to health science colleges, namely, final high school grade and Saudi National Apti-tude and Achievement exams, and early academic performance in these colleges. The study inclu-ded 91 male students studying in the two-year pre-professional program at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Records of these students were used to extract relevant information and their academic performance (based on the grade point average achieved at the end of the first semester of the pre-professional program, which were analytically studied. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the associa-tions between the different scores. SPSS statistical program (version 12.0 was used for data ana-lyses. We found a strong correlation between the academic performance and the Achievement Exam, Aptitude Exam and high school final grade, with Pearson Correlation Coefficients of 0.96, 0.93, 0.87, respectively. The Saudi National Achievement Exam showed the most significant correla-tion. Our results indicate that academic performance showed good correlation with the admission criteria used, namely final high school grade, Saudi National Aptitude and Achievement Exams.

  9. Changes in America's Public School Facilities: From School Year 1998-99 to School Year 2012-13. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Steven; Sparks, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief summarizes the changes from the 1998-99 to the 2012-13 school years in the average age of public schools, ratings of satisfaction of the environmental quality of school facilities, the cost to put school buildings in good overall condition, and short-range plans to improve school facilities. In addition to providing…

  10. Indicators of complicated mild TBI predict MMPI-2 scores after 23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Nestvold, Knut

    2009-03-01

    Research suggests that post-concussive syndrome may become persistent after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of subjective complaints, characteristic for post-concussive syndrome, 23 years after mTBI. The study was a follow-up after a prospective head injury study at a general hospital in Norway. Ninety-seven patients were assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) 23 years after sustaining primarily mTBI. A good overall outcome was found with scores close to the normative mean, average length of education and normal employment rate. However, the patients that sustained complicated mTBI showed somewhat more pathological scores, well-matched with mild post-concussive syndrome. The most important predictors of poor outcome were a combination of post-traumatic amnesia >30 minutes and EEG pathology within 24 hours after TBI. No influence of pre- and post-injury risk factors on current MMPI-2 profiles was found. The results are in line with previous research findings and support the notion of potentially differential impact of uncomplicated vs. complicated mTBI. The findings suggest that complicated mTBI may cause subtle chronic symptoms typical of post-concussive syndrome.

  11. New Mexico School District Profile: 1982-83 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavatta, Jerry C., Comp.; Borgrink, Henry, Comp.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools. Data on school district characteristics (40-Day Average Daily Membership; and percent in kindergarten, bilingual, Chapter 1, and special education programs), teacher characteristics (pupil-teacher ratio, salaries,…

  12. Immediate Postoperative Pain Scores Predict Neck Pain Profile up to 1 Year Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Vuong, Victoria D; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2018-05-01

    Retrospective cohort review. To assess whether immediate postoperative neck pain scores accurately predict 12-month visual analog scale-neck pain (VAS-NP) outcomes following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion surgery (ACDF). This was a retrospective study of 82 patients undergoing elective ACDF surgery at a major academic medical center. Patient reported outcomes measures VAS-NP scores were recorded on the first postoperative day, then at 6-weeks, 3, 6, and 12-months after surgery. Multivariate correlation and logistic regression methods were utilized to determine whether immediate postoperative VAS-NP score accurately predicted 1-year patient reported VAS-NP Scores. Overall, 46.3% male, 25.6% were smokers, and the mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 53.7 years and 28.28 kg/m 2 , respectively. There were significant correlations between immediate postoperative pain scores and neck pain scores at 6 weeks VAS-NP ( P = .0015), 6 months VAS-NP ( P = .0333), and 12 months VAS-NP ( P = .0247) after surgery. Furthermore, immediate postoperative pain score is an independent predictor of 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year VAS-NP scores. Our study suggests that immediate postoperative patient reported neck pain scores accurately predicts and correlates with 12-month VAS-NP scores after an ACDF procedure. Patients with high neck pain scores after surgery are more likely to report persistent neck pain 12 months after index surgery.

  13. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  14. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  15. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  16. College students' drinking patterns: trajectories of AUDIT scores during the first four years at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Kent O; Leifman, Anders; Berglund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Changes in AUDIT score trajectories were examined in a student population during their first 4 years at a university, including high-risk consumers and a subsample of low-risk consumers. 359 students were selected for the present study, comprising all high-risk consumers (the 27% with highest scores, i.e. 11 for males and 7 for females) and a randomized sample of low-risk consumers (n = 177 and 182, respectively). The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used as screening instrument. Trajectory analyses were made using a semiparametric group-based model. In the low-AUDIT group, five distinct trajectories were identified: three stable non-risky consumption groups (83%) and two increasing groups (17%; from non-risky to risky). In the high-AUDIT group, three groups were identified: two stable high groups (58%) and one decreasing group (from risky to non-risky consumption; 41%). In the integrated model, stable risky consumption comprised 16% of the total sample, decreasing consumption 11%, increasing consumption comprised 13% and stable non-risky consumption 60% of the sample. Gender influenced the trajectories. The pattern of changes in risk consumption is similar to that found in corresponding US studies. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Risk of low Apgar scores and socioeconomic status over a 30-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, D; Lewis, G; Gunnell, D; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of associations between social factors, as assessed by maternal occupation and education, and poor birth condition (an Apgar score of below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes) over a 30-year period in Sweden. The dataset was based on infants born in Sweden between 1973 and 2002. Poor birth condition was defined as an Apgar score below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of between socioeconomic status and poor birth condition. In the adjusted model, mothers in non-manual occupations (OR 0.91 (0.88, 0.95)) or with higher educational status (OR 0.88 (0.84, 0.93)) were less likely to have an infant born in poor condition than the reference group. Limiting the analysis to the last decade showed less evidence for an association (OR 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) and OR 0.94 (0.82, 1.09), respectively). While maternity, delivery and child healthcare are free of charge in Sweden, poor birth condition was more common among infants of mothers in manual occupations or low levels of education. However, this association appeared to attenuate over the calendar period studied.

  18. MELD score measured day 10 after orthotopic liver transplantation predicts death and re-transplantation within the first year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostved, Andreas A; Lundgren, Jens D; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study on adults undergoing orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation from 2004 to 2014. The MELD score was determined prior to transplantation and daily until 21 days after. The risk of mortality or re-transplantation within the first year was assessed...... day 1 the MELD score significantly diversified and was higher in the poor outcome group (MELD score quartile 4 versus quartile 1-3 at day 10: HR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.8-9.0). This association remained after adjustment for non-identical blood type, autoimmune liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma...... (adjusted HR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.9-9.5 for MELD scores at day 10). The post-transplant MELD score was not associated with pre-transplant MELD score or the Eurotransplant donor risk index. CONCLUSION: Early determination of the MELD score as an indicator of early allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation...

  19. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  20. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  1. Moving House for Education in the Pre-School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…

  2. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Fazili Anjum; Pandit M I; Mir A A; Bhat I A

    2012-01-01

    WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) .Only 112 (25.58%) of thes...

  3. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  4. Validity Evidence and Scoring Guidelines for Standardized Patient Encounters and Patient Notes From a Multisite Study of Clinical Performance Examinations in Seven Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Hyderi, Abbas; Heine, Nancy; May, Win; Nevins, Andrew; Lee, Ming; Bordage, Georges; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    To examine validity evidence of local graduation competency examination scores from seven medical schools using shared cases and to provide rater training protocols and guidelines for scoring patient notes (PNs). Between May and August 2016, clinical cases were developed, shared, and administered across seven medical schools (990 students participated). Raters were calibrated using training protocols, and guidelines were developed collaboratively across sites to standardize scoring. Data included scores from standardized patient encounters for history taking, physical examination, and PNs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine scores from the different assessment components. Generalizability studies (G-studies) using variance components were conducted to estimate reliability for composite scores. Validity evidence was collected for response process (rater perception), internal structure (variance components, reliability), relations to other variables (interassessment correlations), and consequences (composite score). Student performance varied by case and task. In the PNs, justification of differential diagnosis was the most discriminating task. G-studies showed that schools accounted for less than 1% of total variance; however, for the PNs, there were differences in scores for varying cases and tasks across schools, indicating a school effect. Composite score reliability was maximized when the PN was weighted between 30% and 40%. Raters preferred using case-specific scoring guidelines with clear point-scoring systems. This multisite study presents validity evidence for PN scores based on scoring rubric and case-specific scoring guidelines that offer rigor and feedback for learners. Variability in PN scores across participating sites may signal different approaches to teaching clinical reasoning among medical schools.

  5. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37–41 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  6. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kierla Ireland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13 with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130 and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83. We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for

  7. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Kierla; Parker, Averil; Foster, Nicholas; Penhune, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers

  8. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  9. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ramírez-Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.

  10. The predictive value of malnutrition - inflammation score on 1-year mortality in Turkish maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) on short-term mortality and to identify the best cut-off point in the Turkish maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. A total of 100 patients on MHD were included in this prospective single-center study. Demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were obtained from all patients. The study population was followed up as a 12-month prospective cohort to evaluate mortality as the primary outcome. Median (IQR) age and HD vintage of 100 patients (M/F: 52/48) were 53 (39.5 - 67) years and 53.5 (11 - 104.7) months, respectively. Deceased patients (n = 7) had significantly older age (years) (50 (38.5 - 63.5) vs. 70 (62 - 82), respectively, p = 0.001), lower spKt/V (1.60 (1.40 - 1.79) vs. 1.35 (0.90 - 1.50), respectively, p = 0.002), lower triceps skinfold thickness (14 (10 - 19) vs. 9 (7 - 11), respectively, p = 0.021) and higher MIS (5 (4 - 7) vs. 10 (7 - 11), respectively, p = 0.013). In the ROC analysis, we found that the optimal cut-off value of MIS for predicting death was 6.5 with 85.7% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (positive and negative predictive values were 0.6951 and 0.8136, respectively). Advanced age, low spKt/V, and high MIS were found to be predictors of mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 1-year mortality rate was significantly higher in MIS > 6.5 group compared to the MIS ≤ 6.5 group (14,3% (6/41) vs. 1.6% (1/59), respectively). Compared to MIS ≤ 6.5 group, 1 year survival time of the patients with MIS > 6.5 was found to be significantly lower (47.8 ± 0.16 vs. 43.6 ± 1.63 weeks, respectively, p (log-rank) = 0.012). MIS is a robust and independent predictor of short-term mortality in MHD patients. Patients with MIS > 6.5 had a significant risk, and additional risk factors associated with short-term mortality were advanced age and low spKt/V.

  11. Waldorf Schools: Seventy-Six Years of Early Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascues, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…

  12. French in Lesotho schools forty years after independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most independent African states are now, like Lesotho, about forty years old. What has become of foreign languages such as French that once thrived under colonial rule albeit mostly in schools targeting non-indigenous learners? In Lesotho French seems to be the preserve of private or “international” schools. Can African ...

  13. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  14. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  15. Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkardeş, Yasemin; Ozmert, Elif N; Unal, Fatih; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on behaviour in low-income school aged children. Double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial. Low-income district primary school in Turkey. Third grade students in the school. Among 252 students, 226 participated and 218 completed the study. Children in each class were randomized either to the study group to receive 15 mg/day elemental zinc syrup or to placebo group to receive the syrup without zinc for 10 weeks. The change in Conner's Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents scores after supplementation. The mean Conner's Rating Scale for Parents scores on attention deficit, hyperactivity, oppositional behaviour and conduct disorder decreased significantly in the study and placebo groups after supplementation (p children with clinically significant parent ratings on attention deficit (p = 0.01) and hyperactivity (p = 0.004) decreased in the study group while prevalence of oppositional behaviour (p = 0.007) decreased in the placebo group. In children of mothers with low education all mean Parents' scores decreased significantly (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour decreased only in the study group (p children with clinically significant scores for attention deficit and hyperactivity. The affect on behaviour was more evident in the children of low educated mothers.

  16. Examination of physical activity in adolescents over the school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Chad, Karen E; Beattie-Flath, Jodie A; Humbert, M Louise; Verrall, Tanya C; Vu, Lan; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2009-11-01

    This study monitored the physical activity behavior of adolescent students over a ten month school year. Physical activity was assessed at two month intervals using self-report and objective (Actical accelerometers) measures. Self-report results (n = 547) indicated a decline in physical activity throughout the school year for all grades and genders. The decline was attributed largely to a decrease in organized activity participation. Objective physical activity results (n = 40) revealed a significant decline in activity in the latter half of the school year (February to June). Declining physical activity was attributed to a decrease in vigorous activity which was consistent across grade and gender. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of promoting consistent opportunities for adolescents to be active throughout the school year.

  17. The Komsomol and the Schools in the Lenin Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, T.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the cooperative relationship between the Komsomol (All-Union Leninist Communist League of Youth), the Pioneers, and the schools, with specific reference to their mutual responsibilities in the Lenin Year. (JB)

  18. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: an innovative, year-long program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-09-01

    The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements include longitudinal mentoring by attending physicians in an outpatient psychiatry clinic, exposure to the major psychotherapies, psychopharmacology training, acute psychiatry "immersion" experiences, and a variety of clinical and didactic teaching sessions. The longitudinal psychiatry curriculum has been sustained for 8 years to-date, providing effective learning as demonstrated by OSCE scores, NBME shelf exam scores, written work, and observed clinical work. The percentage of students in this clerkship choosing psychiatry as a residency specialty is significantly greater than those in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School and greater than the U.S. average. Longitudinal integrated clerkship experiences are effective and sustainable; they offer particular strengths and opportunities for psychiatry education, and may influence student choice of specialty.

  19. The Baux score is dead. Long live the Baux score: a 27-year retrospective cohort study of mortality at a regional burns service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Geoffrey; Lloyd, Mark; Parker, Mike; Martin, Rebecca; Philp, Bruce; Shelley, Odhran; Dziewulski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To assess trends in mortality after burn injuries treated in a regional specialist burns service between 1982 and 2008. Patient and burn-specific information and mortality were collated from written admission ledgers and the hospital coding department for 11,109 patients. The data set was divided into age cohorts (0-14, 15-44, 45-64, and >65 years) and time cohorts (1982-1991, 1992-2000, and 2000-2008). Lethal area 50 (LA50) was calculated by logistic regression and probit analysis. Mortality was related to the Baux score (age + total % burned surface area) by logistic regression. In the time period 2000 to 2008, the LA50 values with approximate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 100% (CI, 85.5-100%) in the 0 to 14 cohort (LA10, 78.3%; CI, 64.1-92.5%), 76.4% (CI, 69.1-83.8%) in the 15 to 44 cohort, 58.6% (CI, 50.8-66.5%) in the 45 to 64 cohort, and 30.8% (CI, 24.7-36.9%) in the >65 cohort. The point of futility (the Baux Score at which predicted mortality is 100%) was 160 and the Baux50 (the Baux score at which predicted mortality is 50%) was 109.6 (CI, 105.9-113.4) in the 2000 to 2008 cohort. Mortality is markedly improved over earlier data from this study and other historical series and compares favorably with outcomes published from the US National Burn Repository. The Baux Score continues to provide an indication of the risk of mortality. Survival after major burn injury is increasingly common, and decisions by nonspecialist about initial triage, management, and futility of care should be made after consultation with a specialist burn service.

  20. Does a selection interview predict year 1 performance in dental school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, R; Ellis, J; Valentine, R A

    2017-05-01

    It is important for dental schools to select students who will complete their degree and progress on to become the dentists of the future. The process should be transparent, fair and ethical and utilise selection tools that select appropriate students. The interview is an integral part of UK dental schools student selection procedures. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether different interview methods (Cardiff with a multiple mini interview and Newcastle with a more traditional interview process) along with other components used in selection predicted academic performance in students. The admissions selection data for two dental schools (Cardiff and Newcastle) were collected and analysed alongside student performance in academic examinations in Year 1 of the respective schools. Correlation statistics were used to determine whether selection tools had any relevance to academic performance once students were admitted to their respective Universities. Data was available for a total of 177 students (77 Cardiff and 100 Newcastle). Examination performance did not correlate with admission interview scores at either school; however UKCAT score was linked to poor academic performance. Although interview methodology does not appear to correlate with academic performance it remains an integral and very necessary part of the admissions process. Ultimately schools need to be comfortable with their admissions procedures in attracting and selecting the calibre of students they desire. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An examination of the RCMAS-2 scores across gender, ethnic background, and age in a large Asian school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Lowe, Patricia A; Yusof, Noradlin

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically significant differences in the average RCMAS-2 T scores found across various demographic groupings, on the whole, the U.S. norms appear adequate for use in the Asian Singapore sample. Results from item bias analyses suggested that biased items detected had small effects and were counterbalanced across gender and ethnicity, and hence, their relative impact on test score variation appears to be minimal. Results of factor analyses on the RCMAS-2 scores supported the presence of a large general anxiety factor, the Total Anxiety factor, and the 5-factor structure found in U.S. samples was replicated. Both the large general anxiety factor and the 5-factor solution were invariant across gender and ethnic background. Internal consistency estimates ranged from adequate to good, and 2-week test-retest reliability estimates were comparable to previous studies. Evidence providing support for convergent and discriminant validity of the RCMAS-2 scores was also found. Taken together, findings provide additional cross-cultural evidence of the appropriateness and usefulness of the RCMAS-2 as a measure of anxiety in Asian Singaporean school-age children and adolescents.

  2. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  3. Entry-Level Placement Scores for the 1996-97 Academic Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, Eduardo J.

    This memorandum reviews the implementation of new, state-mandated placement criteria at Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). The first section focuses on placement criteria for degree-seeking students, indicating that MDCC uses scores on the Florida College Entry-Level Placement Test for making placement decisions in reading, writing,…

  4. The Utility of Elementary School TOCA-R Scores in Identifying Later Criminal Court Violence Among Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Lambert, Sharon F.; Barrueco, Sandra; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Chilcoat, Howard; Kellam, Sheppard

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of a teacher-rating instrument (Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised [TOCA-R]) of aggressive behavior during elementary school years in identifying girls at risk of later criminal court violence. Method: A community epidemiological sample of 845 urban public school girls was rated at six time…

  5. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  6. Medical Student Perceptions of the Learning Environment at the End of the First Year: A 28-Medical School Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.

  7. Factors affecting Mathematics achievement of first-year secondary school students in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nsubuga Kiwanuka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the sources of variability in Mathematics achievement of Ugandan students at the student, classroom and school level. The Mathematics score and questionnaire responses of 4,819 first-year secondary school students (Grade Seven, about 14-15 years old from 78 classrooms of 49 schools were analysed. A three-level linear model was used. The results indicate that out of the total variance in Mathematics achievement 68.8%, 14.2% and 17.0% are situated at student, classroom and school level, respectively. Of all the considered explanatory variables at the three levels, i.e. socio-economic status, gender, prior Mathematics achievement, parental support, peer influence, class mean of prior Mathematics achievement and of students' perception of good classroom assessment, school mean of class climate (class mean of attitude toward mathematics and of parental support were significant predictors of Mathematics achievement. The relevant factors could explain 7.6%, 73.1% and 84.3%, respectively, of student-, classroom- and school-level differences. Implications of our study are considered.

  8. Qualitative analysis of MMI raters' scorings of medical school candidates: A matter of taste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette K; Lykkegaard, Eva; Lund, Ole; O'Neill, Lotte D

    2018-05-01

    Recent years have seen leading medical educationalists repeatedly call for a paradigm shift in the way we view, value and use subjectivity in assessment. The argument is that subjective expert raters generally bring desired quality, not just noise, to performance evaluations. While several reviews document the psychometric qualities of the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI), we currently lack qualitative studies examining what we can learn from MMI raters' subjectivity. The present qualitative study therefore investigates rater subjectivity or taste in MMI selection interview. Taste (Bourdieu 1984) is a practical sense, which makes it possible at a pre-reflective level to apply 'invisible' or 'tacit' categories of perception for distinguishing between good and bad. The study draws on data from explorative in-depth interviews with 12 purposefully selected MMI raters. We find that MMI raters spontaneously applied subjective criteria-their taste-enabling them to assess the candidates' interpersonal attributes and to predict the candidates' potential. In addition, MMI raters seemed to share a taste for certain qualities in the candidates (e.g. reflectivity, resilience, empathy, contact, alikeness, 'the good colleague'); hence, taste may be the result of an ongoing enculturation in medical education and healthcare systems. This study suggests that taste is an inevitable condition in the assessment of students' performance. The MMI set-up should therefore make room for MMI raters' taste and their connoisseurship, i.e. their ability to taste, to improve the quality of their assessment of medical school candidates.

  9. Ten years cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham score and non HDL-cholesterol in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Mabel Nora; Berg, Gabriela; Migliano, Marta; Salgado, Pablo; Soutelo, Jimena; Musso, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. (1) Assess the 10 years risk for CVD in Argentinean blood donors, according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III), (2) evaluate the prevalence of the MS, (3) evaluate non HDL-cholesterol level in this population as other risk for CVD. A prospective, epidemiological, transversal study was performed to evaluate 585 volunteer blood donors for two years. Non HDL-C was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C and we evaluated the 10 years risk for CVD according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III). Metabolic syndrome prevalence was estimated according to ATP III and IDF criteria. Non HDL-C was (media±SD) 178.3±48.0 mg/dl in participants with MS and 143.7±39.3 mg/dl without MS (ATPIII) and 160.1±43.6 mg/dl in participants with MS and 139.8±43.1 mg/dl without MS (IDF). Participants with MS presented an OR of 3.1; IC 95% (2-5) of CVD according to de Framingham score. Individuals with MS and elevated non HDL-C are at a higher estimated risk for cardiovascular events in the next 10 years according to the Framingham risk score. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008-2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort.The area under the curve (AUC for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703-0.731. In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883-0.902. When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715-0.753 and 0.882 (0.868-0.895, respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥ 15 and invasive score of ≥ 19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years.The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c.

  11. Misery in Dark Shadows behind the High Achievement Scores in South Korean Schooling: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonjung; Kristjánsson, Kristján; Walker, David I.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the hidden background behind the highly praised school results in South Korea. An ethnographic case study is used to cast light on how schooling is actually experienced by South Korean students. Two main results are reported from these data. First, evidence is presented of damaging "cultural elements" such…

  12. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Score Sending and College Matching among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Krystle S.

    2015-01-01

    College decisions are often the result of a variety of influences related to student background characteristics, academic characteristics, college preferences and college aspirations. College counselors recommend that students choose a variety of schools, especially schools where the general student body matches the academic achievement of…

  13. Does Scored VET in Schools Help or Hinder Access to Higher Education in Victoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Despite comprising only a small fraction of all vocational education and training (VET) in Schools enrolments, programs that count towards both national VET qualifications and university entry potentially fill an important role in the upper-secondary school curriculum. The aim of this study is to take a first step in gaining an understanding of…

  14. Impact of School Desegregation in Milwaukee Public Schools on Quality Education for Minorities... 15 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    This publication reports on the effects of school desegregation in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools 15 years after desegregation was introduced and focuses on the quality of education available for minorities. In particular, the report looks at desegregation and educational outcomes, interracial and human relations, the effect of housing…

  15. Analysis of the Impacts of City Year's Whole School Whole Child Model on Partner Schools' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…

  16. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  17. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  18. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  19. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  20. Relationship between academic performance and affective changes during the first year at medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Machado, Vanessa Foresto; Madisson, Mariani Mendes; Resende, Tamara Lovatto; Valério, Fernando Passador; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto De Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Entering medical school may be associated with changes in the students' life, which can affect academic motivation and impair academic performance. This work aimed at measuring longitudinally academic motivation, anxiety, depression and social adjustment in first-year medical students and determining the relationships between these variables and academic performance, as measured mainly by grades on regular exams. Eighty-five first-year medical students (age: 17-25 years) were included after giving informed consent. Beck's Anxiety (BAI) and Beck's Depression (BDI) Inventories, the self-reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were applied two months after admission and at the end of the academic year. BAI scores increased throughout the year (7.3 ± 6.6 versus 28.8 ± 6.7; p 0.10). SAS-SR subscales scores remained stable, except for a decreasing pattern for leisure/social life (1.8 ± 0.4 versus 2.1 ± 0.4; p motivation to know (22.2 ± 4.5 versus 19.7 ± 5.5; p academic performance and the global scores for any of the scales except for the SAS-SR subscale for academic life (r = -0.48, p academic year, first-year medical students showed increased anxiety, decreased academic motivation and a maladjusted leisure/social life, which however does not seem to affect academic achievement.

  1. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  2. Predictive Power of Primary and Secondary School Success Criterion on Transition to Higher Education Examination Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla ÖZDEMİR; Selahattin GELBAL

    2016-01-01

    It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...

  3. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  4. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  5. Tackling Illiteracy in Year 7 of the Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Reading standards are regarded by many as the true yardstick by which to measure school effectiveness, and the relative standards achieved by different generations are often debated by adults. Some young people do not perceive reading to be of anything like such importance, however, using digital communication habitually and easily. Each year a…

  6. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  7. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  8. Portland Public Schools Project Chrysalis: Year 2 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.

    In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…

  9. A Year in Review: The "High School Journal" in 1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, the "High School Journal" had been up and running for a year and cost 15 cents an issue. Robert Goddard was ridiculed by the "New York Times" for predicting space travel (a retraction was printed in 1969), small countries like Ireland and Romania were fighting for their own governments, and American women voted for the…

  10. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services means special education and related services that— (1) Are provided to a child with a disability... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  11. Predicting performance and injury resilience from movement quality and fitness scores in a basketball team over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance.

  12. [School performance of former premature infants in the first four years of school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, J; Paalhorn, U

    1992-12-01

    School achievement during the first four grades was analysed by means of subject marks in 203 prematurely born and in 140 maturely born children. In subjects referring to behaviour in the classroom, no statistically significant differences in average marks could be found between prematurely born children and the control group. The average marks in performance subjects were slightly higher in the subgroup of very prematurely born children. However, statistically significant lower marks were observed in the subject of sports only, and for formerly immature children also in the subject of manual training. The higher the educational level of the mothers, the better the average marks without sports. No relationships between school performance and manifestation of postnatal risk factor like Apgar score, blood gas values and duration of oxygen dependency could be seen. These results demonstrate that school performance of former premature infants lies within the normal variance of their grade.

  13. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  14. Incremental Validity of Multidimensional Proficiency Scores from Diagnostic Classification Models: An Illustration for Elementary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, André A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) hold great potential for applications in summative and formative assessment by providing discrete multivariate proficiency scores that yield statistically driven classifications of students. Using data from a newly developed diagnostic arithmetic assessment that was administered to 2032 fourth-grade students…

  15. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  16. Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B; Whyatt, Robin

    2011-08-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age. In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches. On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.

  17. Reliability of Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition Scores with Young Children in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mira B.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Clark, Teresa P.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively provide early interventions to children, identifying those who are in need of these interventions is essential. In India, several problems hinder the process of early identification, including a lack of standardized measures for assessment. This study investigates the utility of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition…

  18. The Moderation of Liberal Studies School Based Assessment Scores: How to Ensure Fairness and Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao Wang

    2009-01-01

    As part of the ongoing education reform initiated by the Hong Kong Education Bureau (EDB), Liberal Studies will become a compulsory subject in senior secondary schools in 2009. It will be one of the core subjects all students must take, besides English, Chinese and Mathematics. Some of the objectives of the subject include cultivating critical…

  19. Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article…

  20. Post-Graduate Performance, an Academic Comparison Evaluating Situating Learning and Law School Acceptance Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Research on post-graduate performance, pertaining to law school graduates, indicates that success in the legal profession is attributable to more than the theoretical content or cognitive knowledge obtained through educational curricula. Research suggests that the combination of creative and analytic thinking skills contributes to a higher rate of…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Students' Mathematics Test Scores and Computer Use at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; Seeley, Kevon

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, standardized test results have become the primary tool used to judge the effectiveness of schools and educational programs, and today, standardized testing serves as the keystone for educational policy at the state and federal levels. This paper examines the relationship between fourth grade mathematics achievement and…

  2. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Reinders, Jan J.; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in

  3. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in real-world patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year results by propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Matteo; Sànchez, Federico Ariel; Boasi, Valentina; Perri, Dino; Tacchi, Chiara; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Cattunar, Stefano; Pistis, Gianfranco; Mascelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-05

    European guidelines recommend the use of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This recommendation is based on inconclusive results and subanalyses from clinical trials. Few data are available on the effects of ticagrelor in a real-world population. To compare the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in a real-world STEMI population, we conducted a pre-post case-control study examining all patients with STEMI included in the Cardio-STEMI Sanremo registry between February 2011 and June 2013. Cases and controls were defined according to P2Y 12 inhibitors, correcting the bias due to lack of randomization by propensity score analysis. Ticagrelor was introduced in 2012 in both in-hospital and pre-hospital settings independently of this study. Of the 416 patients enrolled in the Cardio-STEMI registry, 401 with a definite diagnosis of STEMI were included in this study. One hundred forty-two patients received ticagrelor and 259 received clopidogrel. Regarding clinical presentation and procedural data, those in the ticagrelor group had lower CRUSADE scores (23 [14-36] vs 27 [18-38]; p = 0.015] but a higher proportion of radial access (33% vs 14%; p word propensity score analysis, ticagrelor did not affect the risk of MACE during the hospital phase, or the incidence of hospital bleeding in patients with STEMI. However, in this mono-centric experience, ticagrelor resulted in improved 1-year survival, even after correction by propensity score.

  4. Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly S.

    This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…

  5. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? : exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE)

  6. Risk of future trauma based on alcohol screening scores: A two-year prospective cohort study among US veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe alcohol misuse as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT-C) is associated with increased risk of future fractures and trauma-related hospitalizations. This study examined the association between AUDIT-C scores and two-year risk of any type of trauma among US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients and assessed whether risk varied by age or gender. Methods Outpatients (215, 924 male and 9168 female) who returned mailed AUDIT-C questionnaires were followed for 24 months in the medical record for any International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-9) code related to trauma. The two-year prevalence of trauma was examined as a function of AUDIT-C scores, with low-level drinking (AUDIT-C 1–4) as the reference group. Men and women were examined separately, and age-stratified analyses were performed. Results Having an AUDIT-C score of 9–12 (indicating severe alcohol misuse) was associated with increased risk for trauma. Mean (SD) ages for men and women were 68.2 (11.5) and 57.2 (15.8), respectively. Age-stratified analyses showed that, for men ≤50 years, those with AUDIT-C scores ≥9 had an increased risk for trauma compared with those with AUDIT-C scores in the 1–4 range (adjusted prevalence, 25.7% versus 20.8%, respectively; OR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.50). For men ≥65 years with average comorbidity and education, those with AUDIT-C scores of 5–8 (adjusted prevalence, 7.9% versus 7.4%; OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02–1.31) and 9–12 (adjusted prevalence 11.1% versus 7.4%; OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30–2.17) were at significantly increased risk for trauma compared with men ≥65 years in the reference group. Higher AUDIT-C scores were not associated with increased risk of trauma among women. Conclusions Men with severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C 9–12) demonstrate an increased risk of trauma. Men ≥65 showed an increased risk

  7. Accuracy of 11-year-olds selfreported school lunch consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina

    accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...... in general. Objectives The aim of the present thesis was to assess food level reporting accuracy in Danish 11-year-old children’s self-reported school lunch consumption, and the aim was operationalized in following objectives. 1- To identify food items clustering by lunch format (Preliminary analyses) 2......- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how reporting...

  8. Remedial after-school support classes offered in rural Gambia (The SCORE trial): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Peter; Camara, Alpha; Eble, Alex; Elbourne, Diana; Fernandes, Samory; Frost, Chris; Jayanty, Chitra; Lenin, Maitri; Silva, Ana Filipa

    2015-12-16

    Low education levels are endemic in much of the developing world, particularly in rural areas where traditional government-provided public services often have difficulty reaching beneficiaries. Providing trained para-teachers to teach regular after-school remedial education classes has been shown to improve literacy and numeracy in children of primary school age residing in such areas in India. This trial investigates whether such an intervention can also be effective in a West African setting with similarly low learning levels and difficult geographic access. cluster-randomized controlled trial. Clusters: villages or groups of villages with 15-300 households and at least 15 eligible children in the Lower River and North Bank Regions of The Gambia. children born between 1 September 2007 and 31 August 2009 planning to enter the first grade, for the first time, in the 2015-2016 school year in eligible villages. We anticipate enrolling approximately 150 clusters of villages with approximately 6000 children as participants. a program providing remedial after-school lessons, focusing on literacy and numeracy, 5 to 6 days a week for 3 years to eligible children, based on the intervention evaluated in the Support To Rural India's Public Education System (STRIPES) trial (PLoS ONE 8(7):e65775). both the intervention and control groups will receive small bundles of useful materials during annual data collection as recompense for their time. If the education intervention is shown to be cost-effective at raising learning levels, it is expected that the control group villages will receive the intervention for several years after the trial results are available. the primary outcome of the trial is a composite mathematics and language test score. Secondary outcomes include school attendance, enrollment, performance on nationally administered exams, parents' spending on education, spillover learning to siblings and family members, and school-related time use of parents and

  9. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  10. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  11. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010-11 (Fiscal Year 2011). First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2013-344

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Keaton, Patrick; Glander, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2010-11, fiscal year 2011 (FY 11). The F-33 survey is a school district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the…

  12. Just as smart but not as successful: obese students obtain lower school grades but equivalent test scores to nonobese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, C; Roberts, R D

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized nations has important implications for education, as research demonstrates lower academic achievement among obese students. The current paper compares the test scores and school grades of obese, overweight and normal-weight students in secondary and further education, controlling for demographic variables, personality, ability and well-being confounds. This study included 383 eighth-grade students (49% female; study 1) and 1036 students from 24 community colleges and universities (64% female, study 2), both drawn from five regions across the United States. In study 1, body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reports and parent reports of weight and height. In study 2, BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height only. Both samples completed age-appropriate assessments of mathematics, vocabulary and the personality trait conscientiousness. Eighth-grade students additionally completed a measure of life satisfaction, with both self-reports and parent reports of their grades from the previous semester also obtained. Higher education students additionally completed measures of positive and negative affect, and self-reported their grades and college entrance scores. Obese students receive significantly lower grades in middle school (d=0.83), community college (d=0.34) and university (d=0.36), but show no statistically significant differences in intelligence or achievement test scores. Even after controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, personality and well-being, obese students obtain significantly lower grades than normal-weight students in the eighth grade (d=0.39), community college (d=0.42) and university (d=0.31). Lower grades may reflect peer and teacher prejudice against overweight and obese students rather than lack of ability among these students.

  13. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazili Anjum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  14. Z score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of under nutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazili Anjum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  15. The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks   Rocha, C. E. S.1; Büttenbender, M. D.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,2 1Grupo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Práticas de Ensino, UNIPAMPA, RS. 2Laboratório de Estudos Físico Químicos e Produtos Naturais, UNIPAMPA, RS.   INTRODUCTION: Many teachers make use of textbook to lead content in the classroom. The chemistry books introduce concepts that should relate biochemistry to students in schools. It is important that this first contact turns out into an encouraging experience for the students, because once it worked as expected it arouses interest and makes the students see themselves curious to delve into the subject. The research aims to evaluate the presence of related concepts in biochemistry textbooks in chemistry in high school, over 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to perform this study, we analyzed the following content related to biochemistry: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in the books "Chemistry - Structure of Matter and Organic Chemistry" of the year 1993 and the book "Chemistry in approach to daily life" of the year 2012 with the purpose of verifying the changes in the content of biochemistry in the last 20 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the 90s, as used in the book, concepts and explanations are introduced in a very objective approach, making a total of 22 pages. The current largest is 23 pages with experiments and curiosities. Through analysis we found that current textbooks present the same issues related to biochemistry, however, a greater amount of data, bringing students to more examples and applications in everyday life. Today we see that the contents and processes are most exploited and that there is a concern on the importance of the study of issues that relate to biochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the biochemistry textbooks has been more attractive in recent years, contextualizing content with the daily life of

  16. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  17. Eleven Years of Data on the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student Version (JSE-S): Proxy Norm Data and Tentative Cutoff Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to provide typical descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S) of male and female medical school matriculants to serve as proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The participants were 2,637 students (1,336 women and 1,301 men) who matriculated at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College between 2002 and 2012, and completed the JSE at the beginning of medical school. Information extracted from descriptive statistics, score distributions and percentile ranks for male and female matriculants were used to develop proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. The score distributions of the JSE tended to be moderately skewed and platykurtic. Women obtained a significantly higher mean score (116.2 ± 9.7) than men (112.3 ± 10.8) on the JSE-S (t2,635 = 9.9, p norm data. The tentative cutoff score to identify low scorers was ≤ 95 for men and ≤ 100 for women. Our findings provide norm data and cutoff scores for admission decisions under certain conditions and for identifying students in need of enhancing their empathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  19. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  20. Rethinking Dental School Admission Criteria: Correlation Between Pre-Admission Variables and First-Year Performance for Six Classes at One Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Rieken, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Admissions committees in dental schools are charged with the responsibility of selecting candidates who will succeed in school and become successful members of the profession. Identifying students who will have academic difficulty is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-admission variables for the first-year performance of six classes at one U.S. dental school. The authors hypothesized that the variables undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate science GPA (biology, chemistry, and physics), and Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores would predict the level of performance achieved in the first year of dental school, measured by year-end GPA. Data were collected in 2015 from school records for all 297 students in the six cohorts who completed the first year (Classes of 2007 through 2013). In the results, statistically significant correlations existed between all pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the associations were only weak to moderate. Lower performing students at the end of the first year (lowest 10% of GPA) had, on average, lower pre-admission variables than the other students, but the differences were small (≤10.8% in all categories). When all the pre-admission variables were considered together in a multiple regression analysis, a significant association was found between pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the association was weak (adjusted R 2 =0.238). This weak association suggests that these students' first-year dental school GPAs were mostly determined by factors other than the pre-admission variables studied and has resulted in the school's placing greater emphasis on other factors for admission decisions.

  1. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kazemian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran.In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method.In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144 and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26 number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87 of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8. Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks.The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  2. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Reza; Ghasemi, Hadi; Movahhed, Taraneh; Kazemian, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran. In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method. In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144) and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26) number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87) of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8). Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks. The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  3. Do school inspections improve primary school performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinand Webbink; Rob Luginbuhl; I. de Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Inspectors from the Dutch Inspectorate of Education inspect primary schools, write inspection reports on each inspected school, and make recommendations as to how each school can improve. We test whether these inspections result in better school performance. Using a fixed-effects model, we find evidence that school inspections do lead to measurably better school performance. Our assessment of school performance is based on the Cito test scores of pupils in their final year of primary school. ...

  4. Validation of a 5-year risk score of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. The Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundrup, Y A; Jacobsen, R K; Andreasen, A H

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hip fracture risk score in 15,648 postmenopausal Danish nurses. The algorithm was well calibrated for Denmark. However, the sensitivity was poor at common decision making thresholds. Obtaining sensitivity better than 80% led to a low specificity...... was to test the clinical performance of the algorithm in a large Danish cohort of postmenopausal Caucasian women against hip fracture. METHODS: The Danish Nurse Cohort is a prospective risk factor and hormone therapy (HT) study established in 1993. Participants in the present analysis were 15......,648 postmenopausal nurses. The calibration and diagnostic performance of the WHI algorithm was evaluated using fracture events captured in the Danish National Hospital Registry. RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, 122 participants suffered a hip fracture (1.8/1,000 person years). The WHI algorithm predicted...

  5. Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools: The Third Year 1992-93. Publication Number 92.31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Melissa

    The 1992-93 school year was the third year of the Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program of the Austin (Texas) schools; the project is funded by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Apple Computer Inc. Grants from these corporations were used to equip three elementary schools with IBM equipment and one with Apple…

  6. Cross cultural comparison of JTCI inventory of temperament and character scores of 11-13 year olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukanac Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares characteristics of Serbian and American children on the dimensions of temperament and character on the Junior TCI (JTCI for assessment of 9 to 13 year olds - based on Robert Cloninger’s Psychobiological model of temperament and character. Given the lack of assessment tools for this age group, the goal of the present study was to test the factor structure and main psychometric characteristics of the JTCI in order to determine the applicability of this questionnaire on Serbian children. The sample consisted of 222 boys and girls from the normal population, ages 11 to 13 and who attended grades 6 to 8. The results showed significant differences between Serbian and American sample. Namely, Serbian children had higher scores on the Novelty seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower scores on Reward Dependence and Persistency. As to the Character Dimensions, Serbian children had lower scores on Reward dependence and persistency, and significantly lower on Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Scores on the Self-transcendence were higher among the Serbian children. The differences on Character dimensions between children from different cultures suppose to be primarily a result of the socialization process. They reflect a lower level of maturity, cooperation and probably compensatory reliance on the religion. Although it is a temperament dimension, being prone to negative emotions (higher scores on Danger avoidance may also be a result of a situational sensitivity. This result could be interpreted as a reflection of the negative effects that the general socio cultural milieu had on the children who grew up during the social crisis and transitional periods of our society. The result did not confirm a seven factor personality structure of children in this age group. It is likely that at the age of 11 to 13, dimensions of character and temperament did not yet clearly differentiate. Finally, poor reliability of the JTCI scales imposes

  7. Beyond the Black-White Test Score Gap: Latinos' Early School Experiences and Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Enilda A.; Stoll, Laurie Cooper

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort are used to analyze the factors that lead to the reading readiness of children who participate in nonparental care the year prior to kindergarten (N = 4,550), with a specific focus on Latino children (N = 800). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrates that reading…

  8. Children, childhood and schooling: adjustment in the transition from kindergarten to primary school nine years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Barcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.

  9. Problems catching up – age disadvantage in letter recognition, phoneme awareness and speed naming in Danish five-year-olds at school entry does not disappear after the first school year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2017-01-01

    (a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word mobiliza......(a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word...... mobilization and word reading at the entry and exit to school (0-grade). Results: There are significant differences in preparatory reading skills in five and six year old children. The differences in performance scores are not evened out during the first school year but remain the same. Conclusion: Even...... with intensive day care and similar demographical and socio-economical factors, children will start school with different levels of preparatory reading skills depending on entry to school age. The Danish curriculum which favors standardized reading practice will not be sufficient to even out skills differences...

  10. School Start Times for Middle School and High School Students - United States, 2011-12 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B

    2015-08-07

    Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.

  11. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare.

  12. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  13. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  14. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  15. Screening 5 and 6 year-old children starting primary school for development and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Bayar-Muluk, Nuray; Bayoğlu, Birgül; İdil, Aysun; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    Beginning school is an important milestone for children. Children's readiness for school involves cognitive, physical, and emotional development. Certain school programs allow children to start first grade after 66 months of age, together with 72 month-old children. In order to estimate school readiness, we screened children before starting first grade and compared their school performance according to their age and socio-demographic characteristics. Marmara School Readiness, Denver II developmental screening, and language assessment tests were applied. Language delays were more frequent and school readiness test scores were lower in the younger group compared to older children. However, school achievement did not differ between the two age groups. Preschool education, parental income and education affected performance in most tests. Preschool screening seems effective in detecting children with lower than average developmental skills, and the school system may provide a practical opportunity for providing support to those children.

  16. Past in the Present: The Way Parents Remember Their Own School Years Relates to the Way They Participate in Their Child's Schooling and Remember His/Her School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…

  17. Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-10

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  18. Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357

  19. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available. PMID:20976298

  20. The association between the availability of sugar-sweetened beverage in school vending machines and its consumption among adolescents in California: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  1. School Nurses Race to the Top: The Pilot Year of How One District's School Nurses Revised Their Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffke, Louise Marie; Damm, Paula; Cross, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the 2013-2014 school year, the Shaker Heights, Ohio City school district was mandated to change its evaluation process as part of the Race to the Top initiative. Although not required by the federal or state Departments of Education, the Shaker Heights City school district tasked all members of their faculty and staff, including school…

  2. Influence of behavioral determinants on deviation of body mass index among 12-15 years old school children of Panchkula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the body mass index (BMI and factors related to BMI in 12-15 years old adolescents attending school in the Panchkula district of Haryana, India. METHODS: Our multistage sampling method enrolled 810 adolescents. Demographic data and dietary history data over 5 days were recorded. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, which was further categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system. Diet was analysed using the Nizel criteria and socioeconomic status (SES was assessed using Prasad’s socioeconomic classification. The chi-squared test and analysis of variance test were performed, and a multinomial regression analysis was performed to find significant correlates with BMI. RESULTS: The prevalences of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 13.6, 58.4, 22.7, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males than that among females. The overall food group, nutrient, sweet, and oral health diet scores were higher among overweight and obese adolescents. Adolescents attending public school were 2.62 times more likely than private school adolescents were to be underweight. Private school adolescents were 2.08 times more likely than public school adolescents were to be overweight. Those with a high SES, vegetarians, and those aged 15 years were highly likely to be obese. CONCLUSIONS: We found 41.6% of these adolescents to have a BMI that deviated from the norm. Important factors related with BMI were age, gender, socioeconomic score, mean daily diet score, and the type of school.

  3. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  4. Emerging Partnership Practices in VET Provision in the Senior Years of Schooling in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Gosia; Angelico, Teresa; Polesel, John

    2018-01-01

    School partnerships support the effective provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the senior years of secondary schooling, to a varying degree, in most OECD nations. However, the nature and quality of these partnerships vary considerably from school to school and, indeed, from nation to nation (see Murray and Polesel, "Eur J…

  5. A Five-Year School Building and Future Sites Program 1966-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…

  6. First Year Experiences in School of Mechanical Engineering Kanazawa University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinari, Toshiyasu; Kanjin, Yuichi; Furuhata, Toru; Tada, Yukio

    This paper reports two lectures of the first year experience, ‧Lecture on Life in Campus and Society‧ and ‧Freshman Seminar‧ and discusses their effects. Both lectures have been given freshmen of the school of mechanical engineering, Kanazawa University in H20 spring term. The former lecture is aimed at freshmen to keep on a proper way in both social and college life. It consists of normal class and e-learning system lectures. E-learning system examination requires students to review the whole text book and that seems to have brought better results in the survey. The latter seminar is aimed at freshmen to get active and self-disciplined learning way through their investigation, discussion, presentation, writing work, and so on.

  7. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  9. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  10. Occupational accidents in dental school: a 10-year retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maia Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate occupational accidents that occurred during the first 10 years of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR Dental School. Methods: A documental study based on secondary data from the Notification Center of Occupational Accidents of UNIFOR Dental School, reported in the last 10 years. The variables included characteristics of the accidents and of the injured, besides the type of instrument and the resulting injury. Results: Were recorded 160 occupational accidents divided by location, function of the injured and type of accident. It was observed that 63.1% of cases occurred in the Multidisciplinary Clinic, 23.1% in the Integrated Clinic, 8.8% in the laboratories, 1.9% at home, 1.25% in the Surgical Center, 1.25% in the Material Sterilization Central and 0.6% during the training outside university. Concerning the injured, 90.6% of the victims were undergraduates, 5.0% staff, 3.8% teachers and 0.6% patients. Regarding the injury, 40.6% were penetrating bloody injuries, 11.9% cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% cutting non-bloody injuries, 5% burns, 5% penetrating bloody injuries/cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% were injuries with maceration, 1.9% injuries causing ocular trauma and 0.6% of an incident of dog bite. Conclusion: It was concluded that penetrating injuries were prevalent and these occurred mostly in the multidisciplinary clinic, where students of earlier periods of dental course work, indicating that the experience in dental practice generates more care with safety.

  11. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  12. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). First Look. NCES 2012-313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Noel, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2008-09 (fiscal year [FY] 2009). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  13. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2009-10 (Fiscal Year 2010): First Look. NCES 2013-307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2009-10, fiscal year 2010 (FY 10). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  14. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  15. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  16. Why School Librarians Matter: What Years of Research Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Kachel, Debra E.

    2018-01-01

    Since 1992, a growing body of research known as the school library impact studies has consistently shown positive correlations between school librarians and library programs and student achievement. The authors review the findings from these studies and discuss how school leaders can ensure they are making the best use of their librarians'…

  17. Fifteen Fine Years of School Construction Progress, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    A progress report reviews the Milwaukee School Board's continuous program of acquiring sites and building schools. An itemized listing of 140 completed construction projects is supplemented with pertinent facts and figures, including--(1) growth factors affecting school building needs, (2) resultant increases in the physical plant, staff and…

  18. Normative scores on the Berg Balance Scale decline after age 70 years in healthy community-dwelling people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2014-06-01

    What is the mean Berg Balance Scale score of healthy elderly people living in the community and how does it vary with age? How much variability in Berg Balance Scale scores is present in groups of healthy elderly people and how does this vary with age? Systematic review with meta-analysis. Any group of healthy community-dwelling people with a mean age of 70 years or greater that has undergone assessment using the Berg Balance Scale. Mean and standard deviations of Berg Balance Scale scores within cohorts of elderly people of known mean age. The search yielded 17 relevant studies contributing data from a total of 1363 participants. The mean Berg Balance Scale scores ranged from 37 to 55 out of a possible maximum score of 56. The standard deviation of Berg Balance Scale scores varied from 1.0 to 9.2. Although participants aged around 70 years had very close to normal Berg Balance Scale scores, there was a significant decline in balance with age at a rate of 0.7 points on the 56-point Berg Balance Scale per year. There was also a strong association between increasing age and increasing variability in balance (R(2) = 0.56, p balance deficits, as measured by the Berg Balance Scale, although balance scores deteriorate and become more variable with age. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Time Profile of Mathematics in a "Gap Year" in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Meara, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The Irish education system is unique in an international context as it sets aside a full school year for a transition and youth development programme in the middle of secondary education. The Transition Year (TY) programme is an optional, full time programme offered in the majority of secondary schools. Each school designs its own programme,…

  20. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  1. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  2. prevalence of sleep disorders in khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important consequence of sleep disorders in children is cognitive dysfunction that leads to study, family and social disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 364 students were selected randomly in both sexes male and female with equal numbers. Data were collected using TUCASA questionnaire. Results: Results showed the revalence of sleep disorders as follows: mouth breathing 35/7%, sleep talking 24/7%, habitual snoring 20/3%, nightmare 19/8%, sleep teeth grinding 15/9%, secondary enuresis 8/2%, primary nocturnal enuresis 7/1%, sleep apnea 6/6%, sleep walking 6/6% and excessive daytime sleepiness 10%. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant relation between primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis and male sex, and both disorders were more in boys (p-value=0. 004. Between other disorders, and sex and age there was not significant relation. In this study between teeth grinding and snoring, sleep apnea and snoring, open mouth breathing and snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, sleep duration and time of sleep of parents, there was significant relation (p-value<0. 001. Conclusion: According to findings, mouth breathing was the most common sleep disorder in our subjects and had a significant relation with sleep snoring. So due to treating ability of nonmedical therapy in sleep disorders, it is recommended to increase parents information about necessity of medication and its effect on children cognition.

  3. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  4. Comparison between the Harris- and Oxford Hip Score to evaluate outcomes one-year after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, Hanneke; Lindeboom, Robert; Kuipers, Sander E.; Vervest, Ton M. J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Harris Hip Score (HHS) is a surgeon administered measurement for assessing hip function before and after total hip arthroplasties (THA). Patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs) such as the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) are increasingly used. HHS was compaired to the OHS assessing whether the HHS can

  5. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (<.05. Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (<.05. This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  6. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  7. An Analysis of the Impact of Single-Sex Schools on Seventh Grade Math and Reading Tasks Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Redwood, Tarawa F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant mean difference in math and reading student performance by types of schools. The types of schools were identified as all-male and all-female public middle schools. Specifically, this study examined the impact of public single-sex schools on the mathematics and…

  8. Progression of MDS-UPDRS Scores Over Five Years in De Novo Parkinson Disease from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Samantha K; Finseth, Taylor; Sillau, Stefan H; Berman, Brian D

    2018-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UDPRS) is a commonly used tool to measure Parkinson disease (PD) progression. Longitudinal changes in MDS-UPDRS scores in de novo PD have not been established. Determine progression rates of MDS-UPDRS scores in de novo PD. 362 participants from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, a multicenter longitudinal cohort study of de novo PD, were included. Longitudinal progression of MDS-UPDRS total and subscale scores were modeled using mixed model regression. MDS-UPDRS scores increased in a linear fashion over five years in de novo PD. MDS-UPDRS total score increased an estimated 4.0 points/year, Part I 0.25 points/year, Part II 1.0 points/year, and Part III 2.4 points/year. The expected average progression of MDS-UPDRS scores in de novo PD from this study can assist in clinical monitoring and provide comparative data for detection of disease modification in treatment trials.

  9. Return to sport and knee functional scores after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 2 to 10 years' follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrom Cheecharern

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most common knee ligament reconstruction sustained by sports players. Previous studies have revealed different rates of returning to play sports depending on study sites, subjects, and time to follow-up; however, this subject has not been adequately investigated in Thailand. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the percentage of ACL reconstruction patients who successfully returned to sport activities. Factors associated with being able to return to sport were also determined. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the rates of return to sport of patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2015. All potential patients were initially contacted via letter or mobile phone and asked to report their long-term follow-up outcomes. Collected data from the interview, including return to sport status, performance following ACL, and reasons for not returning to play (if applicable were then combined with the initial surgical findings and enrollment/follow-up cohort data for analysis. This study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of Rajavithi Hospital. Results: A total of 110 participants were recruited, with a mean age of 35.05 ± 9.16 years. Most of the patients were male, single, with bachelor degree education, engaged in “other” occupations, had income up to 10,000 baht/month, were in the social security scheme (54.5%, and had no underlying diseases (85.5%. The mean ± SD of BMI was 25.58 ± 4.30 kg/m2. When classified by whether or not they returned to sports, it was found that sex, education, income and underlying disease of those who returned to sport were significantly different from those of subjects who did not (p < 0.05. At follow-up, 36.4% had returned to sport. The main reasons stated for not returning to sport following ACL were fear of injury, concern about possible long-term effects

  10. Outcome of older persons admitted to intensive care unit, mortality, prognosis factors, dependency scores and ability trajectory within 1 year: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Level, Claude; Tellier, Eric; Dezou, Patrick; Chaoui, Karim; Kherchache, Aissa; Sejourné, Philippe; Rullion-Pac Soo, Anne Marie

    2017-12-06

    The outcome and functional trajectory of older persons admitted to intensive care (ICU) unit remain a true question for critical care physicians and geriatricians, due to the heterogeneity of geriatric population, heterogeneity of practices and absence of guidelines. To describe the 1-year outcome, prognosis factors and functional trajectory for older people admitted to ICU. In a prospective 1-year cohort study, all patients aged 75 years and over admitted to our ICU were included according to a global comprehensive geriatric assessment. Follow-up was conducted for 1 year survivors, in particular, ability scores and living conditions. Of 188 patients included [aged 82.3 ± 4.7 years, 46% of admissions, median SAPS II 53.5 (43-74), ADL of Katz's score 4.2 ± 1.6, median Barthel's index 71 (55-90), AGGIR scale 4.5 ± 1.5], the ICU, hospital and 1-year mortality were, respectively, 34, 42.5 and 65.5%. Prognosis factors were: SAPS 2, mechanical ventilation, comorbidity (Lee's and Mc Cabe's scores), disability scores (ADL of Katz's score, Barthel's index and AGGIR scale), admission creatinin, hypoalbuminemia, malignant haemopathy, cognitive impairment. One-year survivors lived in their own home for 83%, with a preserved physical ability, without significant variation of the three ability assessed scores compared to prior ICU admission. The mortality of older people admitted to ICU is high, with a significant impact of disabilty scores, and preserved 1-year survivor independency. Other studies, including a better comprehensive geriatric assessment, seem necessary to determine a predictive "phenotype" of survival with a "satisfactory" level of autonomy.

  11. World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production: Eight years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.

  12. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  14. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, M

  15. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2011-12 (Fiscal Year 2012). First Look. NCES 2014-303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2015-01-01

    This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2012.1. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) Revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…

  16. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2012-13 (Fiscal Year 2013). First Look. NCES 2015-303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2016-01-01

    This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…

  17. Free school fruit - Sustained effect three years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by

  18. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-11-01

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. In children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), motor function improved between 3 months and 24 months. Improvements in cognitive function were variable between 3 months and 24 months. Working memory centiles declined, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Processing speed improved but remained significantly below the 50th centile. Cognitive impact of ICH may increase with age in children. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Caries risk assessment among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  20. [A comparison on general education curriculum of 4-year and 3-year nursing schools in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Joung, Sun-Ei; Hwang, Chung-Il

    2011-02-01

    This study was done to comparatively analyze the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea. Ten university 4-yr nursing schools were selected based on universities in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010 or "2009 Korea's Best Universities-Top 10" published by Joong-Ang Daily. Ten college 3-yr nursing schools were selected based on colleges in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010. 1) Generally 4-yr nursing schools maintained the relationships between organizational philosophy/purposes and subjects in the general education curriculum. But 3-yr nursing schools did not. 2) In 4-yr nursing schools there was a relatively higher credits ratio of general education curriculum and selective courses than in 3-yr nursing schools. 3) In 4-yr nursing schools variety of courses was relatively higher than 3-yr nursing schools. 4) In 4-yr nursing schools, operating conditions were relatively better (number of tenure professors, ratio of professors to students, Identification of exclusive organization in charge of the general education curriculum) for the general education curriculum than 3-yr nursing schools. The results identify significant differences in the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea, indicating that 3-yr nursing schools should make efforts to improve the good quality of general education curriculum.

  1. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school's support for healthy eating was classified as either "initiation," "action" or "maintenance" along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as "high/increased," "moderate" or "low/decreased" within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the "action" category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy eating in Ontario school food environments.

  2. Peptic ulcer bleeding patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term ulcer rebleeding: A 3.5-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Er-Hsiang; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wu, Chung-Tai; Chen, Wei-Ying; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-01-01

    Patients with high Rockall scores have increased risk of rebleeding and mortality within 30 days after peptic ulcer bleeding, but long-term outcomes deserve follow-up after cessation of proton pump inhibitors. The paper aimed to validate whether patients with high Rockall scores have more recurrent ulcer bleeding in a 3.5-year longitudinal cohort. Between August 2011 and July 2014, 368 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were prospectively enrolled after endoscopic hemostasis to receive proton pump inhibitors for at least 8 to 16 weeks. These subjects were categorized into either a Rockall scores ≥6 group (n = 257) or a Rockall scores ulcer bleeding. The proportion of patients with rebleeding during the 3.5-year follow-up was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 than in those with scores ulcer (P = 0.04) were three additional independent factors found to increase rebleeding risk. The cumulative rebleeding rate was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 with more than or equal to any two additional factors than in those with fewer than two additional factors (15.69 vs. 7.63 per 100 person-year, P = 0.012, log-rank test). Patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. The risk can be independently increased by the presence of activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged ≥1.5-fold, American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥III, and gastric ulcer in patients with Rockall scores ≥6. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Migrant density and well-being--a national school survey of 15-year-olds in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, Anders; Rajmil, Luis; Bergström, Malin; Berlin, Marie; Gustafsson, Per A; Modin, Bitte

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of migrant density in school on the well-being of pupils with a migrant origin in first as well as second generation. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a national classroom survey of 15-year-old Swedish schoolchildren. The study population included 76 229 pupils (86.5% participation) with complete data set from 1352 schools. Six dimensions of well-being from the KIDSCREEN were analysed in two-level linear regression models to assess the influence of migrant origin at individual level and percentage of students with a migrant origin at school level, as well as interaction terms between them. Z-scores were used to equalize scales. A high density (>50%) of pupils with a migrant origin in first or second generation was associated with positive well-being on all six scales for foreign-born pupils originating in Africa or Asia compared with schools with low (psychological well-being (Pschools with low (schools with few other migrant children. School interventions to improve peer relations and prevent bullying are needed to promote well-being in non-European migrant children.

  4. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The ability of PAM50 risk of recurrence score to predict 10-year distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal women with special histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Eriksen, Jens Ole

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup of postmenop...

  6. Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score at 3 months can predict patients' ability to return to sport 1 year after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Christensen, Marianne; Budolfsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at 3 months and 1 year after injury is associated with a patient's ability to return to work and sports as well as to investigate whether sex and age influence ATRS after 3 months and 1 year. METHOD: This is a retrospectiv...

  7. Moving down the Track: Changing School Practices during the Second Year of "Diplomas Now"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanik, Susan; Corrin, William; Roy, David; Gray, Aracelis; Fernandez, Felix; Briggs, Ashley; Wang, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Too many students in high-poverty, urban communities drop out of high school, and too few graduate prepared for college and careers. Three national organizations--Talent Development Secondary, City Year, and Communities In Schools--have formed "Diplomas Now" in an effort to transform urban secondary schools so fewer students drop out and…

  8. Professional Development and the Teaching Schools Experiment in England: Leadership Challenges in an Alliance's First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from the first year of a longitudinal, mixed-methods case study of a large teaching school alliance in England. This national initiative is intended to drive improvement at system level by grouping schools around formally designated teaching schools. These "alliances" work collaboratively to share learning,…

  9. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  10. EXTENDED SCHOOL YEAR DESIGNS--AN INTRODUCTION TO NEW PLANS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION WHICH CAN RESULT IN FINANCIAL ECONOMIES AND PROVIDE MORE EDUCATION FOR ALL PUPILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS, GEORGE ISAIAH

    THIS REPORT EXPLORES PLANS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ORGANIZATION BASED UPON THE LENGTHENING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR TO REDUCE BY ONE OR MORE YEARS THE TOTAL PERIOD OF SCHOOLING. PRACTICAL INFORMATION IS PRESENTED CONCERNING (1) THE CONTINUOUS SCHOOL YEAR PLAN, (2) THE TRIMESTER PLAN, (3) THE QUADRIMESTER PLAN, (4) THE MODIFIED SUMMER SCHOOL…

  11. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Orava

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150. Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13 and Time II (2014. Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES, which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20 across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support. Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy

  12. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...

  13. An Evaluation of the Model School Division (MSD) Preschool Program for the School Year 1973-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This study was designed to assess the extent to which children served by the Model Schools Division Preschool Program developed socially, intellectually, physically and emotionally during the 1973-74 school year. This evaluation was also designed to measure the appropriateness of the learning environment and the amount of services provided by the…

  14. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  15. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay ÖNTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...

  16. Improved predictive value of GRACE risk score combined with platelet reactivity for 1-year cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    Both high platelet reactivity (HPR) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score have moderate predictive value for major adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas the prognostic significance of GRACE risk score combined with platelet function testing remains unclear. A total of 596 patients with non-ST elevation ACS who underwent PCI were enrolled. The P2Y 12 reaction unit (PRU) value was measured by VerifyNow P2Y 12 assay and GRACE score was calculated by GRACE risk 2.0 calculator. Patients were stratified by a pre-specified cutoff value of PRU 230 and GRACE score 140 to assess 1-year risk of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stent thrombosis. Seventy-two (12.1%) patients developed CVD events during 1-year follow-up. Patients with CVD events had a higher PRU value (244.6 ± 50.9 vs. 203.7 ± 52.0, p risk independently. Compared to patients with normal platelet reactivity (NPR) and GRACE score risk (HR: 5.048; 95% CI: 2.268-11.237; p risk score yielded superior risk predictive capacity beyond GRACE score alone, which is shown by improved c-statistic value (0.871, p = 0.002) as well as net reclassification improvement (NRI 0.263, p risk of adverse CVD events. The combination of platelet function testing and GRACE score predicted 1-year CVD risk better.

  17. Validation of a 5-year risk score of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. The Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundrup, Y A; Jacobsen, R K; Andreasen, A H

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hip fracture risk score in 15,648 postmenopausal Danish nurses. The algorithm was well calibrated for Denmark. However, the sensitivity was poor at common decision making thresholds. Obtaining sensitivity better than 80% led to a low specificity...

  18. School-Sponsored Before, After and Extended School Year Programs: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Buswell, Sue Ann; Morgitan, Judith; Compton, Linda; Westendorf, Georgene; Chau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) has the educational and clinical background to coordinate the necessary school health services to provide students with the same health, nutrition, and safety needs while attending…

  19. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An evaluation of vocational high schools in Indonesia: A comparison between four-year and three-year programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenarto Soenarto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to gain insights into the quality of four-year program vocational high school (VHS in Indonesia compared to four-year program VHS. This research was conducted based on the school graduate standard, business sector and industrial sector (or Dunia Usaha dan Dunia Industri (DUDI – or the performance of the graduates and alumni (the graduates’ satisfaction. The research was conducted using Discrepancy Evaluation Model using 16 VHSs (eight four-year program VHSs and eight three-year program VHSs. The result shows that from the standpoint of the school, the graduates of the four-year program VHS are higher in quality than those of the three-year program VHS. The four-year program VHS graduates are more qualified in seven aspects: teamwork, discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, confidence, creativity, and leadership. Meanwhile, using DUDI standpoint, the four-year program VHS graduates are also higher in quality than the three-year program VHS graduates. In addition, the four-year program VHS graduates are better in the quality of their discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, practical skills, confidence, carefulness, creativity, and leadership. The four-year program VHS graduates have a higher level of satisfaction in terms of income than the three-year program VHS graduates. The higher quality of the four-year program VHS graduates has resulted from longer duration of the internship program (PKL that provides them with reliable experience and skills concerning work-related problem-solving activities.

  1. Preoperative KOOS and SF-36 Scores Are Associated With the Development of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis at 7 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J Kristopher; Owens, Brett D; Akelman, Matthew R; Karamchedu, Naga Padmini; Fadale, Paul D; Hulstyn, Michael J; Shalvoy, Robert M; Badger, Gary J; Fleming, Braden C

    2018-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis despite ACL reconstruction surgery. However, little evidence is available to determine which patients will develop symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. To determine if preoperative outcome measures-KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and SF-36 (36-item Short Form Health Survey)-were associated with the development of a symptomatic knee 7 years after ACL reconstruction. A secondary goal was to examine the relationship between imaging evidence of knee osteoarthritis and development of knee pain. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Prospectively collected data from 72 patients were reviewed with 7-year follow-up after unilateral ACL reconstruction. Patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups based on the previously defined KOOS pain ≤72. Demographic variables and preoperative KOOS and SF-36 scores were compared between groups. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging data were used to evaluate differences in joint space width, Osteoarthritis Research Society International radiographic score, and the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors of pain at 7-year follow-up. Wilcoxon sum rank and t tests were used to compare imaging findings between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients at 7 years. According to KOOS pain, 7 of the 72 patients available at 7-year follow-up formed the symptomatic group. No differences were found between groups in regard to demographic variables or intraoperative findings. In multivariate analysis, lower preoperative scores for KOOS sports/recreation ( P = .005) and SF-36 mental health ( P = .025) were associated with a painful knee at 7 years, with increased odds of 82% and 68% per 10-unit decrease, respectively. The Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score at 7 years showed evidence of

  2. Low quality of life scores in school children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder related to anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an alteration that begins early in infancy and whose cardinal symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There are few studies for specific tests to measure Quality of Life (QoL in children with ADHD. METHODS: We evaluated QoL of 120 children from 7-12 years of age with ADHD and of a group of 98 healthy control children. To measure QoL, we utilized the Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Children in Pictures (AutoQuestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé, AUQUEI. We evaluated anxiety in children by the Children´s Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revisited (CMAS-R. We compared results among groups and employed the calculation of correlation between the AUQUEI questionnaire and the CMAS-R scale. RESULTS: The total average of the AUQUEI questionnaire in children with ADHD was 45.2, while in the control group it was 54.3 (p<0.05. We also observed significant differences between the control group and groups of children with ADHD in the CMAS-R scale. We found significant correlations between AUQUEI questionnaire and CMAS-R scale. CONCLUSION: The main result was to the disclosure that low QoL scores in ADHD children was anxiety-related.

  3. Low quality of life scores in school children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder related to anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Cortés, José A; del Río-Carlos, Yolanda; Dehesa-Moreno, Minerva; Poblano, Adrián

    2012-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an alteration that begins early in infancy and whose cardinal symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There are few studies for specific tests to measure Quality of Life (QoL) in children with ADHD. We evaluated QoL of 120 children from 7-12 years of age with ADHD and of a group of 98 healthy control children. To measure QoL, we utilized the Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Children in Pictures (AutoQuestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé, AUQUEI). We evaluated anxiety in children by the Children´s Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revisited (CMAS-R). We compared results among groups and employed the calculation of correlation between the AUQUEI questionnaire and the CMAS-R scale. The total average of the AUQUEI questionnaire in children with ADHD was 45.2, while in the control group it was 54.3 (pCMAS-R scale. We found significant correlations between AUQUEI questionnaire and CMAS-R scale. The main result was to the disclosure that low QoL scores in ADHD children was anxiety-related.

  4. Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School kicked off the school year 2016-2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    It has been 54 years already, ever since the Nursery school was founded in March 1961, that the Staff Association together with the teachers, the managerial and the administrative staff, welcomes your children at the start of the school year. On Tuesday, 30 August 2016, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School opened its doors again for children between four months and six years old. The start of the school year was carried out gradually and in small groups to allow quality interaction between children, professionals and parents. This year, our structure will accommodate about 130 children divided between the nursery, the kindergarten and the school. Throughout the school year, the children will work on the theme of colours, which will be the common thread linking all our activities. Our team is comprised of 38 people: the headmistress, the deputy headmistress, 2 secretaries, 13 educators, 4 teachers, 11 teaching assistants, 2 nursery assistants and 4 canteen workers. The team is delighted...

  5. Validating the EXCEL hypothesis: a propensity score matched 3-year comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft in left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodanno, Davide; Caggegi, Anna; Capranzano, Piera; Cincotta, Glauco; Miano, Marco; Barrano, Gionbattista; Monaco, Sergio; Calvo, Francesco; Tamburino, Corrado

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the study hypothesis of the EXCEL trial by comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in an EXCEL-like population of patients. The upcoming EXCEL trial will test the hypothesis that left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32 experience similar rates of 3-year death, myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following revascularization by PCI or CABG. We compared the 3-year rates of death/MI/CVA and death/MI/CVA/target vessel revascularization (MACCE) in 556 patients with left main disease and SYNTAX score ≤ 32 undergoing PCI (n = 285) or CABG (n = 271). To account for confounders, outcome parameters underwent extensive statistical adjustment. The unadjusted incidence of death/MI/CVA was similar between PCI and CABG (12.7% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.892), while MACCE were higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group (27.0% vs. 11.8%, P EXCEL-like cohort of patients with left main disease, there seems to be a clinical equipoise between PCI and CABG in terms of death/MI/CVA. However, even in patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32, CABG is superior to PCI when target vessel revascularization is included in the combined endpoint. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Differences in Faculty and Standardized Patient Scores on Professionalism for Second-Year Podiatric Medical Students During a Standardized Simulated Patient Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Anwar, Noreen; Hagenbucher, Jacob

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter. Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool. Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of "build a relationship" ( P = .008), "gather information" ( P = .001), and share information ( P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the "gather information" subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the "question appropriately" ( P = .001) and "listen and clarify" ( P = .003) subdomains. This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.

  7. Administrative Problems in the Single-Track Year-Round High Schools: Research Findings and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Laura L.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    An analysis of the problems pertaining to the adoption of a year-round calendar for high schools, along with the advantages of year-round education (YRE), are examined. It provides a literary review (including historical contexts), types of calendars, benefits, administrative problems, and societal benefits. For the study, 28 schools responded to…

  8. How wide is the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to identify the nature and extent of the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at the University of the Witwatersrand. The investigation was done at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level high school physical science and first-year chemistry syllabuses were compared. The testing ...

  9. The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

  10. Puberty, Health and Sexual Education in Australian Regional Primary Schools: Year 5 and 6 Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bernadette; Fotinatos, Nina; Smith, Amanda; Burke, Jenene

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates why teachers in regional primary schools in the Ballarat region of Victoria, Australia, are choosing to outsource the teaching of sexuality education. A survey was conducted of 29 Year 5 and Year 6 teachers from local primary schools. The teachers provided information about: their confidence in…

  11. Effects of Year-Round Education on Texas Middle School Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the year-round calendar on student performance in Texas middle schools as measured by achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. In the State of Texas, 15 schools served students in grades six through eight using the year-round calendar in 2009-2010. The 15…

  12. The Readiness of High School Students to Pursue First Year Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.

    2012-01-01

    A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…

  13. The Measurement of Students' Achievement in Teaching Primary School Fifth Year Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Ahmet; Bal, Ayten Pinar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate students' and teachers' point of views about preparing measurement tools used in mathematics classes, the level of learning that these tools are intended to measure, how often they are used and how they are scored in terms of assessing 5th grade primary school mathematic courses. The population of the study…

  14. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, T...

  15. Alternative Approaches to Organizing the School Day and Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julia

    1994-01-01

    Since 1991, the National Education Commission on Time and Learning has been examining the quality and adequacy of student learning time. Innovations being considered address provision of additional learning opportunities, children's well-being, employee productivity concerns, and efficient use of school facilities. Promising practices include the…

  16. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  17. Validation of the Ford Score as a Measure for Predicting the Level of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…

  18. Brain Gym To Increase Academic Performance Of Children Aged 10-12 Years Old ( Experimental Study in Tembalang Elementary School and Pedalangan Elementary School Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, M. G.; Sareharto, T. P.; Purwanti, A.; Hermawati, D.

    2017-02-01

    Academic performance becomes an important determinant of individual quality. it is determined by the function of affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and intelligence. Brain gym can improve learning processes and integrate all areas that related to the learning process. To prove the effect of brain gym towards academic performance of children aged 10-12 years. This study was a quasy experiment study with one group pre and post test design. Samples (n=18 male=7 and female=11) were taken from five and six grader and conducted in Tembalang and Pedalangan Elementary School, Semarang. Pretest were administered, followed by brain gym, and post test administered in the end of study. The measurement of Intelligence Quotient pre and post test using Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2. Among the 18 subjects (male=7 and female=11) the average of academic performance and IQ score after brain gym showed improvement. The Improvement of IQ score with Culture Fair Test Scale 2 was analyzed by Dependent T test showed significant results (p=0,000). The improvement of Bahasa score was analyzed by Wilcoxon test showed significant results (p=0,001), an unsignificant result were shown in Mathematics p=0,079 and natural sciences p=0,306. Brain gym can increase academic performance of children aged 10-12 years old.

  19. Intervention study on school meal habits in Norwegian 10-12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IlløKken, Kristine E; Bere, Elling; Øverby, Nina C; Høiland, Renate; Petersson, Kirsten O; Vik, Frøydis N

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a free school meal every day was associated with children's intake of healthy food during school. A non-randomized study design with an intervention and a control group was used to measure change in children's meal habits at lunchtime. In total, 164 children participated; 55 in the intervention group and 109 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were served a free, healthy school meal every school day. Participating children completed a questionnaire at baseline and at 6 months' follow up. Possible associations were evaluated with a healthy food score, which was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire on lunch habits at school. Chi-square and Independent Samples t-test were used to analyse the data. At baseline, there was no significant difference in the healthy food score between the intervention and the control group ( p = 0.08). Children in the intervention group increased their healthy food score significantly compared with children in the control group after 6 months ( p ⩽ 0.01). Change in the healthy food score was mainly due to an increase in the intake of fruit ( p ⩽ 0.01), vegetables ( p ⩽ 0.01) and fish spread ( p = 0.02); all in favour of the intervention group. A serving of a free school meal every day for 6 months increased children's intake of healthy food at lunchtime compared with the control group. Further studies are needed to establish possible long-term effects.

  20. A school-randomized clinical trial of an integrated social-emotional learning and literacy intervention: impacts after 1 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M; Brown, Joshua L; Hoglund, Wendy L G; Aber, J Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    To report experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development on change over 1 school year in 3rd-grade children's social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. This study employed a school-randomized, experimental design and included 942 3rd-grade children (49% boys; 45.6% Hispanic/Latino, 41.1% Black/African American, 4.7% non-Hispanic White, and 8.6% other racial/ethnic groups, including Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American) in 18 New York City public elementary schools. Data on children's social-cognitive processes (e.g., hostile attribution biases), behavioral symptomatology (e.g., conduct problems), and literacy skills and academic achievement (e.g., reading achievement) were collected in the fall and spring of 1 school year. There were main effects of the 4Rs Program after 1 year on only 2 of the 13 outcomes examined. These include children's self-reports of hostile attributional biases (Cohen's d = 0.20) and depression (d = 0.24). As expected based on program and developmental theory, there were impacts of the intervention for those children identified by teachers at baseline with the highest levels of aggression (d = 0.32-0.59) on 4 other outcomes: children's self-reports of aggressive fantasies, teacher reports of academic skills, reading achievement scaled scores, and children's attendance. This report of effects of the 4Rs intervention on individual children across domains of functioning after 1 school year represents an important first step in establishing a better understanding of what is achievable by a schoolwide intervention such as the 4Rs in its earliest stages of unfolding. The first-year impacts, combined with our knowledge of sustained and expanded effects after a second year, provide evidence that this intervention may be initiating positive developmental cascades both in the general population of students and among those at highest behavioral risk. (Psyc

  1. Competency Assessment of the Last Year Students of Tabriz Dentistry School in the Major Skills Needed for a New Dentist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pourabbas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of educational courses has a critical impact on quality improvement in all curricula. Surveys aimed at alumni and graduating students may be useful for the evaluation of the program outcomes and revision. The aims of this study were to describe levels of competency of last year students of an Iranian dental school in the major skills needed for a new dentist and to investigate its relationship with background factors such as gender, marriage status, entrance exam score , entrance quotas and their economic status.Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, 55 last year dental students filled out a valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 132 competencies that could be rated on a four point Likert’s Scale. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, independent-samples ttest and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Students' total competencies mean score was 47.48±2.03 out of 100. The lowest and highest score belonged to oral diseases diagnosis (%18.48 and Preventive dentistry (%66.06 respectively. The past dental hygiene students continued their education as a doctoral degree were more competent than the others but there were no significant differences between competency levels of other quotas. The competency score had no significant relationship with marriage and economic statuses of students aswell as their entrance exam score.Conclusion: responses to the students’ self-reported preparedness described the general state of competency of the last year dental students as fairly satisfactory. However, the theoretical backgrounds related to some subjects need to be more emphasized.Key words: COMPETENCY, DENTISTRY STUDENTS EDUCATION

  2. Detailed Joint Region Analysis of the 7-Joint Ultrasound Score: Evaluation of an Arthritis Patient Cohort over One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohrndorf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the 7-joint ultrasound (US7 score by detailed joint region analysis of an arthritis patient cohort. Methods. The US7 score examines the clinically most affected wrist, MCP and PIP II, III, MTP II, and V joints for synovitis, tenosynovitis/paratenonitis, and erosions. Forty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (84.4% and spondyloarthritis with polyarticular peripheral arthritis (PsA 13.3%; AS 2.2% with a median disease duration of 6.5 yrs (range 7.5 mths–47.6 yrs were included and examined at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after starting or changing therapy (DMARD/biologic. In this study, detailed US7 score joint region analysis was firstly performed. Results. The joint region analysis performed at baseline disclosed synovitis in 95.6% of affected wrists in the dorsal aspect by greyscale (GS US where Grade 2 (moderate was most often (48.9% detected. Palmar wrist regions presented Grade 1 (minor capsule elevation in 40% and Grade 2 (moderate synovitis in 37.8%. Tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon was found in 40%, with PD activity in 6.6%. Most of the erosions in MCP II were detected in the radial (68.9%, followed by the dorsal (48.9% and palmar (44.4% aspects. In MTP V, erosions were seen in 75.6% from lateral. Conclusions. Synovitis in GSUS was more often detected in the wrist in the dorsal than in the palmar aspect. ECU tendon involvement was frequent. Most erosions were found in the lateral scan of MTP V and the medial (radial scan of MCP II.

  3. Ranking the schools: How school-quality information affects school choice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether information about the quality of high schools published in a national newspaper affects school choice in the Netherlands. We find that negative (positive) school-quality scores decrease (increase) the number of first-year students who choose a school after the year of

  4. The ADHF/NT-proBNP risk score to predict 1-year mortality in hospitalized patients with advanced decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Ammirati, Enrico; Guida, Pietro; Passantino, Andrea; Raimondo, Rosa; Guida, Valentina; Sarzi Braga, Simona; Canova, Paolo; Mastropasqua, Filippo; Frigerio, Maria; Lagioia, Rocco; Oliva, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    The acute decompensated heart failure/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ADHF/NT-proBNP) score is a validated risk scoring system that predicts mortality in hospitalized heart failure patients with a wide range of left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs). We sought to assess discrimination and calibration of the score when applied to patients with advanced decompensated heart failure (AHF). We studied 445 patients hospitalized for AHF, defined by the presence of severe symptoms of worsening HF at admission, severely depressed LVEF, and the need for intravenous diuretic and/or inotropic drugs. The primary outcome was cumulative (in-hospital and post-discharge) mortality and post-discharge 1-year mortality. Separate analyses were performed for patients aged ≤ 70 years. A Seattle Heart Failure Score (SHFS) was calculated for each patient discharged alive. During follow-up, 144 patients (32.4%) died, and 69 (15.5%) underwent heart transplantation (HT) or ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. After accounting for the competing events (VAD/HT), the ADHF/NT-proBNP score's C-statistic for cumulative mortality was 0.738 in the overall cohort and 0.771 in patients aged ≤ 70 years. The C-statistic for post-discharge mortality was 0.741 and 0.751, respectively. Adding prior (≤6 months) hospitalizations for HF to the score increased the C-statistic for post-discharge mortality to 0.759 in the overall cohort and to 0.774 in patients aged ≤ 70 years. Predicted and observed mortality rates by quartiles of score were highly correlated. The SHFS demonstrated adequate discrimination but underestimated the risk. The ADHF/NT-proBNP risk calculator is available at http://www.fsm.it/fsm/file/NTproBNPscore.zip. Our data suggest that the ADHF/NT-proBNP score may efficiently predict mortality in patients hospitalized with AHF. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, Taiwan were used as samples. Students were randomly assigned to experimental conditions by class. Twenty eight students of the experimental group were taught by the collaboration of social studies teacher and teacher-librarian; while 27 students of the controlled group were taught separately by teacher in didactic teaching method. Inquiry-Based Project Record, Inquiry-Based Project Rubrics, and school monthly test scores were used as instruments for collecting data. A t-test and correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that: (1 High-end collaboration model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian was established and implemented well in the classroom. (2There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group in individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports. Students that were taught by the collaborative teachers got both higher inquiry-based project reports’ scores than those that were taught separately by the teachers. Experimental group’s students got higher school monthly test scores than controlled groups. Suggestions for teachers’ high-end collaboration and future researcher are provided in this paper.

  6. Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Scores for Reading Versus Other Near Visual Activities in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tiana Y; Clark, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    To measure the difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey scores for reading vs favorite near visual activities. Comparative validity analysis of diagnostic tools. At a single clinical private practice, 100 children aged 9-18 with normal binocular vision were recruited to receive either the original survey emphasizing reading or a modified survey replacing "reading" with their favorite near activity. Average survey scores and subscores for questions emphasizing fatigue, discomfort, impaired vision, and cognitive performance were compared using t tests, while responses to individual questions were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests. The average reading survey score was significantly greater than the favorite near activity survey score (14.1 ± 11.5 vs 6.7 ± 5.8, P = .0001). The largest difference resulted from questions emphasizing cognitive performance (subscore 5.8 ± 4.3 vs 2.0 ± 2.1, P = .0000002), although significant differences were also found for fatigue (5.4 ± 3.8 vs 3.0 ± 2.7, P = .0003), discomfort (3.9 ± 4.6 vs 1.8 ± 2.2, P = .004), and impaired vision (3.2 ± 3.9 vs 1.8 ± 2.2, P = .02). Significant differences were found for 7 survey questions, with higher symptom scores for the reading survey in every case. Using survey scores ≥16 to diagnose convergence insufficiency, significantly more children taking the reading survey would have been diagnosed with convergence insufficiency than children taking the favorite near activity survey (19 of 50 [38%] vs 5 of 50 [10%], P = .001). By emphasizing reading, the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey score significantly overestimates near visual symptoms in children with normal binocular vision compared with symptoms caused by preferred near activities that require similar amplitudes of accommodation and convergence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  8. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  9. A Summer Math and Physics Program for High School Students: Student Performance and Lessons Learned in the Second Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Nicholas; Baird, Michael; Bennett, Jake; Fry, Jason; Garrison, Lance; Maltese, Adam

    2013-05-01

    For the past two years, the Foundations in Physics and Mathematics (FPM) summer program has been held at Indiana University in order to fulfill two goals: provide additional physics and mathematics instruction at the high school level, and provide physics graduate students with experience and autonomy in designing curricula and teaching courses. In this paper we will detail changes made to the program for its second year and the motivation for these changes, as well as implications for future iterations of the program. We gauge the impact of the changes on student performance using pre-/post-test scores, student evaluations, and anecdotal evidence. These data show that the program has a positive impact on student knowledge and this impact was greater in magnitude in the second year of the program. We attribute this improvement primarily to the inclusion of more inquiry-driven activities. All activities, worksheets, and lesson plans used in the program are available online.

  10. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration. PMID:21864404

  11. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2011-08-24

    In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration.

  12. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedford Helen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further

  13. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  14. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  15. The School for Nuclear Engineering is 25 years old: Where teachers go to school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.

    1986-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the School for Nuclear Engineering at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre has provided further education in all areas of nuclear engineering. The courses are attended by all kinds of people: school teachers, shift managers in nuclear power stations and engineers from the Third World, for example. (orig.) [de

  16. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  17. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  18. Cystic fibrosis school for 10-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2000-01-01

    the children about the respiratory system in CF. They take physiotherapi together and go to the swimmingpool. The dietician and the nurse teach the children about the digestive system in CF and they cook together. The children learn about genetics, liver problems, infertility etc from the doctor and the nurse......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...

  19. Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov, S; Vestergaard, Christian; Babirekere, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a life-threatening condition. It can be associated with severe skin changes, first properly described by Williams in 1933. The aetiology of these skin changes is still unknown and their character has never been systematically described in dermatological...... objective was to identify the skin changes characteristic of children with severe acute malnutrition and to develop a clinical score that describes the morphology and severity in dermatological terms. We also investigated if any of the different skin changes were connected to prognosis. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Mwanamugimu (Department of Paediatrics and Child Health), Uganda, 120 children were included over a period of six months and observed when treated for severe acute malnutrition. Skin changes were registered through clinical examination and photo documentation and associated...

  20. Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationships and Academic Motivation within One School Year: Developmental Changes and Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in schools following 8 years of mandating legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  2. A CTE Legacy Built on Chocolate: Milton Hershey School's 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmery, Robert

    2010-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…

  3. School year versus summer differences in child weight gain: A narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in chil...

  4. Evaluation of the Family/School Partnership Project, Year III, 1996-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Donald L.; Plakos, John; Santos, Will

    The report details the third-year evaluation of a transitional bilingual education project at Chester W. Nimitz Middle School in Huntington Park, California. The Family/School Partnership Project is designed to assist limited English proficient students in mastering English skills to transition to regular classroom activities by integrating…

  5. Mesa Verde--A Year-Round High School. A Descriptive Report of 1980-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda

    Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…

  6. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...

  7. Teacher-student interpersonal relationships and academic motivation within one school year : developmental changes and linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  9. Lessons learned from 15 years of non-grades-based selection for medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractContext: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of

  10. A Year after Columbine: Public Looks to Parents More than Schools To Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Washington, DC.

    An April 2000 telephone survey queried a nationwide sample of 1,000 adults, including 283 parents of children ages 5 to 17 years, concerning school violence and other issues in the news. The vast majority of those surveyed said they believe it is the responsibility of parents to ensure that school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High…

  11. Grade 10 PSAT Participation and Performance--School Year 2015-2016. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015-2016 school year marks the first administration of the redesigned PSAT, which is composed of two sections: (1) Evidence-based Reading and Writing (EBRW) and (2) Math. This memorandum presents results of 2015-2016 Grade 10 PSAT participation and performance of Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) students. Among 10,859 MCPS first-time…

  12. Project A+, Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools, 1991-92: The Second Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Todd; Frazer, Linda

    The Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program, where four elementary schools were equipped with computer hardware and software, was made possible by grants from IBM and Apple, Inc. The goals of the program were, in 3 years, to reduce by 50% the number of students not in their age appropriate grade level and those students not achieving…

  13. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  14. A prediction score for significant coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ≥50 years old referred for rheumatic valvular heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenjun; Pan, Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Hailong; Fan, Fudong; Luo, Xuan; Ge, Min; Wang, Dongjin

    2018-04-01

    Our goal was to establish a prediction score and protocol for the preoperative prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we validated the model based on 490 patients without a history of myocardial infarction and who underwent preoperative screening coronary angiography. Significant CAD was defined as ≥50% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left main coronary artery or ≥70% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex artery or right coronary artery. Significant CAD was present in 9.8% of patients. Age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischaemia evident on an electrocardiogram were independently associated with significant CAD and were entered into the multivariate model. According to the logistic regression predictive risk score, preoperative coronary angiography is recommended in (i) postmenopausal women between 50 and 59 years of age with ≥9.1% logistic regression predictive risk score; (ii) postmenopausal women who are ≥60 years old with a logistic regression predictive risk score ≥6.6% and (iii) men ≥50 years old whose logistic regression predictive risk score was ≥2.8%. Based on this predictive model, 246 (50.2%) preoperative coronary angiograms could be safely avoided. The negative predictive value of the model was 98.8% (246 of 249). This model was accurate for the preoperative prediction of significant CAD in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. This model must be validated in larger cohorts and various populations.

  15. Correlation between maximum phonetically balanced word recognition score and pure-tone auditory threshold in elder presbycusis patients over 80 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin-Sheng; Ji, Fei; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2014-02-01

    The maximum phonetically balanced word recognition score (PBmax) showed poor correlation with pure-tone thresholds in presbycusis patients older than 80 years. To study the characteristics of monosyllable recognition in presbycusis patients older than 80 years of age. Thirty presbycusis patients older than 80 years were included as the test group (group 80+). Another 30 patients aged 60-80 years were selected as the control group (group 80-) . PBmax was tested by Mandarin monosyllable recognition test materials with the signal level at 30 dB above the averaged thresholds of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz (4FA) or the maximum comfortable level. The PBmax values of the test group and control group were compared with each other and the correlation between PBmax and predicted maximum speech recognition scores based on 4FA (PBmax-predict) were statistically analyzed. Under the optimal test conditions, the averaged PBmax was (77.3 ± 16.7) % for group 80- and (52.0 ± 25.4) % for group 80+ (p < 0.001). The PBmax of group 80- was significantly correlated with PBmax-predict (Spearman correlation = 0.715, p < 0.001). The score for group 80+ was less statistically correlated with PBmax-predict (Spearman correlation = 0.572, p = 0.001).

  16. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  17. Assessment of non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions among 12- to 15-year-old government and private school children in Pune, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machale, Priyanka S; Hegde-Shetiya, Sahana; Shirahatti, Ravi; Agarwal, Deept

    2014-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the mean number of non-cavitated (initial lesions, IL) and cavitated carious lesions (WHO criteria) per child in the permanent dentition and to correlate it with the plaque index among 12- to 15-year-old government and private school children. 481 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years were selected randomly by multistage random sampling from two government and two private schools. Demographic details were collected at the time of examination. Baseline plaque scores were recorded using the Silness and Löe plaque index. Immediately after brushing and drying the teeth, cavitated lesions were recorded based on WHO recommendations and non-cavitated lesions were recorded using the IL criteria of Nyvad et al and Fyffe et al. The mean number of surfaces with cavitated and non-cavitated lesions for government school children was 2.13 ± 2.98 and 3.21 ± 2.97, respectively, and 1.24 ± 1.86 and 3.08 ± 2.33 for private school children, respectively. WHO + IL surfaces among private school children were 4.33 ± 3.48 and in government school children 5.35 ± 4.45. There was a positive correlation of plaque score with IL (r = 0.63) and WHO+IL (r = 0.73). Non-cavitated lesions are about twice as common as cavitated carious lesions in school children. Government school children had a higher number of cavitated and non-cavitated carious lesions when compared with private school children.

  18. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...

  19. Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiry, Leila; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2017-11-13

    There are a few studies evaluating the predictive value of Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in patients with metabolic syndrome in Iran. Because of the emerging high prevalence of CVD among Iranian population, it is important to predict its risk among populations with potential predictive tools. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the FRS and its determinants in patients with metabolic syndrome. In the current cross-sectional study, 160 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were enrolled. The FRS was calculated using a computer program by a previously suggested algorithm. Totally, 77.5, 16.3, and 6.3% of patients with metabolic syndrome were at low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS categorization. The highest prevalence of all of metabolic syndrome components were in low CVD risk according to the FRS grouping (P metabolic syndrome and different FRS categorization among patients with metabolic syndrome were identified. High SBP and FSG were associated with meaningfully increased risk of CVD compared with other parameters. The study is not a trial; the registration number is not applicable.

  20. Special Education: A Statistical Report for the 1982-1983 School Year and the 1980-1981 and 1981-1982 School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Marie

    The two reports compiled here are intended as aids in evaluating and planning future educational efforts for handicapped students in New Jersey. The reports include a census of handicapped pupils, their programs, the service delivery personnel and special education due process cases for the 1980-81, 1981-82, and 1982-83 school years. Each report…

  1. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  2. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  3. Do Reductions in Class Size Raise Students' Test Scores? Evidence from Population Variation in Minnesota's Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunkuk; Glewwe, Paul; Whitler, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states and cities spend substantial funds to reduce class size, especially in elementary (primary) school. Estimating the impact of class size on learning is complicated, since children in small and large classes differ in many observed and unobserved ways. This paper uses a method of Hoxby (2000) to assess the impact of class size on…

  4. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  5. Tooth surface loss, prevalence and associated risk factors among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H

    2010-12-01

    Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.

  6. Dental erosion among 12-14 year old school children in Khartoum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, I A; Sanhouri, N M; Hashim, N T; Ziada, H M

    2007-09-01

    To investigate dental erosion among 12-14 year old Sudanese school children and evaluate the associated risk factors. Cross sectional survey in secondary schools in Khartoum city, Sudan. A sample of 157 school children was obtained from both private and public schools. Erosion on the labial and palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors was measured by criterion based on the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index. Dietary intake and other related factors were assessed using a questionnaire. The overall erosion prevalence in this group was 66.9%, of which 45.2% was mild and 21.7% was moderate erosion. A strong association was found between erosion and private schooling (higher socioeconomic groups), carbonated drinks, herbal hibiscus drink and traditional acidic food consumption. There was a high prevalence of dental erosion among Sudanese school children which was mild to moderate in severity and was strongly associated with acidic dietary intake

  7. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m 3 , some rooms had >740 Bq/m 3 and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. - Highlights: • Relatively few schools in New York State have been tested for indoor radon. • We provide a summary of radon-testing results for measured schools. • The radon potential in schools is often less than in local houses. • Short-term measurement results exceeded their long-term counterparts in nearly every case

  8. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  9. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and American Osteopathic Association (AOA, residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, also assess competency in several clinical domains.The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009.The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component were merged and analyzed for relationships.Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings.A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA and ACGME core competencies.

  10. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA), residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP) program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE), also assess competency in several clinical domains. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009. Methods The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component) were merged and analyzed for relationships. Results Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings. Discussion A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA

  11. [Preschool familial environment and academic difficulties: A 10-year follow-up from kindergarten to middle school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara-Costa, H; Pulgar, S; Cusin, F; Dellatolas, G

    2016-02-01

    background characteristics at kindergarten were related to later academic outcomes at grade 9. From the original set of family characteristics, parental educational level, family situation, language-based bedtime routines, and type of early childcare significantly predicted later academic achievement at grade 9. Moreover, a multiple risk index score aggregating these specific family characteristics, together with three individual-level factors (gender, medical history, and language delay) was robustly and positively associated with an increased likelihood of school failure at the end of middle school. Unique to our study was the finding relative to the longitudinal association over a 10-year span of language-based bedtime routines with children's academic performance at the end of middle school. These findings underline the importance of including family background information in early surveillance procedures in order to improve the efficient screening of children who might be at risk of academic underachievement. Importantly, some of these contextual factors represent environmental characteristics that can be reversed early in life through appropriate and informed support to families. Moreover, the present work has important implications regarding the early detection of children who are at familial risk of underachievement, allowing the activation and promotion of adequate intervention strategies early in children's educational trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Kick off of the 2017-2018 school year at the EVE and School of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Children’s Day-Care Centre (“Espace de Vie Enfantine” - EVE) and School of the CERN Staff Association opened its doors once again to welcome the children, along with the teaching and administrative staff of the structure. The start of the school year was carried out gradually and in small groups to allow quality interaction between children, professionals and parents. At the EVE (Nursery and Kindergarten) and School, the children have the opportunity to thrive in a privileged environment, rich in cultural diversity, since the families (parents and children) come from many different nationalities. The teaching staff do their utmost to ensure that the children can become more autonomous and develop their social skills, all the while taking care of their well-being. This year, several new features are being introduced, for instance, first steps towards English language awareness. Indeed, the children will get to discover the English language in creative classes together with tr...

  13. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  14. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo

    2006-01-01

    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  15. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael

    In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…

  16. The EPOS-CC Score: An Integration of Independent, Tumor- and Patient-Associated Risk Factors to Predict 5-years Overall Survival Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yoshio; Ikejiri, Koji; Wada, Yasuo; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Koike, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Koseki, Masato

    2015-06-01

    Surgical audit is an essential task for the estimation of postoperative outcome and comparison of quality of care. Previous studies on surgical audits focused on short-term outcomes, such as postoperative mortality. We propose a surgical audit evaluating long-term outcome following colorectal cancer surgery. The predictive model for this audit is designated as 'Estimation of Postoperative Overall Survival for Colorectal Cancer (EPOS-CC)'. Thirty-one tumor-related and physiological variables were prospectively collected in 889 patients undergoing elective resection for colorectal cancer between April 2005 and April 2007 in 16 Japanese hospitals. Postoperative overall survival was assessed over a 5-years period. The EPOS-CC score was established by selecting significant variables in a uni- and multivariate analysis and allocating a risk-adjusted multiplication factor to each variable using Cox regression analysis. For validation, the EPOS-CC score was compared to the predictive power of UICC stage. Inter-hospital variability of the observed-to-estimated 5-years survival was assessed to estimate quality of care. Among the 889 patients, 804 (90%) completed the 5-years follow-up. Univariate analysis displayed a significant correlation with 5-years survival for 14 physiological and nine tumor-related variables (p model for the prediction of survival. Risk-adjusted multiplication factors between 1.5 (distant metastasis) and 0.16 (serum sodium level) were accorded to the different variables. The predictive power of EPOS-CC was superior to the one of UICC stage; area under the curve 0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.90 for EPOS-CC, and 0.80, 0.76-0.83 for UICC stage, p < 0.001. Quality of care did not differ between hospitals. The EPOS-CC score including the independent variables age, performance status, serum sodium level, TNM stage, and lymphatic invasion is superior to the UICC stage in the prediction of 5-years overall survival. This higher accuracy might be explained by the

  17. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating a grading change at UCSD school of medicine: pass/fail grading is associated with decreased performance on preclinical exams but unchanged performance on USMLE step 1 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Susan G R; McDuff, DeForest; Farace, Jennifer A; Kelly, Carolyn J; Savoia, Maria C; Mandel, Jess

    2014-06-30

    To assess the impact of a change in preclerkship grading system from Honors/Pass/Fail (H/P/F) to Pass/Fail (P/F) on University of California, San Diego (UCSD) medical students' academic performance. Academic performance of students in the classes of 2011 and 2012 (constant-grading classes) were collected and compared with performance of students in the class of 2013 (grading-change class) because the grading policy at UCSD SOM was changed for the class of 2013, from H/P/F during the first year (MS1) to P/F during the second year (MS2). For all students, data consisted of test scores from required preclinical courses from MS1 and MS2 years, and USMLE Step 1 scores. Linear regression analysis controlled for other factors that could be predictive of student performance (i.e., MCAT scores, undergraduate GPA, age, gender, etc.) in order to isolate the effect of the changed grading policy on academic performance. The change in grading policy in the MS2 year only, without any corresponding changes to the medical curriculum, presents a unique natural experiment with which to cleanly evaluate the effect of P/F grading on performance outcomes. After controlling for other factors, the grading policy change to P/F grading in the MS2 year had a negative impact on second-year grades relative to first-year grades (the constant-grading classes performed 1.65% points lower during their MS2 year compared to the MS1 year versus 3.25% points lower for the grading-change class, p < 0.0001), but had no observable impact on USMLE Step 1 scores. A change in grading from H/P/F grading to P/F grading was associated with decreased performance on preclinical examinations but no decrease in performance on the USMLE Step 1 examination. These results are discussed in the broader context of the multitude of factors that should be considered in assessing the merits of various grading systems, and ultimately the authors recommend the continuation of pass-fail grading at UCSD School of Medicine.

  19. Parenting and Temperament Influence on School Success in 9-13 Year Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.

  20. Two years' outcome of thread lifting with absorbable barbed PDO threads: Innovative score for objective and subjective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasser Helmy

    2018-02-01

    Thread-lifting rejuvenation procedures have evolved again, with the development of absorbable threads. Although they have gained popularity among plastic surgeons and dermatologists, very few articles have been written in literature about absorbable threads. This study aims to evaluate two years' outcome of thread lifting using absorbable barbed threads for facial rejuvenation. Prospective comparative stud both objectively and subjectively and follow-up assessment for 24 months. Thread lifting for face rejuvenation has significant long-lasting effects that include skin lifting from 3-10 mm and high degree of patients' satisfaction with less incidence rate of complications, about 4.8%. Augmented results are obtained when thread lifting is combined with other lifting and rejuvenation modalities. Significant facial rejuvenation is achieved by thread lifting and highly augmented results are observed when they are combined with Botox, fillers, and/or platelet rich plasma (PRP) rejuvenations.

  1. Comparison of a possession score and a poverty index in predicting anaemia and undernutrition in pre-school children and women of reproductive age in rural and urban Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Tschannen, Andres B; Northrop-Clewes, Christine; Kouassi-Gohou, Valérie; Bosso, Patrice E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a possession score or a poverty index best predicts undernutrition and anaemia in women of reproductive age (15-49 years; WRA) and children aged 6-59 months living in Côte d'Ivoire. Anthropometric measurements were converted to Z-scores to assess stunting, wasting and underweight in children, and converted to BMI in WRA. A venous blood sample was drawn, and Hb concentration and Plasmodium spp. infection were determined. A possession score was generated with categories of zero to four possessions. A five-point (quintile) poverty index using household assets was created using principal component analysis. These socio-economic measures were compared for their ability to predict anaemia and malnutrition. Data were from a nationally representative survey conducted in Côte d'Ivoire in 2007. A sample of 768 WRA and 717 children aged 6-59 months was analysed. Overall, 74·9 % of children and 50·2 % of WRA were anaemic; 39·5 % of the children were stunted, 28·1 % underweight and 12·8 % wasted, while 7·4 % of WRA had BMI poverty index showed a stronger relationship with nutritional status than the possession score; mean Hb difference between the poorest and wealthiest quintiles in children and WRA was 8·2 g/l and 6·5 g/l, respectively (13·9 % and 19·8 % difference in anaemia, respectively; P poverty index was generally a better predictor of undernutrition in WRA and pre-school children than the possession score.

  2. The End of School Year on the Stage of Jesuit Schools in the Bohemian Province

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacková, Magdaléna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2016), s. 125-135 ISSN 0515-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P823 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Jesuit school theatre * Jesuit drama * Engel, Arnoldus * neo-latin drama Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  3. Efficacy of a composite biological age score to predict ten-year survival among Kansas and Nebraska Mennonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, M; Crawford, M H

    1994-02-01

    In 1980 and 1981 Mennonite descendants of a group of Russian immigrants participated in a multidisciplinary study of biological aging. The Mennonites live in Goessel, Kansas, and Henderson, Nebraska. In 1991 the survival status of the participants was documented by each church secretary. Data are available for 1009 individuals, 177 of whom are now deceased. They ranged from 20 to 95 years in age when the data were collected. Biological ages were computed using a stepwise multiple regression procedure based on 38 variables previously identified as being related to survival, with chronological age as the dependent variable. Standardized residuals place participants in either a predicted-younger or a predicted-older group. The independence of the variables biological age and survival status is tested with the chi-square statistic. The significance of biological age differences between surviving and deceased Mennonites is determined by t test values. The two statistics provide consistent results. Predicted age group classification and survival status are related. The group of deceased participants is generally predicted to be older than the group of surviving participants, although neither statistic is significant for all subgroups of Mennonites. In most cases, however, individuals in the predicted-older groups are at a relatively higher risk of dying compared with those in the predicted-younger groups, although the increased risk is not always significant.

  4. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  5. Astronomy in the early years of elementary education: a partnership between university and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.

  6. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  7. Progressive Decline in Height Standard Deviation Scores in the First 5 Years of Life Distinguished Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency from Familial Short Stature and Constitutional Delay of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Toschke, Christina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Familial short stature (FSS) and constitutional delay of growth (CDG) are the most frequent norm variants in children presenting with short stature. Knowing the growth patterns of these entities in the first years of life might be helpful to distinguish them from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or other chronic diseases. We studied the height in the first 5 years of life in 26 children with FSS, in 38 children with CDG and in 14 children with idiopathic GHD. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) did not change between birth and 6 months of life, while height SDS decreased significantly afterwards in GHD, FSS, and CDG. The loss of height SDS was higher in the first 2 years of life than between 2 and 5 years of life in children with CDG (-0.92 vs. -0.11; p = 0.003) or FSS (-0.79 vs. -0.01; p = 0.002). In idiopathic GHD, the loss of height SDS did not differ between the first 2 years of life and the next 3 years (-0.78 vs. -0.77; p = 0.821). Children with FSS and CDG showed a decline in height SDS mainly in the first 2 years of life, whereas the height SDS of children with idiopathic GHD decreased almost continuously over the first 5 years of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Changes in the Relation Between Competence Beliefs and Achievement in Math Across Elementary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-03-01

    Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. The Ties That Bind: Linkages among Secondary Schools, Two-Year Colleges, and Baccalaureate Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, James J.

    This document discusses the roles of secondary schools, two-year colleges, and the upper level university in the University of Wisconsin System. Because of close ties with the host communities, Wisconsin's two-year institutions are uniquely situated to function as community resources. The paper discusses the advantages of a collaborative…

  10. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  11. Characteristics and Changes in the Mathematics Textbooks for the Secondary School in Argentina along 67 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Viviana Carolina; Otero, Maria Rita

    2018-01-01

    This work analyses the changes in the relationship between arguing and images from the mathematics textbooks for the secondary school in Argentina (students 12-17 years old) along 67 years. The textbooks have been published in the period 1940 thru 2007. The analysis is done by (N = 137) textbooks based on three metacategories in an inductive way.…

  12. Entry-Year Administrator Induction: A State and Local School District Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The Dayton (Ohio) City School District initiated a very successful pilot induction program for entry-year administrators in January 1987. Nine special workshops were planned to train both volunteer mentors and entry-year administrators in such areas as personal development, conflict management, problem identification and solution, time management,…

  13. Twelve-year follow-up study of the impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on later educational situation of Chilean school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, D; Del P Rodríguez, M; Pérez, H; Alvear, J; Díaz, N; Leyton, B; Almagià, A; Toro, T; Urrutia, M S; Ivanovic, R

    2008-01-01

    To determine the impact of nutritional status in a multicausal approach of socio-economic, socio-cultural, family, intellectual, educational and demographic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 on the educational situation of these children in 1998, when they should have graduated from high school. Chile's Metropolitan Region. Prospective, observational and 12-year follow-up study. A representative sample of 813 elementary first grade school-age children was randomly chosen in 1987. The sample was assessed in two cross-sectional studies. The first cross-sectional study was carried out in at the onset of elementary school in 1987 and the second was carried out in 1998, 12-years later, when they should be graduating from high school. In 1998, 632 adolescent students were located and their educational situation was registered (dropout, delayed, graduated and not located). At the onset of elementary school were determined the nutritional status, socio-economic status (SES), family characteristics, intellectual ability (IA), scholastic achievement (SA) and demographic variables. Statistical analysis included variance tests and Scheffe's test was used for comparison of means. Pearson correlation coefficients and logistic regression were used to establish the most important independent variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that affect the educational situation 1998. Data were analysed using the statistical analysis system (SAS). Logistic regression revealed that SES, IA, SA and head circumference-for-age Z score at the onset of elementary school in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power in the educational situation of school-age children in 1998. These parameters at an early school age are good predictors of the educational situation later and these results can be useful for nutrition and educational planning in early childhood.

  14. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  15. Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses...... > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls...

  16. Prolonged efficacy of the 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet up to 2 years after treatment cessation, as measured by a recommended daily combined score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, Alain; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Worm, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 300IR (index of reactivity) 5-grass pollen tablet has favorable short-term and sustained clinical efficacy in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Here, we report maintenance of efficacy and safety over 2 years following treatment discontinuation....... METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter Phase 3 trial in patients aged 18-50 years with ARC. During study years 1-3, patients received a daily sublingual tablet containing either 300IR 5-grass pollen extract or placebo, according to a discontinuous pre...... medication score (DRMS). RESULTS: 633 patients with ARC were randomized to placebo (n = 219) or 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet, beginning 4 months (4 M, n = 207) or 2 months (2 M, n = 207) prior to the estimated start of the grass pollen season and continuing until season's end. During the first post...

  17. Moral education in extracurricular work of general schools of Ukrainian provinces in 1850–1860 years

    OpenAIRE

    Biletska Svitlana Anatoliivna

    2015-01-01

    The article raised the actual problem of organization of moral education of pupils in extracurricular work of general schools (historical aspect).It is stated that the purpose of moral education of pupils of general schools in extracurricular work of 1850–1860 years was to create a holistic, perfect humanistic person. Ways of realization of the global purpose are revealed through the prism of inheritance of such known educators as K. Ushinsky, P. Kapterev, I. Kyreyevsky, L. Modzalevsky. In th...

  18. The CHADS2 Score to Predict Stroke Risk in the Absence of Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertensive Patients Aged 65 Years or Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Pedro; Pallarés, Vicente; Fácila, Lorenzo; Llisterri, Jose Luis; Sebastián, María Eugenia; Gómez, Manuel; Castilla, Elena; Camarasa, Raquel; Sandin, Miriam; García-Honrubia, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The CHADS2 score is a proven, essential tool for estimating cardioembolic risk (mainly stroke) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, with the purpose of determining the indication for anticoagulant therapy. In this study we analyzed the use of CHADS2 in hypertensive patients without known atrial fibrillation in a Mediterranean population. The study included 887 hypertensive patients aged 65 years or older without atrial fibrillation or anticoagulant therapy, who attended a medical consultation. Data on the patients' main risk factors, cardiovascular history, and medication were collected, basic laboratory analyses and electrocardiography were performed, and the CHADS2 score (heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack) was calculated. A clinical follow-up was carried out, recording hospital admissions for a stroke or transient ischemic attack. The median duration of follow-up was 804 days. Mean age was 72.5 (SD,5.7) years, 46.6% were men, 27.8% had diabetes, and 8.6% were smokers. During follow-up, 40 patients were hospitalized for a stroke or transient ischemic attack (4.5%). The event-free survival analysis showed significant differences according to the CHADS2 score (log rank test, P < .001). On multivariate analysis, smoking and CHADS2 ≥3 were independent predictors of stroke or transient ischemic attack. The CHADS2 may be useful for estimating the risk of stroke or transient ischemic attack in hypertensive patients without known atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  20. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  1. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  2. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  3. Correlation among academic performance, recurrent abdominal pain and other factors in Year-6 urban primary-school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, C C M; Omar, A; Arul Phillips, J

    2003-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which recurrent abdominal pain and other factors were associated with academic achievement among Year-6 (12 years of age) schoolchildren. The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from September to November 2001. Schoolchildren were recruited from primary schools that were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, using random sampling numbers. Information concerning recurrent abdominal pain, socio-economic status, life events, demographic and other details was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interviews. Academic achievement was assessed using a score based on the Malaysian Primary School Achievement Examination. An overall score at or above the mean was taken to indicate high academic achievement while a score below the mean indicated poor academic achievement. A total of 1971 children were studied (958 boys and 1013 girls: 1047 Malays, 513 Chinese and 411 Indians). Of these children, 456 (23.1%) fulfilled the criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. Using the method of binary logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with poor academic performance: a low socio-economic status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.35); male sex (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.05); the death of a close relative (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.73-2.85); the divorce or separation of parents (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.73-5.40); the commencement of work by the mother (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76); hospitalization of the child in the 12 months prior to the study (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12-3.01); lack of health-care consultation (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36-2.36); missing breakfast (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.02); and lack of kindergarten education (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04-1.75). Many factors, such as socio-economic status and recent life events, were associated with poor academic performance. Recurrent abdominal pain did not correlate

  4. Shaping Attitude toward Christianity among Year Seven Pupils: The Influence of Sex, Church, Home and Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindells, Tracy; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the differences in attitude toward Christianity among year seven secondary school pupils who had undertaken their primary education either in a Church of England voluntary aided school or a non-denominational state-maintained school. Data were provided by 492 year-seven pupils attending three Church of England…

  5. Growth parameters at birth mediate the relationship between prenatal manganese exposure and cognitive test scores among a cohort of 2- to 3-year-old Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J; Valeri, Linda; Kapur, Kush; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Christiani, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2018-05-03

    Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal manganese exposure is associated with cognitive test scores among a cohort of 2- to 3-year-old Bangladeshi children. This study tested the hypothesis that the adverse effects of manganese are mediated through poor prenatal growth. Pregnant mothers were enrolled in a birth cohort in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2011, and children were followed at birth and age 20-40 months. Manganese concentration was measured in umbilical cord blood. Anthropometric measurements (weight, length, head circumference) were assessed at delivery. Children's cognitive development was assessed at age 20-40 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition. Using recently developed statistical approaches that estimate mediation and interaction effects simultaneously, we evaluated whether the association between cord blood manganese and cognitive score was mediated through anthropometric measures at birth. This analysis included 764 mother-child pairs. Higher manganese concentration was associated with lower cognitive score [β=-0.61, standard error (SE)=0.23, p = 0.009]. Among the birth measures, we found a significant indirect effect only through birth length (β =-0.10, SE = 0.03, p = 0.001). We also found evidence of mediated interaction (both mediation and interaction, β =-0.03, SE = 0.01, p = 0.01) with birth length in the association between cord blood manganese and cognitive score. The overall proportion mediated by birth length was 33% (p = 0.02) and the proportion attributed to interaction was 11% (p = 0.04). We did not find evidence of a mediating effect through birth weight or head circumference. Our findings confirm that prenatal growth, particularly birth length, contributes to the overall effect of environmental manganese exposure on a child's cognitive development.

  6. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  7. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  8. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN 4 TO 7-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS IN A CHILEAN PUBLIC SCHOOL 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    overweight and obesity in children have experienced a significant increase around the world, however, there are regional differences due to many factors. Furthermore, evidence have showed that physical capacity in children has been affected as well. For this reason, the study goal was to assess nutritional status and physical capacity in 4 to 7-year-old children in a public school from South Chile. 351 students (6.1 years, SD = 1.13; 47.3% men) completed the study. To determine nutritional status, body mass index and Z-scores from World Health Organisation were used. Body fat percentage was measured with skinfold anthropometry. To assess physical capacity, 6-minute walking test (6MWT) was used. overweight prevalence was 27.0% (range 21-32%), while obesity had 39.9% (range 33-50%), no gender differences were observed (p = 0.84). Mean body fat percentage was 19.1% in men and 20.9% in women (p = 0.02). For 6MWT, differences were found for age (p schools. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  10. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  11. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  12. Immediate Restoration of Immediate Implants in the Esthetic Zone of the Maxilla Via the Copy-Abutment Technique: 5-Year Follow-Up of Pink Esthetic Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürhauser, Rudolf; Mailath-Pokorny, Georg; Haas, Robert; Busenlechner, Dieter; Watzek, Georg; Pommer, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Implant esthetics may benefit from individualized zirconia abutments copying the emergence profile of the natural tooth and delivered within days after immediate implant insertion. To investigate the esthetic outcome of the Copy-Abutment technique using the Pink Esthetic Score (PES). A total of 77 patients with single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla restored at the day of immediate implant placement using Copy-Abutments and provisional crowns were followed-up after 1 week, 1 month, 4 months, 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years to assess implant esthetics. PES ranged between 7 and 14 (median: 13) and improved significantly between the 6 month and 1 year follow-up (p esthetic zone show satisfactory long-term esthetic outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. School results and access test results as indicators of first-year performance at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bothma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals set by the National Plan for Higher Education, the fact that many schools are still severely disadvantaged as well as far-reaching changes in the school system demand that South African universities urgently reconsider their admission procedures. Redesigning admission procedures calls for a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between school marks, results in existing access tests and first-year university performance. These interrelationships were statistically investigated in the case of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 intake groups, who were compelled to write access tests before being admitted to Stellenbosch University. The results of this investigation confirm an alarming degree of unpreparedness among many prospective students regarding what is expected of them at university. This is aggravated by school marks creating a totally unrealistic expectation of performance in the first year at university. It is emphasised that schools and authorities dealing with admission of prospective students at universities should be cognisant of the findings reported here. Furthermore, the statistical analyses demonstrate several novel techniques for investigating the interrelationship between school marks, access test results and university performance.

  14. The Effectiveness of Using STAR Math to Improve PSSA Math Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This is a quantitative study examining whether STAR Math, a student monitoring system, can improve PSSA Math scores. The experimental school used STAR Math during the 2015-2016 school year in grouping students for remediation and intervention. The control school used traditional curriculum measures to group students for remediation and…

  15. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...

  16. Social origin, schooling and individual change in intelligence during childhood influence long-term mortality: a 68-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Anton C J; Modin, Bitte E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vågerö, Denny H

    2012-04-01

    Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life. The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality. Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for. The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health.

  17. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  18. Low quality of life scores in school children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder related to anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano-Sánchez,Elizabeth; Martínez-Cortés,José A.; Río-Carlos,Yolanda del; Dehesa-Moreno,Minerva; Poblano,Adrián

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an alteration that begins early in infancy and whose cardinal symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There are few studies for specific tests to measure Quality of Life (QoL) in children with ADHD. METHODS: We evaluated QoL of 120 children from 7-12 years of age with ADHD and of a group of 98 healthy control children. To measure QoL, we utilized the Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Children in Pictures (AutoQu...

  19. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  20. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The problems during choice of profession and comparison of these problems with anxiety and depression in final year of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between prevalence of anxiety, depressive disorder symptoms and some sociodemographic variables in the final year of high-school students, secondly to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors which affect choosing professions among the high school senior students in the province of Van. Methods: In this context, the study was performed in the provincial center of Van in the second semester of 2011. Unpaired t test and one way Anova test were used for statistical analysis. Socio-demographic Information Form, Awareness of Career Choice Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were applied to a total of 412 students. Results: In this study BAI and BDI scores were 15.4±13.3 and 15.3±12.8 respectively. BAI scores of the students in Anatolian high school were found higher than the normal high school. Both the anxiety and depressive levels of female students were higher than the males. The mean age was 16,8 years, 73.8% of whom were male. In 58% of the students’ BAI point, in 66% BDI point were higher than 41; and in 37% BDI point were higher than 17. Female students had higher BAI points. There was a positive correlation between BAI and BDI points. Conclusion: It was noticed in our study that the great amount of anxiety discovered in last grade high school students affect. The student’s job choice negatively. We think that providing last grade high school students with guidance service about job selection will be useful.

  2. Neonatal systemic inflammation and the risk of low scores on measures of reading and mathematics achievement at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth N; Joseph, Robert M; Fichorova, Raina N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K

    2018-05-01

    Difficulties with reading and math occur more commonly among children born extremely preterm than among children born at term. Reasons for this are unclear. We measured the concentrations of 27 inflammatory-related and neurotrophic/angiogenic proteins (angio-neurotrophic proteins) in multiple blood specimens collected a week apart during the first postnatal month from 660 children born before the 28th week of gestation who at age 10 years had an IQ ≥ 70 and a Wechsler Individual Achievement Test 3rd edition (WIAT-III) assessment. We identified four groups of children, those who had a Z-score ≤ -1 on the Word Reading assessment only, on the Numerical Operations assessment only, on both of these assessments, and on neither, which served as the referent group. We then modeled the risk of each learning limitation associated with a top quartile concentration of each protein, and with high and lower concentrations of multiple proteins. The protein profile of low reading scores was confined to the third and fourth postnatal weeks when increased risks were associated with high concentrations of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the presence of low concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins. The profile of low math scores was very similar, except it did not include ICAM-1. In contrast, the profile of low scores on both assessments was present in each of the first four postnatal weeks. The increased risks associated with high concentrations of TNF-α in the first two weeks and of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the next two weeks were modulated down by high concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins. High concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins appear to reduce/moderate the risk of each learning limitation associated with systemic inflammation. The three categories of limitations have protein profiles with some similarities, and yet some differences, too. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carma Karam

    Full Text Available Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs changes over the years in an untreated population-based study.Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated.The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002 and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001. The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001 and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113. The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001.Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population.

  4. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  5. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R

    2017-12-01

    This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. A dietary survey was conducted at baseline in cohorts subsamples including chemical analysis of food samples representing average consumptions. Ecologic correlations of dietary variables were computed across cohorts with 50-year all-cause mortality rates, where 97% of men had died. There was a 12-year average age at death population difference between extreme cohorts. In the 1960s the average population intake of saturated (S) and trans (T) fatty acids and hard fats was high in the northern European cohorts while monounsaturated (M), polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids and vegetable oils were high in the Mediterranean areas and total fat was low in Japan. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r= -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S, (M + P)/(S + T) and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. Adjustment for high socio-economic status strengthened (r= -0.62 to -0.77) these associations including MAI diet score. The protective fatty acids and vegetable oils are indicators of the low risk traditional Mediterranean style diets. KEY MESSAGES We aimed at studying the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in the Seven Countries Study. The 50-year all-cause mortality rates correlated (r = -0.51 to -0.64) ecologically inversely with the ratios M/S [monounsaturated (M) + polyunsaturated (P)]/[saturated (S) + trans (T)] fatty acids and vegetable foods and the ratio hard fats/vegetable oils. After adjustment for high socio-economic status, associations with the ratios strengthened (r = -0.62 to -0.77) including also the MAI diet score

  6. Parent involvement in beginning primary school: Correlates and changes in involvement across the first two years of school in a New Zealand sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Philippa S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework. Teachers' rated helpfulness of parents' involvement at school (level 2) and parents' rated teacher invitations to be involved and their perceived time and energy (level 1) contributed to school-based involvement in Year 1 in multilevel models, with parents' rated teacher invitations for involvement also found to predict Year 1 home-school communication in regression analyses. Contributors to Year 1 child-parent reading in multilevel models included level 1 predictors of two or more adults in the home and parents' perceived time and energy. Longitudinal analyses suggested both consistency and change in each form of involvement from Year 1 to Year 2, with increases in each form of involvement found to be associated with increases in parents' and/or teachers' views about involvement in Year 2 in cross-sectional time-series analyses. Implications for schools wanting to engage families are that parents' involvement in children's schooling may be influenced by parents' perceptions of their capacity, teachers' engagement efforts, and the school's climate for involvement. This is a special issue paper "Family Engagement in Education and Intervention". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  8. Within-Year Changes in Chinese Secondary School Students' Perceived Reading Instruction and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…

  9. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  10. Adolescents attitudes towards organic food : a survey of 15- to 16 year old school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Casimir, G.J.; Borghuis, J.; Marks, I.; Meijer, L.; Zebeda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16¿years was

  11. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  12. What Can Year-5 Children's Drawings Tell Us about Their Primary School Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the research process and trialling of a drawing technique for gathering pupils' views within a Personal Construct Psychology framework. Seventy-two pupils in curriculum year 5 were asked to produce two drawings of themselves in school (144 drawings), one in a "happy" situation and one in an "unhappy"…

  13. Cycle-Based Budgeting and Continuous Improvement at Jefferson County Public Schools: Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the first-year of implementing Cycle-based Budgeting at Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville, KY). To address the limitations of incremental budgeting and zero-based budgeting, a Cycle-based Budgeting model was developed and implemented in JCPS. Specifically, each new program needs to submit an on-line budget request…

  14. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  15. Year-round School Makes Good Business Sense, Says This Boardman-Businessman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that year-round schools make good business sense by providing (1) a more efficient use of capital investments, (2) an alleviation of uneconomical and undesirable peaks in working and recreation, and (3) a more sensible way of looking at teacher salaries. (JF)

  16. Parent Attitudes Toward the Virginia Beach Year-Round School Pilot Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    Part of the Virginia Beach year-round school program evaluation, this final report contains a detailed analysis of parental attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. The data leads to the following conclusions: a majority (53.3 percent) of parents are dubious or negative toward the 45-15 pilot project; a slight majority of parents in the pilot schools…

  17. The Impact of Years of Teaching Experience on the Classroom Management Approaches of Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a basis for answering the following essential question: Does the years of experience affect teachers' classroom management approaches? Data were collected from 268 primary school teachers. The findings of this study demonstrated that experienced teachers are more likely to prefer to be in control in their classrooms than…

  18. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  19. The development of the classroom social climate during the first months of the school year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainhard, M.T.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Brok, den P.J.; Wubbels, Th.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students’ interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel

  20. Enhancing Students' Engagement: Report of a 3-Year Intervention with Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…

  1. Development of decoding, reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, C.A.J.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Voeten, M.J.M.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was (1) to investigate the development of decoding (efficiency), reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years and (2) to determine the differences between poor, average and good performers with regard to the development of these skills.

  2. The Inclusion of Pseudowords within the Year One Phonics "Screening Check" in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; England, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights problems surrounding the Year 1 Phonics Screening Check that has accompanied the legislative framework for synthetic phonics in English primary schools. It investigates the inclusion of pseudowords and raises questions regarding their generation and categorization, the rationale for their inclusion and the assumption that the…

  3. Revisiting Public School/University Partnerships for Formal Leadership Development: A Brief 30-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…

  4. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  5. Obesity in 7 - 10-year-old children in urban primary schools in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban 7 - 10-year-old children in affluent (quintile 5) English-medium primary schools in Port Elizabeth. Method. A quantitative, descriptive one-way cross-sectional research design utilising random sampling was used.

  6. Allergy sensitization and asthma among 13-14 year old school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Allergy sensitization and asthma among 13-14 year old school children in Nigeria. Oluwole O1 ... Identified asthma cases were matched to controls. Allergy skin tests ..... lower risk of asthma than those with low birth order because exposure to ...

  7. Dissertation Research in School Psychology: Changes in Topics and Methodology over the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekwa, Adam; Ysseldyke, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Eighty school psychology programs offering training at the doctoral level were contacted with a request for lists of authors, titles, and abstracts of dissertations completed between the years 2000 and 2007. Titles and abstracts from 1119 dissertations were reviewed to assess the interests and experiences of new researchers and practitioners in…

  8. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  9. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  10. Children aged 4-8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo

    2006-10-01

    In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.

  11. "I Wish Everyone Had a Library Like This": Year 2 Report on the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Davis, Marcia H.

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the opening of new school libraries and their impact on schools, teachers and students after two years of implementation of the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project (Library Project). The findings build on the first report of this project and show that it is not just new facilities, but also the added…

  12. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  13. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  14. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  16. Postural education program for elementary school: a one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Ritter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this study was to verify the short- and long-term effectiveness of the Elementary School Postural Program in the performance, generalization, and perception of daily school activities. The final sample consisted of 61 subjects divided into experimental (14 years ±0.93; ♀=22; ♂=10 and control group (15.38 years ±0.97; ♀=16; ♂=13, all participants attended a Brazilian public school in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The postural program included 20 sessions over a 10-week period. In each session, participants discussed and practiced routine actions that typically occurred at schools. Eight other meetings were required for the completion of the pre- and post-tests. The experimental group performed significantly better than the control group in the short-term evaluations, although there were no significant statistical differences in the long-term follow-up evaluations. The children demonstrated a good behavioral response to the postural program; nevertheless, the knowledge had not been completely mastered after a year.

  17. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  18. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math…

  19. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D S; Glacken, M; Goggin, D

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland. Following training, School Public Health Nurses included the measurement of height and weight as part of the annual 'senior infants' school health check for 5453 6-year-old children in 189 schools between 2004 and 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the International Obesity Taskforce cut-off points using lmsGrowth (a Microsoft Excel add-in), which uses a child's exact age. Kendall's Tau b was used to determine the reliability of measurements. Prevalence trends were tested using multinomial logistic regression. Pearson's chi-squared test was utilized to assess the statistical significance of differences in BMI by gender, school year, and to compare with similar other Irish studies. Out of the 5453 children measured, 3493 were aged 6 years old. A further 11 were excluded because of incomplete data. Data were analysed for 3482 6-year-old children. Overall, 27% of 6-year-olds were classified as either overweight or obese. A significantly greater proportion of girls are overweight or obese compared with boys (31% compared with 23%). Gender differences have remained relatively stable from 2004-2007. Overall, there have been no significant changes in the level of obesity from 2004-2007. In addition, when comparing with other Irish studies that collected data for 2001/2, there are no significant differences in obesity levels. There is a clear need to urgently prioritize the effective management of obesity. Resourses should now be targeted towards ensuring government policies in Ireland and elsewhere are implemented. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  1. Doctors qualifying from United Kingdom medical schools during the calendar years 1977 and 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, J; Parkhouse, H F

    1989-01-01

    At the conclusion of undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom most students pass a university qualifying examination and obtain a degree in medicine and surgery. Some students pass an external non-university qualifying examination in medicine as an alternative to obtaining a degree, and some do both. The degree may be obtained in the same year as the non-university qualifying examination, or in a different year. Some students from a medical school intake qualify in a later year than expected, for various reasons. Data from university, Health Department and other sources may relate to the academic year, the calendar year, or a fixed date such as 30 September. It is not a simple exercise, therefore, to define the exact number of people who qualify to practise medicine, for the first time, in any given 'year'. In counting qualifiers from individual medical schools, the problems are further compounded by the movement of students between the preclinical and clinical stages of the course, particularly from Oxford and Cambridge to London teaching hospitals. This paper analyses the situation for the calendar years 1977 and 1983, showing a decline in the number of students obtaining double (i.e. both university and non-university) qualifications. The number of UK graduates not registering with the General Medical Council to practise, at least for a time, in the UK was small, and the population base compiled for Medical Career Research Group studies was reasonably accurate in each of the 2 years examined.

  2. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

  3. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends...... in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively...

  4. Implementation of a 4-Year Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum in a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-Accredited US Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sean P; Mefford, Jason M; Lahham, Shadi; Lotfipour, Shahram; Subeh, Mohammad; Maldonado, Gracie; Spann, Sophie; Fox, John C

    2017-02-01

    The established benefits of point-of-care ultrasound have given rise to multiple new and innovative curriculums to incorporate ultrasound teaching into medical education. This study sought to measure the educational success of a comprehensive and integrated 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum. We integrated a curriculum consisting of traditional didactics combined with asynchronous learning modules and hands-on practice on live models with skilled sonographers into all 4 years of education at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited US Medical School. Each graduating student was administered an exit examination with 48 questions that corresponded to ultrasound milestones. Ninety-five percent (n = 84) of fourth-year medical students completed the exit examination. The mean score was 79.5% (SD, 10.2%), with mean scores on the ultrasound physics and anatomy subsections being 77.1% (SD, 11.0%) and 85.9% (SD, 21.0%), respectively. A comprehensive 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum integrated into medical school may successfully equip graduating medical students with a fundamental understanding of ultrasound physics, anatomy, and disease recognition. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. [Weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in first-year primary school children: the AVall study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargués, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Anna; Vila, Maria; José Pérez, M; Martínez-Mateo, Francesc; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Castells, Conxa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in children attending the first year of primary school in the city of Granollers (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in the schools of the city of Granollers. All the children were born in 2000. Data were collected from September to October 2006. Weight and height were measured in each schoolchild. The parents completed a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and physical activity and the Krece Plus test. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index were used to define overweight and obesity. A total of 566 schoolchildren were included. The prevalence of overweight was 19.6% and that of obesity was 8.5%. Only 3.8% of the children had an adequate breakfast and 17.1% ate five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Some families consumed a low amount of fruit (22%), vegetables (37%), bread/pasta/ rice/cereals (14%), fish (32%), legumes (13%) and nuts (9%). Children who had lunch at school ate more fruits (38% vs 29%), vegetables (35% vs 25%) and fish (82% vs 73%) than those who did not have lunch at school. A total of 82% of the schoolchildren exercised regularly. A quarter of the children who participated in the study were overweight. The schoolchildren who had lunch at school had better dietary patterns. Inappropriate family habits can determine children's dietary habits.

  6. Cohort Graduation Rate: Policy and Technical Manual. 2016-17 Graduation Rates Based on Students First Entering High School during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    High School graduation rates are key indicators of accountability for high schools and school districts in Oregon. Beginning with the 2008-09 school year, the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) implemented the cohort method of calculating graduation rates. The cohort method identifies the year the student entered high school for the first time…

  7. Validation of a new mortality risk prediction model for people 65 years and older in northwest Russia: The Crystal risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turusheva, Anna; Frolova, Elena; Bert, Vaes; Hegendoerfer, Eralda; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2017-07-01

    Prediction models help to make decisions about further management in clinical practice. This study aims to develop a mortality risk score based on previously identified risk predictors and to perform internal and external validations. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals aged 65+ in St. Petersburg (Russia), all-cause mortality risks over 2.5 years follow-up were determined based on the results obtained from anthropometry, medical history, physical performance tests, spirometry and laboratory tests. C-statistic, risk reclassification analysis, integrated discrimination improvement analysis, decision curves analysis, internal validation and external validation were performed. Older adults were at higher risk for mortality [HR (95%CI)=4.54 (3.73-5.52)] when two or more of the following components were present: poor physical performance, low muscle mass, poor lung function, and anemia. If anemia was combined with high C-reactive protein (CRP) and high B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was added the HR (95%CI) was slightly higher (5.81 (4.73-7.14)) even after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities. Our models were validated in an external population of adults 80+. The extended model had a better predictive capacity for cardiovascular mortality [HR (95%CI)=5.05 (2.23-11.44)] compared to the baseline model [HR (95%CI)=2.17 (1.18-4.00)] in the external population. We developed and validated a new risk prediction score that may be used to identify older adults at higher risk for mortality in Russia. Additional studies need to determine which targeted interventions improve the outcomes of these at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Results Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. Conclusion This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students’ personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first-year

  9. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Robson Aparecido Dos Santos; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students' personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first-year students, providing better

  10. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  11. The Observation Of Defects Of School Buildings Over 100 Years Old In Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauddin Kartina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is blessed with a rich legacy of heritage buildings with unique architectural and historical values. The heritage buildings become a symbol of the national identity of our country. Therefore, heritage buildings, as important monuments should be conserved well to ensure the extension of the building’s life span and to make sure continuity functions of the building for future generations. The aim of this study is to analyze the types of defects attached in school buildings over 100 years located in Perak. The data were collected in four different schools aged over 100 years in Perak. The finding of the study highlighted the types of defects which were categorized based on building elements, including external wall, roof, door, ceiling, staircase, column, internal wall, floor and windows. Finding showed that the type of defects occurred in school buildings over 100 years in Perak is the same as the other heritage buildings. This finding can be used by all parties to take serious actions in preventing defects from occurring in buildings over 100 years. This would ensure that buildings’ functional life span can be extended for future use.

  12. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  13. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay ÖNTAŞ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative methods will be used in this study to display real evidence from the eyes of teachers and also principals. The data have been obtained through documents and interview techniques. After the data have been collected, descriptive analysis has been used. The findings of the study were given within the frame of themes and codes which were determined based on the problem statement. The first theme, career was presented in the context of choosing sector, recruitment and selecting process, professional development, leave the profession. The second theme, factors affecting first years' success was explained in the context of teaching factors, consistency and skills focus. The third theme was presented in a category of pressure, workload, complaining psychological and physical exhaustion, flexible working conditions.

  14. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...... to identify factors associated with completed CPR training. Information from 63.1% of eligible schools was collected: 49.3% (n=611) of leadership and 48.2% (n=665) of teachers responded. According to teachers, 28.4% (95% CI 25.0% to 32.0%) and 10.3% (95% CI 8.1% to 12.8%) of eligible classes had completed CPR...... and automated external defibrillator training, respectively. Among leadership, 60.2% (95% CI 56.2% to 64.1%) reported CPR training had occurred during the 3 years prior to the survey. Factors associated with completed CPR training included believing other schools were conducting training (odds ratio [OR] 9...

  15. Dental Caries and Related Factors among 7-12 Year-old School Children in Yasuj, Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yousofi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Tooth caries is the most prevalent infectious disease in children. The purpose of this study was to assess carries experience indexes and related factors among 7-12 year-old school children in Yasuj, Iran, in 2014. Materials and methods: In the present Cross-sectional and analytical study, using a two-stage random sampling, 460 students from primary schools of Yasuj city and surrounding villages were selected. The children were clinically examined at their school by a professional calibrated dentistry team. Their demographic and socioeconomic status, mouth health behaviors and teeth carries status and consumed nutritional materials were gathered by a questioner and a dental chart. The data were analyzed using inferential statistical methods. The SPSS software version 22 was used to extract the outputs and &alpha=0.05 was considered as the significant level. Results: The dental caries prevalence of deciduous, permanent and total of  two type of dents were  75.2, 41.1 and  89.8 percent, respectively and the dmft, DMFT and dmft+DMFT indexes were 3.57, 0.87, and 4.44, respectively.. The caries prevalence of permanent teeth and DMFT in girls were significantly higher than boys (p=0.046, but the caries prevalence in total of dents in boys was significantly higher than girls ( p=0.32. Furthermore, the dental caries prevalence in permanent teeth and DMFT in children resident in rural areas were significantly higher than those in urban areas (p0.1.  Conclusions: Prevalence and severity score of dental caries among 7 - 12 year-old Yasuj students were higher than the WHO standards. The tooth caries experiences were more prevalent in boys and in children resident in rural areas, increased with age and decreased with BMI and less prevalent in children with higher family socioeconomic status. Tooth brushing and flossing and consuming dairy foods were protective agents in occurring tooth caries in primary school children in

  16. [Fifty years of the Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1941-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, W

    1994-01-01

    The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh started in 1941 on the initiative of the University. It was destined for soldier-students in the Polish Forces in Great Britain. This academic institution, unique in the history of universities, was a joint Scottish-Polish enterprise. An Agreement was concluded between the Polish Government in London and the University of Edinburgh. The School was an independent Polish academic institution and, at the same time, an integral part of the University of Edinburgh. The students matriculated at the University. The University provided all the laboratory and clinical facilities necessary for teaching. Due to a lack of Polish professors for some chairs a few of them were held by Scottish professors. Attached to them were Polish lecturers but the examinations were then held in English. The diploma, originally valid only in Poland, became recognised in Great Britain following an Act of Parliament in 1947. There were 337 students, a number of them women. 227 obtained the degree M.B., Ch.B. The war ended in 1945. The School continued up till 1949. Poland was not free. The Nazi occupation of Poland was replaced by Soviet domination which was to last for over 40 years. Only 22 of the graduates returned home, about 100 settled in G. Britain, another 100 dispersed world wide. The "magnanimous gesture" of the University of Edinburgh was thereafter remembered with gratitude by the members of the Polish School. In 1961, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the School, the first reunion of the graduates was organised in Birmingham for those settled in Gr. Britain. The success of the reunion prompted decision on organising annual "English" gatherings of the Polish graduates in Gr. Britain. The first world reunion of the graduates took place in Edinburgh in 1966, attracting a large number of participants on this occasion of the 25th anniversary of the School. That immensely successful anniversary of the Polish School

  17. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  18. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  19. The relationship between first-year achievement and the pedagogical-didactical fit between secondary school and university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenbeek, Marjolein; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    Central in this study is the degree to which the pedagogical-didactical approach in undergraduate programmes aligns with the pedagogical-didactical approach in secondary schools, and how this is related to first-year achievement. Approaches to teaching at secondary schools and in first-year

  20. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  1. The natural progression of health-related quality of life: results of a five-year prospective study of SF-36 scores in a normative population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; VandenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Anastassiades, Tassos; Adachi, Jonathan D; Ioannidis, George; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A

    2006-04-01

    Limited information exists regarding the natural progression of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the general population, as most research has been cross-sectional or has followed populations with specific medical conditions. Such norms are important to establish, because the effect of any intervention may be confounded by changes due to the natural progression of HRQOL over time. Participants were randomly selected from 9 Canadian cities and surrounding rural areas. Changes in the eight domains and 2 summary component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) were examined over a 5 year period (1996/1997-2001/2002). Mean changes were calculated for men and women within 10 year age categories. Multiple imputation was used to adjust for potential selection bias due to missing data. The baseline sample included 6539 women and 2884 men. Loss to follow-up was 17% for women and 23% for men. Mean changes tended to be small, but there was an overall trend towards decreasing HRQOL over time. Changes were more pronounced in the older age groups and in the physically oriented domains. Younger age groups tended towards small mean improvements, particularly in the mentally oriented domains. Large standard errors suggest that on an individual level, large improvements in some participants are balanced by large declines in others. In general, the HRQOL of Canadians appears relatively stable over a 5 year period. However, care should be taken when assessing HRQOL longitudinally in certain age or gender groups, as changes associated with an intervention can potentially be confounded by the natural progression of HRQOL.

  2. Role of Self Efficacy Predictors in Nutritional Behaviors of Kerman High School Female Students in 2006-2007 Academic Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Haghdoost

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enhancing the nutritional condition of teenaged girls can be the most effective and fundamental preventive measure against chronic disease in years ahead. Knowing the predictive factors of behaviors is one the most efficient way of preventive programs in societies, especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the role of self– efficacy in predicting the dietary behaviors of Kerman high school girls in 2006-2007. Methods: In this correlation study, girl students in Kerman high schools were selected as research population. Based on pilot study, sample size was estimated to be 800 students. Taking into consideration sample drop out, 900 questionnaires were distributed, and 812 were finally analyzed. Data were gathered using research– made questionnaire comprising of 5 parts including general & demographic questions, dietary behaviors, dietary self– efficacy, physical activity and exercise self– efficacy. Data were collected and analyzed following validity and reliability determination. Results: Results indicated that most students (57/4% were 16 years of age or younger, and the obtained total scores in the dietary behavior and related self- efficacy was 66% and 61%, respectively. The results of the multiple regression model showed that besides dietary self– efficacy, factors including level of fathers education, assessment of the family status in comparison with others from the student’s point of view, importance of safe and healthy food consumption, right of choosing desired foods, number of meals served with family, and mother’s occupation were among the predictive factors of dietary behavior. Conclusion: The results have confirmed the role of self– efficacy concepts, according to Pender’s model as a health promoting behavior. Therefore, increased self– efficacy methods such adverbial stimulation and good model offer can be used as one of the health behaviors promotion factors

  3. Does the school food environment influence the dietary behaviours of Norwegian 11-year-olds? The HEIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Andersen, Lene F; Bjelland, Mona; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Totland, Torunn H; Bergh, Ingunn H; Lien, Nanna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the school food environment on the dietary behaviours of 11-year-old Norwegian children in elementary schools. Baseline data from a school-based intervention study: the Health In Adolescents study was used. A total of 1425 11-year-old children from 35 schools from the eastern part of Norway were included. School administrators provided information on the physical, political, and sociocultural school food environment and students reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and snacks. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the school-level variance in dietary behaviours and to investigate the association of school food environmental factors with these dietary behaviours. After adjustment for student characteristics, the school level accounted for a small proportion (1.1%-3.0%) of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated. None of the investigated school food environmental factors were found to be related to the children's reported intake of fruits, vegetables, snacks or SSB. Most of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated was at the personal level. Thus in this sample, the investigated school-level factors do not appear to exert a strong influence on the dietary behaviours of children. Longitudinal studies using validated measures of the school food environment are needed.

  4. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  5. HANDBALL AS ELECTIVE SPORT IN THE THIRD ROUND OF THE NINE YEARS PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica Marušić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the third Round of the nine years Primary school the curriculum anticipates elective subjects. One of the possible choices is the sport for the sportsman and within it are the programs for the handball. This work has proposed operational aims of the handball as the elective sport for the seventh, eight and ninth grade, which would be fulfilled through 198 classes two times a week.

  6. Maternal state of mind regarding attachment, maternal depression and children's family drawings in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihrer, Irene; McMahon, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored how children's family drawings in the early school years might be related to their exposure to recurrent episodes of maternal depression. We also examined prospectively relations among maternal state of mind regarding attachment derived from the Adult Attachment Interview and earlier mother-child attachment from the Strange Situation Procedure (both measured when the child was 12-15 months old) and later family drawings. Seventy-five mothers were assessed for symptoms of depression periodically between birth and child age 6-8 years. At this age, children completed a family drawing rated using an attachment-based scoring system. Both mothers' state of mind regarding attachment and their overall depression were modestly, but significantly, correlated with a global rating of the child's drawings. When both predictors were considered together, however, neither was significant, reflecting collinearity between the two variables. In this study, women with a non-autonomous state of mind regarding attachment were significantly more likely to experience recurrent depression. The earlier classification of the child's attachment to the mother from the Strange Situation Procedure was not related to the family drawing.

  7. Associations between medical school and career preferences in Year 1 medical students in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  8. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  9. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  10. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  11. The quality of school lunch consumed reflects overall eating patterns in 11-16-year-old schoolchildren in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen, Tanja; Pentikäinen, Saara; Lappi, Jenni; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2011-12-01

    To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children. Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread. Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland. A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11-16 years. The school lunch was balanced in 46·5% of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom. The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.

  12. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  13. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  14. Effects of School Quality, School Citizenship Policy, and Student Body Composition on the Acquisition of Citizenship Competences in the Final Year of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anne Bert; Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; van der Veen, Ineke; ten Dam, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of general educational quality of schools, school citizenship policy, and ethnic homogeneity of the student body on the acquisition of citizenship competences in the final year of primary education. The theoretical framework is based on developmental, psychological, and sociological studies into effects of social…

  15. Are Charter Schools Getting More Money into the Classroom? A Micro-Financial Analysis of First Year Charter Schools in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Paul; Millot, Marc Dean

    This report examines the first-year finances of Massachusetts' first 15 charter schools. Analysis of the financial statements of these schools offers insights into how their boards of trustees allocated funds as they tried to meet academic goals and survive as new organizations. Revenue and expenditure patterns were compared with national district…

  16. "PCI Reading Program": The Final Report of a Three Year Experimental Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Megan; Jaciw, Andrew; Ma, Boya; Lipton, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    PCI Education conducted a three-year longitudinal study to determine the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" ("PCI") for students with severe disabilities as implemented in Florida's Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The primary question addressed by the study is whether students…

  17. Successful introduction of Model for End-stage Liver Disease scoring in deceased donor liver transplantation in Korea: analysis of first 1 year experience at a high-volume transplantation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Soo-Min; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Namgung, Jungman; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jwa, Eunkyoung; Kwon, Jae-Hyeon; Cho, Hui-Dong; Jung, Yong-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-11-01

    Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was adopted in June 2016 in Korea. We analyzed changes in volumes and outcomes of deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for 1 year before and after introduction of MELD scoring at Asan Medical Center. There were 64 cases of DDLT in 1 year before MELD introduction and 106 in 1 year after MELD introduction, an increase of 65%. The volume of DDLTs abruptly increased during first 3 months, but then returned to its usual level before MELD introduction, which indicated 3-month depletion of accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The number of pediatric DDLT cases increased from 3 before MELD introduction to 11 after it, making up 21.4% and 47.8% of all cases of pediatric liver transplantation, respectively. The number of cases of retransplanted DDLTs increased from 4 to 27, representing 6.3% and 25.5% of all DDLT cases, respectively. The number of status 1 DDLT cases increased from 5 to 12, being 7.8% and 11.3% of all cases. Patient survival outcomes were similar before and after MELD introduction. The number of DDLTs temporarily increased after adoption of MELD scoring due to accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The numbers of retransplanted and pediatric DDLT cases significantly increased. Patient survival in adult and pediatric DDLT was comparable before and after adoption of MELD scoring. These results imply that Korean MELD score-based allocation system was successfully established within its first year.

  18. I wish I had (not) taken a gap-year? The psychological and attainment outcomes of different post-school pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D; Thoemmes, Felix; Duineveld, Jasper J; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2015-03-01

    Existing gap-year research indicates a number of benefits of a gap-year at the end of school and before university enrollment. Life span theory of control, however, suggests that direct goal investment, rather than delay, at developmental transitions is associated with more adaptive outcomes. Comparing these perspectives, the authors undertook 2 studies: 1 in Finland (N = 384, waves = 3) and 1 in Australia (N = 2,259, waves = 5) both with an initial time wave in the last year of high school. The authors explored the effects of a gap-year on both psychological and attainment outcomes using an extensive propensity score matching technique. The Finnish study found no difference in growth in goal commitment, effort, expectations of attainment and strain, or in actual university enrollment in those planning to enter university directly versus those who plan to take a gap-year. The Australian study found no difference in growth in outlooks for the future and career prospects, and life satisfaction between gap-year youth and direct university entrants. However, the study did find that gap-year students were more likely to drop out of a university degree. Implication for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2018-06-01

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  20. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  1. Reinforcement at last years of elementary school assessment the inclusion in the political- pedagogical project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO JACQUES MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reports produced by the Education Ministry, after the Prova Brasil results, applied to 8º and 9º grade students in the Portuguese and Mathematics subject shows the Brazilians students learning difficulties in these areas. The Prova Brasil results applied in 2013 shows that in Portuguese only 28,7% of the students graduates at elementary school with the appropriate learning and in mathematics this rate falls to 16,4%. The Brazilian educational legislation determines the minimum pattern at the education quality and the compulsory requirement of reinforcement classes to students who has learning difficulties. Many authors and the legislation establish the pedagogical time and space expansion necessity. The reinforcement, assessment the inclusion in the political- pedagogical project, is an important alternative to the mathematic and Portuguese learning difficulties confront. With the purpose of know the difficulties faced by the Mathematics and Portuguese teachers at the last years of elementary school and the schools reinforcement adoption, interviews were carried out with docents of both areas who works at two public schools at Barra do Quaraí.

  2. Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES): First year process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Cate A; Webster, Collin; Weaver, R Glenn; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David; Russ, Laura; Nesbitt, Danielle; Vazou, Spyridoula

    2018-04-01

    Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews. There were no significant differences between intervention classrooms and control classrooms MI promotion. Differences approaching significance (U=5, p=0.04, d=1.2) were observed when comparing classrooms that received two (community of practice, community-based participatory research) or three components (two components plus service learning) of the intervention and classrooms that received one (community of practice) or no components. Qualitative findings revealed that teachers in classrooms that were more successful responded more favorably to the intervention components than teachers in classrooms that were less successful. Quantitative and qualitative results supported the effectiveness of community-based participatory research as a component of PACES. This study provides information about MI process variables in the context of a CSPAP intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prognostic utility of the SYNTAX score on 1-year outcomes after revascularization with zotarolimus- and everolimus-eluting stents: a substudy of the RESOLUTE All Comers Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W; Silber, Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents.......This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents....

  4. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  5. ART restorations and sealants placed in Chinese school children--results after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C J; Lo, E C; Hu, D; Wan, H

    2000-08-01

    These were to assess whether ART restorations and sealants could be provided to children in a school environment in China, to assess patient acceptability of the ART approach, and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the treatments performed. This study was conducted in Deyang, Sichuan Province, in western China. A total of 294 ART restorations were placed in 197 children and 191 fissure sealants were placed in 140 children by five middle-level dentists in four secondary schools. Standard instruments and procedures for ART were used. The restorative material used was a high-strength glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, ESPE). The treatments were evaluated annually after placement by the same examiner who had not been involved in the placement of the restorations nor sealants using explorers and mouth-mirrors. At the 3-year examination an independent external examiner evaluated the restorations using USPHS criteria. Most of the children did not report discomfort during treatment and 92% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 1-year and 3-year survival rates of small Class I restorations were 99% and 92% respectively. The corresponding figures for large Class I restorations were 90% and 77%. After 3 years, 72% of the sealants were either partially or completely retained. Only 2% of the sealed teeth developed fissure caries and these involved teeth where the sealants had been lost. Similar success rates were found using USPHS criteria. The ART approach for preventing and treating tooth decay in Chinese school children was shown to be appropriate, effective and acceptable. The 3-year survival rates of the restorations were high but were related to the size and type of the restoration.

  6. Charter Schools' Impact on Traditional Public School Performance: Evidence from Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalulu, Mavuto; Snyder, Thomas; Ouattara, Saliou N.

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of open-enrollment charter schools on student performance in traditional public schools in Arkansas. The paper examines the change in Iowa Assessment scores for first and second graders across Arkansas school districts between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 school years. The ordinary least-squares regression estimates…

  7. Review of "Everyone Wins: How Charter Schools Benefit All New York City Public School Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The report examines whether increasing competition from charter schools has a causal effect on the achievement of public school students in New York City, using a three-year longitudinal database of student test scores. As a measure of competition, it considers the percentage of students who left a public school for a charter school in the prior…

  8. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  9. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  10. A Comparison of Scores on the WISC-R and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test for Disadvantaged Black Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, James D.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1976-01-01

    It is indicated that, although the scores [obtained on both tests] are significantly correlated, the tests yield significantly different scores with the Lorge-Thorndike consistently overestimating the WISC-R full scale I.Q. (Author)

  11. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dental caries and dental erosion among 5- and 6-year old and 11- and 12-year old school children in the Hague, the Netherlands. Changing prevalences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Rijkom, H.M. van; Mulder, J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a dental survey amongst 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in The Hague had been carried out. The 2002 survey suggested that in the period 1996-2002 the caries prevalence (% of cariesfree children) and the caries experience (mean dmfs/dmft scores) among 6-year-old children did not have

  13. A Regression Analysis of South Carolina Algebra I End-of-Course Exam Scores by Schedule Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dawn M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between scheduling and first-year-high-school students' exam scores on the South Carolina Algebra I End-of-Course (EOC) assessment. The study compared existing empirical data from two southeastern high schools from the same school district using 4 X 4 block schedules from 2011-2014 and…

  14. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    status and BMI of the children. Possible causes may be the weight and health focus of the study, social desirability and the diet reporting itself. When using plasma carotenoid concentrations as a reference, the WebDASC’s ability to rank participants according to FJV intake was good and the Web...... ability and social desirability which in addition is influenced by the OPUS study. Furthermore, they are untrained in the task and they may not be involved in food shopping or preparation and therefore have little insight into the foods they eat. The overall aim of the present project was to deliver......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...

  15. Motor competence and physical activity in 8-year-old school children with generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Kristensen, Jens Halkjaer; Frausing, Britt

    2009-01-01

    regarding motor competence, self-reported physical activity, and incidence of musculoskeletal pain and injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 524 children in the second grade from 10 public schools was performed. A positive response rate was obtained for 416 (79.4%) children, and 411 (78.4%) children...... were clinically examined and tested for motor competence, whereas questionnaire response to items comprising musculoskeletal pain and injuries, in addition to daily level and duration of physical activity, corresponded to 377 (71.9%) children. RESULTS: In total, 29% of the children had GJH4, 19% had...... in the motor competence tests. CONCLUSION: Motor competence and physical activity are not reduced in primary school children at 8 years of age with GJH or BJHS. It is recommended that a potential negative influence on the musculoskeletal system over time, as a result of GJH, be investigated by longitudinal...

  16. U-Shaped Relationship between Years of Residence and Negative Mental Health Outcomes among Rural-to-Urban Children in Migrant Schools in Beijing, China: The Moderating Effects of Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Wang, Ri-Chu; Yin, Xing; Fu, Lin; Liu, Zheng-Kui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test the relationship between length of residence and mental health in a school-based sample of migrant children who studied in migrant schools. A total of 7,296 rural-to-urban migrant children were recruited from 58 schools in Beijing and assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Children's Depression Inventory. A quadratic relationship was found between mental health and length of residence. The results suggested that the scores for anxiety and depression were high during the initial resettlement after migrating and then decreased. However, after approximately 8 years, the scores increased. Our findings also showed a significant moderating effect of family socioeconomic status on the relation between mental health and length of residence. This study provided empirical evidence for a better understanding of psychosocial factors on the mental health of migrant children during the process of urbanization in China.

  17. Medical school attrition-beyond the statistics a ten year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Bridget M; Hynes, Helen; Sweeney, Catherine; Khashan, Ali S; O'Rourke, Margaret; Doran, Kieran; Harris, Anne; Flynn, Siun O'

    2013-01-31

    Medical school attrition is important--securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001-2011) and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779) in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies). Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All medical schools have a duty of care to support students who leave the medical programme.

  18. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Bridget M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p  Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All

  19. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  20. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Students’ perceptions and satisfaction level of hybrid problem-based learning for 16 years in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Yeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Kyungpook National University School of Medicine has been implementing hybrid problem-based learning (PBL since 1999. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the students’ perceptions and satisfaction levels of hybrid PBL. Methods: The target period of our study was from 1999 to 2014, and target subjects were second-year medical students in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine. The survey was conducted at the end of semester. We had a focused interview with group leaders and some volunteer students. Results: As for the scores regarding students’ overall satisfaction with PBL, there was significant improvement in 2005 compared to 2002, but the scores decreased and no differences between the survey years noted after 2005. The students’ preference ratio for the once a week PBL sessions, tutor presence, synchronization of contents, and arrangement of PBL sessions and related lectures was 60%–80%, 50%–90%, 52%–96%, and 78%–93%, respectively. Conclusion: In order to increase students’ satisfaction with hybrid PBL and to improve the perception of it, firstly, it is necessary to arrange the date and the time of PBL sessions so that students can concentrate on PBL. Secondly, PBL cases should be selected and arranged to be well synchronized with the ongoing lectures. Finally, it is important to create a safe atmosphere so that students can engage actively in PBL sessions.

  2. Transitions in cognitive test scores over 5 and 10 years in elderly people: Evidence for a model of age-related deficit accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On average, health worsens with age, but many people have periods of improvement. A stochastic model provides an excellent description of how such changes occur. Given that cognition also changes with age, we wondered whether the same model might also describe the accumulation of errors in cognitive test scores in community-dwelling older adults. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 8954 older people (aged 65+ at baseline from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging were followed for 10 years. Cognitive status was defined by the number of errors on the 100-point Modified Min-Mental State Examination. The error count was chosen to parallel the deficit count in the general model of aging, which is based on deficit accumulation. As with the deficit count, a Markov chain transition model was employed, with 4 parameters. Results On average, the chance of making errors increased linearly with the number of errors present at each time interval. Changes in cognitive states were described with high accuracy (R2 = 0.96 by a modified Poisson distribution, using four parameters: the background chance of accumulating additional errors, the chance of incurring more or fewer errors, given the existing number, and the corresponding background and incremental chances of dying. Conclusion The change in the number of errors in a cognitive test corresponded to a general model that also summarizes age-related changes in deficits. The model accounts for both improvement and deterioration and appears to represent a clinically relevant means of quantifying how various aspects of health status change with age.

  3. Laboratory-based and office-based risk scores and charts to predict 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in 182 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueda, Peter; Woodward, Mark; Lu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide implementation of risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention requires risk prediction tools that are contemporarily recalibrated for the target country and can be used where laboratory measurements are unavailable. We present two cardiovascular risk scores, with and ...

  4. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.

  5. The Halitosis Parameter Change After Using Siwak (Salvadora Persica At 11-13 Year Old Students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Wijayanti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Siwak (Salvadora persica, an oral cleansing tool which came from ancient Arab has Islamic cultural values. Many researches concluded that siwak contains antibacterial agent which has function to kill bacteria causing oral malodor (halitosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze halitosis parameters change which consisted of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSC, Bleeding on Probing (BOP and tongue coating after using siwak at 11-13 year old students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School. Materials and methods: This study used experimental research method and 25 students in the age group of 11-13 year old became subjects of this study. Halitosis parameters measurements were taken before and after using 10 days siwak usage and through dental health education. OralChroma and organoleptic score were used to measure the VSC. Probing on six sites of gingival sulculs of each tooth was used to measured BOP. Classification of tounge coating was performed by observing the presence of white coating on the tongue surface. Statistical analysis was performed using Paired-t Test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Approximately 75% reduction of total VSC concentration was observed after siwak usage. Number of subjects with score 1 in organoleptic assessment for halitosis was also increased by 36%. Followed by reduction of BOP and tongue coating score by 57.7% and 26% respectively. Statistical analysis of those parameters showed significant differences before and after siwak usage. Conclusion: Siwak usage sucessfully decreased all halitosis parameters of the 11-13 years old students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.45

  6. The Prevalence of Obesity in First Year Primary School Students in Nine Districts of Ižzmir Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Turhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Obesity and overweight are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as %u2018%u2018abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health%u2019%u2019. The prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight has been increased worldwide in recent decades. To determine the prevalence of obesity in first year primary school students in nine districts of Ižzmir province. Material and Method: This study was planned as cross-sectional research, and performed on nine districts selected by simple random method in Izmir province (Aliaga, Beydag, Dikili, Foca, Guzelbahce, Kinik, Odemis, Seferihisar, Selcuk. The height and the weight figures of each child were noted and Z values were calculated with reference to WHO 2007 standards. Children whose Z scores of %u201Cheight for age%u201D ,%u201DBKIž for age%u201D and %u201Cweight for age%u201D are higher than 2 standard deviation were assessed as tall and obese. In analyzing data Chi-square test and t test were used. Statistical significance value was accepted as p

  7. [Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Linsheng; Chen, Mingchun; Chen, Jian; Lyu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yuhong; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province. Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated through questionnaire as subjects of baseline survey in December 2009. Subjects of this longitudinal study were students in grades 3, 4 and 7 at the time of the baseline survey and were contacted once a year for two years. At last, a total of 816 students participated in all the three surveys. A structured questionnaire including Children's Depression Inventory, socio-demographic characteristics and some potential influential factors was employed for this study. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the related influencing factors of children's depressive symptoms in the longitudinal study. Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 11.3% , 10.4% and 8.5% , respectively, at the baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up studies, among primary and middle school students. Scores on depressive symptoms of total subjects and children who had always been left at home in the follow-up process showed significant differences at the three surveys (F = 13.423, P students who showed depressive symptoms at the baseline survey remained those depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up study and 87 percent of the 23 students who had depressive symptoms at the baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys still showing depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up study. Results from the GEE program indicated that grade 3 students, having syblings, family with dysfunction or at low level of self-esteem etc., were prone to development while sex and parents' educational level were not correlated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county

  8. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Freshman Year Dropouts: Interactions between Student and School Characteristics and Student Dropout Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoch, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Data from a large school district in the southwestern United States were analyzed to investigate relations between student and school characteristics and high school freshman dropout patterns. Application of a multilevel logistic regression model to student dropout data revealed evidence of school-to-school differences in student dropout rates and…

  10. Dental erosion in 12-year-old school children living in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septalita, A.; Bahar, A.; Agustanti, A.; Rahardjo, A.; Maharani, D. A.; Rosalien, R.

    2017-08-01

    This study assesses the dental erosion status of 12-year-old Indonesian children and studies the determinants of dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed in 2016 with ethics approval. A multistage cluster proportional to size random sampling method was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 24 primary schools in Jakarta. The parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined by a single calibrated examiner. Detection of dental erosion followed basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 487 children participated in the survey. Most children (88%) had at least some signs of erosion (BEWE > 0), with dentin being involved in 50% of the cases (BEWE = 2). Dental erosion was significantly related to gender, the frequencies of citric tea consumption, parent’s dental knowledge, father’s education, and dental caries (OR = 3.148). The 12-year-old Indonesian school children who lived in Jakarta had signs of erosion, although severe erosion was not found. Screening programs should be provided to identify risk groups so early preventive measures can be taken.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Romshi; Krishna, Madhusudan; Murali, R; Shamala, A; Yalamalli, Maanasi; Kumar, A Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health today. Tobacco attributable deaths in India currently range from 800,000 to 900,000 per year. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable group to start tobacco use. Information on tobacco use among the youth is necessary to establish control measures against it. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among high school students (age13-15 years) in Bangalore. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 weeks in the month of September 2012. A structured, pretested questionnaire was administered randomly to 500 high school students in Bangalore to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use. Majority of the study population [94.4% (472/500)] believed that smoking is definitely harmful to our health. Also, 39.0% of the participants of age 13 years believed that smoking does not help in socializing and 92.2% of study subjects had negative attitude toward starting the habit. Most of them (83.9%) had a negative perception about smokers that they lack confidence. However, less than 1% of the study population had a habit of smoking at this young age. Awareness of the harmful effects of smoking was high among the study population. The study provides insight into the factors to consider while planning adolescent anti-smoking programs in this and similar settings.

  12. College 101: Strategies for First Year Success – A Program for High School Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Raison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Making the transition from high school to college can be one of the biggest challenges in life. The first year dropout rate stands at 26% nationally. Adolescent decision-making literature suggests that youths can achieve greater success and reduce negative consequences during their first year of college if they 1 increase knowledge of new social scene and academic protocols, and 2 work through a conjectural decision-making process prior to actual encounters. This program presents key points high school seniors “must know” in advance of their arrival on campus. It is research-based with first-hand advice from real college students including on-the-street video interviews. Topics cover: Choosing Classes, Test Strategies, Social Scene Changes, Budgeting, Roommates, Safety, Talking with Professors, Time Management, and more. The program is designed for any student planning to attend any 2 or 4-year college. Youth professionals can teach this loosely-scripted 1 or 2-hour PowerPoint-based seminar “out of the box.” The $159 curriculum package is free to the first 250 responders.

  13. Illegal substance use among Italian high school students: trends over 11 years (1999-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Molinaro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To monitor changes in habits in drug use among Italian high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD carried out in Italy annually for 11 years (1999-2009 with representative samples of youth attending high school. The sample size considered ranges from 15,752 to 41,365 students and response rate ranged from 85.5% to 98.6%. Data were analyzed to obtain measures of life-time prevalence (LT, use in the last year (LY, use in the last 30 days (LM, frequent use. Comparisons utilized difference in proportion tests. Tests for linear trends in proportion were performed using the Royston p trend test. RESULTS: When the time-averaged value was considered, cannabis (30% LT was the most, and heroin the least (2% frequently used, with cocaine (5%, hallucinogens (2% and stimulants (2% in between. A clear gender gap is evident for all drugs, more obvious for hallucinogens (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 2, range 1.7-2.4, p<0.05, less for cannabis (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 1.3, range 1.2-1.5, p<0.05. Data shows a change in trend between 2005 and 2008; in 2006 the trend for cannabis use and availability dropped and the price rose, while from 2005 cocaine and stimulant use prevalence showed a substantial increase and the price went down. After 2008 use of all substances seems to have decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use is widespread among students in Italy, with cannabis being the most and heroin the least prevalent. Girls are less vulnerable than boys to illegal drug use. In recent years, a decrease in heroin use is overbalanced by a marked rise in hallucinogen and stimulant use.

  14. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  15. Should Students Have a Gap Year? Motivation and Performance Factors Relevant to Time Out after Completing School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, school leavers are taking time out from study or formal work after completing high school--often referred to as a "gap year" (involving structured activities such as "volunteer tourism" and unstructured activities such as leisure). Although much opinion exists about the merits--or otherwise--of taking time out after completing…

  16. Occupational Attitudes and Expectations of Year 12 Students in Single-Sex and Coeducational Schools: A Focus on Female Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Priscilla; Gillies, Robyn M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of Year 12 Australian students in coed private (n=105), coed public (n=57), and all-female (n=78) schools revealed a relationship between gender-role identity and traditional/nontraditional career choices; occupations were more gender neutral, but blue- and pink-collar jobs remain stereotyped. Type of school did not influence girls'…

  17. Afterschool School Triathlon Training for 11- to 14-Year Old Girls: Influences on Academic Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Jennifer; Kelly, Angela M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of a Transformation through Triathlon after school programme in promoting health status, academic motivation and socioemotional development in at-risk girls aged 11-14 years attending middle school in the USA. Design: A phenomenological approach was employed with elements of grounded theory to analyse…

  18. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9-11 year old English schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantjes, Joyce A.; Jones, Andrew P.; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Natalia R.; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in

  19. The School-Community Integrated Learning Pathway: Exploring a New Way to Prepare and Induct Final-Year Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Suzanne; Hudson, Peter; Adie, Lenore

    2015-01-01

    Universities and teacher employment bodies seek new, cost-effective ways for graduating classroom-ready teachers. This study involved 32 final-year preservice teachers in an innovative school--university partnership teacher education programme titled, the School-Community Integrated Learning (SCIL) pathway. Data were collected using a five-part…

  20. The Nyae Nyae Village Schools 1994-2010: An Indigenous Mother-Tongue Education Project after 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…

  1. To Market, to Market: An Historic Account of How Schools Have Marketed Themselves over the Past 150 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Carole

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an historical account of how fee-charging Victorian schools have marketed themselves over the past 150 years (via the use of advertisements, brochures, and prospectuses) in order to promote those aspects of schooling believed to be of most importance to potential customers (parents). While some of the features--most notably…

  2. Strengthening Pennsylvania's Charter School Reform: Findings From the Statewide Evaluation and Discussion of Relevant Policy Issues. Year Five Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Nelson, Christopher; Risley, John

    In 2001, the Pennsylvania Department of Education contracted with Western Michigan University to evaluate Pennsylvania's charter schools and charter school initiative over two years. The study used site visits, work sample review, document review, focus groups, portfolios and surveys to gather data regarding the movement's effectiveness, progress,…

  3. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  4. Forces. 'O' Level Teacher's Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  6. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  7. Outside school time: an examination of science achievement and non-cognitive characteristics of 15-year olds in several countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2016-03-01

    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.

  8. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacey A. Greece

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children’s diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI, sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students’ food choice behaviors.

  9. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greece, Jacey A; Kratze, Alyssa; DeJong, William; Cozier, Yvette C; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2015-06-10

    Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students' food choice behaviors.

  10. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Anmol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TRACK & FIELD INJURIES: A ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE IN ATHLETIC SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos TH Stergioulas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.

  12. Radioactive contamination status of an elementary school in southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, four years after decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Nagakubo, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the radioactive contamination status of an elementary school in southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, four years after decontamination. The radioactive dose rate was measured in the playground (n = 36), back yard (n = 1), parking lot (n = 3), and gutters (n = 30) with a thallium-activated sodium iodide scintillation detector. In addition, topsoil from the playground and gutters sediment were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, and sand from the parking lot and sediment from gutters was imaged following an autoradiography method. The mean radioactive dose rate in the playground was almost 0.08 μSv/h. The dose rate was higher at sites facing the mountains, near the main gate, and by the front entrance of the school building. Meanwhile, the radioactive cesium (Cs) concentration of sediment imaged using autoradiography was > 8,000 Bq/kg. These results indicated that the radioactive dose rates in the decontaminated school were below the threshold for being a health hazard. However, the topsoil in the playground had been re-contaminated with radioactive Cs, which had likely been transported via dirt attached to children's shoes and car tires. In addition, the radioactive sediment in the gutters had likely been contaminated by rainwater, suggesting that radioactive protection is necessary when handling gutter sediment. (author)

  13. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  14. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  15. CAREER PLANS OF GRADUATES OF A CANADIAN DENTAL SCHOOL: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A 5-YEAR SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Usama; Fairbanks, Connor; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Kilistoff, Alan; Easton, Rick

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive data on the characteristics and opinions of graduating dental students in Canada are lacking. Specifically, only minimal information is available on graduates' immediate career plans and factors that may influence their decisions regarding these plans. Our aim was to gather such data to allow better understanding of this issue and improve the design of future studies on this topic. The Career Development Committee at the school of dentistry, University of Alberta, designed a short survey to be administered to graduating students over 5 years to gain insight into their immediate career plans and opinions on career services at the school. Preliminary results from 2012-2014 are reported here. With a response rate of close to 90% (n = 99/111), the data reveal considerable differences in immediate career plans between the surveyed students and those in other schools in Canada and the United States. Of the students, 89% were planning to work in a general dental practice and only 9% were planning to enroll in advanced education, including general practice residency training. More research is needed to better understand the factors affecting career path decisions of students.

  16. Dental Erosion and its Associated Factors In 11-16-Year Old School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirthiga, M; Poornima, P; Praveen, R; Sakeena, B; Disha, P

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion currently stands as a great challenge for the clinician, regarding the diagnosis, identification of the etiological factors, prevention and execution of an adequate treatment. To evaluate the prevalence, severity, and associated factors on dental erosion in 11-16-years old. A cross sectional study was conducted among 2000 school children who were randomly selected. A questionnaire was given to the children that included personal demographic details and habit of consuming acidic foods and drinks. An index specific for dental erosion given by O Sullivan was used to assess every affected tooth. The values were subjected to chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 1.4%. Females (1.6%) were slightly more affected than males (1.3%). Public school children (2.1%) were found to be affected a little more than private children (0.7%). Chi square test showed significant association between type of school and erosion prevalence (p = 0.015). Most commonly affected teeth were lateral incisor (59.72%). The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low when compared to various studies done all over the world.

  17. Public High School Four-Year On-Time Graduation Rates and Event Dropout Rates: School Years 2010-11 and 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2014-391

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetser, Marie C.; Stillwell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for two separate measures of 4-year on-time graduation rates as well as event dropout rates for school year (SY) 2010-11 and SY 2011-12. Specifically this report provides the following: (1) Four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) data reported by…

  18. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  19. Charter Schools Indicators: A Report from the Center on Educational Governance University of Southern California. CSI-USC 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Educational Governance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Like other public schools, California charter schools are judged primarily by one measure: student test scores. Though necessary, the Academic Performance Index and Average Yearly Progress scores can't assess charter schools' broad dimensions of student learning, program effectiveness and school operations. The state's accountability system…

  20. [Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Cuixart, M; Capdevila Prim, C; Girbau Solà, T; Rodríguez Caba, C

    2006-01-01

    To know the family environment, living habits and social characteristics in 11-13 years-old school children. A descriptive transversal study performed in 65 schools of Barcelona during the second three-month, involving 2354 school children aged 11-13 interviewed by 73 pharmacists. The questionnaire has thirty-nine questions referring to family structure, eating and drinking habits, preferences, life style parameters such as physical activity and television viewing. The survey revealed a family unit of two children and their parents was the most common. Only a 12% of the children surveyed lived with their grandparents. Furthermore, the findings revealed a low family presence during the three main meals on the working days, which increased on weekends, 26% on breakfast, 44% on lunch and 11% on dinner. A 24% had breakfast alone and the 46% ate what they wanted. About the afternoon snack, the 25% alone and the 55% what they wanted. A 60% never or practically never participated in decision making, when buying food. A 70% reported they did other activities while eating. Concretely, a 40, 39 and 59% of the children reported they had breakfast, lunch and dinner while watching television. The consumption frequency of trinkets, soft drinks and television viewing were lower for the children from private compared to public schools. This study show that food choice at shopping was mainly done by the parents, however, children had an important role in making decisions of what food they eat and the activities they do while eating. Therefore, pharmacists could have a potential role to intervene in the nutritional education to parents and children.