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Sample records for school students smoking

  1. Smoking habits in secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, C; Saleiro, S; Marinho, A; Fernandes, G; Gomes, I

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version). A total of 1,770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years), mainly female, (58%), answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6%) were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7%) considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1%) were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2%) had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8%) considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents' and friends' behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking.

  2. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  3. Harmfulness of smoking among high school students

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    Iwona Rotter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.

  4. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple

  5. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

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    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  6. Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years, mainly female, (58%, answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6% were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7% considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1% were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2% had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8% considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents’ and friends’ behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking. Resumo: Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de

  7. marijuana smoking among secondary school students in zaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. Methods: A ... psychological correlates associated with cannabis ... The study was conducted among secondary school .... psychotropic drugs and illegal drugs in high.

  8. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

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    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  9. Smoking among secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K; Paul, C Y C; Kam, C W; Jagmohni, K

    2005-01-01

    This study was done to determine the prevalence of smoking and factors influencing cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data was collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language Bahasa Malaysia. The prevalence of smoking among the students was 14.0%. About a third of the students (37.8%) started smoking at 13 to 14 years of age. The prevalence of smoking among the male students was higher (26.6%) compared to the female students (3.1%). Adolescent smoking was associated with (1) sociodemographic factors (age, ethnicity, rural/urban status); (2) environmental factors (parental smoking, staying with parents); (3) behavioural factors (playing truant and risk-taking behaviours such as physical fighting, drug use, alcohol use, sexual activity, lack of seatbelt use, riding with a drunk driver); (4) lifestyle behaviours (being on diet and lack of exercise); (5) personal factors (feeling sad and suicidal behaviours). In conclusion, smoking is a major problem among Malaysian adolescents. Certain groups of adolescents tend to be at higher risk of smoking. This problem should be curbed early by targeting these groups of high risk adolescents.

  10. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  11. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

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    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  12. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SARAWAK

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    IRYANI T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2% adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9% did not smoke on adaily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1% and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1% or selfpurchased (43.6%. Students prefer to smoke at their friend’s house (31.0% or at school (25.3%. Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.

  14. [Does elitism of school influence the smoking-related health behaviour among grammar school students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwicki, Wojciech; Gołda, Ryszard; Domaniewska, Jolanta; Skok, Zdzisław; Jarzemski, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Domaniewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was connected with smoking health behaviour estimation among public (SZP) and nonpublic (SZN) grammar school students. The analysis of 156 anonymous questionnaires was made. Questionnaires contained questions of parents' education, material situation of family, physical education, social relations with family and peers and positive or negative perception of smoking. In total trial we observed a strong positive correlation between style of smoking or number of smoked cigarettes and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.62 or r = 0.36 respectively). The latter correlated significantly with family presence of smoking (r = 0.18). Percentages of smoking students of SZP and SZN differed and amounted 22% and 18% respectively. Within I/II SZP classes the smoking depended on material position of family (r = 0.28) and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.68). Among students of III SZP classes the dependence on material situation was stronger (r = 0.49), while students of III SZN classes became to perceive smoking more positive (r = 0.82). Social relations of students of I/II SZN classes were inversely proportional to prevalence of smoking in their families. Smoking students of III SZN classes worked out much more variously in comparison with pupils of SZP. The main motivation of smoking within school students was the positive perception of smoking. The differences of smoking prevalence within both types of school probably formed in the families and observed in I/II classes pupils, vanished during the time of III class of studying. Elitism of school do not protect the student from smoking: during the time of III SZN class the smoking receives clearly positive appearance and became established. Probably existing antinicotinic school programs should much more decidedly deliver the negative appearance of health effects of smoking.

  15. Relationship between happiness and tobacco smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataeiasl, Maryam; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Dadashzadeh, Hossein; Augner, Christoph; Anbarlouei, Masoumeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has described negative relationship between happiness and habitual smoking among adolescents. No study of this relationship has been conducted among Iranian adolescents. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between happiness and cigarette or hookah smoking among a sample of high school students. A sample of 1,161 10th-grade students in Tabriz (northwest Iran) was selected by multi-stage proportional cluster sampling. Participants completed a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire including information on cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, happiness score, substance abuse, self-injury, general risk-taking behavior, attitudes towards smoking, socioeconomic information, and demographic characteristics. An ordinal logistic regression model was used for data analysis. It was found that 5.9 and 5.0% of students were regular cigarette smokers and regular hookah smokers, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, higher happiness scores were found to protect students against more advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99; p=0.013). However, no significant relationship was found between happiness scores and hookah smoking status (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.02; p=0.523). Happiness scores were associated with less advanced stages of habitual cigarette smoking among high school students. Our findings underscore the necessity of conducting longitudinal or interventional studies aiming to determine the effects of enhancing happiness on preventing the transition through the stages of cigarette and hookah smoking.

  16. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  17. Assessment of Secondhand Smoke Exposure at School among U.S. Middle and High School Students

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    Olufajo, Olubode Ademola; Agaku, Israel Terungwa

    2015-01-01

    To obtain nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at U.S. schools, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at school among U.S. middle and high school students using data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey comprising of 18,866 students spread across all the U.S. states.…

  18. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  20. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  1. The Prevalence and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, K A; Osibogun, A; Akinsete, A O; Sadiq, L

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and identify factors that influence smoking amongst them. This descriptive and explorative study was conducted among 1,183 secondary school students, selected by multistage sampling from each of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. This study recorded a lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% and current smoking prevalence of 17.1% among secondary school students in Nigeria. Most (82%) of the students had seen warnings against smoking and most of them were aware that it is possible for cigarette smoking to damage body organs. Unfortunately, however, seeing such warnings had no significant effect on their decision to smoke or not. The students who smoke were introduced to smoking mainly by their friends (67.4 %), and the television (13.4%). Smoking habits of the respondents were influenced by parents' educational status (psmoke (psmoked. Peer pressure was the main reason cited by respondents for initiating smoking. It is suggested that our smoking prevention programmes be reviewed and appropriate health education and smoking cessation programmes be developed and implemented in order to prevent and control smoking among Nigerian students.

  2. Common misconceptions and future intention to smoke among secondary school students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caszo, Brinnell; Khair, Muhammad; Mustafa, Mohd Habbib; Zafran, Siti Nor; Syazmin, Nur; Safinaz, Raja Nor Intan; Gnanou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia. This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam. Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health. Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  3. A Survey of Greek Elementary School Students' Smoking Habits and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…

  4. Factors Associated with Taiwanese Junior High School Personnel Advising Students to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Wei-Gang; Chao, Kun-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most smokers in developing countries begin smoking before age 18, and smoking prevalence is rising among adolescents. School personnel represent a target group for tobacco-control efforts because they interact daily with students, are role models for students, teach about tobacco-use prevention in school curricula, and implement school…

  5. Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province

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    Gizem Emekdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province Objective: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the world. The majority of smokers in the adolescent group has started smoking at early ages. Smoking prevalence among adolescents are reported to be approximately 10%. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and related factors among secondary and high school students in Tokat province. Method: Population of this cross-sectional study consists of secondary and high school students in Tokat. Sample size was calculated as 1072 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling method according to type of school, gender and age. The study has been completed with 1069 students (secondary school: 557, high school: 512. Sociodemographic characteristics and the smoking habits of students were determined through questionaries. The students who smoking at least one cigarette in a day were accepted as smokers. Results: 50.9% of secondary school students were male, mean age was 12.1±1.3, 74.5% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 10.8% (male:17.3%, female:4% and it was higher for students with <70 (16.3% average school grades than those with ≥70 (6.8% (p<0.05. 52.3% of high school students were female, mean age was 16.2±1.3, 80.7% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 18% (male:29.9%, female:7.1% and it was higher for students which have secondary or above maternal education level (23.8% than those students which have lower maternal education level (15.7%; higher in those whom parents live seperate or have died (42.3% than those whom parents live together (16.7%; higher in those that have average school grades <70 (23.8% than those with ≥70 (11.3% (p<0.05. Place of residence, income level and profession of parents were not significant effect on smoking prevalence. The most common cause of start smoking was curiosity (42.4%. Conclusions: Nearly one in

  6. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  7. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

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    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  8. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  9. Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine; Chandora, Rachna; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana

    2017-01-01

    South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students. The objective was to assess the student- and school-level effects of students' exposure to school anti-smoking education on current cigarette use among the study population using the most recent wave of GYTS data in SA (2011). An analytic sample of students 13-15 years of age was selected (n=3,068) from the SA GYTS 2011. A taxonomy of two-level logistic regression models was fit to assess the relationship of various tobacco use, control, and exposure predictor variables on current cigarette smoking among the study population. At the student-level in the full model, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, peer smoking, and ownership of a promotional item were significantly associated with higher risk of current smoking. At the school-level in the full model, average exposure to peer smoking was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of current cigarette use, while average family anti-smoking education was significantly associated with decreases in the outcome variable. School anti-smoking education was not a statistically significant predictor at the student- or school-levels. in this study, exposure to school anti-smoking education had no association with current cigarette smoking among the study population. Consistent with previous studies, having peers that smoked was highly associated with a student being a current smoker. Interestingly, at the school-level in the multilevel analysis, schools with higher rates of average family anti-smoking education had lower prevalence of current smoking. This finding has

  10. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  11. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  12. Smoking prevalence and associated attitudes among high school students in Turkey.

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    Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.

  13. Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district, Johor, Malaysia.

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    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Ying, Chan Ying; Huey, Tay Chien; Yee, Lai Wai; Ying, Ong Shiau; Yen, Yeo Lay; Abdullah, Norhamimah; Wymen, Seet; Ibrahim, Normala

    2013-01-01

    Smoking among adolescents has been linked to a variety of adverse and long term health consequences. "Susceptibility to smoking" or the lack of cognitive commitment to abstain from smoking is an important predictor of adolescent smoking. In 2008, we conducted a study to determine the psycho-sociological factors associated with susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. Two thousand seven hundred students were randomly selected by proportional stratified sampling. Analyses on 1,736 non-smoking students revealed that prevalence of adolescents susceptible to smoking was 16.3%. Male gender (aOR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.23-3.39), poor academic achievement (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.44), ever-smoker (aOR 2.17, 95%CI 1.37-3.44) and having a smoking friend (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83) were associated with susceptibility to smoking, while having the perception that smoking prohibition in school was strictly enforced (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.94), and had never seen friends smoking in a school compound (aOR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96) were considered protective factors These results indicate that follow-up programmes need to capitalise on the modifiable factors related to susceptibility to smoking by getting all stakeholders to be actively involved to stamp out smoking initiation among adolescents.

  14. Experience of a smoking cessation program among high school students in Taiwan.

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    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of smoking among teenagers has led to a required smoking cessation program in schools. Students caught smoking in school are required to participate in a weekly smoking cessation class. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of high school students in a smoking cessation program. Fifteen adolescents participated in a one-on-one in-depth semistructured interview, and the content was analyzed for patterns based on the methods of Miles and Huberman. In addition, Lewin's change theory of drive forces and restraining forces was used to describe the change in behavior as a result of the program. Five major themes were identified: the onset of smoking-change influenced by families and friends; intention to quit smoking-driving force; the irresistible temptation to smoke-restraining force; limited change effects-more attention and assistance needed; and change in attitude rather than behavior-smoking remained unchanged. Changes were seen in the perceptions and attitudes of these students toward smoking at the end of the program; however, none of them were able to really quit. Most participants revealed that they used improper means to pass the carbon monoxide test requirement that was used as a measure of not smoking. Alternative future intervention strategies for further study include change in health policy to support nicotine replacement methods for heavy adolescent smoker, use of teacher support, and exercise programs to support students going through the smoking cessation period.

  15. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  16. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

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    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  17. Smoking Frequency and some Related Factors among High School Students of Kashan City, Iran

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    Hammamizade O.R.1 BSc,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims The dramatic increase of smoking in adolescents has become one of the major challenges in most countries and it needs further consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence and some related factors among high school students. Instrument & Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in 2012-13 academic year in male and female high school students of Kashan City, Iran and 328 students were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire which had three parts; demographic data, history of smoking in the family, and ways of smoking. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Findings 19.3% (52 students of the high school students of Kashan City, Iran, were smokers; 41 boys (20.2% and 11 girls (8.8%. Smoking had significant relations with sex, grade and having a smoker in the family. 30.3% of the students had a cigarette smoker and 32.40% had a hookah smoker in their family. Hookah was the most prevalent tobacco product. Friends (47.8% in boys and 10.4% in girls and then relatives (13.4% in boys and 8.2% in girls contributed to students’ smoking. Conclusion Smoking hookah and cigarette have a high prevalence in sophomore and junior high school boys and having a smoker family member or friend is a main risk factor of start smoking in adolescents.

  18. Smoking in cars in England: a study of school students in an English city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; Britton, John; McNeill, Ann

    2014-06-05

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects among children. Although smoking in the home is an established major source of exposure, less is known about rules on smoking in cars. In a survey including a sample of secondary school students in Nottingham (UK) in 2012, participants were asked whether smoking was allowed in the family car, and how often the respondent travelled in a car in which smoking was allowed. Rules on smoking in cars were investigated in relation to socio-demographic variables and whether children had ever smoked themselves using logistic regression. Of 4,190 students aged 11-16 who provided data, approximately 12% reported that smoking was allowed in their family car and 35% that they travelled in a car where smoking was allowed at least sometimes. Absence of smoke free rules in the family car was more likely to be reported by children from more disadvantaged families, if parents and friends were smokers and if smoking was allowed in the main home. These factors, and having a sibling who smokes, were also independently associated with an increased risk of travelling in a car in which smoking was allowed at least sometimes. Respondents who were not protected from secondhand smoke in the car were also more likely to have ever smoked (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.18-2.14). Absence of smoke free rules in a family car and travelling in a car where smoking was allowed was relatively common among secondary school students, was strongly related to social disadvantage and a higher risk of smoking experimentation. Measures to prevent such exposure are therefore indicated.

  19. [Characteristics present in secondary school students who do not smoke and who have no intention to smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Zafra-Agea, José Antonio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    2018-02-27

    To know the variables present in primary and secondary school students who do not smoke or intend to smoke from a positive health model. Cross-sectional study with 482 students from Andalusia and Catalonia using a validated questionnaire (ESFA and PASE project). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Those who did not intend to smoke viewed smoking unfavourably and had high self-efficacy (p <0.001). In non-consumers, the most associated variables were attitude, social model (p <0.001), and self-efficacy (p =0.005). The results show motivational factors present in students who do not smoke and do not intend to do so. Attitude and self-efficacy are strongly associated with intention and behaviour. This information might be useful for developing positive health promotion strategies from a salutogenesis approach. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p smoking and ever-smoking students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  1. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  2. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melike; Karadeniz, Gulistan; Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Kaya, Halide; Yenibertiz, Derya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sen, Velat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit. PMID:26785961

  3. The effect of smoking by family members and friends on the incidence of smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).

  4. [Relationships between smoking and the health locus of control among junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yumi; Takagi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Yutaka

    2007-10-01

    To clarify effects of the Health Locus of Control (HLC) on smoking behavior, relationships between smoking and HLC among junior high school students were examined. The subjects of the initial study, conducted in 1991, were public elementary schoolchildren in their 3rd year (11-12 years old). We then investigated the same children again in 1994 and 1997. We here mainly used data for 265 students (136 males and 129 females) obtained in 1997 when they were public junior high school students in their 3rd year (14-15 years old). Questionnaires included items on smoking experience, smoking intention and the Parcel & Meyer's Children's HLC scales. 1. Smoking experience was not associated with the HLC. 2. Concerning smoking intention among boys, the neutral group expressed stronger beliefs in the powerful others HLC in 1994 and 1997 than the positive group. In addition, the positive group expressed weaker beliefs in the powerful others HLC in 1994 than the negative group. 3. Concerning smoking intention among girls, the neutral group expressed stronger belifs in the powerful others HLC in 1997 than the negative group. Smoking experience was not associated with the HLC. However, smoking intention was significantly associated with beliefs in the powerful others HLC. In this regard, the neutral group tended to have strong beliefs in the powerful others HLC suggesting that students in this group might be easily affected by other people in both positive and negative ways. In other words, they must be guided in a good fashion through appropriate health education.

  5. National and School Policies on Restrictions of Teacher Smoking: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Exposure to Teacher Smoking in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Bente; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Roberts, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the association between restrictions on teacher tobacco smoking at school and student exposure to teachers who smoke during school hours. The data are taken from a European Commission-funded study "Control of Adolescent Smoking" (the CAS study) in seven European countries. Multilevel modelling analyses were applied to…

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF MERAM APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL

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    Ruhusen KUTLU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433

  7. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  8. Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damegh, Saleh A; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care was taken to represent urban and rural communities. In urban areas, 8 schools with the largest number of students were selected. This is in addition to 3 schools, which were the only schools with special education on Islamic, Commercial and Technical programs. In the rural areas the 3 most distant schools were included in the sample. Data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires that contained questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude towards cigarette smoking. A total of 2203 students responded to the questionnaires with 83% response rate. Of the studied group, 606 (29.8%) were current smokers and among these 83.7% started smoking at the age of 15 years or less. Technical and commercial secondary school students had higher prevalence of the habit of smoking than those in general and Islamic secondary schools. It was found that the more pocket money received by the students, the higher was the prevalence of smoking. The most common reason given for cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) was the influence of friends (63.5%). Family factor, especially the brother's smoking habit (24.8%) was also important. Most of the students knew that smoking is harmful to their own health (89.3%), and to others (73.9%). The association between smoking and lung cancer was 84.3%, 80.9% for chest disease and 78.2% for heart disease, while the relation to other diseases was less known. We conclude that onset of smoking in the young is alarming. This is of immense importance in formulating health education strategies, which should be directed towards pupils, teachers and

  9. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Smoking Intention in Korean Male Middle School Students

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    Ra, Jin Suk; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial factors influencing smoking intention in Korean male middle school students. We used a descriptive cross-sectional design, based on the biopsychosocial model, to analyze data from 309 male adolescents aged 14-16 years in middle school. Of the psychological factors examined, stress and risk-taking tendency were…

  10. Prevalence and factors related to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K H; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Mashod, M Y; Wan Rozita, W M; Sumarni, M G; Hadzrik, N O

    2006-06-01

    Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  11. Waterpipe Smoking among Middle and High School Jordanian Students: Patterns and Predictors

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    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in attention to waterpipe tobacco smoking, the patterns and predictors of this method of tobacco use among Jordanian youth are not well known. The current study was conducted to assess the patterns and the predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among school aged students in one of Jordan’s Central Governorates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the patterns and predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among youth (grades 6, 8, 10 and 12. Using a multistage random sampling more than 1,000 students was selected. Data were collected using the Arabic Youth Tobacco Use Composite Measure (YTUCM. Waterpipe smoking was assessed for “past 12 months”, “past month” and “past week”. Students’ ages ranged from 11 to 18 years, (mean age ± 14.7; SD ± 1.9 years. The percentage of girls who smoked waterpipe was greater for all frequencies of use than it was for boys. Age, gender, and belief that smoking makes more friends were predictors of smoking among study participants. This is the first known study to examine waterpipe smoking among youth aged 11 and 12. Our findings illustrate the need for public health campaigns to reach and educate youth, their families, teachers and school systems regarding the growing recognized health risks of waterpipe smoking.

  12. Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model

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    Samira Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran, in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM. Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89 but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101. There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005. Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years, that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

  13. The Prevalence and Motivation of Cigarette Smoking among Kerman high school students

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    Alireza Zarezadeh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nicotine dependence has been identified as a critical health problem. This study assesses the prevalence and motivation of smoking among Iranian junior and senior students. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a questionnaire. In addition to data on frequency, motivation, initiation and cessation, this questionnaire included Fagerstrom items for nicotine dependency. The census method was used for sampling. Thus, the questionnaire was distributed to all high school junior and senior students of Kerman. Results: 3072 students participated in the study. Among them, 4.9% were nicotine dependent, 6.4% had used it occasionally during the last six months and 11.5% had used it at least once in their life. Out of all the cigarette users, 80.6% had experienced smoking before the age of 15 with 9.09±8.52 cigarette per day. Boys smoked significantly more than girls. More than 38% of the students had a history of smoking cessation. The most common motivations for smoking among the students have been identified as smoking of the peer group and the belief that smoking is fashionable. Conclusions: The motivation and gender difference in smoking were similar to the general population. The rate of nicotine dependency was less than other parts of the country. However, the age of smoking initiation was in a decreasing trend and similar to other parts of the country. High school stage is a very critical period for adolescents' smoking. Therefore, for the provision of more social skills trainings and behavioral therapies, providing information for decision makers is recommended.

  14. Predictors of non- hookah smoking among high-school students based on prototype/willingness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Sedigheh; MorowatiSharifabad, MohammadAli; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh; Ghanbarnejad, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine predictors of refraining from hookah smoking among high-school students in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran based on Prototype/Willingness model. This cross- sectional with analytic approach was performed on 240 high-school students selected by a cluster random sampling. The data of demographic and Prototype-Willingness Model constructs were acquired via a self-administrated questionnaire. Data were analyzed by mean, frequency, correlation, liner and logistic regression statistical tests. Statistically significant determinants of the intention to refrain from hookah smoking were subjective norms, willingness, and attitude. Regression model indicated that the three items together explained 46.9% of the non-smoking hookah intention variance. Attitude and subjective norms predicted 36.0% of the non-smoking hookah intention variance. There was a significant relationship between the participants' negative prototype about the hookah smokers and the willingness to avoid from hookah smoking (P=0.002). Also willingness predicted non-smoking hookah better than the intention (P<0.001). Deigning intervention to increase negative prototype about the hookah smokers and reducing situations and conditions which facilitate hookah smoking, such as easy access to tobacco products in the cafés, beaches can be useful results among adolescents to hookah smoking prevention.

  15. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of preliminary school students toward smoking in Baghdad

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    Abbas Jabbar Sahib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early smoking considered as a major challenge for health promoters, as well it is socially not acceptable, thus interventions must tackle childhood starts of smoking.Aim: Assessing the knowledge and attitude of preliminary students towards tobacco use. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 2195, 5th grade students from 30 preliminary schools in Baghdad (15 from each side Karkh & Rusafa during November 2014. They were selected by multistage sampling technique.Results:  Participated students age ranged between (10-13 years and (51.9% of them were girls, (54.3% of their parents were nonsmoker while the rest reported that both or one of them are smokers, direct and indirect risks of cigarette  smoking were known by (82.4% and (66.2% respectively, and (70.8% of students’ families were found to wear their kids from smoking hazards, while more than (50% of them have received health education massages from their teachers. Sitting near smoker person was not in favor of (86.2% of the participants, as (51.4% considered it religiously inconvenient and (34.6% considered smoking as a sign of no self-confidence. At last, (73.7% of the surveyed students agreed with smoking prohibition in public places while (25.8% opposed that.Conclusion: In spite of the high percentage of students’ parents were smokers; nevertheless, risks of smoking are well known by the surveyed students and they showed positive attitudes toward smoking prohibition in public places. Parental advising for quit smoking and urging teachers to educate their students about smoking hazards are thought to be the right action.

  16. Shisha Smoking Habit among Dental School Students in the United Arab Emirates: Enabling Factors and Barriers

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    Natheer H. Al-Rawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the present study was to assess shisha smoking among dental school students in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE. In addition, the role of suggested barriers and enabling factors in shisha smoking was also evaluated. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, between February and May 2016. The questions were adapted from previously published water pipe smoking studies. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between shisha smoking and sociodemographic characteristics. Relevant questions were further categorized as enabling factors and barriers for shisha smoking. Results. Three enabling questionnaire items related to social environment were significantly associated with an increased risk of being a current smoker. The most powerful is peer pressure (“friends smoke shisha”, which increased the odds ratio of shisha smoking 11.3 times, followed by smoker sibling with increase in odd ratio by 4.52 times, then the belief of social acceptance with increase in odd ratio by 4.31 times. Conclusion. Shisha smoking is a serious problem among university students. Any intervention program in the university curricula should consider teaching students that shisha is no less risky than cigarettes and is addictive.

  17. Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Students of a State High School in İstanbul

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    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate smoking habits of students, reasons of smoking and students’ level of knowledge on the adverse effects of smoking in a state high school in İstanbul. Methods: A 15-item questionnaire was administered to the students attending a state high school in İstanbul to evaluate their attitudes and behaviors towards cigarette smoking. The questionnaire was completed by each class of students at the same class period under the supervision of their teachers. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 415 students at the respective school. While 349 students (84% never smoke, 66 (15.9% students were either current smokers or quitters. Fifty five of the students (13.2% were active smokers. When we looked at the reasons of smoking, they reported that 63.6% smoked cigarettes because their friends did; 47.2% smoked cigarettes due to exam-related stress; and 40% smoked cigarettes due to family problems. The rate of smoking friends in the smoker group was significantly higher than in the non-smoker group (p=0.0001. A logistic regression analysis showed that having smoking friends was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking compared to having no smoking friends. Conclusion: The most common reasons of smoking at the school were friends who were smokers, exam-related stress and family problems. Having friends who smoke was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking. We believe that counselling services’ close engagement with family problems of students and exam-related stress issues and helping them to cope with these problems may prevent their vulnerability to toxic substances.

  18. Smoking and its risk factors in Chinese elementary and middle school students: a nationally representative sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghui; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Furong; Wang, Yun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of smoking in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate its risk factors from families and schools. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the relationships between smoking and the risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate odds ratios. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 19.0% and 5.4%. Focusing on current smokers, boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels reported smoking significantly more than girls, elementary school students, urban students, non-boarding students, only children and those owning parents with high educational levels. Lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict positively predicted both smoking and smoking frequency. Lower trust and support from classmates was associated with higher possibility of smoking. However, higher trust and support from classmates was associated with higher smoking frequency. Teacher smoking and friend smoking were only predictive of smoking, but not of smoking frequency. Boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels need special attention. The most risk factors for smoking and smoking frequency were lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School, family and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties

    2013-01-01

    The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors.

  20. MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE AND ... Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. ... A comprehensive school health education

  1. Marijuana smoking among secondary school students in Zaria, Nigeria: factors responsible and effects on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, A U; Idris, S H

    2008-12-01

    The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

  2. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Middle School Students in Nowshahr- Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Maryam Khazaee-Pool

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking among youths is a main public health concern, and detecting predictors of smoking is essential for designing preventive programs. Any interventional program should plan with highlighting on behavioral change models and based on operative interventional program. So, this study aimed to investigate school-based smoking prevention programs for middle school students in Nowshahr, Iran.Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 280 male students aged 15-17 years selected by multistage sampling. For this purpose, 6 middle schools were randomly recruited from male students in Nowshahr- Iran. Then, 140 students were randomly chosen for each the experimental and the control groups. After pretest, educational program based on Health Belief Model were performed in experimental group. Also, post-test was applied four months after interventional program in both experimental and control group.Results: Based on the results, the prevalence of smoking was higher at age 14 old in both experimental (38.7% and control (30 % groups. About 35% of participants in the experimental group and 33.6% in control group had smoker father. Additionally, 10% in experimental group and 7.8% in control group had smoker mother. Most main cause for smoking in 57.9% of the experimental group and 52.63% of the control group was reducing anxiety. Results also shown that there was a significant difference between students in the experimental and control groups after performing educational program in the mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors of smoking (P < 0.05.Conclusion: By performing educational program, it was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was decreased in the intervention group. So, with a better understanding of factors affecting on this complex behavior (cigarette smoking, it can be a valuable phase to

  3. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  4. Magnitude of the smoking problem, knowledge, attitude and practice, among family members of primary school students

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    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: smoking is a very important public health problem, urgently requiring immediate and effective measures due to its harmful effect on health. The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about the magnitude of smoking problem, knowledge, attitude, and practice among family members of primary school students in the northwest region of Iran.Methods: of 55 680 primary school students (the 3th, 4th and 5th grades, 7.1% (n=3 954 were selected using randomized multi-stage cluster sampling. Data collection was conducted in April, May, and June 2011, by means of a self-administered two-page questionnaire.Results: a total of 3 954 students (57.6% boys and 42.3% girls with the mean age of 10.46±1.09 years were evaluated. According to our data, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among fathers was more than other family members (27.1% versus 17.8% whereas the prevalence of water pipe smoking among fathers and other family members was almost similar (9.2% and 9.7% respectively. None of the smoking type was prevalent among mothers (cigarette: 1% and water pipe: 1.1%. Considerable numbers of all students under study had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home (cigarette: 19.8% and water pipe: 7.7%.Conclusions: considering our findings, two procedures recommended to prevail the problem are to provide greater education about hazards of tobacco consumption among students and their family; and to legislate new laws by officials to ban tobacco use at home.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  6. Perceptions of anti-smoking messages amongst high school students in Pakistan

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    Imam Syed H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys have provided evidence that tobacco use is widely prevalent amongst the youth in Pakistan. Several reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of various tobacco control programs, however, few have taken into account the perceptions of students themselves regarding these measures. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective anti-smoking messages that can be delivered to high-school students in Pakistan, based on their self-rated perceptions. It also aimed to assess the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages compared with written health warnings and to discover differences in perceptions of smokers to those of non-smokers to health warning messages. Methods This study was carried out in five major cities of Pakistan in private English-medium schools. A presentation was delivered at each school that highlighted the well-established health consequences of smoking using both written health warnings and pictorial/multi-media health messages. Following the presentation, the participants filled out a graded questionnaire form, using which they rated the risk-factors and messages that they thought were most effective in stopping or preventing them from smoking. The Friedman test was used to rank responses to each of the questions in the form. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank test used to analyze the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages over written statements. The Mann Whitney U test was used to compare responses of smokers with those of non-smokers. Results Picture of an oral cavity cancer, videos of a cancer patient using an electronic voice box and a patient on a ventilator, were perceived to be the most effective anti-smoking messages by students. Addiction, harming others through passive smoking and impact of smoking on disposable incomes were perceived to be less effective messages. Pictorial/multi-media messages were perceived to be more effective than written health warnings. Health warnings were perceived as

  7. [Use of tobacco smoke: approach and risk perception by middle-school students in Catania (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modonutti, G B; Altobello, A; Fiore, M; Garascia, C; Leon, L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the approach and behaviour of middle school students in Catania, towards the risks associated with tobacco smoke. This study is part of a multicentric project evaluating the lifestyles of middle school students (grades 6-8), carried out by the Research and Health Education Group (GRES) and was performed during the 2006/2007 school year. In total 432 students participated in the study by completing a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results show an increasing trend in the number of smokers from grades 6 to 8. In grades 6 and 8 most smokers are female while in grade 7 male smokers outnumber female smokers. Three percent of the student population reports smoking occasionally and 3% are regular smokers. In light of these results families, schools and institutions should take charge of programming and implementing health promotion interventions aimed at reducing risks and improving the quality of life of students in Catania.

  8. Effects of a settings-based intervention to promote student wellbeing and reduce smoking in vocational schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: School dropout and health risk behavior such as cigarette smoking represent major problems among students attending upper secondary vocational education. Modifications to the social environment may promote educational attainment as well as health and wellbeing of young people. However......, there is a need for more evidence-based intervention programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention targeting the socio-environmental setting at vocational schools on student wellbeing and smoking. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial of 5794...... non-smoking environment. Outcomes were student wellbeing (four subscales: school connectedness, student support, teacher relatedness, positive valuing of the profession) and daily smoking measured at 10-week follow-up. RESULTS: We found statistically significant between-group difference in school...

  9. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among secondary and high school students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    To prevent adolescents from becoming smokers, it is essential to understand factors that cause them to become susceptible to smoking (SS). The aim of this study was to examine association between individual and school characteristics and susceptibility to smoking initiation and experimentation in the youth. We collected cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years attending 21 schools from Piotrkowski district. Of 4050 students, 3552 respondents, including 2508 non-smokers, filled in an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to the study factors linked to SS among the never and ever smoking youth. About 22 % of the never smoking and 57 % of the ever smoking students were found to be vulnerable to smoking. The youth who were males (OR = 1.4; p = 0.001), who were older (OR = 1.1; p = 0.002) and those, whose mothers had medium (OR = 1.8; p smoking compared to the females, younger ones and those whose mothers were highly educated. The students who lived in households with no smoking ban (OR = 1.4; p = 0.001) and those who had ever tried cigarettes (OR = 3.5; p smoking comparing to those who indicated smoke-free home and who had never smoked. In addition, having smoking friends (OR = 2.3; p smoking on the premises of the school (OR = 1.8; p smoking girls more attractive than the non-smokers (OR = 3.8; p smoking susceptibility. Finally, the separate analysis among the never smokers indicated that no school training on tobacco harm (OR = 1.3; p = 0.04) is the additional significant factor for susceptibility to smoking initiation. SS is prevalent in secondary and high school students in Poland. Personal, social and environmental factors are strongly correlated with SS. When addressing the youth, efforts should be focused on the groups at risk, with a comprehensive approach

  10. The effect of a short anti-smoking awareness programme on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Oyeyemi, A S; Upadhyay, R P

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of a short school-based anti-smoking program on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among students in secondary schools in Lagos State. A non-randomized, controlled intervention study was done among respondents selected using multi-stage sampling. Baseline data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. An anti-smoking awareness programme was carried out among students in the intervention group using health talks, information leaflets and posters. Post-intervention data collection took place three months later. There were significant increments in the mean knowledge and attitude scores after the intervention. There was however no statistically significant change in the current smoking habits of respondents (4% vs. 3%; p=0.41)in the intervention group. Nevertheless, in the intervention group, the number of never- smokers who reported that they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking within the next year significantly reduced. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of current smokers who desired to quit smoking. Even brief anti-smoking programs of this nature are effective at improving the knowledge and modifying the attitude of the respondents but do not improve smoking habits. It however motivated the desire to quit among current smokers. Health education sessions and periodic anti-smoking programmes should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum. More intensive approaches may be needed to influence the smoking behaviour of adolescent smokers.

  11. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

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    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Rolle, Italia; Olalekan, Ayo-Yusuf; King, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes disease and death among nonsmokers. Private settings are major sources of exposure for children. We assessed prevalence and determinants of self-reported SHS exposure in homes and vehicles, as well as school, work, and indoor/outdoor public areas, among US students in grades 6 through 12. Data were from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 18 406). Self-reported SHS exposure within the past 7 days was assessed overall and by extent of smoke-free home and vehicle rules among never users of 10 tobacco product types. Descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates, and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to assess determinants of SHS exposure. Among never tobacco users, 48.0% reported SHS exposure in 1 or more locations, including 15.5% in the home, 14.7% in a vehicle, 16.8% at school, 27.1% at work, and 35.2% in an indoor/outdoor public area. Home exposure was 8.5%, 55.3%, and 79.4% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free home rules, respectively (P exposure was 7.1%, 44.8%, and 70.2% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free vehicle rules, respectively (P exposure included current tobacco use, truant behavior, and having tobacco using household members/friends Approximately half of US students in grades 6 through 12 reported exposure to SHS in 2013. Smoke-free home and vehicle rules, coupled with intensified implementation and enforcement of comprehensive smoke-free laws, could help protect youth from this preventable health hazard. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Factors Related to the Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Junior High School Students in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java

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    Ngu Ling Yee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is known to harm the health of smokers and causes the death of millions people around the world. Smoking initiation in Indonesia is begun early especially during teenagers year. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors related to the intention to cigarette smoking among Junior High School students in Jatinangor subdistrict. Methods: A quantitative method with cross sectional study was conducted in the junior high school setting during the period of September to November 2013. Inclusion criterias were students aged 13­15 years old and did not smoke. Four factors were measured in this study, which were attitudes toward cigarette smoking, parents who smoke, peers influence and advertisement where each factor had 5 questions with ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answers. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire among 226 students using stratified random sampling. Statistical analysis of the variables was using chi square test. Results: As much as 44.25% of the respondents had intention and 55.75% had no intention to cigarette smoking. This study showed significant relation among attitudes, parents who smoke, peers influence and advertisements with the intention to cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Half of the respondents have intention to cigarette smoking and the most factors related to it are peers influence.

  14. Smoking status and cognitive performance among vocational school students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India

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    P S Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  16. Prevalence of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Higher Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K

    2017-01-01

    The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  17. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  18. A Path Model of Smoking Behaviour among Senior High School Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Hsieh, Hsin-Chin; Huang, Chih-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which social smoking expectations mediate the relationship between adolescent smoking behaviour and the smoking behaviour of family and peers. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Taiwan, Republic of China. Method: The participants were 921 senior high school students…

  19. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among secondary and high school students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2016-08-01

    SS is prevalent in secondary and high school students in Poland. Personal, social and environmental factors are strongly correlated with SS. When addressing the youth, efforts should be focused on the groups at risk, with a comprehensive approach including multiple factors and involving school personnel, parents and the group leaders in tobacco control activities. Projects aimed at changing social norms around smoking and providing the youth with knowledge and skills to resist smoking are also needed. This may help to implement an effective approach to prevent smoking susceptibility and initiation of tobacco use among the youth.

  20. Covariates of Current Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Budapest, Hungary, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alyssa; Kiss, Eva

    2005-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between health behavior risk factors and cigarette smoking in Hungary. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 35.9 to 46.0% among secondary students in Budapest, Hungary. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between smoking and other…

  1. Parents' and peers' normative influence on adolescents' smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-01-21

    Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking. Multinomial logistic regression show that, as adolescents get older, more of the pro-smoking factors come from peers and parents, the higher the risk gets of being a "heavy smoker" has compared against having no experience with smoking. Living in a context with no factor of normative influence toward smoking play a protective role against smoking, and this effect becomes more important than more harmful the smoking behavior in question is. Furthermore, peers' descriptive norms are more influential for adolescents to become "light" and "heavy smokers", while smoking being approved by peers is important for adolescents to become accustomed to smoking. Findings support the different influence of parents' and peers' norms on adolescents' smoking, and highlight the importance of peers' model behavior as the most important factor influencing smoking during adolescence. Such results have implications for programs that aim to prevent or reduce smoking in early adolescence when friendship choice starts to become crucial.

  2. Smoking Prevention for Students: Findings From a Three-Year Program of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Lester, Leanne; Foxcroft, David R; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) program on tobacco smoking. The program taught about licit and illicit drugs in an integrated manner over 2 years, with follow up in the third year. It focused on minimizing harm, rather than achieving abstinence, and employed participatory, critical-thinking and skill-based teaching methods. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was conducted with a student cohort during years 8 (13 years), 9 (14 years), and 10 (15 years). Twenty-one schools were randomly allocated to the DEVS program (14 schools, n = 1163), or their usual drug education program (7 schools, n = 589). One intervention school withdrew in year two. There was a greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including tobacco, in all 3 years. Intervention students talked more with their parents about smoking at the end of the 3-year program. They recalled receiving more education on smoking in all 3 years. Their consumption of cigarettes had not increased to the same extent as controls at the end of the program. Their change in smoking harms, relative to controls, was positive in all 3 years. There was no difference between groups in the proportionate increase of smokers, or in attitudes towards smoking, at any time. These findings indicate that a school program that teaches about all drugs in an integrated fashion, and focuses on minimizing harm, does not increase initiation into smoking, while providing strategies for reducing consumption and harm to those who choose to smoke.

  3. Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia--Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hock Kuang; Teh, Huey Chien; Lim, Li Hui; Lau, Joo Keng; Kee, Cheong Chee; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Chan, Ying Ying; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff; Ismail, Hasimah; Mohd Zaki, Nor Azian; Thomas, Leni Tupang; Lim, Kuay Kuang; Sm, Cheong; Ibrahim, Normala; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.

  4. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  5. [The nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole spreading non-smoking lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of health is a science and art of helping people to change their environment and lifestyle to a health friendly one, in order to strengthen and build up their wellbeing. Smoking cigarettes is a most disadvantageous element of a lifestyle. Important elements of promotion of non-smoking lifestyle, by our students, as future Health Service members, are: promoting of smoke-free environment, encouraging of non-smoking fashion, education of health consequences of smoking cigarettes, motivation to quit smoking, advisement in the field of smoking addiction treatment. Public health and health promotion, these are classes where smoking cigarettes' problem has been discussed mostly. Over 90% of students' respondents claim that were able to give a nonsmoking advice to any patient. Because of the awareness of health threats caused by smoking cigarettes and because of the role of education in prevention and addiction fighting, over 82.4% of students were convinced that every doctor should ask every patient, about his/her attitude towards smoking cigarettes.

  6. Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out at what age children start smoking, as well as their tobacco habits and risk perceptions according to the different school-age groups.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2007; it involved around 1700 students of the Catania province, in Southern Italy. The students filled in a structured tobacco questionnaire. They did it anonymously in the classrooms. Main outcome measures were initiation of smoking, smoking habits, number of cigarettes smoked per day and risk perception.

    Results: From the first year of the primary school to the last year of the high school the proportion of daily smokers increased from 0.0% to 11.8% for girls and from 0.8% to 12.7% for boys. For both genders the initiation of smoking habits occurred mainly at age 10 to 13. Finally, girls had a better risk perception.

    Conclusions: Studying young people’s tobacco habits over time gives an understanding of when preventive measures have to be implemented. In order to influence smoking attitudes, these preventive interventions must be put in place before children start experimenting tobacco.

  7. [The attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been main reason of the Polish society health hazard and one of the most widespread unhealthy element of the human life style. Aim of the study is to evaluate the attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland. Most of respondents considered the nicotinism problem in Poland as very important--3 of them evaluate importance of problem on the scale of 0 - 10, estimated it from 8, 9 and 10 points. 74.3% of respondents support the opinion to put the total injunction from smoking at public areas into practice. According to respondents, the most effective forms to express a non-smoking lifestyle is to promote the idea of the total injunction from smoking at public areas and the promotion of the nonsmoking people at the mass media.

  8. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  10. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban taluka of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on socio demography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. Results: About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. Conclusion: High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan. (author)

  11. The Prevalence, Attitudes, and Correlates of Waterpipe Smoking Among High School Students in Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Reza; Mohammadi, Reza; Dastgiri, Saeed; Viitasara, Eija; Rahimi, Vahab Asl; Jeddi, Abolfazl; Soares, Joaquim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlates of waterpipe (WP) smoking among 15-17-year-old high school students in Iran. Data were collected using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a self-administrated questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of high school students aged 15-17 in the city of Tabriz. Current WP smoking was defined as past 30-day use, and ever WP smoking was defined as at least one or two lifetime puffs. Differences in WP use, knowledge, and attitudes were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Binary logistic regression estimated the association between relevant independent variables (e.g., age) and the dependent variables (current/ever WP smoking). Of 1517 students, 21.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 19.5, 23.8) were ever WP smokers, and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 8.2, 11.2) were current WP smokers. Of current WP smokers, 40.3 % have stated that they want to stop smoking now. Moreover, 14.1 % of non-WP smokers reported that they might enjoy smoking WP. Of current WP smokers, 49.0 % have smoked at cafés. Additionally, 95.3 % of current WP smokers reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Studying in high school third grade (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 1.70; 95 % CI [1.10, 2.63]), experience of cigarette smoking (AORs = 1.57; 95 % CI [1.12, 2.20]), and being prepared to accept a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 3.31; 95 % CI [2.17, 5.04]) were independently associated with ever WP smoking, and accepting a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 4.36; 95 % CI [2.69, 7.07]) and gender (female) (AORs = 0.45; 95 % CI [0.30, 0.70] were independently associated with current WP smoking. Prevalence of current and ever WP smoking is high in Tabriz. There is an urgent need to design interventions in order to increase students' and their parents' awareness regarding the harmfulness of WP, and to establish legal measures to restrict adolescents

  12. School Tobacco Control Policies Related to Students' Smoking and Attitudes toward Smoking: National Survey Results, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by…

  13. Smoking Beliefs Among Chinese Secondary School Students: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Obst, Patricia L

    2018-02-07

    China has the world's greatest number of smokers but theory-based smoking interventions are rare. To develop an effective intervention, understanding the determinants of Chinese adolescent smoking is crucial. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is empirically supported to predict and assist in informing intervention strategies to change health-related behaviors. Based on the TPB, the elicitation of shared smoking beliefs among adolescents can inform future intervention designs among this at-risk population. We investigated the beliefs from six focus groups (N = 30) of one senior secondary school in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. We used semi-structured questions based on the TPB framework, including prompts about behavioral (advantages and disadvantages), normative (important referents), and control (barriers and facilitators) beliefs. Following the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methodology, data were discussed until consensus was reached. Auditing was undertaken by an external researcher. Seven domains (advantages, disadvantages, approvers, disapprovers, facilitators, barriers, and smoker images) were examined. Smoking as a gendered behavior, smoking as influenced by cultural and environmental contexts, smoking as a strategy to cope with stress, and awareness of the harm of smoking, are highlighted themes across domains. Data suggested an extended-TPB framework as an appropriate approach to adopt when addressing smoking beliefs among the target population. These beliefs can be utilized to inform future school-based interventions and public health campaigns targeting smoking among Chinese adolescents. A modified TPB approach has potential for future smoking interventions among Chinese adolescents. Beliefs elicited in this study form a strong basis for designing a location- and population-specific antismoking programme. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  14. A smoking prevention photoageing intervention for secondary schools in Brazil delivered by medical students: protocol for a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Bianca Lisa; Brieske, Christian M; Cosgarea, Ioana; Omlor, Albert J; Fries, Fabian N; de Faria, Christian Olber Moreira; Lino, Henrique Augusto; Oliveira, Ana Carla Cruz; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Klode, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Brinker, Titus J

    2017-12-10

    Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous; the dramatic health consequences are too far in the future to fathom. We recently designed and tested an intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance. A free photoageing mobile app (Smokerface) was implemented by medical students in secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The pupils' altered three-dimensional selfies on tablets were 'mirrored' via a projector in front of their whole grade. This is the first randomised trial to measure the effectiveness of the mirroring approach on smoking behaviour in secondary schools. The mirroring intervention, which lasts 45 min, is implemented by Brazilian medical students in at least 35 secondary school classes with 21 participants each (at least 35 classes with 21 participants for control) in February 2018 in the city of Itauna, Brazil. External block randomisation via computer is performed on the class level with a 1:1 allocation. In addition to sociodemographic data, smoking behaviour is measured via a paper-pencil questionnaire before, 3 and 6 months postintervention plus a random carbon monoxide breathing test at baseline and end line. The primary outcome is cigarette smoking in the past week at 6 months follow-up. Smoking behaviour (smoking onset, quitting) and effects on the different genders are studied as secondary outcomes. Analysis is by intention to treat. Ethical approval is obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Itauna in Brazil. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, throughout the Education Against Tobacco network social media channels and on our websites. NCT03178227. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Bans on electronic cigarette sales to minors and smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouk, Rahi; Adams, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Many states have banned electronic cigarette sales to minors under the rationale that using e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional combustion cigarettes. Such sales bans would be counterproductive, however, if e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are substitutes, as bans might push teenagers back to smoking the more dangerous combustion cigarettes. We provide evidence that these sales bans reduce the incidence of smoking conventional cigarettes among high school seniors. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that sales bans reduced e-cigarette usage as well. This evidence suggests that not only are e-cigarettes and smoking regular cigarettes positively related and not substitutes for young people, banning retail sales to minors is an effective policy tool in reducing tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure in cars among middle and high school students--United States, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes poses a significant health risk to nonsmokers. Among youth, the home is the primary source of SHS. However, little is known about youth exposure to SHS in other nonpublic areas, particularly motor vehicles. Data were obtained from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of US students in grades 6 to 12. Trends in SHS exposure in a car were assessed across survey years by school level, gender, and race/ethnicity by using binary logistic regression. From 2000 to 2009, the prevalence of SHS exposure in cars declined significantly among both nonsmokers (39.0%-22.8%; trend P race/ethnicity subgroups. SHS exposure in cars decreased significantly among US middle and high school students from 2000 to 2009. Nevertheless, in 2009, over one-fifth of nonsmoking students were exposed to SHS in cars. Jurisdictions should expand comprehensive smoke-free policies that prohibit smoking in worksites and public places to also prohibit smoking in motor vehicles occupied by youth.

  17. Protection motivation theory and cigarette smoking among vocational high school students in China: a cusp catastrophe modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunan; Chen, Xinguang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is one of the greatest public health problems worldwide and the hazards of cigarette smoking to public health call for better recognition of cigarette smoking behaviors to guide evidence-based policy. Protection motivation theory (PMT) provides a conceptual framework to investigate tobacco use. Evidence from diverse sources implies that the dynamics of smoking behavior may be quantum in nature, consisting of an intuition and an analytical process, challenging the traditional linear continuous analytical approach. In this study, we used cusp catastrophe, a nonlinear analytical approach to test the dual-process hypothesis of cigarette smoking. Data were collected from a random sample of vocational high school students in China ( n = 528). The multivariate stochastic cusp modeling was used and executed with the Cusp Package in R. The PMT-based Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal were used as the two control variables and the frequency of cigarette smoking (daily, weekly, occasional, and never) in the past month was used as the outcome variable. Consistent with PMT, the Threat Appraisal (asymmetry, α 1 = 0.1987, p < 0.001) and Coping Appraisal (bifurcation, β 2 = 0.1760, p < 0.05) significantly predicted the smoking behavior after controlling for covariates. Furthermore, the cusp model performed better than the alternative linear and logistic regression models with regard to higher R 2 (0.82 for cusp, but 0.21 for linear and 0.25 for logistic) and smaller AIC and BIC. Study findings support the conclusion that cigarette smoking in adolescents is a quantum process and PMT is relevant to guide studies to understand smoking behavior for smoking prevention and cessation.

  18. Socioeconomic Determinants of Inequality in Smoking Stages: A Distributive Analysis on a Sample of Male High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayubi, Erfan; Sani, Mohadeseh; Safiri, Saeid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Milad

    2017-07-01

    The effect of socioeconomic status on adolescent smoking behaviors is unclear, and sparse studies are available about the potential association. The present study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian adolescents. In a cross-sectional survey, a multistage sample of adolescents ( n = 1,064) was recruited from high school students in Zanjan city, northwest of Iran. Principal component analysis was used to measure economic status of adolescents. Concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior, and then it was decomposed to reveal inequality contributors. Concentration index and its 95% confidence interval for never, experimental, and regular smoking behaviors were 0.004 [-0.03, 0.04], 0.05 [0.02, 0.11], and -0.10 [-0.04, -0.19], respectively. The contribution of economic status to measured inequality in experimental and regular smoking was 80.0% and 68.8%, respectively. Household economic status could be targeted as one of the relevant factors in the unequal distribution of smoking behavior among adolescents.

  19. [Smoking among students at the School of Health and Social Development and the Health Service Institute in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, N O; Dia Kane, Y; Diatta, A; Ndiaye, E M; Thiam, K; Mbaye, F B R; Hane, A A

    2009-01-01

    We have undertaken a transverse study of smoking among students at the National School of Health and Social Development (ENDSS) and the Health Service Institute (ISS) in Senegal. 683 out of 1142 students were questioned. 609 (89%) replied, of whom 313 (52%) were at the ENDSS and 293 (48%) at the ISS. Senior technical students were most strongly represented at 37.8%, followed by student nurses (27.4%) and midwifery students (23.3%). There were more women (n=378) than men with a sex ratio of 0.61. The average age of the population was 27.5 +/- 6.8 years (range 15 to 58). The average age was 26.2 +/- 5.6 years in the women and 29.6 +/- 8 in the men. The group aged 25-34 was significantly the most affected in both men and women (p=0.0000). The population comprised 502 non-smokers (82.4%), 62 ex-smokers (10.2%) and 45 smokers (7.4%).We found variable alcohol consumption in 119 subjects (19.2%) and 5 students admitted using cannabis. The 62 ex-smokers made up 10.2% of the population. The average age was 31.4 years. 25 ex-smokers (40.3%) drank alcohol, with a sex ratio of 1.95. The reasons for stopping smoking were illness and guilt in 27.4% of cases respectively, economic in 24.2%, medical statements on the effects of smoking on health in 17.7% and personal wishes in only 11.3%. The smokers, numbering 45 (7.4%), had an average age of 27.6 +/- 6.6 years with a sex ratio of 2 (p=0.00000). The age of starting smoking was 20.7 +/- 4.2 years for the women and 19.9 +/- 2.9 years for the men. The latter had smoked for an average of 9.2 years. Cigarettes were used by the great majority of smokers. It was associated with alcohol consumption in 35.6% and cannabis in 11.1% of cases. In the men the motives for starting smoking were stress (60%), pleasure (55.2%) and social influence (53.3%). By contrast, among the women, the two main reasons were stress and fashion in 60% (p=0.04). Our students smoked mostly in public places and in their homes. 34 smokers (75.6%) wished to stop (p=0

  20. A Medical Student-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program, Education Against Tobacco, for Secondary Schools in Germany: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Owczarek, Andreas Dawid; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Brieske, Christian Martin; Jansen, Philipp; Klode, Joachim; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Izar, Benjamin; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Hofmann, Felix Johannes

    2017-06-06

    More than 8.5 million Germans suffer from chronic diseases attributable to smoking. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a multinational network of medical students who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting, amongst other activities. EAT has been implemented in 28 medical schools in Germany and is present in 13 additional countries around the globe. A recent quasi-experimental study showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11-to-15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the optimized 2014 EAT curriculum involving a photoaging software for its effectiveness in reducing the smoking prevalence among 11-to-15-year-old pupils in German secondary schools. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 1504 adolescents from 9 German secondary schools, aged 11-15 years in grades 6-8, of which 718 (47.74%) were identifiable for the prospective sample at the 12-month follow-up. The experimental study design included measurements at baseline (t1), 6 months (t2), and 12 months postintervention (t3), via questionnaire. The study groups consisted of 40 randomized classes that received the standardized EAT intervention (two medical student-led interactive modules taking 120 minutes total) and 34 control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The primary endpoint was the difference in smoking prevalence from t1 to t3 in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t3 in the intervention group. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the two groups, as well as gender-specific effects, were studied as secondary outcomes. None of the effects were significant due to a high loss-to-follow-up effect (52.26%, 786/1504). From baseline to the two follow-up time points, the prevalence of smoking increased from 3.1% to 5.2% to 7.2% in the control group and from 3.0% to 5.4% to 5.8% in the intervention group (number needed to treat [NNT

  1. Predictors of intention to smoke among junior high school students in Shanghai, China: an empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chendi; Cai, Yong; Ma, Jin; Li, Na; Zhu, Jingfen; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pamela; Qiao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent smoking is a worldwide problem that is particularly severe in low- and middle-income countries. Many endogenous and environmental factors affect the intention to smoke, so a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. The study aimed to test the associations among information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model constructs as predictors of intention to smoke in junior high school students in Shanghai, China. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 16,500 junior high school students in Shanghai, China. Data on tobacco-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors were collected from students. Structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. The mean age of participants was 13.8 years old (standard deviation = 1.02; range 11-17). The experimental smoking rate among junior high school students was 6.6% and 8.7% of the participants expected that they would be smokers in 5 years. The IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.984, root mean square error of approximation = 0.04). Intention to smoke was predicted by behavioral skills (β = 0.670, P motivation (β = 0.095, Pschool students. The IMB model provides a good understanding of the predictors of intention to smoke and it suggests future interventions among junior high school students should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills.

  2. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, pe-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Exposure to point‐of‐sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point‐of‐sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Design Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Settings Nottinghamshire, UK. Participants A total of 2270 children aged 11–16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. Measurements We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Findings Among non‐susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non‐susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Conclusions Noticing tobacco point‐of‐sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of

  4. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Nottinghamshire, UK. A total of 2270 children aged 11-16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  6. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  7. Evidence of the Value of the Smoking Media Literacy Framework for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda C.; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Susceptibility to future smoking, positive beliefs about smoking, and perceptions of antismoking norms are all factors that are associated with future smoking. In previous research, smoking media literacy (SML) has been associated with these variables, even when controlling for other known risk factors for smoking. However, these…

  8. Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Kogan, Steven M; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Juliano, Laura M; Lilly, Christa L; James, Jack E

    2018-04-30

    Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. We hypothesized that caffeine use at baseline would be positively associated with increased alcohol use, drunkenness, smoking, and e-cigarette use. Prospective cohort study with 12 months separating baseline from follow-up. West Virginia, USA. Middle school students (6 th and 7 th grades; N = 3,932) in three West Virginia (WV) counties provided data at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. Youth self-reported their use of caffeine from multiple sources (e.g., soda, energy drinks, coffee and tea), cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness. Cross-lagged path models for individual substance use categories provided good fit to the data. Controlling for demographic variables and other substance use at baseline, caffeine at T1 was positively associated with T2 cigarette smoking (β = .27, p = .001), e-cigarette use (β = .21, p = .001), alcohol use (β = .17, p = .001), and drunkenness (β = .15, p = .001). Conversely, non-significant relations emerged between three of four substances at T1 and caffeine at T2. Positive relations were found between e-cigarette use at T1 and caffeine use at T2 (β = .07, p = .006). These findings were supported by an omnibus model with all substances included. Specifically, significant relations were observed between caffeine at T1 and all substance use outcomes at T2, whereas no significant relations were observed between substance use and caffeine over time. Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The Smoking Habits of Children and Staff at Brays Grove Comprehensive School, Harlow, Essex

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of smoking habits conducted in a secondary school suggested that most students start smoking as a result of social pressure. Many smokers were aware of health hazards of smoking yet chose to smoke. (PS)

  10. Classroom Norms and Individual Smoking Behavior in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Lisa M.; Brown, H. Shelton, III; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether smoking prevalence in grade-level networks influences individual smoking, suggesting that peers are important social multipliers in teen smoking. Methods: We measured gender-specific, grade-level recent and life-time smoking among urban middle-school students who participated in Project Northland Chicago in a…

  11. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  12. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  13. Wellbeing and smoking at Danish vocational schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    at baseline the intervention was associated with lower odds (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.22-0.86) of daily smoking at follow-up.Conclusion Shaping the Social had positive effects on school connectedness. Moreover, the intervention was effective in preventing occasional smokers to become daily smokers. The study......, there is a need for more evidence-based intervention programs. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a settings-based intervention (Shaping the Social) at vocational schools on student wellbeing and smoking.MethodsWe employed a non-randomized controlled trial of 5794 students (mean age 21 years......; 81% male) in 10 (four intervention and six comparison) large vocational schools in Denmark. The intervention integrated social activities with professional learning and focused on four themes: introduction activities; daily class meetings; scheduled breaks; creating a pleasant non-smoking environment...

  14. Wellbeing and smoking at Danish vocational schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    occasional smokers at baseline the intervention was associated with lower odds (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.22-0.86) of daily smoking at follow-up. Conclusion Shaping the Social had positive effects on school connectedness. Moreover, the intervention was effective in preventing occasional smokers to become daily......, there is a need for more evidence-based intervention programs. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a settings-based intervention (Shaping the Social) at vocational schools on student wellbeing and smoking. Methods We employed a non-randomized controlled trial of 5794 students (mean age 21...... years; 81% male) in 10 (four intervention and six comparison) large vocational schools in Denmark. The intervention integrated social activities with professional learning and focused on four themes: introduction activities; daily class meetings; scheduled breaks; creating a pleasant non-smoking...

  15. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  16. The Development and Implementation of a Peer-Led Intervention to Prevent Smoking among Secondary School Students Using Their Established Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Cordall, Kathleen; Moore, Laurence; Cohen, David; Campbell, Rona

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design, implement and evaluate a peer-led intervention to reduce smoking amongst secondary school students. Design: A health promotion intervention combining peer education with diffusion of innovation theory, to be rigorously evaluated by means of a cluster randomised controlled trial with concurrent process and economic…

  17. Parents? and peers? normative influence on adolescents? smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students

    OpenAIRE

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and method Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents? smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 a...

  18. Which sociodemographic factors are important on smoking behaviour of high school students? The contribution of classification and regression tree methodology in a broad epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, C; Toros, F; Bayramkaya, E; Camdeviren, H; Sasmaz, T

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the most important sociodemographic factors on smoking status of high school students using a broad randomised epidemiological survey. Using in-class, self administered questionnaire about their sociodemographic variables and smoking behaviour, a representative sample of total 3304 students of preparatory, 9th, 10th, and 11th grades, from 22 randomly selected schools of Mersin, were evaluated and discriminative factors have been determined using appropriate statistics. In addition to binary logistic regression analysis, the study evaluated combined effects of these factors using classification and regression tree methodology, as a new statistical method. The data showed that 38% of the students reported lifetime smoking and 16.9% of them reported current smoking with a male predominancy and increasing prevalence by age. Second hand smoking was reported at a 74.3% frequency with father predominance (56.6%). The significantly important factors that affect current smoking in these age groups were increased by household size, late birth rank, certain school types, low academic performance, increased second hand smoking, and stress (especially reported as separation from a close friend or because of violence at home). Classification and regression tree methodology showed the importance of some neglected sociodemographic factors with a good classification capacity. It was concluded that, as closely related with sociocultural factors, smoking was a common problem in this young population, generating important academic and social burden in youth life and with increasing data about this behaviour and using new statistical methods, effective coping strategies could be composed.

  19. Changing the Smoking Trajectory: Evaluating the Impact of School-Based Tobacco Interventions on Changes to Susceptibility to Future Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Cole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available School-based programs and policies can reduce student smoking rates. However, their impact on never-smoking students has not been investigated despite the clear transition between non-susceptible, susceptible, and ever tried smoking statuses. The objective of this paper was to examine the longitudinal student-level impact of six changes in school-based tobacco control programs and policies on student transitions in susceptibility to smoking over one year. Two multinomial logistic regression models identified the relative risk of a change in self-reported susceptibility to smoking or in trying a cigarette among never-smoking students in each of the six intervention schools compared to the relative risk among never-smoking students in control schools. Model 1 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline non-susceptible never smoking students, while Model 2 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline susceptible never smoking students. Students at some intervention schools were at increased risk of becoming susceptible to or trying a cigarette at one year follow-up. Intervention studies should examine changes to susceptibility to future smoking when evaluating impact to ensure that school-based tobacco control programs and policies do not negatively change the risk status of never-smoking students.

  20. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  1. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Kowitt, Sarah D; Sutfin, Erin L; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-08-04

    Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students' current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%-10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.74). Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users.

  2. Effects of individual characteristics and school environment on cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15: A multilevel analysis of the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Quynh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Vietnam ages 13-15 and examines its relationship with compositional and contextual factors. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in nine provinces in Vietnam. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to analyse the association between the current incidence of cigarette smoking and factors on both the individual and school level. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 3.3% overall. The prevalence of smoking among male students (5.9%) was higher than that among females (1.2%). Parental smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking among the students. Having a friend who smoked was the strongest predictor of smoking status among the study subjects. We have demonstrated that school-level factors appeared to impact the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15. This paper highlights the importance of utilising an extensive range of actions to prevent students from using tobacco in Vietnam. These actions should include providing specific curricula for students that address both individual characteristics and the school environment. Further, prevention programmes should also target both parental- and peer-smoking issues.

  3. Smoke Signals: Adolescent Smoking and School Continuation. Working Papers Series. SAN06-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J.; Hutchinson, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis using NLSY97 data of the relationship between the likelihood of school continuation and the choices of whether to smoke or drink. We demonstrate that in the United States as of the late 1990s, smoking in 11th-grade was a uniquely powerful predictor of whether the student finished high school, and if so…

  4. Avaliação de hábitos tabágicos em alunos do ensino secundário Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de fumar é adquirido precocemente na adolescência, sendo esta fase do desenvolvimento um período crítico para a aquisição deste hábito. Métodos: De forma a avaliar os hábitos tabágicos, bem como os conhecimentos dos malefícios relacionados com o seu consumo, foi realizado um inquérito confidencial em quatro escolas secundárias da área do grande Porto. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados com recurso ao programa SPSS 1.2 (versão 2004. Resultados: Foram obtidas respostas de 1770 alunos, com idades compreendidas entre os 11 e os 21 anos (mediana de 15,1 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (58%. A maioria dos estudantes (n=952, 54,6% tinha conhecimento dos avisos relacionados com o fumo dispersos na escola. A grande maioria (n=1639, 92,7% considerava-se bem informada no que respeita aos malefícios do tabaco. No entanto, apenas 6,7% mencionou três ou mais patologias relacionadas com o consumo de tabaco. Quantos às fontes de informação os pais e os amigos foram as mais frequentemente referidas. Do total de estudantes que responderam ao inquérito 194 (11,1% eram fumadores, tendo em média começado a fumar com 15 anos. A maioria (n=111; 57,2% eram filhos de fumadores e a maioria dos fumadores (96,4% tinham amigos fumadores versus 83,1% dos não fumadores, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significativa (pBackground: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students

  5. Undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards smoking health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen; Rowe, Kathy

    2005-09-01

    Despite the fact that nurses have a key role in health promotion, many continue to smoke at much the same rate as the general population. This paper investigates the influence of smoking status, gender, age, stage of education, and smoking duration on undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards smoking health promotion. The study took place in one university's School of Nursing in Victoria, Australia. Respondents completed the Smoking and Health Promotion instrument. Researchers obtained ethics approval prior to commencing the study. Smoking status was the main factor that affected respondents' attitudes towards smoking health promotion, with age and education stage having a minor effect, and gender and smoking duration not significant. Nurses have an important role in modeling non-smoking behaviors for patients. There needs to be consistency between personal and professional beliefs for nurses to properly engage in smoking health promotion. The findings have implications for undergraduate nursing education curricula, nursing practice and research, and these are discussed.

  6. Examining the Effectiveness of the Smoking Prevention Program "I Do Not Smoke, I Exercise" in Elementary and Secondary School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovelonis, Athanasios; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the smoking prevention program "I do not smoke, I exercise" implemented with elementary and secondary school students. "I do not smoke, I exercise" is a theory-based smoking prevention program that promotes exercise as an alternative of smoking. The program consists of eight sessions implemented weekly. Participants were 338 Greek students (135 elementary and 203 secondary students) who were pre- and posttested in smoking, program, and exercise-related measures. The results showed that the program had significant effects on elementary students' attitudes toward smoking, intention to smoke, subjective norms, attitudes toward the application of the program, and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking. For secondary students, significant effects were found on students' perceived behavioral control and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, while very few students reported a smoking experience before and after the intervention. Therefore the program "I do not smoke, I exercise" may have positive effects on variables related with smoking behavior. Differences in the program's impact on elementary and secondary students were identified. All these are discussed with reference to the need of implementing smoking prevention programs in schools contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-07-24

    A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical

  8. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-18

    To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among middle and high school students in the United States - does the type of tobacco product matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian; Kraemer, Alexander

    2017-01-19

    A decline in the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been observed in the United States of America (USA) during the past few decades. Nevertheless, nearly half of non-smoking students are still exposed to SHS. This paper aims to describe the factors associated with SHS exposure stratified by type of exposure (overall, cigarettes and electronic cigarettes). The analysis is based on secondary data taken from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2014. Overall, 22,007 middle and high school students from the USA are included in the sample. Descriptive and bivariate statistics as well as binary logistic regression models were performed. Overall, 44.5% (n=9,798) of the study participants declared themselves to be exposed to SHS, 29.1% (n=6,394) declared to be exposed to SHS caused by cigarette smoke and 9.4% (n=2,067) claimed that a person who lives with them uses electronic cigarettes. There is a considerable overlap between the two types of SHS exposure, because 74.9% (n=1,548) of students declaring that a person within their household uses electronic cigarettes also declare a person in the household smoking cigarettes. The strengths of association between independent variables and SHS exposure differs by type of exposure and also by smoking status of respondents. Although only small differences are obvious in the factors associated with SHS exposure stratified by the type of tobacco product, there are still some variations which should be considered in policy making to allow for a targeted approach in prevention campaigns or legislation.

  10. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  11. School and community predictors of smoking: a longitudinal study of Canadian high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Brown, K Stephen; Lee, Derrick; Sabiston, Catherine; Nykiforuk, Candace; Eyles, John; Manske, Steve; Campbell, H Sharon; Thompson, Mary

    2013-02-01

    We identified the most effective mix of school-based policies, programs, and regional environments associated with low school smoking rates in a cohort of Canadian high schools over time. We collected a comprehensive set of student, school, and community data from a national cohort of 51 high schools in 2004 and 2007. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict school and community characteristics associated with school smoking prevalence. Between 2004 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 13.3% to 10.7% in cohort schools. Predictors of lower school smoking prevalence included both school characteristics related to prevention programming and community characteristics, including higher cigarette prices, a greater proportion of immigrants, higher education levels, and lower median household income. Effective approaches to reduce adolescent smoking will require interventions that focus on multiple factors. In particular, prevention programming and high pricing for cigarettes sold near schools may contribute to lower school smoking rates, and these factors are amenable to change. A sustained focus on smoking prevention is needed to maintain low levels of adolescent smoking.

  12. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  13. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  14. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  15. Smoking behaviour and attitudes among German nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A; Kusma, Bianca; Mache, Stefanie; Marx, Peter; Hartmann, Thomas; Pankow, Wulf

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Healthcare workers can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use. The principles of intervention need to be provided already during vocational school. This research examines the smoking habits, the personal attitudes towards smoking and the professional beliefs of healthcare trainees. The aim of this study is to ascertain the necessity and the general conditions for multilevel interventions of prevention and health promotion. In 2010, a questionnaire survey was conducted in a Berlin vocational school for healthcare workers. Of 148 students (RR = 49.3%) 41.9% of the students are daily or occasional smokers. The nicotine dependency and the number of cigarettes per day are comparatively low. The majority of smoking students is willing to quit and has already undertaken several attempts. Non-smoking protection is evaluated to be very important and intervention rates in patient care range between 49% and 72%. In both questions, non-smokers and smokers differ significantly. The self-reported smoking prevalence in our population is considerably lower than in previous studies. However, the smoking rate among healthcare trainees is still higher than in the general population. The students' own smoking behaviours and its influences on the treatment of patients should be reflected during school. It is necessary to develop adequate recruitment strategies and attractive interventions for this target group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  17. Smoke-free medical students' meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Colin; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years...... to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside....

  18. [Factors contributing to smoking among students in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koueta, F; Dao, L; Yé, D; Koura, M; Sawadogo, A

    2009-03-01

    Smoking is of great concern to the international community because of the sharp increase in tobacco consumption among adolescents. We conducted a transverse descriptive study on 23 to 27 May 2006, on a sample of 500 smoking students randomly selected from secondary schools in the city of Ouagadougou, to identify their motivation with the aim of prevention. The main factors encouraging smoking among students were: *Economic conditions: 64% came from a favourable economic environment with daily pocket money (100%) and a means of travel (74.8%). *Difficulties with their studies: 57.2% of smoking students had repeated at least one class and half had a class average lower than 10/20. *A smoking environment: 72% of smokers lived away from their parents, 46% of students had smoked in imitation of their colleagues. School was the preferred place for the consumption of cigarettes (67.9%). *The influence of the media: 80.8% were drawn into smoking by the influence of advertising. Prevention programmes must take all these factors into account.

  19. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2014-06-01

    Young people in the United States are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) primarily in 2 settings: homes and cars. Recently, researchers reported that the prevalence of U.S students exposed to SHS in cars decreased from 2000 to 2009; however, comparisons of trends across school levels, gender, and racial/ethnic groups were not assessed. Moreover, no studies have examined trends of exposure to SHS in rooms. We used data from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of U.S. middle and high school students. For SHS in cars and rooms, we identified exposure trends among nonsmokers from 2000 to 2009 and compared trends across subpopulations with binary logistic regression. We identified significant downward linear trends in SHS in cars and rooms for nearly all measured subpopulations of nonsmoking students from 2000 to 2009. SHS exposure in cars and rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for males than for females. SHS exposure in cars declined at a significantly greater rate for non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks than for NH Whites. SHS exposure in rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for NH Whites than for Hispanics and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. Although prevalence of exposure to SHS in cars and rooms among nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students has declined from 2000 to 2009, the rates of decline were not equal across genders and racial/ethnic groups. Identification of these differing rates of exposure can help the public health community advocate for interventions focused on reducing adolescent SHS exposure.

  1. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  2. Tobacco Point-of-Purchase marketing in school neighbourhoods and school smoking prevalence: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2007-01-01

    Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.

  3. Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention: a school-based cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikker; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Due, Pernille

    2015-12-01

    Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking. Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82). Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. [Tobacco smoking amongst students in the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Jasińska, Ajicja; Wojtal, Mariola; Sochocka, Lucyna; Seń, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of health promotion and diseases profilaxis is a struggle with smoking, which is a well known factor in many disorders, i.e. malignant carcinomas, noncarcinomatous diseases of respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the smoking level amongst the students of 6th year of the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University. Amongst 131 polled women--116 were non-smoking persons (88.5%), 15 smoking (11.5%). Amongst 55 polled men--43 these are non-smoking persons (78%), 12 smoking (22%). Out of smoking women, the most women (6) is smoking from 11 to 15 cigarettes per day, out of smoking men, the most (5 men)--6-10 cigarettes per day. Smoking women began smoking during the secondary school the most often. 8 of men began the smoking in the secondary school. The majority of examined didn't try to limit smoking. Respondents would expect the biggest support from close persons during giving up smoking Only 59% of women and 64% of men disagree definitely to smoking in their presence. In the consequence of above results surprising seems still high percentage of smokers amongst examined, scantiness of taking attempts of giving up smoking and indifference of non-smoking medical students towards smoking in their presence.

  5. Household and school-level influences on smoking behavior among Korean adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools.

  6. Household and school-level influences on smoking behavior among Korean adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools.

  7. Influence of passive smoking on learning in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Gomes; Botelho, Clóvis; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Moi, Gisele Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between household smoking and the development of learning in elementary schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study with 785 students from the 2nd to the 5th year of elementary school. Students were evaluated by the School Literacy Screening Protocol to identify the presence of learning disabilities. Mothers/guardians were interviewed at home through a validated questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis, as well as multivariate Poisson regression, were performed. In the final model, the variables associated with learning difficulties were current smoking at the household in the presence of the child (PR=6.10, 95% CI: 4.56 to 8.16), maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (PR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.01), students attending the 2nd and 3rd years of Elementary School (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.90), and being children of mothers with only elementary level education (PR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.79). The study demonstrated an association between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and learning difficulties at school. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  9. Personality patterns and Smoking behavior among students in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharri, Ali; Jahani, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Asl, Asghar Mohammadpour

    2017-03-01

    Psychological factors have always been considered for their role on risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, risky driving and smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking behavior and potential personality patterns among high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Through a multistage sampling in a cross-sectional study, 1000 students were enrolled to represent the final grade high school student population of Tabriz, Iran in 2013. The personality patterns along with smoking status and some background information were collected through standard questionnaires along with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Fourteen personality patterns and ten clinical syndromes. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare numeric scales among the study participants, with respect to their smoking status. Stata version 13 statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of smoking by personality status. Two logistic models were developed in both of whom male sex was identified as a determinant of regular smoking (1 st model) and ever-smoking (2 nd model). Depressive personality increased the likelihood of being a regular smoker by 2.8 times (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). The second personality disorder included in the model was sadistic personality with an odds ratio of 7.9 (96% CI: 1.2-53%). Histrionic personality increased the likelihood of experiencing smoking by 2.2 times (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.1) followed by borderline personality (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 0.97-8.1). Histrionic and depressive personalities could be considered as strong associates of smoking, followed by borderline and sadistic personalities. A causal relationship couldn't be assumed unless well controlled longitudinal studies reached the same findings using psychiatric interviews.

  10. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  11. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  12. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  13. Correlates of current smoking among Malaysian secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required. © 2014 APJPH.

  14. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in an Ethiopian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.

  15. Association between high school students’ cigarette smoking, asthma and related beliefs: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resa M. Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents’ beliefs about the harms of smoking. Methods In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14–18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 1796 were used in descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for model-specific confounders as appropriate. Results Overall, an estimated 19 % of high school students in Virginia smoked and 16 % had asthma. Odds of smoking did not differ by asthma status; however, asthmatics had 1.5 times higher odds of being asked if they smoke (95 % CI 1.06–2.13 and being advised not to smoke by a health professional (95 % CI 1.10–2.14 compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics who believed second-hand smoke or smoking 1–5 cigarettes/day was not harmful had respectively 4.2 and 2.8 times higher odds of smoking than those who thought each was harmful. Further, asthmatics who thought smoking 1−2 years is safe had 3.4 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not (95 % CI 1.57–10.1. Conclusions While asthmatic adolescents are just as likely to smoke as non-asthmatics, less healthy beliefs about the risks of smoking increase the odds of smoking among asthmatics. Thus, targeted asthma-specific smoking prevention and education to change attitudes and beliefs could be an effective tool for adolescents.

  16. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates......AIMS: To quantify the correlation between male and female smoking prevalence in elementary school classes by group-level analysis. METHODS: This study was the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 1998. Ninety school classes at grade nine (1......,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...

  17. [Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Shabtai; Ganz, Irit; Eldor, Naomi; Garenkin, Mila

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking via a water-pipe (Nargile) is a new phenomena among school children in Israel in recent years. Water-pipe tobacco has the potential for nicotine addiction, for other smoking-related damages and for drug abuse. Our primary goal was to characterize the frequencies of water-pipe smoking among school children in Israel, its distribution according to age, gender, habits and attitudes. The secondary goal was to compare its use to cigarette smoking among these school children. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed among 388 school children (ages 12-18 years old) in grades A, and C, of middle schools and grade B of high schools in a central region of Israel. The questionnaires were answered unanimously and the process was conducted in classes by the school teacher and by nursing school students. Among all school children in this study, 41% smoke a water-pipe at various frequencies. Of all the children, 22% smoke at least every weekend. Water-pipe smoking was 3 times more frequent than cigarette smoking and was almost equally distributed among both genders, but girls were heavier smokers than boys, of either water pipe or cigarette smoking. Six percent of water-pipe smokers add psychoactive drugs or alcohol to the tobacco. The main reasons for water-pipe smoking were the pleasure achieved and the intimacy that it adds to the youngsters' meetings. Ninety percent of all the school children believe that water-pipe smoking is not healthy, but at least 50% believes it is less harmful than cigarettes. According to school children that smoke water-pipes at least every weekend, 40% of their parents are current or ex-smokers of water-pipes, in contrast with 10% of parents to non-smoking children and about a quarter of the children who smoke also do so together with their parents. Tobacco smoking via water-pipes is a very common phenomena among middle and high school children in Israel. Girls are heavier smokers and adding drugs or alcohol to water

  18. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15 years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5 years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15 years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15 years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. School connectedness and daily smoking among boys and girls: the influence of parental smoking norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2005-01-01

    connectedness and smoking, although a modifying tendency was observed among girls. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking behaviour of Danish adolescents may be influenced by complicated interactions of varying sets of experienced smoking norms, and any research project or preventive programme focusing on the influence......BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether an association between school connectedness and smoking exists among Danish school children, and if so, to examine whether parental smoking attitude and parental smoking behaviour influenced this association. METHODS: Data were collected by the Danish...... and smoking among both boys and girls. Parents' attitude to their children's smoking significantly modified this association among boys. Among girls the modifying effect was less marked. Neither among boys nor girls did parental smoking behaviour significantly modify the association between school...

  20. Cigarette smoking among healthcare professional students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is aknown fact that health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. In fact, it has been shown that even brief and simple advice from health care professionals can substantially increase smoking cessation rates. Students in healthcare professions are future healthcare professionals ...

  1. How social media influence college students' smoking attitudes and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun; Yang, JungHwan; Cho, Eunji

    2016-11-01

    Building on the influence of presumed influence (IPI) model, this study examines how smoking- related messages on social media influence college students' smoking. We surveyed 366 college students from three U.S. Midwestern universities in 2012 and examined the effects of expression and reception of smoking-related messages on smoking using path analysis. We found that the expression and reception of prosmoking messages not only directly affected smoking but also had indirect effects on smoking through (1) perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. For antismoking messages, only reception had a significant indirect influence on smoking through (1) perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and (2) perceived peer smoking norms. In conclusion, social media function as an effective communication channel for generating, sharing, receiving, and commenting on smoking-related content and are thus influential on college students' smoking.

  2. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. © 2014 APJPH.

  3. The meanings and context of smoking among Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Bentley, Mararet E

    2006-01-01

    We sought to describe the dominant social contexts and meanings of smoking among Mexican university students. Structured observations were made and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 43 university students who were at five levels of involvement with smoking (i.e., never smoker; ex-smoker; experimenter; regular smoker; frequent smoker). Content analysis of interview transcripts was used to distill the primary settings and themes that students associated with smoking. Outside their homes and away from the purview of their parents, the environments that students frequented were permissive of smoking, supporting their perceptions of smoking behavior, cigarettes, and the tobacco industry as normal and socially acceptable. Cigarette smoking was a highly social practice, with students practicing simultaneous smoking and cigarette sharing to underscore bonds with others. Moreover, the leisure times and places in which students smoked appeared to bolster their perceptions of cigarettes as offering them pleasurable relaxation and escape from boredom and conflictual social relations. All students believed that smoking was addictive and that second-hand smoke was dangerous to non-smokers. The short-term negative outcomes of smoking appeared more salient to students than either the longer-term health outcomes of smoking or the practices of the tobacco industry. The meanings and context of smoking were comparable to those found among youth in other parts of the world. Successful tobacco prevention messages and policies to prevent smoking in other youth populations may also succeed among Mexican youth.

  4. Exposure to and attitudes regarding secondhand smoke among secondary students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Weigang Huang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Lee, Juliette; Asma, Samira

    2009-07-01

    The 2003 School Health Act of Taiwan stipulated that school campuses of senior high and below should be smoke free, but data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey show that the majority of students are exposed to smoke in public and at home. More than 50% of nonsmokers indicated that they had been exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in public places, with the exposure rate as high as 90% among smokers. More than 40% of junior and senior high school students were exposed to SHS at home. Support for banning smoking in public places ranged from almost 60% to almost 80%. More than 60% of current smokers and almost 90% of never smokers think that smoke from others is harmful to them. With a clear body of evidence detailing the harmful effects, reduction and eventual elimination of exposure to SHS should be the goal of the tobacco control community.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  7. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  8. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A total of 1096 students were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.4±2.2 years. The regular smoking prevalence rate was 25.5%, occasional smoking rate was 9.5%, alcohol consumption rate was 28.0%, and drug abuse rate was 5.0%. The mean age for attempting to smoke was 16.6±2.2 years. The leading causes of smoking were curiosity, spiritual space, affection, and to comply with friends. According to the Fagerström questionnaire, the level of nicotine dependence was low in 53.0% of the participants, moderate in 8.7%, and high in 28.4%. The average smoking prevalence rate was 23.6% in first-grade students, whereas it was 44.8% in last-grade students. The factors that influence smoking were as follows: being in the last grade, mother, siblings, and friends who smoke, higher allowance, use of alcohol and drugs. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among males. Conclusion: Last-grade students had a higher smoking prevalence rate than the first-grade students. Family, social environment, and smoking behavior of friends have an influence on smoking. All risk factors, including past history and university period, should be considered together in tobacco control.

  9. Ethnicity and waterpipe smoking among US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughosh, S; Wu, I-H; Peters, R J; Hawari, F; Essien, E J

    2012-11-01

    To examine the effect of ethnicity on waterpipe smoking among college students. A cross-sectional study utilized data from University of Houston students through an online survey (n = 2334) from March to April 2011. The survey included questions on demographic characteristics (sex, age, race/ethnicity), tobacco use experience, risk perception, social acceptability and popularity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of waterpipe use with three outcomes: ever-use vs. no use, past-year use vs. no use and past-month use vs. no use. Half of the sample had previously smoked tobacco using a waterpipe, approximately a third in the past year and 12.5% in the past month. Significant predictors included Middle Eastern ethnicity, Middle Eastern friend, past cigarette or cigar use. Perception of harm was associated with less use in the ever-use model, while perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipes were predictors in all models. Our findings underscore the importance of developing culturally appropriate interventions to control waterpipe smoking among Middle Eastern Americans and those of Indian/Pakistani descent to curb further spread in US society, and highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipe smoking.

  10. The pit and the pendulum: the impact on teen smokers of including a designated smoking area in school tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, L E; Lovato, C Y; Taylor, E; Rutherford, M B; Smith, M

    2008-12-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant safety and discipline problems it creates for school staff and administration are demanding and complex, and may override concerns regarding student smoking. This study uses a qualitative approach to explore the meanings that students place on tobacco control policy and the impact that these meanings have on their own smoking behaviours. We found that students were surprised and concerned that smoking was permitted on school property and that it negatively impacted their own tobacco prevention/control/cessation attempts.

  11. The Influence of Celebrity Exemplars on College Students' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of celebrity smoking exemplars in health news on college students' perceptions of smoking-related health risks and smoking intentions. Participants and Methods: The data were collected using a Web-based survey of 219 undergraduate students at a large midwestern university in March 2011. Separate analyses…

  12. [Level of tobacco smoking amongst 6th year students of Wroclaw Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Wojtal, Mariola; Bielska, Dorota; Rogalska, Monika; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of tobacco smoking amongst youths and young adult could limit deaths because of illness tobacco related to 2050. The assessment of the level of smoking was the aim of examinations amongst medical students. An anonymous questionnaire containing questions on the subject of tobacco smoking was carried amongst 6th year students of the Medical Department of Wroclaw Medical University in the academic year 2008/2009. Two hundreds then students took part in the study. 62% of examined came from the provincial capital, the 11.4% from the town with the population above 100 hundred of inhabitants, 22.4% of towns with the population below 100 hundred of inhabitants and 3.8% of students--from country centers. 14.8 % respondents admitted to smoking cigarettes, 75.2% were non-smoking persons, 10% were smokers but ceased smoking cigarettes in the sequence of a few last years. Amongst smokers--the most (59% of students and 71% of students) is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The most students (56% of women and 60% of men) began smoking in the secondary school. In studied group 67.6% (142) examined is claiming that the anti-tobacco advice should give family doctors, and 43% thinks that a patient which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation should be seen by a family doctor. The percentage of smokers amongst medical students didn't take turns in the sequence of two last years, however amongst smokers--biggest percentage is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The students most often begin smoking in the secondary school. The straight majority of the medical students is paying attention, that family doctors should take up giving the anti-tobacco advice and helping patients which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation. The ones smoking the small number of cigarettes and which began smoking in the secondary school are predominating amongst smokers. Overbalancing percentage of examined is located anti-tobacco therapy into competence of

  13. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh

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    Akiko Kamimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. Methods College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. Results First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals’ social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals’ social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  14. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ahmmad, Zobayer; Pye, Mu; Gull, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals' social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals' social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  15. Gender Differences in the Transmission of Smoking From Filipino Parents to Their Offspring: The Role of Parenting, School Climate, and Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Dan Jerome

    2017-09-19

    This article examines gender differences in the transmission of smoking, and the role of parenting, school climate, and negative emotions in the parental smoking-adolescent smoking relationship. The study used a nationally representative cross-sectional data on 5,290 Filipino secondary students. Results suggest that Filipino adolescents having parents who smoke, tend to smoke cigarettes. Maternal smoking affects both girls' and boys' smoking, but paternal smoking has no effect on both sexes. Further, parenting dimensions (support and knowledge), school climate (bullying victimization and peer support), and negative emotions (loneliness and anxiety) tend to moderate the effects of parental smoking on adolescent smoking. Some of these factors appear to protect adolescents from parental smoking, while others aggravate the effects of parental smoking. Conclusions/Importance: Current findings suggest important theoretical and practical implications on the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking.

  16. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Interest in developing countries smoking prevalence has been growing since 1999. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and associated factors among school-age adolescents in Kafue, Zambia. Methods: A ...

  17. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates

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    Riou França Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. Methods In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. Results We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Conclusion Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence are associated with tobacco use. University-based prevention campaigns

  18. Smoke-Free School Policy and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  19. Effects of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of Turkish students on smoking perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Hilal Parlak; Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of 7.12±2.18 regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and 29.0±2.47 regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of 8.61±3.76 (p=0.000) and 28.1±3.49 (p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (pself-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.

  20. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in a Rural High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J.; Riker, Carol A.; Hoehne, Amber; White, Ashleigh; Greenwell, Devin; Thompson, Dyshel

    2007-01-01

    Although federal law requires all public schools to be smoke free, lack of compliance with the smoke-free policy is commonly reported. The aims of this study were to describe the indoor fine-particle (PM[subscript 2.5]) air pollution in a rural high school and surrounding public venues. This cross-sectional, nonexperimental study was conducted in…

  1. [Active and passive smoking--attitudes and opinion of the students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić-Bibić, Nada; Dragas, Zorica V; Vukmirović, Vesna; Pinter, Snezana

    2006-10-01

    The concern is present worldwide as the tobacco use and smoking is becoming more and more common in young generation. Spread of tobacco use epidemics is a global problem with serious consequences to social, economic and ecological life a well as on health. To collect information about tobacco use in students aged 13-15 years in school in Subotica, their knowledge and standing about smoking as well as level of advertisement and availability of purchasing tobacco and tobacco products. It should include the level of passive smoking, i.e. exposure to tobacco smoke and health education in curriculum. Application of statistical study involving 327 students aged 13-15 years in 4 elementary and 2 high schools in Subotica, in October 2003. "Global youth tobacco survey" was the statistical study that was used after required permits had been granted. A total of 41.5% of students tried cigarette smoking, more girls (43.4%) than boys (38.6%; p > 0.05); 52.6% of first grade of high school students, 37.6% of eighth grade and 33.9% seventh grade students (X2 = 9.081; DF = 2; p media, and cigarettes are available easily. The level of passive smoking was also very high: 24.8% of parents were smokers, i.e. fathers accounted for 23.2%, and mothers accounted for 17% of cases. 28.7% of teachers smoked in school building. Educational and health programs in the schools are not satisfactory. The research shows that the use of tobacco products in student population is serious. It seems necessary to make an effective program which will control the use of tobacco products in early age of student population.

  2. The incidence of smoking and risk factors for smoking initiation in medical faculty students: cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Mehtap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education requires detailed investigation because it is a period during which the attitudes and behaviors of physicians develop. The purpose of this study was to calculate the yearly smoking prevalence and incidence rates of medical faculty students and to identify the risk factors for adopting smoking behaviour. Methods This is a cohort study in which every student was asked about their smoking habits at the time of first registration to the medical faculty, and was monitored every year. Smoking prevalence, yearly incidence of initiation of smoking and average years of smoking were calculated in analysis. Results At the time of registration, 21.8% of the students smoked. At the end of six years, males had smoked for an average of 2.6 ± 3.0 years and females for 1.0 ± 1.8 years (p Conclusion The first 3 years of medical education are the most risky period for initiation of smoking. We found that factors such as being male, having a smoking friend in the same environment and having a high trait anxiety score were related to the initiation of smoking. Targeted smoking training should be mandatory for students in the Medical Faculty.

  3. College anti-smoking policies and student smoking behavior: a review of the literature

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    Brooke L. Bennett

    2017-02-01

    More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming, produce better results in terms of reducing smoking behavior.

  4. Student seminar on smoking: A novel way to introduce different perspectives on smoking to medical students

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    Saima P Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory module at Shifa College of Medicine (SCM is delivered in third year with emphasis on respiratory pathophysiology and respiratory medicine. Smoking as a topic was introduced to emphasize the preventive aspects of respiratory illnesses. An innovative approach to involve students in their learning was developed. To determine whether this innovation would be well received and effective for students′ learning about smoking, we carried out this study. Materials and Methods: This is a one group post-test quasi-experiment. Two days were assigned for a smoking seminar. The class of 106 students was divided into 10 batches, and each batch was assigned a theme related to smoking. These themes were developed by the faculty, and each theme was related to a different perspective on smoking. A post-test questionnaire was distributed at the end of the seminar for feedback to see what aspects of students′ learning were highlighted and what needed to be improved upon. Questions related to the usefulness of the activity were incorporated into the questionnaire and the students were asked to agree or disagree on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Most (68.3% students agreed that this activity improved their knowledge regarding smoking, and 54.8% agreed that it also helped in application of this knowledge. Improvement in presentation and counseling skills (59.8%, evidence-based medicine (47.6%, and softer skills, such as teamwork (72% and creativity (63.4%, were also reported to be enhanced. Conclusion: Seminars led by the students have shown to be effective in breaking the monotony and generating an interest of the topic. Such an activity serves as a small step to make our graduates more empathic, humane, competent, and skilful.

  5. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  6. [Smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students in Sousse, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rejeb, M; Abroug, H; Khefacha-Aissa, S; Ben Fredj, M; Dhidah, L; Said-Latiri, H

    2016-04-01

    Smoking prevalence has reached high rates among health professionals. Our study aimed to assess smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study among nursing students enrolled in private and state nursing institutions of Sousse (Tunisia). In our study, 440 students were selected. The mean age was 22 ± 2 years. The sex ratio was 0.65. The prevalence of smoking was 20.6%. It was significantly higher in men than women (50% vs 4.5%, P smoking. Prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors and smoking in enclosed public places were the two most mentioned anti-smoking regulations. Our rate was lower than those reported in the literature. This result should encourage policymakers to continue actions and ensure sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Sayada high school pupils towards the smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Fahima; Sriha, Asma; Kobaa, Afifa

    2016-01-01

    tobacco Is the first cause of preventable death, the prevalence of it'sconsumption in adolescents varies between 10 and 30%. Initiation is the cause of psychological then physical dependence. study the prevalence of smoking among high school students, assess their knowledge on the subject of smoking addiction and attitudes and practice towards tobacco. This is a descriptive study, transversal, using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during 2013. The response rate was 70 % (n = 505). The average age was 16.7 years, girls accounted 40.4 % of the study population. The prevalence of smoking was 15.2%, it was 26 % for boys and 8% for girls. The nicotine dependence was present in 35% of smokers and 53.2% of them reported having previously attempted to quit at least once. More than half of respondents (58.8%) were unaware of the effect of nicotine, 43.3 % of students did not know the origins of addiction and 11.7% of smokers reported smoking in the school. All smokers, had not reported any obstacle to the purchase of cigarettes. The exhibition of smoke in public places was described by 66.5 % of students. The results of this study support the need to develop a completeprogram that integrates education for students but also for teachers which affects ample smoking behavior of students.

  8. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  11. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

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    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  12. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  13. A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Y W

    2015-11-26

    A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes was launched in June 2010 with the aim of promoting the benefits of smoke-free homes to all school-aged children (aged 6-18), and indirectly to their parents and family members. The 1-year project included health talks on a smoke-free life; the distribution of educational leaflets; slogan and visual art competitions; and a health fair held in June 2011. Two sets of questionnaires were developed to solicit a resolution and action from the participants regarding the establishment of a smoke-free home, and their decision to stay smoke-free. This is a paper to report on the activities of this project, the attempts to reach out to school-aged children, and their indications of agreement with, support for, and commitment to promoting smoke-free homes. The project reached an estimated 12,800 school-aged children in Hong Kong. A large proportion of those received educational leaflets (69.6-88.2 %). Of those who participated in the health fair, 69.7-87.6 % agreed to promote the concept of smoke-free homes to friends and family. More primary than secondary students pledged to not take up smoking (90.8 vs 85.8 %). About 82 % of those who had experimented with smoking pledged to stop. A small proportion of them reported already having established a smoke-free policy at home (14.9 %), placed a 'No Smoking' sign at home (16.4 %), informed visitors of their smoke-free policy at home (12.9 %), and asked visitors to dispose of lit cigarettes before entering their home (15.9 %). This community-wide school health project on the benefits of smoke-free homes reached a large number of students, and indirectly to family members, and home visitors. Public health efforts of this kind should be continued to reach younger generations and the general public.

  14. Matching Students to Schools

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    Dejan Trifunovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the problem of matching students to schools by using different matching mechanisms. This market is specific since public schools are free and the price mechanism cannot be used to determine the optimal allocation of children in schools. Therefore, it is necessary to use different matching algorithms that mimic the market mechanism and enable us to determine the core of the cooperative game. In this paper, we will determine that it is possible to apply cooperative game theory in matching problems. This review paper is based on illustrative examples aiming to compare matching algorithms in terms of the incentive compatibility, stability and efficiency of the matching. In this paper we will present some specific problems that may occur in matching, such as improving the quality of schools, favoring minority students, the limited length of the list of preferences and generating strict priorities from weak priorities.

  15. Smoking in non-student Mexican adolescents with asthma: relation with family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José

    2012-02-01

    The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking habits and attitudes among secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Yaacob, I; bin Harun, M H

    1994-03-01

    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.

  17. Cigarette Smoking Behavior and Associated Psychosocial Determinants Among School Going Adolescents in Panchkula, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seventy percent of premature deaths in adults occur owing to harmful behavioral patterns such as smoking that emerged in adolescence. The rising trend of adolescent addiction to cigarettes is a cause for worry. Aim: To assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adolescents and to investigate the different psychosocial determinants which influence them to either smoke or not to smoke. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in higher secondary schools of Panchkula, India. A self-structured questionnaire was used to assess the smoking behavior and other associated factors among 584 school going adolescents in the age group of 14–19 years. The proportion, the chi-square test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied. All analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0 software. Results: The prevalence of ever smokers was 13.5% including 10.5% males and 3% females. Male students were more likely to ever smoke than females [odds ratio (OR = 4.01; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.84–6.14]. Subjects in the late adolescence were more likely to ever smoke than the middle adolescents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.18–3.67. Students in grade 12 had more than four times the odds of ever smoke than those in grade 10 (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 2.34–5.67. Cigarette smoking was six times more likely if students had seen their sibling ever smoke (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 3.16–9.69, three times more likely if a best friend smoked (OR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.82–5.67, and two times more likely in students who had seen their father smoking (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.67–2.84. Conclusion: A strong association exists between cigarette smoking behavior and different psychosocial factors, highlighting the need for efforts from parents, siblings, teachers, and peer groups to discourage smoking behavior.

  18. Tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation counseling training of dental students around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles W; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Lee, Juliette; Lea, Veronica; Jones, Nathan; Asma, Samira

    2011-03-01

    The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) has been conducted among third-year dental students in schools in forty-four countries, the Gaza Strip/West Bank, and three cities (Baghdad, Rio de Janeiro, and Havana) (all called "sites" in this article). In more than half the sites, over 20 percent of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in thirty sites. Over 60 percent of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in thirty-seven of forty-eight sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society and believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco, but few reported receiving formal training. Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among dentists, promote smoke-free workplaces, and implement programs that train dentists in effective cessation-counseling techniques.

  19. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  20. Quantifying the persistence of pro-smoking media effects on college students' smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setodji, Claude M; Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Shadel, William G

    2014-04-01

    To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students' intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. A total of 134 college students (ages 18-24 years) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for 3 weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the 3-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [.26, .87]) and then steadily decreased (-.12; 95% CI: [-.19, -.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (-.42; 95% CI: [-.75, -.10]) and then steadily increased (.09; 95% CI: [.02, .16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  2. Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents on the island of Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigwanto, Mouhamad; Mongkolcharti, Aroonsri; Peltzer, Karl; Laosee, Orapin

    2017-04-01

    The Integrated Model of Change has successfully explained the behavior change process. Cigarette smoking is a social phenomenon, which needs to be understood for devising effective preventive strategies. The study aims to apply the Integrated Model of Change to determine predictive factors of cigarette smoking behavior among school adolescents in Indonesia. A school-based cross-sectional study was designed to collect data in Banten, Indonesia. A total of 698 students from eight high schools were recruited by multi-stage cluster sampling. The association between cigarette smoking and the independent variables was examined by multiple logistic regressions. The majority of respondents (86.4%) were between the ages of 15 and 17 years (Mean=16.4 years; SD=1.01). Approximately half (48.8%) of the students ever tried a cigarette while 29.6% were current smokers. Curiosity was reported as the main reason for experimenting with cigarettes (32%). The significant factors regarding current cigarette smoking were attitude [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.68], social norms (AOR=12.80), self-efficacy (AOR=15.85), and accessibility (AOR=4.39). The study revealed social influence and self-efficacy that were strongly associated with cigarette smoking can help authorities in guiding possible intervention programs for school adolescents.

  3. Effect of Religious Beliefs on the Smoking Behaviour of University Students: Quantitative Findings From Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Alkoudmani, Ramez M; Elsayed, Tarek M; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair

    2016-12-01

    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.

  4. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Cessation Training among Third-Year Medical Technology Students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, Pisit; Suriyaprom, Kanjana

    2015-10-01

    Compare tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and smoking cessation training among third-year medical technology students in Thailand between 2006 and 2011. The medical technology student survey was carried out with Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) between October and November 2011. The population of the present study was all students in nine medical technology schools. There were 773 students enrolled in this study yielding a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of current cigarette smokers had decreased from 2006 to 2011 (4.8% to 1.4%, respectively). Rates of exposure to second-hand smoke at home were 36.3% in 2006 and 39.7% in 2011, while rates of exposure to second-hand smoke in other places did not change. Most students recognized that they should give patients counseling to quit smoking, but only 20.6% in 2006 and 28.4% in 2011 of them had received formal training in tobacco cessation counseling. There were low percentages of current cigarette smoking but high percentages of exposure to second-hand smoke among medical technology students. The percentage of cessation training was still low among students. Therefore, medical technology schools should provide formal training in tobacco cessation for all students to help improve their ability in providing advice to patients.

  5. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  6. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookah smoking is increasing worldwide. It is estimated the worldwide prevalence of daily hookah smoking is 100 million. The aim of this study was to compare hookah smoking prevalence in Islamic Azad University medical students in the city of Ardabil between 2009 and 2014. Method: Of 2956 Islamic Azad University medical students, Ardabil branch, almost 25% of students {737 students (226 males vs. 511 females; 436 subjects at 2009 vs. 301 subjects at 2014} were randomly selected to participate in this survey. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used after verbal informed consent according to the Review Committee of Ardabil Branch Islamic Azad University Medicine School approved protocol. A cluster sampling technique was used. The questions focused on gender, hookah smoking status, and students’ replies for the following issues: (1 Kind of hookah (2 Frequency of smoking (3 Motivation of hookah use (4 Place of smoking use (5 and Second-hand exposure to hookah. Results: Hookah use showed significant decrease in male students compared with five years ago (P<0.05. Frequency of molasses (tobacco with sweetened fruit flavors and mild aromatic smoke use has significantly enhanced among both genders in 2014 compared with 2009 (P<0.05. Furthermore, second-hand exposure to hookah was significantly higher among both nonsmoker genders at 2014 compared with 2009 (32.7% at 2014 vs. 13.2% at 2009. Conclusion: Unfortunately, in spite of knowledge promotion among medicine school students in recent years, hookah use is still prevalent among medical students. Molasses use has significantly increased and second hand exposure to tobacco has escalated since 2009.

  8. Smoking Habits among Greek University Students after the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria; Nanou, Anastasia; Vasilopoulos, Christos; Kourakos, Michael; Skliros, Efstathios; Toska, Aikaterini; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2017-05-01

    Background: University students worldwide seem to have increased rates of smoking, alcohol abuse, binge drinking episodes and harmful consumption trends, raising a serious public health issue. The aim of the present study was to investigate university students’ smoking habits and exposure to secondary smoke amid a financial crisis. Methods: The present descriptive, correlational analysis was conducted at the University of Peloponnese. Results: The average age of the sample (n=203) was 24.9 years (±7.6 years) with 36.0% of the participants (n=73) being postgraduate students. Some 51.2% (n=104) of the participants said they didn’t smoke and 46.3% (n=94, p=0.003) reported no secondary smoke exposure during the past week at home. The majority of the remainder initiated smoking at age 16-17 (48.5%, n=48), and 64.6% (n=42) said the financial crisis did not lead them to change their smoking habits. Conclusions: The majority of students support smoking ban laws in enclosed public spaces, but also their replies highlighted poor implementation on behalf of the state and the authorities. The financial crisis did not appear to have affected student smoking habits. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking by American Students in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    High school students' electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use rose rapidly in 2014, to levels higher than cigarette smoking, which declined significantly. This study assesses how frequency of e-cigarette use is associated with students' smoking status. Using Monitoring the Future data in 2015, this study evaluated the association between students' smoking and frequency of 30-day e-cigarette use in 2014, focusing on high school seniors. Previous research has considered only whether e-cigarettes were used at all during the past month. Non-smokers were far less likely than smokers to have used an e-cigarette (pE-cigarette use frequency rose with the amount of ever smoking (pe-cigarette use by very light smokers (e-cigarette. Among tenth- and eighth-graders, 43% and 48% of past-month e-cigarette users had never smoked. Non-smoking high school students are highly unlikely to use e-cigarettes; among those who do, most used them only on 1-2 of the past 30 days. By contrast, current smokers are likely to use e-cigarettes and on many more days. It is unclear whether students' e-cigarette use represents short-term experimentation or future sustained use, and whether it will eventually increase or decrease youth smoking and nicotine addiction. More sophisticated research methods, employing better data, will be essential to unravel the mystery that is the e-cigarette phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Students "Hacking" School Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with students hacking school computer systems. School districts are getting tough with students "hacking" into school computers to change grades, poke through files, or just pit their high-tech skills against district security. Dozens of students have been prosecuted recently under state laws on identity theft and unauthorized…

  11. In conversation: high school students talk to students about tobacco use and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano Clark, Vicki L; Miller, Dana L; Creswell, John W; McVea, Kristine; McEntarffer, Rob; Harter, Lynn M; Mickelson, William T

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this multi-site qualitative study is to explore how adolescents talk about tobacco use. Sixty-six students in four high schools became co-researchers and led focus group interviews with 205 fellow students. From the interviews, the authors develop a story line that reports how adolescents begin smoking, how smoking becomes a pervasive influence, how attitudes form about smoking, what it means to be a smoker, and, ultimately, student suggestions for tobacco use prevention. Embedded within this story line are complex questions and contradictions. We explore whether peers really are influential, if the media is important, whether smoking is a matter of personal choice, if schools actually promote tobacco use, and whether adolescents can quit smoking.

  12. Variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre estudantes do ensino médio de escola pública e particular na cidade de Belém - PA Variables related to smoking initiation among students in public and private high schools in the city of Belém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise da Silva Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre adolescentes estudantes de nível médio de uma escola particular e outra pública, na cidade de Belém-PA, em 2005. MÉTODOS: Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado um questionário não identificado, de autopreenchimento, com 27 questões fechadas, sobre experimentação de cigarro, fumo habitual, acesso à compra de cigarros, motivo para a experimentação do fumo, autopercepção sobre o seu rendimento escolar, diálogo sobre tabagismo no ambiente familiar e nível sócio-econômico. Participaram do estudo 1520 estudantes, sendo 724 (47,6% da rede particular e 796 (52,4% da rede pública. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos estudantes foi de 16,5 anos. Dos 1520 estudantes, 669 (44% referiram ter experimentado cigarro e 11% faziam uso habitual de cigarros. A proporção de experimentadores na escola pública foi de 51,2% e na particular foi de 36,7% (p = 0; a de fumantes habituais foi 14,6% na escola pública e de 7% na particular (p = 0. As associações encontradas para iniciação e uso atual de cigarro em ambas as escolas foram: curiosidade, presença de pessoas fumantes no convívio social do adolescente, não ter sido elogiado por não fumar, e se considerar um aluno regular ou ruim. Não houve associação entre experimentação e fumo atual com classes sociais nas duas escolas, exceto para experimentadores das classes A e B na escola particular. CONCLUSÕES: A variável mais importante para fumo entre os estudantes foi a curiosidade. A experimentação e uso habitual de cigarro foram mais freqüentes na escola pública que na particular.OBJETIVE: To analyze the variables related to smoking initiation among adolescent students in two high schools (one public and one private in the city of Belém, Brazil, in 2005. METHODS: An anonymous self-report questionnaire - comprising 27 closed questions regarding smoking experimentation, smoking habit, access to buying

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking among Indian students of dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2013-10-01

    Active cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and an important established cause of cardiovascular disease mortality. Risks have been shown to increase with even light or intermittent active smoking. To assess the prevalence of smoking, age of initiation and the knowledge and attitude towards smoking among dental college students of Rajasthan, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,383 undergraduate and postgraduate dental college students of Rajasthan using self-administered closed-ended questionnaires consisting of 14 questions divided into four sections. A chi-square test was used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. Of all the participants, 777 (56.2%) were male and 606 (43.8%) were female. Among these 258 (33.2%) males and 51 (8.4%) females had tried or experimented smoking. Majority of males (24.7%) initiated this habit at a very young age, before 16 years. About 79.5% males and 72.3% females felt that it was difficult to quit smoking. According to 88.1% females and 48.7% males, people feel less comfortable at public places or social gatherings. The study has shown that the smoking prevalence among dental college students is high and has managed to contribute additional information regarding their attitude towards smoking. Comprehensive tobacco education and smoking cessation programmes should be aggressively promoted in dental settings. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Early smoking initiation and associated factors among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.

  15. A novel text message-based motivational interviewing intervention for college students who smoke cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jorayeva

    2017-11-01

    This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.

  16. Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Lim, Hui Li; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Khoo, Yi Yi; Ganapathy, Shubash Shander; Jane Ling, Miaw Yn; Mohd Ghazali, Sumarni; Tee, Eng Ong

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of studies have revealed that smoking is a learned behaviour during adolescence and efforts to reduce the incidence of smoking has been identified as long-term measures to curb the smoking menace. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as the intra and inter-personal factors associated with smoking among upper secondary school students in selected schools in Peninsular Malaysia. A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire. This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%, p  Malaysian adolescents of school-going age was high, despite implementation of several anti-smoking measures in Malaysia. More robust measures integrating the factors identified in this study are strongly recommended to curb the smoking epidemic among adolescents in Malaysia.

  17. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students' lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%-75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%-75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%-75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%-75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to

  18. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  20. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, pparents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (pproblems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (pstudents. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.

  1. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  2. Antecedents of Smoking among Pre-Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Joan

    1982-01-01

    Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N=600) were assessed regarding smoking activity, parents' smoking, four dimensions of self-esteem, and attitudes toward school. Multivariate analyses showed students were more likely to begin smoking if they had parents who smoked, had low self-esteem, and disliked school and feared failure. (Author)

  3. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  4. Prevalence and cause of smoking in the medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young smokers have been more exposed to great stresses and mishaps in their lives,compared to non-smokers. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of tendency to cigarettesmoking and its reasons among medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was carried out on the population ofmedical students in Tehran. Two hundred and eighty students were selected by classifiedrandomization from the students in term one, four and seven (students in each term was considered aseparate group. Inclusion criteria were the same for all groups. The questionnaire comprised 45questions including 29 common questions, 5 questions for smokers, 3 questions for recreationalsmokers, 7 questions for ex-smokers, and 2 questions for non-smokers. Data analysis was performedusing descriptive statistics and Chi-square test by SPSS-10 sofware.Results: There was no female smoker among the students, except 5 percent of the students in termseven who had smoked recreationally. The most important reasons for cigarette smoking were forpleasure and decreasing anxiety. However, maintaining the health was the most important reason forthe lack of tendency to smoking among male non-smokers. Female non-smokers had also the reason ofunacceptable social impact of smoking for their disinclination.Discussion: The results of current study showed that medical students are predisposed to havetendency to cigarette smoking due to psychological stresses, which are most probably related to theiracademic major.

  5. Social Smoking and Mental Health Among Chinese Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Long-Biao; Xu, Fang-Rong; Cheng, Qing-Zhou; Zhan, Jian; Xie, Tao; Ye, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Shang-Zhi; McCarthy, Kayne; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    China has a high prevalence of smoking, but the characteristics of social smoking in Chinese college students have not been investigated. We examined the pattern of social smoking and explored the association between social smoking and personal cessation efforts and mental health factors among Chinese male college students. Study design was a cross-sectional survey. P. R. China was the setting of the study. Participants were a random sample of 1327 male college students. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that examined their smoking behaviors and a group of specific mental health factors (loneliness, self-harm, suicide, depression, and anxiety). Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, χ 2 analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. Of a total of 207 current smokers, 102 (49.3%) were identified as social smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, social smokers had increased risks for depression (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.65). Among daily smokers, social smokers were less likely to have an intention to quit smoking than nonsocial smokers (odds ratio, .08; 95% confidence interval, .01-.57). This study reveals unique psychologic characteristics related to social smoking. College students are a particular group of interest because unhealthy behaviors initiated during adolescence may continue through adulthood. Our findings provide evidence for future tobacco control intervention among this population.

  6. Attitudes of School Administrators and Teachers towards the "Smoke-Free Air Zone" Policy in Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoglu, Köksal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Schools are likely to be better able to achieve compliance with smoke-free regulations if principals and teachers perceive the importance of a smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to measure teacher and administrator attitudes towards the smoke-free policy in Turkish schools, which promotes a total smoking ban. Method: The…

  7. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  8. Cigarette Smoking Trajectories From Sixth to Twelfth Grade: Associated Substance Use and High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Lacy, Beth; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Dube, Shanta R; Song, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from sixth to twelfth grade and to characterize these trajectories by use of other drugs and high school dropout. The diverse sample for this analysis consisted of a cohort of 611 students from Northeast Georgia who participated in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study (2003-2009). Students completed seven yearly assessments from sixth through twelfth grade. We used semi-parametric, group-based modeling to identify groups of students whose smoking behavior followed a similar progression over time. Current smoking (past 30 day) increased from 6.9% among sixth graders to 28.8% among twelfth graders. Four developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking were identified: Abstainers/Sporadic Users (71.5% of the sample), Late Starters (11.3%), Experimenters (9.0%), and Continuous Users (8.2%). The Abstainer/Sporadic User trajectory was composed of two distinct groups: those who never reported any tobacco use (True Abstainers) and those who reported sporadic, low-level use (Sporadic Users). The True Abstainers reported significantly less use of alcohol and other drugs and lower dropout rates than students in all other trajectories, and Sporadic Users had worse outcomes than True Abstainers. Experimenters and Continuous Users reported the highest drug use. Over one-third of Late Starters (35.8%) and almost half of Continuous Users (44.4%) dropped out of high school. Cigarette smoking was associated with behavioral and academic problems. Results support early and continuous interventions to reduce use of tobacco and other drugs and prevent high school dropout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  10. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.

    Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  11. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sahadat; Hossain, Shakhaoat; Ahmed, Fahad; Islam, Rabiul; Sikder, Tajuddin; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, chi square, and Fisher exact tests. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively). The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917). Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially for university students.

  12. Smoking among university students: a comparative study between Malaysian students in Malaysia and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, B; Abdul Halim, O; Yusoff, K

    1994-06-01

    A total of 209 randomly selected Malaysian university students (128 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 81 from the University of New South Wales) completed a self-filled questionnaire enquiring about their smoking behaviour and psychosocial characteristics. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6 per cent among students in Malaysia and 18.8 per cent among students in Australia (average 23.4%). Both samples have similar patterns in terms of age of starting smoking, time of the day when they smoked, family and peer history of smoking, and whether or not they inhaled deeply during smoking. The smokers tend to be male, studying beyond the first year, staying with peers outside the hostel, having financial sources other than a scholarship, and abnormal mental health score. However, the smokers from the Australian samples were noted to smoke less and made fewer attempts at quitting the habit.

  13. Cigarette smoking and Khat chewing among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2001 in the four colleges found in North West Ethiopia. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic sampling technique.

  14. [Frequency of smoking tobacco among the students of the last year of the Faculty of Health Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeźnicki, Adam; Krupińska, Justyna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Kowalska, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Smoking tobacco is one of the most frequent and most dangerous addictions among the Poles, at the same time--despite the many dramatic results--it is the most belittled of threats. It is difficult to understand especially those smokers who, due to their future or present job should be free from tobacco smoke. The aim of the work was to establish the participation of the smoke inhalers among the students of the last years of studies, focusing on the particular socio-demographic features. 162 students were tested, that means all who are the last year students at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Medical University of Lodz. Using the auditoria survey, the studies were carried out between the 1st to 15th March 2007. The filled in surveys were handed back in by 92.6% of students (150 female and male students). Among the 150 of the tested, 58 people confessed to smoking (38.6%). The ratio of the smoking female students was 34.0% and smoking male students 46.4%. In the past, there were close to 65% of smokers among the tested. Over 54% of the asked people smoked their first cigarette in the high school. Majority of smokers (30.5%) smoked from 5 to 10 cigarettes a day. Majority of smokers (70.4%) confirmed they smoked everywhere where they wished. From among 58 smokers, 4 people could be pharmacologically addicted to nicotine. Almost all of them would like to quit smoking. The ratio of smoking students of the last years of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Medical University of Lodz was very high in 2007. There was practically every second male student who smoked and close to every third female one. Great majority of the smokers put the health of the people around them who did not smoke at risk because they smoked everywhere they pleased. There is a need to undertake some efficient preventive actions directed at the problem of smoking among the students, especially of the departments which produce the personnel of the health centres.

  15. Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.

  16. School Safety Concerns All Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that school safety is an issue that concerns all students. Discusses how the staff of the Rockwood South (Missouri) "RAMpage" covered the shootings at Columbine High School in a 14-page issue and in follow-up issues. Suggests that the student newspaper covered the controversial topic in an appropriate, tasteful manner. (RS)

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados ao consumo de cigarros entre estudantes de escolas estaduais do ensino médio de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2002 Smoking prevalence and associated factors among public high school students in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Ruviaro Zanini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é a segunda principal causa mundial de morte, sendo responsável pela morte de um a cada dez adultos (5 milhões por ano. Se os padrões atuais se mantiverem, em 2020 o tabagismo será a causa de 10 milhões de óbitos anuais, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. Realizou-se um estudo transversal, em 2002, no qual foram entrevistados 459 estudantes de oito escolas do ensino médio estadual em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, para determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao tabagismo, obtendo-se um modelo logístico multivariável descrevendo como as chances de ser fumante estão relacionadas com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência encontrada para o tabagismo foi de 18% (IC95%: 14,6-21,7, sendo que os estudantes começam a fumar, em média, aos 14 anos. Os resultados permitem concluir que os estudantes das escolas estaduais de Santa Maria começam a fumar precocemente, sendo influenciados pelos amigos fumantes (OR = 4,37; p = 0,000, pela renda familiar mensal (OR = 2,04; p = 0,013 e idade (OR = 1,86; p = 0,031, destacando-se a necessidade de se trabalhar, preventivamente, no grupo de risco observado.Smoking is the second cause of death in the world. It currently accounts for one out of ten deaths in adults worldwide (5 million per year. If current patterns persist, smoking will cause 10 million deaths a year by 2020 according to the World Health Organization. A prevalence study on smoking habits was conducted in 2002 among 459 students from eight public high schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to measure smoking prevalence and related factors by multivariate logistic regression. The overall smoking prevalence rate in the sample was 18% (95%CI: 14.6-21.7, and the students had begun smoking at a mean age of 14 years. Students from public high schools had begun smoking early, influenced by friends who smoked (OR = 4.37; p = 0.000, family income (OR = 2.04; p = 0.013, and

  18. Students? attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objective In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students? compliance and attitudes following the ban. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A private university in Lebanon. Participants 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in t...

  19. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  20. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird,1 Hugo Staines-Orozco2 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Calle Estocolmo, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico Background: Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure on their respiratory system.  Objective: To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%] and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1 nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2 nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3 smokers. Results: The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%, females (54%, who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%. Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49% and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%. The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55 than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65 and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13

  1. Smoking Health Professional Student: An Attitudinal Challenge for Health Promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cauchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.

  2. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanador, Laura Del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. A case-control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT (ODDS RATIO [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  3. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  4. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Psychological motivation and physiological consequences of smoking in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhutdinova, E.T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and physiological characteristics were assessed in thirteen students aged 19-23 who are smokers for more than a year. Psychological status was studied with the use of the Spilberger-Khanin inventory of reactive and personality anxiety; physiological status was assessed through the analysis of cardio-rhythm. Fagerstrom tobacco dependence and Horn smoking motivation questionnaires were used as well. Study participants demonstrated high levels of personal anxiety, while changes in physiological and psychological characteristics after smoking were insignificant. Most common motivation to smoke was associated with desire to relax and cope with anxiety. Author concludes that smoking inhibits physiological functions but does not influence emotional status significantly. (Full text is in Russian

  6. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Progression Among a School-Based Sample of Adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: A Longitudinal Study (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Rana; Mzayek, Fawaz; Madhivanan, Purnima; Khader, Yousuf; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-04-01

    Little evidence regarding longitudinal predictors of cigarette smoking progression is available from developing countries. This study aimed to identify gender-specific individual and social predictors of cigarette smoking progression among a school-based sample of adolescents in Irbid, Jordan. A total of 1781 seventh graders (participation rate 95%) were enrolled and completed an annual self-administered questionnaire from 2008 through 2011. Students who reported "ever-smoking a cigarette" at baseline or in the subsequent follow-up but not being "heavy daily smokers" (>10 cigarettes per day) were eligible for this analysis (N = 669). Grouped-time survival analyses were used to identify predictors of cigarette smoking progression in boys and girls. Among the study sample, 38.3% of students increased the frequency and /or amount of cigarette smoking during the 3 years of follow-up. Among individual factors, the urge to smoke in the morning predicted smoking progression for boys and girls. The independent predictors of cigarette smoking progression were friends' smoking and attending public schools in boys, and siblings' smoking in girls. Discussing the dangers of smoking with family members was protective for girls. Boys and girls progressed similarly in cigarette smoking once they initiated the habit. Progression among girls was solely family-related, while it was peer-related for boys. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Progression Among a School-Based Sample of Adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: A Longitudinal Study (2008–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzayek, Fawaz; Madhivanan, Purnima; Khader, Yousuf; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little evidence regarding longitudinal predictors of cigarette smoking progression is available from developing countries. This study aimed to identify gender-specific individual and social predictors of cigarette smoking progression among a school-based sample of adolescents in Irbid, Jordan. Methods: A total of 1781 seventh graders (participation rate 95%) were enrolled and completed an annual self-administered questionnaire from 2008 through 2011. Students who reported “ever-smoking a cigarette” at baseline or in the subsequent follow-up but not being “heavy daily smokers” (>10 cigarettes per day) were eligible for this analysis (N = 669). Grouped-time survival analyses were used to identify predictors of cigarette smoking progression in boys and girls. Results: Among the study sample, 38.3% of students increased the frequency and /or amount of cigarette smoking during the 3 years of follow-up. Among individual factors, the urge to smoke in the morning predicted smoking progression for boys and girls. The independent predictors of cigarette smoking progression were friends’ smoking and attending public schools in boys, and siblings’ smoking in girls. Discussing the dangers of smoking with family members was protective for girls. Conclusion: Boys and girls progressed similarly in cigarette smoking once they initiated the habit. Progression among girls was solely family-related, while it was peer-related for boys. PMID:25957340

  8. Prevalence of Smoking and Its Associated Factors Among Male College Students in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Mohaithef

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.

  9. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  10. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  11. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  12. Schools or Students? Identifying High School Effects on Student Suspensions

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    Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is clear that discipline in high school is associated with negative outcomes across the life course. Not only are suspensions related to declining academic trajectories during high school in the form of attendance and academic achievement, students suspended once are also more likely to be suspended again and also substantially increase…

  13. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  14. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools : A mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A. D.; Mathijssen, J. J. P.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Van Oers, J. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of

  15. Bullying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478

  16. A Survey of the Smoking Habits and Attitudes of High School Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    An extensive review of literature on trends in the consumption of tobacco; concern regarding tobacco and health; the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and coronary heart disease; effect of smoking on human tissues; chemistry of tobacco smoke; and the smoking habits of students precedes discussion of an…

  17. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  18. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  19. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  20. School Start Times for Middle School and High School Students - United States, 2011-12 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B

    2015-08-07

    Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.

  1. Evaluation of a novel intervention providing insight into the tobacco industry to prevent the uptake of smoking in school-aged children: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Lisa; Taylor, John; Taylor, Amy; Lewis, Sarah; Wu, Qi; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John; Bauld, Linda; Jones, Laura L; Bains, Manpreet

    2017-11-03

    Evidence from the US Truth campaign suggests that interventions focusing on tobacco industry practices and ethics may be effective in preventing youth smoking uptake. We developed, piloted and evaluated a school-based intervention based on this premise. Exploratory study students in years 7-8 (aged 11-13) in two UK schools received Operation Smoke Storm , comprising three 50 min classroom-based sessions in year 7, an accompanying family booklet and a 1-hour classroom-based booster session in year 8. We compared the risk and odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoking in year 8 students in study schools postintervention with students in control schools. Focus groups and interviews with students, teachers and parents evaluated the acceptability of the intervention. In intervention schools, the combined prevalence of ever smoking and susceptibility increased from 18.2% in year 7 to 33.8% in year 8. There was no significant difference in the odds of a year 8 student in an intervention school being an ever smoker or susceptible never smoker compared with controls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.28, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.97, p=0.263) and no significant difference in the odds of ever smoking (aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.58, p=0.549). Teachers highlighted differences by academic ability in how well the messages presented were understood. Use of the family component was low but was received positively by parents who engaged with it. Operation Smoke Storm is an acceptable resource for delivering smoking-prevention education, but it does not appear to have reduced smoking and susceptibility. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the results for cigarette smoking are presented. Cluster sam.pling techniques produced a sample of 7 340 students from 16 schools in the three major education ...

  3. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%. Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  4. Harm perception, attitudes and predictors of waterpipe (shisha) smoking among secondary school adolescents in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Amr, Mostafa Abdel Monem; Zaza, Burhan Omar; Suleman, Wassem

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and social determinants of waterpipe (WP) smoking among secondary school students in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to assess their health related knowledge and attitudes toward WP. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,652 Saudi secondary school students of both genders aged between 15-19 years selected by multistage sampling method. A self-administered anonymous Arabic version of Global Youth Tobacco Survey modified with items dedicated to WP smoking and to assess perception of health related hazards and attitudes towards WP was employed for data collection. Prevalence of current smokers 'all forms' was 30.3% among males (C.I= 27.5- 33.2%) and 8.5% in females (C.I= 6.6-10.9%). WP was used by 53.9% of the current tobacco users, significantly higher among older age students. Of the regular WP smokers, 20.7% smoked WP on daily basis, 23.8% weekly, 64.2% stated using flavored " Muassel " tobacco. Primary motives for WP smoking were outings with friends, company, boredom and wasting time. Of the total, 49.7% of students stated that WP smoking is less harmful than cigarettes, 60.5% believed that harmful substances were purified through water filtration, with non-addictive properties in 67.8%. Knowledge about health hazards of WP smoking was low, irrespective of student's smoking status. WP smoking is more socially acceptable than cigarettes (52.1%), represents a good opportunity for gathering of friends and family (33.8%), and smoking of WP can relieve stress and tensions (37.8%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that socializing motives, cigarette smoking, smoking among close family and friends, male gender and increasing age were positive predictors for WP smoking. Social acceptability, poor knowledge of WP health related hazards and certain socio demographics are favoring the increasing current trend of WP use among adolescents in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

  5. A prevalência do tabagismo entre estudantes de graduação da escola de enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo The smoking prevalence among undergraduate students of the University of São Paulo, school of nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka Oguisso

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo feito entre estudantes da EEUSP para saber se eles eram fumantes habituais ou ocasionais, e se esse hábito havia sido adquirido antes ou depois do ingresso na Escola. Do total de 314 estudantes matriculados em 1998, 80,9% responderam ao questionário, dos quais 49,2% já haviam experimentado fumar, e dentre esses, 38 continuavam a fumar na data do estudo. Entre os fumantes encontrados, 16 haviam começado a fumar dos 16 aos 20 anos, 12 com menos de 15 e três com 21 anos ou mais. Ao final, propõe-se que a EEUSP coloque maior quantidade de placas de "proibido fumar" no ambiente da escola; realize seminários periódicos sobre tabagismo para incentivar docentes e alunos a deixarem de fumar; participe ativamente do Dia Mundial sem Tabaco ou inclua essa atividade no programa do CCEx. Enfim, que se divulgue os dados e estatísticas da OMS sobre as conseqüências do tabagismo.Survey among undergraduate students to find out whether they were daily or occasional smokers, and whether this habit was acquired before or after their entrance into the School. From the total of 314 students registered in 1998, 80,9% filled out the questionnaire, among those 49,2% have already experienced to smoke, and 15,0 % have continued smoking at the date of the study. Among smokers, 16 have started to smoke between the age of 16 and 20, 12 students started before, and three at age 21 or older. At the end, it is proposed that the School spread out "no smoking" signs within its environment; periodically organise workshops and seminars to encourage lecturers and students on smoking cessation; to actively participate in the World no Tobacco Day or include such activity in the work of a specific committee. At last, to disseminate WHO data and statistics on smoking consequences.

  6. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  7. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  8. Effects of a randomized controlled trial to assess the six-months effects of a school based smoking prevention program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad F; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of a smoking prevention program which aimed to address smoking related cognitions and smoking behavior among Saudi adolescents age 13 to 15. A randomized controlled trial was used. Respondents in the experimental group (N=698) received five in-school sessions, while those in the control group (N=683) received no smoking prevention information (usual curriculum). Post-intervention data was collected six months after baseline. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess effects on smoking initiation, and linear regression analysis was applied to assess changes in beliefs and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess intervention effects. All analyses were adjusted for the nested structure of students within schools. At post-intervention respondents from the experimental group reported in comparison with those from the control group a significantly more negative attitude towards smoking, stronger social norms against smoking, higher self-efficacy towards non-smoking, more action planning to remain a non-smoker, and lower intentions to smoke in the future. Smoking initiation was 3.2% in the experimental group and 8.8% in the control group (pnon-smoking cognitions and non-smoking behavior. Therefore it is recommended to implement the program at a national level in Saudi-Arabia. Future studies are recommended to assess long term program effects and the conditions favoring national implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Variability in smoking experimentation and risk factors in 4 secondary schools in Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pedro; Carrillo, Andrés; Sánchez, Joseph; Hurtado, Ascensión; Sánchez, Irene; Martínez, Rafaela; Cuevas, María Dolores

    2007-01-01

    To identify patterns of tobacco experimentation and consumption in 4 geographically close groups of students in the first year of secondary education, as well as attitudes and consumption in their social environments. To identify the factors associated with tobacco experimentation and consumption in each of the student groups. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 4 secondary schools in the region of Murcia (Spain). The study population consisted of first graders in secondary education, recruited in January 2005. The study variables were collected using a modified version of the FRISC questionnaire. The study population was composed of 377 students (190 boys) with a mean age of 12.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 0.6). Between 15.3% and 42.1% of the students had smoked at some time. Between 2% and 6.9% smoked regularly. These differences were related to socioeconomic characteristics ("living with the mother", p = 0.049; "living with the father", p = 0.015) and consumption in the environment ("mother", p = 0.013; "friends", p pocket money, consumption among friends, experimenting with alcohol and not living in one of the towns studied. Significant differences were found among the towns studied. Application of standard preventive programs may prove ineffective unless they are adapted to the characteristics of the specific school.

  10. School Students' Leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhenko, Liudmila Fedorovna

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a survey involving 700 students and 300 parents in Volgodonsk, Russia. Itemizes types of leisure activities and hours per week of leisure time enjoyed by students and examines amount of organized leisure. Notes that television viewing consumed much of students' leisure time. Underscores parents' critical influence in determining student…

  11. School Libraries and Student Learning: A Guide for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative, well-designed school library programs can be critical resources for helping students meet high standards of college and career readiness. In "School Libraries and Student Learning", Rebecca J. Morris shows how school leaders can make the most of their school libraries to support ambitious student learning. She offers…

  12. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  13. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

  14. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  15. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Students' attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students' compliance and attitudes following the ban. Cross-sectional study. A private university in Lebanon. 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students' cigarette use.

  17. Religious attitude associated with general health and smoking in Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

    2010-01-01

    Given the university students' model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary.

  18. [A cross-sectional study on the status of tobacco use among junior middle school students in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Wang, A H; Liu, C Y; Mu, C N; Wang, B

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To understand the rate on tobacco use and associated factors in junior middle school students in Shaanxi province. Methods: We used a multi-stage stratified random sampling method to select students from 30 junior middle schools in 10 areas of Shaanxi province in 2013. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 4 633 questionnaires were dispatched and 4 298 were qualified for further analysis. The current smoking rate of junior middle school students in Shaanxi was 6.5%, with rate in male (11.1%) higher than that of female students (1.7%). The current smoking rate of students in grade three (9.3%) was higher than those of students in grade one (3.5%) or in grade two (7.0%). The smoking rate of students with pocket money more than 31 Yuan per week was (10.0%) higher than those of students with pocket money less than 10 Yuan (4.6%) or 10-30 Yuan (6.3%) per week. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that factors as: male, school located in the city, older age, with more pocket money, having smokers in the family and exposure to second hand smoking were high risk factors for current smoking. Conclusion: Rate on current smoking was high in junior middle schools students in Shaanxi, suggesting that comprehensive intervention programs be developed to reduce the rate of tobacco use in junior middle school students.

  19. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57–0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06–0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers. PMID:22156071

  20. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  1. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  2. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  3. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  4. Secondary School Student's Attitude towards Consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.

  5. Design, Baseline Results of Irbid Longitudinal, School-Based Smoking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare patterns of water pipe and cigarette smoking in an eastern Mediterranean country. Methods: In 2008, 1781 out of 1877 seventh graders enrolled in 19 randomly selected schools in Irbid, Jordan, were surveyed. Results: Experimentation with and current water pipe smoking were more prevalent than cigarette smoking (boys: 38.7% vs…

  6. School Liability: Student to Student Injuries Involving Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettenhausen, Sherrie

    In the absence of immunity, courts have held schools and school personnel liable for personal injury by a student with a disability that resulted from negligent failure to provide a reasonable safe environment, failure to warn of known hazards, or failure to provide adequate supervision. Case law is presented to demonstrate the extent that school…

  7. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  8. Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaouie, Hala; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese youth. This was a cross-sectional study including school students (n=1412) aged 13-18 years recruited from 28 schools and university students (n=1217) aged 18-25 years recruited from 7 universities. A variety of warnings were adapted from other countries. In all, 4 warnings were tested among school students and 18 among university students. All pictorial warnings were considered more effective than the current text warning on message-related and impact-related variables, including intentions to quit or not to start smoking among school and university students. Selected examples related to the top-ranked pictorial warnings are: among male non-smoking school students, 81% agreed that the 'lung' warning had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking as compared to 57% for the current text warning (pnegative economic consequences of smoking, and to find that such a warning was effective among specific sociodemographic groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The Schools Transgender Students Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Education issued guidance to schools intended to provide transgender students with safe and inclusive learning environments. On the heels of this guidance, Ellen Kahn, the Human Rights Campaign's director of Children, Youth, and Families Program, offers advice for educators…

  10. Shopping Problems among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. Methods A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. Results The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.93–4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Conclusion Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. PMID:21497217

  11. Shopping problems among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A

    2011-01-01

    Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  13. Smoking in school-aged adolescents: design of a social network survey in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Alves, Joana; Federico, Bruno; Kinnunen, Jaana; Kuipers, Mirte; Moor, Irene; Perelman, Julian; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Roscillo, Gaetano; Kunst, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, smoking accounts for a large share of socio-economic inequalities in health. As smoking initiation occurs around the age of 13, it is likely that school context and social networks at school play a role in the origin of such inequalities. So far, there has been little generic

  14. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anette; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Ringgaard, Lene Winther; Wohllebe, Louise; Jensen, Poul Dengsøe; Svendsen, Maria; Dalum, Peter; Due, Pernille

    2014-05-28

    Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well as in most Western countries. Previous school-based programs to prevent smoking have shown contrasting results internationally. In Denmark, previous programs have shown limited or no effect. This indicates a need for developing a well-designed, comprehensive, and multi-component intervention aimed at Danish schools with careful implementation and thorough evaluation.This paper describes X:IT, a study including 1) the development of a 3-year school-based multi-component intervention and 2) the randomized trial investigating the effect of the intervention. The study aims at reducing the prevalence of smoking among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects. The X:IT program comprises three main components: 1) smoke-free school premises, 2) parental involvement including smoke-free dialogues and smoke-free contracts between students and parents, and 3) a curricular component. The study encompasses process- and effect-evaluations as well as health economic analyses. Ninety-four schools in 17 municipalities were randomly allocated to the intervention (51 schools) or control (43 schools) group. At baseline in September 2010, 4,468 year 7 students were eligible of which 4,167 answered the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 93.3%). The X:IT study is a large, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an intervention, based on components proven to be efficient in other Nordic settings. The X:IT study directs students, their parents, and smoking

  15. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  16. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  17. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Cars Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes poses a significant health risk to nonsmokers. Among youth, the home is the primary source of SHS. However, little is known about youth exposure to SHS in other nonpublic areas, particularly motor vehicles. METHODS Data were obtained from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of US students in grades 6 to 12. Trends in SHS exposure in a car were assessed across survey years by school level, gender, and race/ethnicity by using binary logistic regression. RESULTS From 2000 to 2009, the prevalence of SHS exposure in cars declined significantly among both nonsmokers (39.0%–22.8%; trend P race/ethnicity subgroups. CONCLUSIONS SHS exposure in cars decreased significantly among US middle and high school students from 2000 to 2009. Nevertheless, in 2009, over one-fifth of nonsmoking students were exposed to SHS in cars. Jurisdictions should expand comprehensive smoke-free policies that prohibit smoking in worksites and public places to also prohibit smoking in motor vehicles occupied by youth. PMID:22311992

  18. Student nurses as school nurse extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Carol L; Dood, Florence V; Squires, Darcy A

    2012-12-01

    The severe underuse of school nurses leaves students with unaddressed health needs that impact their safety and learning ability. An undergraduate pediatric clinical focusing on nursing students and the role of a school nurse in an elementary school setting can be a unique approach to combining the needs of school children and educating student nurses. One school of nursing created such a project to help address these needs and collect data on the activities student nurses performed in school nurse role and their impact on student health. This project serves as both a practice improvement project and an innovation in pediatric clinical education. The purposes of this project were to quantify baccalaureate nursing student activities related to the school nurse role and to evaluate the results that have the potential to impact on student health in an urban elementary school. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. School Related Alienation: Perceptions of Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Richard C.; And Others

    Responses to questionnaires administered to 10,000 senior high school students to ascertain their feelings of alienation as related to their schools are presented. The questionnaire items concerned: School as an Institution, The School as Teacher, Authority--Autonomy, and Parental Interest in School. The findings that resulted from the…

  20. Smoking and attitudes towards it and its cessation among dental students in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jorma I; Filppula, Maarit; Maldupa, Ilze; Patja, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of smoking is higher in Latvia than in most EU countries. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of dental students in Latvia about the effects of smoking on oral health and their attitudes toward smoking and its cessation. A cross-sectional survey among all the dental students in Latvia was conducted in 2011. Students at the Riga Stradins University were asked to participate in this anonymous, voluntary survey. The questionnaire included items concerned with the students' own smoking habits, their knowledge of smoking as an addiction and its health effects and their attitudes towards its prevention and cessation in a dental setting. The response rate was 87% (173/200). The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. About one quarter of the students (24%) were daily or occasional smokers and almost half of the male students (46%) had smoked at least 100-times in their lifetime. The students revealed a lack of knowledge about the addictive nature of smoking, in that about half of the students did not consider smoking physically or socially addictive. About one fifth (21.4%) didn't consider environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) harmful to one's health. Although the students' awareness of smoking improved during their studies, the most significant factor related to their knowledge was their own smoking history (OR=2.7; p=0.021). Smoking was frequent among undergraduate dental students and they lacked knowledge of its addictiveness. More emphasis ought to be placed on education with regard to smoking and on cessation services.

  1. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  2. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  3. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  4. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: A school based intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and

  5. Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis of Cigarette Use among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict high school students' cigarette smoking behavior from selected predictors from 2009 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey. The specific target student behavior of interest was frequent cigarette use. Five predictor variables included in the model were: a) race, b) frequency of…

  6. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  7. Smoking habits of pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Targu Mures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.

  8. Parental smoking and related behaviours influence adolescent tobacco smoking: results from the 2001 New Zealand national survey of 4th form students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2003-12-12

    To investigate whether parental smoking and other parental behaviours are risk factors for smoking in 14- and 15-year-old children. National cross-sectional survey of 14 930 female and 14 341 male 4th form students who answered an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire in November 2001. The effect of both parents smoking on the risk of daily smoking by students varied significantly (p pocket money amount and living in a home where people smoked. Two thirds of daily smoking could be explained by the combined exposure to one or more of the following factors: parental smoking, pocket money >5 dollars per week, and smoking in the house. Parental behaviour is a key determinant of smoking by New Zealand adolescents. Efforts that target the role of parents should be pursued, such as health promotion strategies that advise parents about the possible benefits of banning smoking in the home, limiting pocket money, and not providing cigarettes to their children.

  9. Sexting by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassberg, Donald S; Cann, Deanna; Velarde, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    In the last 8 years, several studies have documented that many adolescents acknowledge having exchanged sexually explicit cell phone pictures of themselves, a behavior termed sexting. Differences across studies in how sexting was defined, recruitment strategies, and cohort have resulted in sometimes significant differences in as basic a metric as what percentage of adolescents have sent, received, or forwarded such sexts. The psychosocial and even legal risks associated with sexting by minors are significantly serious that accurate estimates of its prevalence, including over time, are important to ascertain. In the present study, students (N = 656) from a single private high school were surveyed regarding their participation in sexting. Students at this same school were similarly surveyed four years earlier. In this second survey, reported rates of sending (males 15.8%; females 13.6%) and receiving (males 40.5%; females 30.6%) sexually explicit cell phone pictures (revealing genitals or buttocks of either sex or female breasts) were generally similar to those reported at the same school 4 years earlier. Rates of forwarding sexts (males 12.2%; females 7.6%) were much lower than those previously acknowledged at this school. Correlates of sexting in this study were similar to those reported previously. Overall, our findings suggest that sexting by adolescents (with the exception of forwarding) remains a fairly common behavior, despite its risks.

  10. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Differences of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between medical and non-medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Yan; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wen, Xiao-Zhong; Liang, Cai-Hua; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies in the world reported inconsistent results about the relationship of medical professional education with medical students' smoking behaviors, and no similar research had been published in China. This paper aims to explore whether the differences of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors existed between medical and non-medical undergraduate students. Eight thousand one hundred thirty-eight undergraduate students sampled from a university in Guangzhou were investigated with a self-administered structured questionnaire about their smoking-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors, and other relevant factors. General linear model and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to test the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitude, and behaviors between medical and non-medical students while controlling for potential confounding variables. There was no difference in smoking-related knowledge scores between medical and non-medical freshmen, but medical sophomores and juniors had higher scores of smoking-related knowledge than their non-medical counterparts. The medical sophomores had higher mean score of attitudes towards smoking than non-medical ones. Before entering university, the difference in the prevalence of experimental and regular smoking between medical and non-medical college students was not significant. After entering university, in contrast, the overall prevalence of regular smoking was significantly higher among male non-medical college students than among male medical students. Stratified by current academic year, this difference was significant only among male sophomores. Medical students have higher smoking-related knowledge, stronger anti-smoking attitude, and lower prevalence of regular smoking than non-medical college students of similar age, which may be associated with medical professional education.

  12. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  13. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A W; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and how these responses depend on elements of STPs' implementation. To examine STPs and adolescent smoking, we performed a realist review, which is an explanatory approach that synthesizes existing evidence into a program theory that links elements of STPs' implementation to outcomes by specifying its underlying generative mechanisms. The search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase between January 1991 and 2016. Thirty-seven English language articles were identified for inclusion, reporting quantitative and/or qualitative primary evidence on STPs at secondary schools, adolescent smoking behaviour, and mechanisms. From these articles, evidence was extracted about mechanisms that decrease smoking and associated countervailing-mechanisms that reduce, nullify, or revert this positive impact. The program theory showed that STPs may trigger four mechanisms and seven associated countervailing-mechanisms. Adolescents' smoking decreases if STPs make them feel they can get sanctioned, feel less pressure to conform to smokers, internalise anti-smoking beliefs, and find it easier to stick to the decision not to smoke. This positive impact may reduce, nullify, or revert if the implementation of STPs cause adolescents to find alternative places to smoke, develop new social meanings of smoking, want to belong in smoker groups, internalise beliefs that smoking is not bad or that it asserts personal autonomy, or alienate from schools and schools' messages. The program theory, moreover, provided insights on how elements of STPs' implementation trigger mechanisms and avoid the countervailing-mechanisms. STPs' impact can be influenced by adequate implementation and embedding them in

  14. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  15. How High School Students Select a College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…

  16. Student Achievement in Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abby T.

    2017-01-01

    This researcher seeks to answer the following question: How did two elementary Title I schools, identified as "high performing" on the first Smarter Balanced assessment, address elements of Maslow's hierarchy of needs when developing school-wide initiatives to enhance student achievement? Many students in Title I schools face barriers to…

  17. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use.

  18. Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...

  19. Frequent fliers, school phobias, and the sick student: school health personnel's perceptions of students who refuse school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens Armstrong, Anna M; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Brindley, Roger; Coreil, Jeannine; McDermott, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    This study explored school personnel's perceptions of school refusal, as it has been described as a "common educational and public health problem" that is less tolerated due to increasing awareness of the potential socioeconomic consequences of this phenomenon. In-depth interviews were conducted with school personnel at the middle school (N = 42), high school (N = 40), and district levels (N = 10). The findings focus on emergent themes from interviews with school health personnel (N = 12), particularly those themes related to their perceptions of and role in working with school-refusing students. Personnel, especially school health services staff, constructed a typification of the school-refusing student as "the sick student," which conceptualized student refusal due to reasons related to illness. Personnel further delineated sick students by whether they considered the illness legitimate. School health personnel referenced the infamous "frequent fliers" and "school phobics" within this categorization of students. Overarching dynamics of this typification included parental control, parental awareness, student locus of control, blame, and victim status. These typifications influenced how personnel reacted to students they encountered, particularly in deciding which students need "help" versus "discipline," thus presenting implications for students and screening of students. Overall, findings suggest school health personnel play a pivotal role in screening students who are refusing school as well as keeping students in school, underscoring policy that supports an increased presence of school health personnel. Recommendations for school health, prevention, and early intervention include the development of screening protocols and staff training. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  20. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  1. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  2. Secondary School Students' Predictors of Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Cemal; Genç, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect the secondary school students' attitudes in science. This study was conducted using survey method. The sample of the study was 503 students from four different secondary schools in Bartin and Düzce. Data were obtained using the Survey of Factors Affecting Students' Science Attitudes…

  3. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  4. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-02-01

    Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school policies on smoking rates among youth in Florida. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the comprehensiveness and enforcement of tobacco-free school policies affect the youth smoking rates within Florida public school districts. The 2010 and 2014 youth smoking rates were calculated based on the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey results. The 2010 youth smoking rate and the inclusion of the enforcement component with provision of cessation resources were statistically significant predictors of the 2014 youth smoking rate. However, the comprehensiveness level of a policy and the inclusion of an enforcement component were not statistically significant predictors. The inclusion of an enforcement component with provision of cessation resources is important in efforts to reduce youth smoking rates. The content of the tobacco-free school policies seems to be less relevant to their effectiveness than the enforcement of the policies. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  5. Impact of Parents and Peers Smoking on Tobacco Consumption Behavior of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resen, Hussein Mohammed

    2018-03-27

    Introduction: In the United Arab Emirates, smoking prevalence has increased in both sexes, especially among young adults. Various factors have led to this catastrophe; examples include coverage on TV and social media, as well as market availability. One major influence is smoking by parents and peers. A lot of students may start smoking because of the behavior of their family and friends, and therefore it is necessary to quantify adverse contributions. The aim of this project was to study to what degree parents and peers smoking habits may impact on smoking behavior of students at the University of Sharjah. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study with a non-probability convenient type of sampling, was conducted with university students aged 18 to 23. Information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, comprising 23 questions, developed by ourselves. Results: A total of 400 University of Sharjah students (50% males and 50% females) were included.Some 15.8% of the smoking students had smoking parents, and 17.1% of them had smoking peers. The respective figures were 22.2% and 21.7% for males and 10% and 7.8% for females. Conclusions: Peers had a stronger impact than parents and both parents and peers had greater influence on males than on females. Interestingly, almost 80% of the smoking students did not have smoking parents or peers, which leaves the question unanswered of why they started smoking in the first place. Actions at a societal level should be taken into consideration to prevent smoking and thus help create a non-smoking generation. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Determinants of cigarette smoking among senior secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking remains an increasing high-risk behaviour among the youth, despite its harmful effects on health. This study sought to find out the determinants of cigarette smoking among youth of a rural Nigerian community and suggested intervention measures which have potential for the control of smoking among ...

  7. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school contex...

  8. [Tobacco use rate and associated factors in middle school students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Feng, G Z; Jiang, Y; Zhang, J R; Liu, L X

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand tobacco use rate and explore the factors associated with tobacco use in middle school students in China. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 155 117 eligible middle students selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 31 provinces of China. The questionnaire consists of the following topics: tobacco use and cessation, passive smoking, access to tobacco products, tobacco control and tobacco advertisement, and knowledge about and attitudes to tobacco. Software SAS 9.3 was used for sample weighting and data analysis. Results: Current tobacco use rate was 6.9 % in middle school students in China. The rate was higher in boys (11.2 % ) than in girls (2.2 % ), and in rural area (7.8 % ) than in urban area (4.8 % ). Students in western area had the highest tobacco use rate (10.3 % ), followed by the students in middle area (6.4 % ), and the rate in students in eastern area was lowest (4.5 % ). Parent smoking (especially mother smoking), friend smoking, teacher smoking, pocket money for a week>20 yuan, tobacco advertisement or promotion, passive smoking, misconception of tobacco addiction, active attitude to smoking behavior were the risk factors for tobacco use. Conclusions: Smoking rate in boys in China was higher than the average global level. A comprehensive intervention strategy by Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be used to reduce tobacco use in adolescents, including health education, increasing cigarette price, banning tobacco advertisement and promotion, and smoke-free legislation.

  9. School Nurses: An Investment in Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Erin D.

    2018-01-01

    School nurses help students with the prevention and management of chronic physical and mental health issues, but not all schools have a full-time registered nurse on their staff. The author argues that investing in school nursing has benefits that extend beyond the school and into the community.

  10. Predictors of middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Schepis, Ty S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6-8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  11. How do Indonesian youth perceive cigarette advertising? A cross-sectional study among Indonesian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayi Suryo Prabandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported an association between cigarette advertising and smoking behavior. Although this has been reported extensively in the West, it has been reported less in Southeast Asian countries that have not completely banned tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship (TAPS. Indonesia is the only ASEAN country that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, so TAPS regulation is limited. This study aimed to assess the association between youths’ perceptions of cigarette ads and smoking initiation. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 2,115 high school students aged 13–18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to gauge the perception of cigarette ads and initiation to smoking. We calculated the odds ratio (OR between the perception of cigarette ads and smoking initiation, adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. The sociodemographic variables included in the final model were age and sex. Results: The final multivariate model showed an association between perception of tobacco ads encouraging youths to smoke and smoking initiation (OR 2.70 and current smoking (OR 7.63. Attitude toward TAPS was associated with smoking initiation (OR 1.51 and current smoking (OR 3.32. Exposure to cigarette ads had an association with smoking initiation only (OR 1.27 and did not have an association with current smoking. Having friends and family who smoked was associated with smoking initiation and current smoking in the final multivariate model. Smoking initiation and current smoking were also related to the susceptibility to smoke. Conclusions: This study revealed that cigarette ads were perceived as encouraging youths to smoke and that smoking status was consistently associated with perception of cigarette ads targeted at youths, attitude toward TAPS, and susceptibility as well as smoking friends and family. Regulations to ban TAPS

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  13. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  14. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  15. A qualitative evaluation of a novel intervention using insight into tobacco industry tactics to prevent the uptake of smoking in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Taylor, Amy; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John; Jones, Laura L; Bauld, Linda; Parrott, Steve; Wu, Qi; Szatkowski, Lisa; Bains, Manpreet

    2016-07-11

    Evidence from the US Truth campaign suggests that interventions focusing on tobacco industry tactics can be effective in preventing smoking uptake by children. Operation Smoke Storm is the first school-based intervention based on this premise and comprises three classroom sessions in which students act as secret agents uncovering tobacco industry tactics through videos, quizzes, discussions, and presentations. We report a qualitative evaluation of its acceptability. We conducted eight focus groups with 79 students aged 11-12 who participated in Operation Smoke Storm at two UK schools in Autumn 2013, and 20 interviews with teachers who delivered the intervention. These were digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework method. Students enjoyed the secret agent scenario and reported acquiring new knowledge about smoking and the tobacco industry, which seemed to strengthen their aversion to smoking. Teachers felt confident delivering the 'off the shelf' resource, although they would have welcomed more background information about the topic and guidance on steering discussions. Teachers highlighted a need for the resource to be flexible and not dependent on lesson length, teacher confidence, or expertise. Students and teachers endorsed the idea of developing a booster component for older students and supported the development of printed information complementing the resource to encourage parents to support their child not to smoke. These findings demonstrate that Operation Smoke Storm can be delivered by teachers to raise awareness about smoking-related issues. The ideas and issues raised are now being used to improve and extend the resource for further evaluation.

  16. A qualitative evaluation of a novel intervention using insight into tobacco industry tactics to prevent the uptake of smoking in school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from the US Truth campaign suggests that interventions focusing on tobacco industry tactics can be effective in preventing smoking uptake by children. Operation Smoke Storm is the first school-based intervention based on this premise and comprises three classroom sessions in which students act as secret agents uncovering tobacco industry tactics through videos, quizzes, discussions, and presentations. We report a qualitative evaluation of its acceptability. Methods We conducted eight focus groups with 79 students aged 11-12 who participated in Operation Smoke Storm at two UK schools in Autumn 2013, and 20 interviews with teachers who delivered the intervention. These were digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework method. Results Students enjoyed the secret agent scenario and reported acquiring new knowledge about smoking and the tobacco industry, which seemed to strengthen their aversion to smoking. Teachers felt confident delivering the ‘off the shelf’ resource, although they would have welcomed more background information about the topic and guidance on steering discussions. Teachers highlighted a need for the resource to be flexible and not dependent on lesson length, teacher confidence, or expertise. Students and teachers endorsed the idea of developing a booster component for older students and supported the development of printed information complementing the resource to encourage parents to support their child not to smoke. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Operation Smoke Storm can be delivered by teachers to raise awareness about smoking-related issues. The ideas and issues raised are now being used to improve and extend the resource for further evaluation.

  17. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain: a cross-sectional population-based study

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    Basora Josep

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29 from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7% were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3% and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%. Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We

  18. What limits the effectiveness of school-based anti-smoking programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, Drahoslava; Zaloudíková, Iva

    2012-03-01

    It is generally accepted that living in families where there are smokers, children are stressed not only by the harmful physical exposure to second-hand and third-hand tobacco smoke, but also by the negative models of the adult relatives' behaviour, as relatives who smoke can inspire children to imitate this behaviour, influencing attitudes towards, and early experiments with smoking. In this paper, some of the most important results about influence of family smoking on the effects of the anti-smoking educational programme "Non-smoking Is Normal" are described. The school-based programme was created by medical and educational specialists and targets children at the first level of primary schools (aged from 6 to 11 years). The data about interesting outcomes of the programme (knowledge, attitudes, behaviour) were collected by anonymous questionnaire, administered twice in each school year: one month before the complex of 5 lectures (pre-tests) and 4-5 months after the last lecture (post-tests). The sample of participants (860-910) was divided into four groups, according to the intervention and family backrounds: (1) programme children from smoking families "P-S"; (2) control children from smoking families "C-S"; (3) programme children from non-smoking families "P-NS"; (4) control children from non-smoking families "C-NS". The differences in the frequency of children's answers were analysed using the tests in statistic Epi Info software, version 6.04a (chi-square, Mantel Haenszel, Yates, Fisher). In the programme group, the number of children with smoking relatives was significantly higher than in the control group (80.1% vs. 73.0%, p non-smoking families, the frequency of critics of adults smoking was significantly higher all the time of the study (p non-smoking parents only at the end of the study (p < 0.05). Despite of the effort to initiate parental participation on the primary prevention of smoking, we have confirmed that smoking in families decreased the

  19. School climate: perceptual differences between students, parents, and school staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Christine M.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school climate can have a great impact on student, teacher, and school outcomes. However, it is often assessed as a summary measure, without taking into account multiple perspectives (student, teacher, parent) or examining subdimensions within the broader construct. In this study, we assessed school climate from the perspective of students, staff, and parents within a large, urban school district using multilevel modeling techniques to examine within- and between-school variance. After adjusting for school-level demographic characteristics, students reported worse perceptions of safety and connectedness compared to both parent and staff ratings (all p climate ratings within a school. Understanding how perceptions differ between informants can inform interventions to improve perceptions and prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:28642631

  20. Influence of smoking by family and best friend on adolescent tobacco smoking: results from the 2002 New Zealand national survey of year 10 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray

    2007-06-01

    To compare the relative importance on adolescent smoking of the influence from parental smoking and peer smoking. National New Zealand crosssectional survey of 14,936 female and 14,349 male Year 10 students (aged 14 and 15 years) who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2002. Adolescents with both parents smoking had the highest smoking risk compared with those with one or neither parent smoking. The relative risk of adolescent daily smoking associated with both parents smoking, compared with neither, varied with ethnicity, being 2.34 (95% Cl 2.05-2.67) in Maori, 2.87 (2.21-3.73) in Pacific Islanders, 11.37 (7.87-16.42) in Asian, and 4.92 (4.35-5.55) in European/Other students, adjusting for age and sex. These values were lower than the adjusted relative risks of daily adolescent smoking associated with having a best friend who smoked: 4.18 (3.59-4.88) in Maori, 5.19 (3.98-6.76) in Pacific Island, 14.35 (9.48-21.71) in Asian and 10.18 (9.07-11.43) in European/Other students. Adolescent smoking was also positively associated with pocket money amount and living in a home where smoking was allowed, both parental-related factors. Combined exposure to one or more of the following factors - parental smoking, pocket money >$5 per week and smoking in the house - explained 64% of daily adolescent smoking, very similar to the 67% attributable to best friend smoking. Parental behaviour is a key determinant of smoking by New Zealand adolescents and explains a similar proportion of daily adolescent smoking to that by peer smoking.

  1. Student-teacher relationships matter for school inclusion: school belonging, disability, and school transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.

  2. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

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    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  3. attitude of secondary school students towards guidance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards guidance ... students respond and perceive guidance and counselling services will, to ... counsellors will be appointed in post-primary institutions and tertiary levels.

  4. Attitudes against Smoking of Non-Smoker University Students and Affecting Factors

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    Ozge Bilge Atay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: In this study, it is aimed to determine the reasons for which Eregli Education Faculty students do not smoke, the elements contributing to the sustainability of non-smoking habit and their attitudes towards being non-smoker. METHOD: In this study which has been planned cross sectionally an inquiry was applied to the students who are non-smokers out of the 1078 students at Zonguldak Karaelmas University Eregli Education Faculty between April 1st and May 1st under observation. 869 ( %80.4 non-smoker students out of 1078 students attending Eregli Education Faculty form the sample of this study. 656 (75.4 students of these students took part in this study. Statistical tests used to evaluate the obtained data: the averages and standard deviation were calculated through SPSS 11.5 programme, categorical data were assessed by Chi-square (Table 1 and continous variable were assessed by means of t test (Table 2 and logistical regression(Table 3 and 4. The meaningfulness level at statistical evaluation was granted as p<0.05. RESULTS: The students of non smoking is % 80.6 . Being male has been determined as a crucial factor at attempting to smoke. Family support and the support of spouse, lover, fiance, strong willpower, being determined to protect health have been categorized into meaningful level in terms of facilitating not to smoke (p<00.5. The attitude points of the student who have never tried smoking towards the smoker students are significantly higher than the students who have tried smoking. As for the students who have tried smoking, their attitude points towards the cigarette itself and the struggle against smoking are higher than the students who have never tried smoking.In the sense of attitude points towards smoking there is no significant difference between the students. CONCLUSION: The student who have never tried smoking had strong willpower about themself health and social suppotrs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 265-272

  5. [Attitudes and behavior in relation to smoking among medical students in Casablanca in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghba, N; Yassine, N; Sghier, Z; Hayat, L; Elfadi, K; Rahibi, I; Hilali, S; Ech-cherrate, A; Mounaji, F; Benjelloun, H; Bakhatar, A; Bennani Othmani, M; Bahlaoui, A

    2013-05-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem. The doctor should be at the forefront in the fight against tobacco. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students and to evaluate their attitudes towards this problem. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 736 medical students enrolled in the faculty of medicine and pharmacy of Casablanca in the academic year 2009/2010. The prevalence of smoking was 7.9%. It was significantly higher in men (16% against 3% in women) and varied little from one age group to another (7-8%). The average number of cigarettes smoked per day was eight. More than half of the students (58%) had attempted to quit smoking. The main motivation was the occurrence of certain symptoms (66%). Ex-smokers accounted for 10% of the total. Moroccan anti-smoking law was poorly understood by more than half of our students (72%). The majority was in favor of prohibition of tobacco sales to children (92%) and the training of health professionals to help patients who want to quit smoking (86%). Compared with previous years this study shows a marked decrease in the prevalence of smoking among medical students in Casablanca as well as a better understanding of its ill effects. This is due not only to greater awareness of this problem among medical students but also to the introduction of the teaching of the pathologies related to tobacco. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents.The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents, after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10.Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042.In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026, but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253. Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25 after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73 after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income.Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.

  8. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  9. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The influence of self-esteem, parental smoking, and living in a tobacco production region on adolescent smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N T; Price, C J

    1988-12-01

    Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.

  11. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted in the region of Kurdistan, Iraq in 2006. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between current cigarette smoking and explanatory variables. Results One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adolescents participated in the Kurdistan-Iraq Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Of these, 58.1% and 41.9% were boys and girls respectively. The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.3%; 25.1% and 2.7% in boys and girls respectively. The factors associated with adolescent smoking were: parents' smoking, smoking in closest friends, male gender, having pocket money and perceptions that boys or girls who smoked were attractive. Conclusion We suggest that public health interventions aimed to curb adolescent cigarette smoking should be designed, implemented and evaluated with due recognition to the factors that are associated with the habit. PMID:18053219

  12. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted in the region of Kurdistan, Iraq in 2006. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between current cigarette smoking and explanatory variables. Results One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adolescents participated in the Kurdistan-Iraq Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Of these, 58.1% and 41.9% were boys and girls respectively. The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.3%; 25.1% and 2.7% in boys and girls respectively. The factors associated with adolescent smoking were: parents' smoking, smoking in closest friends, male gender, having pocket money and perceptions that boys or girls who smoked were attractive. Conclusion We suggest that public health interventions aimed to curb adolescent cigarette smoking should be designed, implemented and evaluated with due recognition to the factors that are associated with the habit.

  13. Evaluation of health behaviors among secondary school students in Baghdad city

    OpenAIRE

    Raad K. Faraj

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess the health behaviors among secondary school students of smoking, diet, and physical activity and to find out the relationship between health behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Methods A descriptive, analytical study carried out from September 2015 to April, 2016 on a simple random sample of 500 students to achieve the objectives that are stated in this study. An assessment tool is constructed by the researcher based ...

  14. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

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    Ciara E. McGee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. Methods A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0, and at 8 months (T1 and one year post-intervention (T2. Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student, adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18 were conducted at T1. Results 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08–0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02–0.17 or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11–0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07–0.52. At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21–1.23. Intervention participants were more likely to ‘definitely’ believe that: ‘it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07–1.33, ‘it is difficult to quit smoking once started’ (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38–1.76, ‘smoke from other peoples’ cigarettes is harmful’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20–2.08, ‘smoking affects sports performance’ (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59–1.88 and ‘smoking makes ‘no difference

  15. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-05-26

    Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0), and at 8 months (T1) and one year post-intervention (T2). Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student), adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18) were conducted at T1. 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08-0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02-0.17) or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11-0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07-0.52). At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21-1.23). Intervention participants were more likely to 'definitely' believe that: 'it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.33), 'it is difficult to quit smoking once started' (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38-1.76), 'smoke from other peoples' cigarettes is harmful' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.08), 'smoking affects sports performance' (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59-1.88) and 'smoking makes 'no difference' to weight' (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.86-2.44). At T2, significant between

  16. Self-efficacy: a mediator of smoking behavior and depression among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.

  17. School students "Catch a Star"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    School students from across Europe and beyond have won prizes in an astronomy competition, including the trip of a lifetime to one of the world's most powerful astronomical observatories, on a mountaintop in Chile. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), has just announced the winners of the 2007 "Catch a Star!" competition. ESO PR Photo 21/07 "Catch a Star!" is an international astronomy competition for school students, in which students are invited to 'become astronomers' and explore the Universe. The competition includes two categories for written projects on astronomical themes, to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, "Catch a Star!" also includes an astronomy-themed artwork competition. Students from 22 countries submitted hundreds of written projects and pieces of artwork. "The standard of entries was most impressive, and made the jury's task of choosing winners both enjoyable and difficult! We hope that everyone, whether or not they won a prize, had fun taking part, and learnt some exciting things about our Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Jan Mestan and Jan Kotek from Gymnazium Pisek in the Czech Republic, together with their teacher Marek Tyle. Their report on "Research and Observation of the Solar Eclipse" told how they had studied solar eclipses, and involved their fellow students in observations of an eclipse from their school in 2006. The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - one of the world's most powerful optical/infrared telescopes - where they will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations on the 2600m high Paranal mountaintop. "It's fantastic that we will see the

  18. Smoking behaviour and patterns among university students during the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Turk, Tarek; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Zakaria, Mohammed; Sawaf, Bisher; Edris, Basel

    2018-05-03

    The ongoing Syrian war has resulted in many changes in the social and economic life of Syrians. To date, no study has documented the relationship between smoking behaviour and the war. To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among university students during the crisis in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, and the impact of the war on smoking behaviour. We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey of 1027 undergraduate students from all years and colleges at Damascus University. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 24.73% for cigarettes and 30.4% for waterpipe. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was significantly higher in men, non-health profession students, and in students living away from their families. There was no significant difference in prevalence of smoking cigarettes when comparing students according to their origin (urban vs rural), year of study, and change of residence due to war. War was associated with a significant increase in mean number of cigarettes smoked daily, and 53.1% of smokers reported that the number of cigarettes consumed per day had increased since the beginning of the war. Increased smoking is an additional health concern in areas of conflict and may require special consideration and efforts by public health authorities. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  19. Effects of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements on the Attitudes of Korean College Students toward Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jakyoung; Ryu, Ji-Hye; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.

  20. High School Students' Views on Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Ibrahim Umit; Akbayin, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students' views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of "Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity" with 47 9[superscript th] grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of…

  1. Dual Enrollment for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Linsey; Hughes, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses and potentially earn college credit. The term concurrent enrollment is sometimes used interchangeably with dual enrollment, and sometimes to refer to a particular model of dual enrollment. In some programs, students earn high school and college credit simultaneously;…

  2. Mobile Technologies in Schools: The Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Emma-Leigh; Robertson, Neville; Sargisson, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate and high school students spend a large amount of time using mobile devices (Lauricella, Cingel, Blackwell, Wartella, & Conway, 2014), and such devices are increasingly being integrated into our school system. We conducted a series of student-led focus groups, with this early adolescent cohort, in order to better understand their…

  3. Scientific Literacy of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Keith B.; Tulip, David F.

    This investigation was undertaken in order to establish the status of scientific literacy among three groups of secondary school students in four Brisbane, Australia high schools, and to reduce the apparent reticence of science teachers to evaluate students' achievement in the various dimensions of scientific literacy by demonstrating appropriate…

  4. [Oral hygiene habits among tobacco-smoking and non-smoking students of the Medical University of Lublin--chosen aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Among several etiologic factors for dental caries and periodontal diseases we can find dental plaque that forms on the teeth surfaces and prosthetic appliances. Elimination of dental plaque by proper oral hygiene procedures is crucial in caries and periodontal disease prevention. The aim of the study was evaluation of tobacco smoking prevalence among dental students of the Medical University of Lublin and the comparative analysis of oral hygiene habits among smoking and nonsmoking students. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 112 students of the Medical University of Lublin during the second, third, fourth and fifth year of their studies. The students were 20-28 years of age. The questions concerned cigarettes smoking habit and the ways of maintaining oral hygiene. Respondents were divided into smoking and non-smoking group. Statistical analysis was carried out. Obtained results were sent to statistical analysis. Cigarette smoking was reported by 16.67% of surveyed students. No significant differences between smoking and non-smoking students were stated in frequency of brushing, changing the toothbrush, density of toothbrush filaments, using manual and power toothbrush, using whitening toothpastes and frequency of using dental floss and toothpicks. Statistically significant difference was noted in gum chewing habit--smoking students chewed the gum more frequently (83.33%) than non-smoking students (40%). Significant differences occurred also in frequency of professional removal of dental deposits. Calculus removal performed twice a year was reported by 50% of smoking students, comparing with 17.8% of nonsmoking students. 37.78% of nonsmoking students declared professional teeth cleaning performed more often than twice a year comparing with 11.11% of respondents from the smokers group (p < 0.05).

  5. Compliance and Support for Smoke-Free School Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, D. R.; Gilpin, E. A.; Pierce, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to examine factors associated with compliance and support for a smoke-free campus before and after a 1995 campus-wide smoking ban for everyone, including teachers and visitors, in California. Adolescent (12-17 years) data from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 (N approximately 6000 each year) California Tobacco Surveys…

  6. Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

    2001-10-01

    A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs.

  7. Charter Schools and Student Compositions of Traditional Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevbahar Ertas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most contentious urban education policy issues in the United States today is the expansion of charter schools and its repercussions. Does the expansion of charter schools affect the racial and socioeconomic composition of traditional public schools in the United States? This study provides empirical evidence on this question by relying on a panel design that uses school-level data from two states that have experimented with charter schools for more than 15 years: Ohio and Texas. Using county-level, spatial, and enrollment-based measures of charter exposure, the changes from pre- to post-charter-legislation stages in the student compositions of public schools that do and do not face competition from charters are examined. The results suggest that charter school presence contributes to aggregate-level changes in the share of non-Hispanic White and free-lunch-eligible students in traditional public schools in both states in different ways.

  8. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-11-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  9. The Assessment of Self-Efficacy Level According to University StudentsAND#8217; Smoking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ozlem Kilinc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT AIM: This essay is made with the aim of assessing of self-efficacy level according to university students’ smoking situation. METHOD: The study that is descriptive type was made in between September 2009-June 2010 in University of Bingol. Totally 920 students who attend Bingol Universty in 2009-2010 academic year consist of the universe of the study. The choice of sample wasn’t used in the study, the study completed with 765 students who were volunteer to join the study data was collected by using the form including socio-demographic data and self-efficacy scale. Evaluating data was made by descriptive tests in computer environment, t test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The rate of students’ smoking is 6,9 % among girls, 37,4 % among boys and it is totally 44,3 %. It was determined that place that they live, their fathers’ education of smoking students idea quit smoking effect their self-efficacy level. It was determined that family type, marital status, fathers’ education of non-smoking students effect their self-efficacy level. CONCLUSION: It is found that self-efficacy of non-smoking students is higher than the self-efficacy of smoking students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 255-264

  10. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  11. Teaching Ethics to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…

  12. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  13. [Smoking among nursing students in Catalonia: knowledge, attitudes and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras Tébar, A; García Sanchón, C; Hernández López, M C; Ballestín, N; Nebot, M

    1997-01-01

    Determine the prevalence and characteristics of tobaccoism, as well as some attitudes and their knowledge about tobaccoism in nursing university students in Catalonia. A descriptive study with transversal section has been done. A self-filling anonymous questionnaire was designed following the guidelines of the European Regional Office of the W.H.O. We selected a sample of conglomerates of classrooms at random which was stratified according to levels in all the university schools in Catalonia. The field work was performed during the first term of the academic year 1994-1995 handing the questionnaires individually to the students and collecting them once filled. In the data analysis we used the ji squared test to Pearson with the Yates' correction and the lineal tendency test of Mantel-Haenszel. 904 students answered the questionnaire. The global prevalence of smokers is 38.7% (IC 95%: 35.8-41.6). There were no significant differences when considering levels or sex. The prevalence of tobaccoism in students over 24 years of age is 13% higher (p Catalonia has been observed for the nursing professionals in the year 2000.

  14. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Jawad, Ammar A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence in Malaysia is high, especially among men and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors towards cigarette smoking among school teachers in Malaysia. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted among 495 secondary school teachers. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of 29 questions categorized into two sections: socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program 13.0. ANOVA; t-tests were used in univariate analysis; multiple linear regression was applied for multivariate analysis. The majority of the participants were female (81.6%), in the age group ranged between 30-39 years (44%), Malay (90.1%), married (89.7%), degree holders (85.1%), with monthly income ranged between 3000-3999 Ringgit Malaysia (33.5%), from urban areas (94.7%), their specialty is social studies (33.9%) and with no family history of cancer (83.6%). The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Malaysia was found to be 7.8%. Regarding reasons to start smoking among school teachers: the major reason was found to be relaxation (33.3%), followed by stress-relief (28.2%). Univariate analysis showed that sex, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers (pMalaysia was found to be relatively low. Sex, marital status, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers.

  15. Association of School Characteristics and Implementation in the X:IT Study-A School-Randomized Smoking Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Lotus S; Due, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette K; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Andersen, Anette

    2017-05-01

    Assessment of implementation is essential for the evaluation of school-based preventive activities. Interventions are more easily implemented in schools if detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans, and materials are provided; however, implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself-for example, school-level characteristics, such as principal support and organizational capacity. We examined school-level characteristics of schools in groups of high, medium, and low implementation of a smoking prevention intervention. The X:IT study is a school-randomized trial testing a multicomponent intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents. Our data came from electronic questionnaires completed by school coordinators at 96.1% of participating intervention schools (N = 49) at first follow -up. Schools that implemented the X:IT intervention to a medium or high degree had higher levels of administrative leadership (77.3% and 83.3% vs 42.9%), school climate/organizational health (95.5% and 91.7% vs 66.7%), mission-policy alignment (90.9% and 100.0% vs 71.4%), personnel expertise (81.8% and 75.0% vs 46.7%), school culture (77.3% and 91.7% vs 53.3%), positive classroom climate (91.4% and 96.2% vs 82.9%) compared with low implementation schools. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the school context in future health prevention initiatives. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  16. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  17. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  18. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  19. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students was investigated. Suicidal behaviour, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, road-related behaviour, violent behaviour and sexual behaviour were included. This article, the first in a series, describes the rationale and methodology of the ...

  20. Student Trust in Teachers and Student Perceptions of Safety: Positive Predictors of Student Identification with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Kensler, Lisa; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of student trust in teacher and student perceptions of safety on identification with school. Data were collected from one large urban district in an eastern state. Participants included 5441 students in 3rd through 12th grades from 49 schools. Students responded to surveys that assessed student trust in teachers,…

  1. Assessment of professional competency and need of smoking cessation counseling for dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A. Dable

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.

  2. refractive errors among secondary school students in Isuikwuato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyamba

    STUDENTS IN ISUIKWUATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ... the prevalence and types of refractive errors among secondary school students ... KEYWORDS: Refractive error, Secondary School students, ametropia, .... interviews of the teachers as regards the general performance of those students with obvious visual.

  3. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  4. [An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Chen, Feng-lei; Shi, Xiang-yu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Dan; Tan, Hong-zhuan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha. Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire. All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status. χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants. Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8% (95%CI: 28.5 - 33.1). Students from the second-class (OR = 2.367) or the third-class universities (OR = 2.562) were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities. Students majored in sports or arts (OR = 2.456) were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students. Students whose father were cadres (OR = 1.602) were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers. Students being males (OR = 7.386), having high monthly expenses (OR = 1.139), with positive attitude to smoking benefits (OR = 1.140) were risk factors for smoking. Number of smoking members in the family (OR = 1.801) was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking (OR = 0.806) was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers. Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include: ranking of universities, students' major, gender, father's occupation, amount of pocket money, number of smoking members in the family, knowledge about smoking, the attitude to the benefit of smoking.

  5. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  6. Youthful Smoking: Patterns and Relationships to Alcohol and Other Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined smoking patterns in 27,335 junior and senior high school students. Found smoking was more prevalent among girls than boys, and among whites more than members of minority groups. Marijuana use was the best single predictor of whether a student smoked or not. Heavy drinking was the best predictor of quantity smoked among smokers. (Author/KS)

  7. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys across the four countries of the United Kingdom

  8. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. From smoke to bad fish: DTU students invent new uses for sensor technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    A sensor that can register smoke from a fire can also be used to register even the faintest odeur of bad fish. This is what a team of students behind the recently started business, Fishent, discovered.......A sensor that can register smoke from a fire can also be used to register even the faintest odeur of bad fish. This is what a team of students behind the recently started business, Fishent, discovered....

  10. Attitudes of High School Students towards Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Avcı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words:    Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale

  11. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The importance of social sources of cigarettes to school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, E; Aveyard, P; Griffin, C; Cheng, K K

    2003-03-01

    To discover the importance of social sources of tobacco to young people as opposed to commercial sources; to describe the peer market for cigarettes in schools and the consequences for young people of their involvement in it. Cross sectional questionnaire survey, one-to-one interviews, and focus groups. Seven schools in Birmingham, UK. All students in two randomly selected classes from each school completed the questionnaire, and never smokers, occasional smokers, and regular smokers were interviewed. Two thirds of occasional smokers and one quarter of regular smokers obtained cigarettes socially, mostly for free. A few smokers regularly bought their cigarettes from others. Among friendship groups, both smokers and non-smokers were involved in the exchange of cigarettes, often for money, which is a common activity. A few young people use the selling of cigarettes to fund their own smoking. Some young people, smokers and non-smokers, are involved in semi-commercial selling of cigarettes. All school students are aware of where to purchase cigarettes from non-friends, which is only used "in emergency" because of the high price. One school had a strong punishment policy for students caught with cigarettes. In this school, more people bought singles from the peer market and the price was higher. The passing and selling of cigarettes in school is a common activity, which from the young persons perspective, ensures that all share cross counter purchases. A few people are prepared to use the peer market for monetary gain and it appears to be responsive to external conditions. The peer market might mean that efforts to control illegal sales of cigarettes are not as effective as hoped.

  13. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  14. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, and Training on Cessation Counseling Among Nursing Students: Cross-Country Data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Jones

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nursing Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS has been conducted in schools in 39 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank (identified as “sites” for the remainder of this paper. In half the sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in 22 sites. Over 60% of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in 23 of 39 sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society, believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco, but few reported receiving any formal training. Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among health professionals, promote smoke free workplaces, and implement programs that train health professionals in effective cessation-counseling techniques.

  15. Medical students' perspectives on gender and smoking: a mixed methodology investigation in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2011-08-01

    To explore the gender dimensions on influences of tobacco uptake on medical students using both qualitative and quantitative methods. A phased mixed-method study design was used with in-depth interviews followed by a survey questionnaire in a 'smoke-free' medical college campus in a private university of Karachi. Eight in-depth interviews were conducted to under-pin themes that were further used for developing the questionnaire. Tabulation and analysis of the quantitative data was done using SPSS software version 12. All the ethical issues for the research were taken into consideration. One hundred and sixty-five (72 male, 93 female) students participated in the study. Mean age was 21.57 +/- 1.66 years. The survey results reported perceived reasons for male smoking as stress relief (74%), image (62%), companionship (54%), leisurely independence (46%) and male power and masculinity (44%). Among reasons for women for not smoking by the majority was that it was frowned upon (87%) while the reasons for smoking clustered around concepts of images (65%), western culture (66%), stress relief (51%) and advertising (36%). A large proportion (55%) of students felt bad and bothered by male and female smoking. Despite being medical students, the anti-tobacco future role models, traditional concepts of gender were frequently involved that explains smoking and non-smoking gendered behaviours.

  16. Middle School and High School Students Who Stutter: A Qualitative Investigation of School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tiffany R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and further understand the ways in which middle school and high school students perceive their school experiences within the school environment. School has an important impact on the social development of children (Milsom, 2006). Learning is not done individually as classrooms are inherently social…

  17. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  18. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  19. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Ringgaard, Lene Winther

    2014-01-01

    as in most Western countries. Previous school-based programs to prevent smoking have shown contrasting results internationally. In Denmark, previous programs have shown limited or no effect. This indicates a need for developing a well-designed, comprehensive, and multi-component intervention aimed at Danish......:IT study is a large, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an intervention, based on components proven to be efficient in other Nordic settings. The X:IT study directs students, their parents, and smoking prevention policies at the schools. These elements have proven to be effective tools...... in preventing smoking among adolescents. Program implementation is thoroughly evaluated to be able to add to the current knowledge of the importance of implementation. X:IT creates the basis for thorough effect and process evaluation, focusing on various social groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled...

  20. Insufficient smoking restrictions in restaurants around junior high schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2006-12-01

    Controls for second hand smoke (SHS) and adolescent smoking have been still sociomedical concerns in Japan. Restaurant smoking restrictions are associated with community social norms affecting adolescent smoking behavior, and the status in areas around Junior high schools (JHSs) in the community could be a sign of community practices on regulating SHS for adolescents. To examine whether restaurant smoking restrictions are seen especially in areas around JHSs in Japan, a survey using the direct inspection of a total of 163 restaurants (64 restaurants within and 99 outside a 1-km radius from the nearest JHSs) was conducted in May 2003 in Yonago city, Japan. We assessed smoking restriction status in each restaurant and classified them into 2 groups according to the distance from the nearest JHSs. There were only 2 (3.1%) restaurants with 100% non-smoking and 11 (17.2%) with some partial restrictions among the restaurants within a 1-km radius of JHSs. There were 1 (1.0%) restaurant with 100% non-smoking, 3 (3.0%) with complete non-smoking sections and 17 (17.2%) with some partial restrictions among the restaurants outside a 1-km radius of JHSs. Among restaurants with some partial restrictions, restriction methods were considered insufficient. The smoking restriction status was not significantly different between the restaurant groups within and outside a 1-km radius of JHSs. These results suggest that the public awareness of and attitude toward adolescent smoking problems remains low in Japan. Further SHS control actions for adolescents are needed in Japan.

  1. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mihajlović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4% and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%. There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8% among adolescents whose best friends (45% are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3% are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%. The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%. The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35

  4. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  5. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  6. Evolução temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina, 1986, 1991, 1996 Trends in smoking habits among medical students in 1986, 1991, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Menezes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina nos últimos dez anos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com estudantes do primeiro ao quinto ano do curso de medicina, em 1996. A amostra foi de 449 alunos que responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. Fumante era aquele que fumava um ou mais cigarros por dia há pelo menos um mês; ex-fumantes foram aqueles que, no período da entrevista, não eram fumantes regulares, mas o haviam sido anteriormente. Pesquisa similar foi realizada em 1986 e 1991. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 11%, comparada com 14% em 1991 e 21% em 1986. Apesar da redução do tabagismo nas três séries estudadas, a queda percentual entre 1996 e 1991 foi menor do que aquela observada entre 1991 e 1986. Em 1996, a prevalência do vício de fumar aumentou conforme o ano cursado. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo. A maioria dos alunos mostrou-se favorável à proibição do fumo em locais de ensino e assistência e afirmaram que o tema era pouco valorizado no currículo da faculdade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in smoking habits among medical students in the last ten years. METHODS: In 1996, a cross-sectional survey of smoking habits was carried out among students in the first to the fifth year of medical school. Four hundred and nine students answered the questionnaire. A regular smoker was defined as someone who smokes one or more cigarettes a day at least for one month; former smokers were the ones who used to smoke in the past but not at the moment. Similar researchs were conducted in 1986 and 1991. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Smoking prevalence was 11% compared with 14% in 1991 and 21% in 1986. Although there was a significant reduction of smoking in the last three years, the actual decrease from 1991 to 1996 was less than that observed from 1986 to 1991. In 1961, the prevalence of smoking increased in the last years of medical school. There

  7. Supporting Students with Disabilities during School Crises: A Teacher's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura S.; Embury, Dusty Columbia; Jones, Ruth E.; Yssel, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Most schools have crisis plans to support student safety, but few plans address the complex needs of students with disabilities. School supports should include analysis of school plans and student strengths and needs to ensure that students with disabilities have the best opportunity to be safe in school crises. Recommendations include developing…

  8. How Students Utilize and Perceive Their School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidt, Shirley A.

    2011-01-01

    School library usage and middle school students' perceptions of the usefulness of their school library were examined in this study. 1,509 predominately Hispanic students attending rural public schools participated by completing an online survey regarding their school libraries. The vast majority of students surveyed reported that they used their…

  9. School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Earthman, Glen I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness. In particular, research demonstrates that comfortable classroom temperature and noise level are very important to efficient student performance. The age of school buildings is a useful proxy in this regard, since older facilities often have problems with thermal environment and noise level. A number of studies have measured overall building condition and its conne...

  10. E-smoking among students of medicine - frequency, pattern and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Grzegorz; Jankowski, Mateusz; Zejda, Jan; Jarosińska, Agnieszka; Idzik, Agnieszka; Bańka, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    E-smoking has become a public health problem. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use; to compare the patterns of smoking; to assess the attitudes and motivations for e-cigarette use. All 1,700 students from Faculty of Medicine (Medical University of Silesia) were invited to questionnaire based cross-sectional study about the frequency and attitudes towards the use of traditional and electronic cigarettes. The data were obtained from 1,318 medical students (response 77.5%) aged 22.1 ± 2.2 years. Traditional tobacco smoked 18.1%, e-cigarettes 1.3% and 2.2% were dual smokers. The overall frequency of e-smokers was 4.9% among men and 2.8% among women (p = 0.05). Compared to tobacco users in e-smokers duration of smoking was shorter (p impact on health (43.5%) and the price (34.8%). E-smoking as safe for health was perceived by 6.0% of respondents (35.5% in e-smokers vs. 4.9% in non e-smokers; p students of medicine, e-smoking is apparently less popular than smoking tobacco cigarettes. Respondents considered e-cigarettes to be harmful and addictive.

  11. Smoking, weight loss intention and obesity-promoting behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shawna L; Lee, Rebecca E; Kaur, Harsohena; Harris, Kari J; Strother, Myra L; Huang, Terry T-K

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether college smoking was associated with trying to lose weight and other weight-related behaviors. We surveyed 300 students at the University of Kansas about smoking (ever, current, and amount), weight loss intention (y/n), weight-related attitudes, and eating and exercise behavior. Weight, height, and body fat were measured. About half the students (49%) self-identified as having ever smoked while 53 (17.6%) self-identified as current smokers. After controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity, ever smoking was not related to weight loss intention but was associated with greater pressure to maintain a healthy weight (p = 0.05), and having engaged in mild exercise on more days in the previous year (p = 0.05). Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers ate more at restaurants serving high calorie foods (p college students was related to weight loss intention. Despite wanting to lose weight, current smoking was concomitant with obesity-promoting behaviors such as eating higher calorie foods and eating in front of the TV. College-based interventions to prevent smoking initiation or promote smoking cessation should include a focus on healthy eating, exercise and healthful ways to lose or maintain weight.

  12. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures.

  13. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  14. Obesity and Student Performance at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates…

  15. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide

  16. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  17. Factors influencing smoking among secondary school pupils in Ilala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco epidemic is described as a global crisis, it is one of the two major causes of death and still growing, the other one being HIV/AIDS. The number of smokers worldwide is estimated to be 1.3 billion people, 84% of these smokers live in developing countries. Cigarette smoking, consumption of other ...

  18. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of adolescent tobacco use and associated social and political ... Had seen anti-smoking media messages during the past 30 days. (yes or no). Had seen ..... peer influencer paradigm: results from 12-13 year olds from six European ...

  19. Ambivalence and Fluidity in the Teenage Smoking and Quitting Experience: Lessons from a Qualitative Study at an English Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Duncan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a school-based stop smoking pilot project and to understand the teenage experience of smoking and quitting within that context. Design: Flexible design methods. Setting: A Kent (United Kingdom [UK]) secondary school. Methods: Semi-structured interviews analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The main themes…

  20. Variation in obesity among American secondary school students by school and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; Bachman, Jerald G; Schulenberg, John E

    2007-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is known to vary by individual characteristics, but little is known about whether BMI varies by school and by school characteristics. Nationally representative samples of United States schools and students are used to determine the extent to which BMI and percent of students at or above the 85th percentile of BMI vary by school and by school characteristics. Data from the 1991-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF) study were analyzed in 2006 and 2007. A relatively small proportion of variance in BMI lies between schools; intraclass correlations are on the order of 3%. Still, this is sufficient variation to provide very different environments for students attending schools that are low versus high in average BMI. There is some modest variation by school type (public, Catholic private, non-Catholic private); school size (number of students in the sampled grade); region of the country; and population density. There is more variation as a function of school socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition of the school. School SES in particular was negatively associated with BMI levels, even after controlling individual-level SES and racial/ethnic status. The residual differences in BMI by school suggest that some characteristic of the school and/or community environment--perhaps cultural factors or peer role modeling or differences in school food, beverage, or physical education policies--facilitate obesity in schools with a high concentration of lower socioeconomic students, beyond individual-level factors.

  1. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  2. School Mobility and Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…

  3. Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.

  4. The Association between Family Structure and Adolescent Smoking among Multicultural Students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Palmer, Paula H; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Blake, Jerome; Johnson, C Anderson

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the prevalence of smoking was associated with family structure among multicultural adolescents and whether there was gender disparity on the association. Data were collected from a sample of 7 th graders in Hawaii who completed in-class questionnaires in 2004. The final sample included 821 multicultural students from different family structures. Descriptive analyses, Chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence of smoking and the association between family structure and smoking prevalence. This sample contained students who lived in intact (61.7%), single-parent (16.5%), step-parent (15.6%), and no-parent (6.2%) families. The overall prevalence of ever/lifetime smoking was 24.0%, and was not significantly different between genders in each family structure ( p >0.05). Compared with living in intact families, living in single-parent, step-parent, or no-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among all students ( p multicultural students. Anti-smoking programs should consider this factor.

  5. The Frequency and Affecting Factors of Smoking Among the High School Teachers in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen Kutlu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of smoking and analyze the affecting factors on smoking among the high school teachers. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed among 213 high school teachers working at 6 high schools selected among 37 high schools in Konya randomly between 20 February 2006-30 May 2006. Of 213 high school teachers who participated in the study, 152 (71.4% were men, 61 (28.6% were women, the lowest age was 22, the highest age was 60 and the mean age was 41,45±8,20. The prevalence of current smokers was [ (every day smokers 38.0% (n=81 plus occasional smokers 4.7% (n=10] 42.7% (n=91, former smokers 21.6% (n=46, never smokers 35.7% (n=76, quit ratio [quit ratio is defined as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers (current and former smokers] was 33.6%, respectively. The lowest age at starting smoking was 10, the highest age was 40 and the median age was 18 years old. The median value of Fagerstrom dependence was 3 and 73.7% (n=67 was placed at a low and very low addiction degree. When the correlation between smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics was investigated, being 15-19 aged was statistically regarded as important to start smoking (X2=47.8, p0.05. There was a smoking room (96.4% for teachers in the high schools who participated in the research. However, this restriction was obeyed by the rate of 57.4%, and it was sometimes (62.8% possible that somebody could see the smoker teachers in the corridors of the school. Of the smokers, 65.3% smoked in their houses and 90.6% stated that smoking adversely affected their children. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 273-278

  6. Working While in Middle School: Student Perceptions of School Climate & Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabrena

    2016-01-01

    Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School District's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment…

  7. Nontraditional Students and Postsecondary School Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammger, Dawne M.

    This study compared the satisfaction levels of 40 adult nontraditional students (N=40) attending one of three types of postsecondary institutions: (1) a proprietary school, (2) a community college, and (3) a university. A survey was administered to such students enrolled in the Travel and Tourism programs at Bryant and Stratton Business Institute…

  8. Caring Relationships: Perspectives from Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Nora I.; Moulton, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    A year-long interpretive study, framed by the theory of symbolic interactionism, examined the meanings of care to middle school students. Five themes emerged: care as control, equality, forgiveness, concern, and good teaching. Findings indicated not only some agreement between students and teachers on meanings and symbolic acts of care, but also…

  9. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  10. Cigarette smoking, pocket money and socioeconomic status: results from a national survey of 4th form students in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2002-07-26

    To investigate whether pocket money amount and socio-economic status are risk factors for smoking in 14 and 15 year old children. This was a national cross-sectional survey of 4th form students who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2000. Socio-economic status was determined from the Ministry of Education school socio-economic deciles. Questionnaires from 14793 girls and 14577 boys were analysed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was inversely associated with smoking prevalence in girls only (ppocket money than those in high SES decile schools (ppocket money >$30, $21-30, or $11-20, the adjusted relative risks for smoking > or = monthly were 1.73 (95% CI 1.61, 1.85), 1.48 (1.35, 1.62), and 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) in girls, and 1.57 (1.46, 1.70), 1.32 (1.19, 1.46), and 1.11 (1.00, 1.23) in boys, respectively. The proportion of smokers purchasing cigarettes increased with amount of pocket money received in the last 30 days (ppocket money amount in adolescents. This finding has important public health significance, but further research is required to determine if the association is causal.

  11. Process evaluation of a sport-for-health intervention to prevent smoking amongst primary school children: SmokeFree Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna A; Ussher, Michael; Garnham-Lee, Katy; Knowles, Zoe R; Foweather, Lawrence

    2015-04-10

    SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness. Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n = 95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n = 20) and SFS coaches (n = 7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n = 1097; teachers, n = 50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n = 50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n = 125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range = 126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions = 58%) and optional components (no adaptions made = 51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided. SFS was considered

  12. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed student perceptions of school meals under the new federal meal patterns for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Student feedback is instrumental in developing strategies to increase and maintain NSLP participation, satisfaction, and ultimately provide students with a health...

  13. Effect of Insecurity of School Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Imo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojukwu M.O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that insecurity of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.

  14. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  15. Appropriate Educational Means of Dealing with the Phenomenon of Smoking among Zarqa University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    hatamleh, habes Moh'd; al Khaza'leh, Mohammed Salman

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the (appropriate educational means of dealing with the phenomenon of smoking among Zarqa University students), and to achieve this goal, the descriptive approach has been used, also used a questionnaire submitted to (800) students of the sample, and a couple of open questions has been submitted to 70 members of the…

  16. Smoking among dental students at King Saud University: Consumption patterns and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. AlSwuailem

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Approximately one in every four male dental students at KSU is a smoker. Having friends who are smokers was the most important risk factor associated with smoking. There is a general belief among dental students that public tobacco use is not well addressed in the dental college curriculum.

  17. Uso de tabaco por estudantes adolescentes portugueses e fatores associados Smoking and its associated factors in Portuguese adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fraga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso de tabaco e identificar os seus determinantes em estudantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, tendo sido avaliadas 1.052 meninas e 984 meninos de 13 anos de idade matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Porto, Portugal. A proporção individual de participação foi de 77,5%. O adolescente e o seu responsável preencheram um questionário sobre informações sociodemográficas e de comportamento em suas casas. Na escola, o adolescente completou outro questionário, com informações sobre o tabagismo. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis e as proporções pelo teste de qui-quadrado. As estimativas de risco e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% foram calculados por regressão logística não condicional. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes avaliados, 19,9% (22,4% das meninas e 17,1% dos meninos experimentaram fumar mas não eram fumantes; 1,8% (2,0% das meninas e 1,5% dos meninos fumavam ocasionalmente e 1,3% (2,0% das meninas e 0,4% dos meninos fumavam pelo menos um cigarro por dia. A razão mais referida como a mais importante para experimentar fumar foi a curiosidade (46,3% das meninas e 45,6% dos meninos. Após ajuste para os hábitos tabágicos dos progenitores, dos irmãos e dos amigos, a associação mais forte foi com o tabagismo dos amigos, nas meninas (OR=4,03; IC 95%: 2,69-6,04 e nos meninos (OR=5,39; IC 95%: 3,34-8,70. CONCLUSÕES: Uma elevada proporção tinha experimentado fumar e ter amigos fumantes foi o mais forte determinante para experimentar fumar.OBJECTIVE: To describe smoking habits and to identify their determinants in adolescent students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on smoking habits comprising 1,052 girls and 984 boys aged 13 years attending public and private schools in the city of Porto, Portugal. The proportion of participation was 77.5%. Information on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was obtained

  18. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...

  19. Frequent Experience of LGBQ Microaggression on Campus Associated With Smoking Among Sexual Minority College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylioja, Thomas; Cochran, Gerald; Woodford, Michael R; Renn, Kristen A

    2018-02-07

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) microaggressions refer to often-unintentional insults, assaults, and invalidations that denigrate sexual minorities. While experiencing hostile discrimination and violence has previously been associated with elevated rates of smoking cigarettes for LGBQ college students, the relationship between LGBQ microaggressions and smoking is unknown. Data from a national anonymous online survey of sexual and gender minority college students were used to examine the relationship between past month cigarette smoking and interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationship between smoking and frequent (chronic) experiences of microaggressions, using a hierarchical procedure to control for demographics, predictors of smoking, and academic factors. Past year frequent LGBQ microaggression was reported by 48% of respondents and was more common among students who smoked in past 30 days. Experiencing past year physical violence was reported by 15% and did not differ by smoking status. Past year frequent experience of microaggressions was associated with increased odds of 1.72 (95% CI 1.03-2.87) for past 30-day smoking after adjusting for age, gender, race, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol misuse, physical violence, as well as academic stress and engagement. The results indicate that frequently experiencing LGBQ microaggressions is a risk factor for LGBQ college students smoking cigarettes. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require additional research, as does identifying positive coping strategies and institutional strategies to address LGBQ microaggressions on campuses. Tobacco control efforts should consider the impact of microaggression on the social environment for the prevention and treatment of tobacco use among LGBQ individuals. Microaggressions related to sexual minority identity include subtle forms of discrimination experienced during daily interactions that can create

  20. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik

    2005-01-01

    Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...

  1. Citizenship Engagement: Responses from High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, the main mission of social studies education is to prepare students for citizenship. With this in mind, the following study examined 191 high school students’ views on how they demonstrated citizenship. Traditionally with this age group, personally responsible citizenship has been a common form of self-reported citizenship engagement. However, in this study, the students seemed to conceptualize citizenship differently. With the Akwesasne Mohawk students, the European Ame...

  2. Development and evaluation of a mobile intervention for heavy drinking and smoking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Desai, Sruti A; Bowen, Sarah; Leigh, Barbara C; Kirouac, Megan; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all college student smokers also drink alcohol, and smoking and heavy episodic drinking (HED) commonly co-occur. However, few studies have examined the factors that concurrently influence smoking and HED among college students and, to date, no interventions have been developed that target both HED and smoking in this population. The objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate a mobile feedback intervention that targets HED and smoking. Participants (N = 94) were non-treatment-seeking college students (M(age) = 20.5 years, SD = 1.7) who engaged in at least a single HED episode in the past 2 weeks and reported concurrent smoking and drinking at least once a week. Participants were randomized to receive either the mobile intervention for 14 days, complete mobile assessments (without intervention) for 14 days, or complete minimal assessments (without intervention or mobile assessments). At a 1-month follow-up, compared with the minimal assessment condition, we observed significant reductions in the number of cigarettes per smoking day in both the mobile intervention (d = 0.55) and mobile assessment (d = 0.45) conditions. Among those randomized to the mobile intervention, receiving more modules of the intervention was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of any drinking during the 14-day assessment period and significant reductions in smoking at 1-month follow-up. The mobile intervention did not result in significant reductions in HED or concurrent smoking and drinking. Future research should continue to examine ways of using technology and the real-time environment to improve interventions for HED and smoking.

  3. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  4. Mobile phone use does not discourage adolescent smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that smoking prevalence among junior and senior high school students may decrease with increasing mobile phone bill was reported by the mass media in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey on adolescent smoking and mobile phone use in Japan in order to assess the hypothesis that mobile phone use has replaced smoking. A total of 70 junior high schools (response rate; 71%), and 69 high schools (90%) from all over Japan responded to 2005 survey. Students in the responding schools were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about smoking behavior, mobile phone bill, and pocket money. Questionnaires were collected from 32,615 junior high school students and 48,707 senior high school students. The smoking prevalence of students with high mobile phone bill was more likely to be high, and that of students who used mobile phones costing 10,000 yen and over per month was especially high. When "quitters" were defined as students who had tried smoking but were not smoking at the time of survey, the proportion of quitters decreased as the mobile phone bill increased. The proportion of students who had smoking friends increased with the increase in the mobile phone bill per month. The hypothesis that the decrease in smoking prevalence among Japanese adolescents that has been observed in recent years is due to a mobile phone use can be rejected.

  5. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  6. Do school context, student composition and school leadership affect school practice and outcomes in secondary education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, M.C.; van Damme, J

    This study examined effects of school context, student composition and school leadership on school practice and outcomes in secondary education in Flanders. The study reveals that relations between school characteristics do exist and that it is possible to explain an important part of the

  7. Negotiating between Family, Peers and School: Understanding the World of Government School and Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharita, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper, based on an ethnographic study of a government school and a low-cost private school in Andhra Pradesh, India, argues that the students of a government school and a private school have two different worlds and are socialised differently. As children progress from childhood to adolescence, the transition is accompanied by…

  8. Parents and Students and Healthy Indoor School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    School-aged children spend a great deal of time inside school buildings. Parents can play an important role in creating healthy indoor school environments. Parents and students alike can make a powerful case for protecting health in schools.

  9. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79). The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08), than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31) ( P academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  10. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  11. School-Based Smoking Prevention with Media Literacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy

    2011-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…

  12. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  13. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  14. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  15. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  16. IMPACT OF SMOKING HABITS ON THE STATE OF CHROMATIN AND MORPHOLOGY OF BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O; Ryabokon, E; Magda, I; Shckorbatov, Y

    2017-01-01

    The cells of buccal epithelium were investigated in groups of smoking and non-smoking students. Cell samples were collected by scraping with blunt sterile spatula, stained with orcein and photographed. The smoking of cigarettes and hookah induces significant decrease in nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area in cells of buccal epithelium. Smoking of hookah induces, besides, the heterochromatization in cell nuclei and the decrease of nuclear area. The data obtained indicate stress reaction in cells (heterochromatinization) and apoptosis-related changes in cells (decrease of nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area). These data show unfavorable effects of smoking cigarettes and even more harmful effect of hookah smoking.

  17. The Role of Psychosocial and Belief Factors in Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alshagga, Mustafa; Hawash, Aamenah; Wajih, Wahid; Kassim, Saba

    2014-01-13

    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (Pcigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students' beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  18. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  20. Career orientation of senior secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Bambang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to portray career orientation of Senior High School (SMA and Vocational High School (SMK students and the role that school counselors should play in providing vocational guidance. This study used a survey method involving 278 students from both SMA and SMK di Jakarta. Career Orientation Inventory (COI and Counselor Role in Career Guidance Inventory were used as an instrument of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t-test were conducted to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that