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Sample records for school playground surfacing

  1. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W; Macarthur, Colin; Rothman, Linda; Willan, Andrew; Macpherson, Alison K

    2009-12-01

    The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing. The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar), and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent) of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed Fibar and seven

  2. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed

  3. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  4. Informal Nature Experience on the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, all-day care and all-day schooling are currently increasing on a large-scale. The extended time children spend in educational institutions could potentially result in limited access to nature experience for children. On the other hand, it could equally create opportunities for informal nature experience if school playgrounds have a…

  5. Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Putney, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    When I would play pretend as a kid, I always liked to have some sort of structure to play on. Whether it was the jungle gym at school, a fort I had built with my brother, or the local Chuck E. Cheese, I had the most fun, and my imagination was the most free when there were more tubes to slide in or trampolines to jump on. Over the past three years at U.C. San Diego I feel like I have built my actor playground. I have gained a structure that has allowed me to freely play wherever I need to ...

  6. Enhancing Middle School Science Lessons with Playground Activities: A Study of the Impact of Playground Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.; Margolin, Jonathan; Swanlund, Andrew; Dhillon, Sonica; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Playground Physics is a technology-based application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State…

  7. "Playground Pals" and Peer Mediation at Benarty Primary School, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Benarty Primary School is situated in Lochore, Fife, Scotland. The school is proactive in developing self regulation; restorative and nurturing approaches. It aims to build resilience in all of its children, staff and families. Playground Pals have been established at Benarty Primary School since 2009 and as part of that programme, there have been…

  8. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  9. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  10. Playground Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  11. Adventure Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert F.

    1971-01-01

    At the Milpitas City-School Recreation Department's "adventure playground," piles of scrap wood, cardboard, and other building materials are provided for building at the youngsters' inclinations. (MB)

  12. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  13. School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. Methods Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. Results Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89 and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P Conclusion The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children.

  14. Should Educators Be "Wrapping School Playgrounds in Cotton Wool" to Encourage Physical Activity? Exploring Primary and Secondary Students' Voices from the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity in school playgrounds has changed considerably over recent decades to reflect a climate of "surplus safety". A growing culture of surplus safety can be attributed to a desire of parents and teachers responsible for children to protect school students from danger. The aim of this research was to examine students'…

  15. School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Farmer, Victoria L; Cameron, Sonya L; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I

    2011-04-27

    Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc) in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89) and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P day of which 17 (10) took place at school compared with 23 (14) and 11 (7) minutes respectively in girls. Each additional 10-unit increase in play facilities was associated with 3.2% (95% CI 0.0-6.4%) more total activity and 8.3% (0.8-16.3%) more MVPA during recess. By contrast, school policy score was not associated with physical activity in children. The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children.

  16. Dutch Primary Schoolchildren’s Perspectives of Activity-Friendly School Playgrounds: A Participatory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elisabeth (Elsje Caro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children’s perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds. At three schools, six children (9–12 years old met over five to seven group meetings. Data analysis included children’s conclusions obtained during the project and the researcher’s analysis of written reports of all meetings. Children indicated a strong desire for fun and active play, with physical playground characteristics and safety, rules and supervision, peer-interactions, and variation in equipment/games as important determinants. Our results indicate that improving activity-friendliness of playgrounds requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach. It also indicates that children, as primary users, are able to identify barriers for active play that are easily overlooked, unknown or differently perceived by adults. Hence, we believe that structural involvement of children in designing, developing and improving playgrounds may increase children’s’ active play and consequently PA levels during recess.

  17. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  18. Influence of School Playground Size and Equipment on the Physical Activity of Students during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delidou, Eleni; Matsouka, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Children's physical activity (PA) is increasingly restricted by the fast pace of modern life. Schools are the opportune setting in which to increase PA during daily recess. The purpose of this study was to record the degree of PA of 6th grade primary school students during recess and determine whether the playground size and available equipment…

  19. Dutch primary schoolchildren’s perspectives of activity-friendly school playgrounds : A participatory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Helena Elisabeth Elsje; Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Dedding, Christine; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy

    2016-01-01

    School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children’s perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of

  20. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayampakala Kamala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces, information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth, the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all

  1. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  2. Playtesting The Digital Playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Jessen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Being able to be absorbed in play in the digital playground is motivating for children who are used digital computer games. The children can play and exercise outdoors while using the same literacy as in indoor digital games. This paper presents a new playground product where an outdoor playground...... has been combined with digital games. The playground was tested in natural surroundings in a school yard and the findings about the interplay between digital and analog play are described here. Finally balancing in digital and analog games is discussed....

  3. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    at the surface. Current research and innovation activities are used to exemplify thermochemical surface engineering and the interplay of science and innovation. The examples given encompass aspects of the synthesis of extremely porous materials, low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel, surface...

  4. Mothers' Reports of Play Dates and Observation of School Playground Behavior of Children Having High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Frederick D.; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are generally included with typically developing peers at school. They have difficulties interacting with peers on the school playground. Previous literature suggests that having play dates in the home may be related to better peer acceptance at school. Methods: This study…

  5. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Aggio, Daniel; Knock, Georgina; Kipps, Courtney; Shankar, Aparna; Smith, Lee

    2017-06-07

    The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design). Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) at one year follow up. Pupils' impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian) were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76%) completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control) and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate - vigorous activity (B = -1.4, 95% CI, -7.1, 4.2 min/d), light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, -17.9, 26.1), or sedentary time (B = -3.8, 95% CI, -29.2, 21.6 min/d) between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002) and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008). We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (-28.0, 95% CI, -1.9, -54.1 min/d, p = 0.037) and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047) for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new playgrounds and experienced a perceived positive change in well-being and social

  6. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  7. Injury and frequency of use of playground equipment in public schools and parks in Brisbane, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J; Acton, C; Wallis, B; Ballesteros, M; Battistutta, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of use of play equipment in public schools and parks in Brisbane, Australia, and to estimate an annual rate of injury per use of equipment, overall and for particular types of equipment. Methods: Injury data on all children injured from playground equipment and seeking medical attention at the emergency department of either of the two children's hospitals in the City of Brisbane were obtained for the years 1996 and 1997. Children were observed at play on five different pieces of play equipment in a random sample of 16 parks and 16 schools in the City of Brisbane. Children injured in the 16 parks and schools were counted, and rates of injury and use were calculated. Results: The ranked order for equipment use in the 16 schools was climbing equipment (3762 uses), horizontal ladders (2309 uses), and slides (856 uses). Each horizontal ladder was used 2.6 times more often than each piece of climbing equipment. Each horizontal ladder was used 7.8 times more than each piece of climbing equipment in the sample of public parks. Slides were used 4.6 times more than climbing equipment in parks and 1.2 times more in public schools. The annual injury rate for the 16 schools and 16 parks under observation was 0.59/100 000 and 0.26/100 000 uses of equipment, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that annual number of injuries per standardized number of uses could be used to determine the relative risk of particular pieces of playground equipment. The low overall rate of injuries/100 000 uses of equipment in this study suggests that the benefit of further reduction of injury in this community may be marginal and outweigh the economic costs in addition to reducing challenging play opportunities. PMID:12966007

  8. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  9. Developing a Playground Injury Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather M.; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Playgrounds are a major source of unintentional injuries in the school environment. In fact, 80% of all injuries on public playground equipment happen at school. Thus, the need for developing a playground injury prevention plan is critical to provide safe educational outdoor environments for children. The S.A.F.E.[TM] framework for injury…

  10. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Children's Playground Games in Primary School: Implications for Adjustment to School and Social Adjustment in the USA and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Blatchford, Peter; Kato, Kentaro; Baines, Ed

    2004-01-01

    In this study we described development of boys' and girls' games on the school playground at recess as they progressed across the first year of primary school in London (UK) and Minneapolis (USA) in order to document age-related trends in games during this period and to examine the predictive role of games in children's adjustment to school and…

  11. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  12. Change of School Playground Environment on Bullying: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Victoria L; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Schofield, Grant; McPhee, Julia C; Taylor, Rachael W

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether increasing risk and challenge in primary school playgrounds influences interactions between children. In a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial, 8 control schools were asked to not change their play environment, whereas 8 intervention schools increased opportunities for risk and challenge (eg, rough-and-tumble play), reduced rules, and added loose parts (eg, tires). Children ( n = 840), parents ( n = 635), and teachers ( n = 90) completed bullying questionnaires at baseline, 1 (postintervention), and 2 (follow-up) years. Intervention children reported higher odds of being happy at school (at 2 years, odds ratio [OR]: 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.25) and playing with more children (at 1 year, OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.29-2.15) than control children. Although intervention children indicated they were pushed/shoved more (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), they were less likely to tell a teacher (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92) at 2 years. No significant group differences were observed in parents reporting whether children had "ever" been bullied at school (1 year: P = .23; 2 years: P = .07). Intervention school teachers noticed more bullying in break time at 1 year (difference in scores: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34; P = .009), with no corresponding increase in children reporting bullying to teachers (both time points, P ≥ .26). Few negative outcomes were reported by children or parents, except for greater pushing/shoving in intervention schools. Whether this indicates increased resilience as indicated by lower reporting of bullying to teachers may be an unanticipated benefit. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Children's Playground Games across the First Year of School: Implications for Social Competence and Adjustment to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Kato, Kentaro; Blatchford, Peter; Baines, Ed

    2002-01-01

    Studied the playground games of children in their first year of schooling. Findings for 77 urban first graders show that facility with games forecast the social competence of boys and the adjustment to first grade of both boys and girls. (SLD)

  14. The dimensionality reduction at surfaces as a playground for many-body and correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Michel, E. G.; Mascaraque, A.

    2013-03-01

    Low-dimensional systems have always deserved attention due to the peculiarity of their physics, which is different from or even at odds with three-dimensional expectations. This is precisely the case for many-body effects, as electron-electron correlation or electron-phonon coupling are behind many intriguing problems in condensed matter physics. These interesting phenomena at low dimensions can be studied in one of the paradigms of two dimensionality—the surface of crystals. The maturity of today's surface science techniques allows us to perform thorough experimental studies that can be complemented by the current strength of state-of-the-art calculations. Surfaces are thus a natural two-dimensional playground for studying correlation and many-body effects, which is precisely the object of this special section. This special section presents a collection of eight invited articles, giving an overview of the current status of selected systems, promising techniques and theoretical approaches for studying many-body effects at surfaces and low-dimensional systems. The first article by Hofmann investigates electron-phonon coupling in quasi-free-standing graphene by decoupling graphene from two different substrates with different intercalating materials. The following article by Kirschner deals with the study of NiO films by electron pair emission, a technique particularly well-adapted for studying high electron correlation. Bovensiepen investigates electron-phonon coupling via the femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy technique. The next article by Malterre analyses the phase diagram of alkalis on Si(111):B and studies the role of many-body physics. Biermann proposes an extended Hubbard model for the series of C, Si, Sn and Pb adatoms on Si(111) and obtains the inter-electronic interaction parameters by first principles. Continuing with the theoretical studies, Bechstedt analyses the influence of on-site electron correlation in insulating

  15. Special Education Professionals' Perceptions toward Accessible Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The perceptions and beliefs of 303 special education professionals toward currently available playgrounds in their school or community were examined. Survey respondents (a) indicated that their students with a disability could not fully participate in their school or community's playground offerings, (b) discussed the need for a peer buddy program…

  16. Jungle Gym or Brain Gym. Playgrounds Can Improve Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    A well-developed playground in a park or school setting can greatly enhance childen's overall development, making playgrounds more than just fun. Playgrounds offer children opportunities to develop physically, mentally, and socially, improving academic readiness as well as overall health. The paper discusses the importance of movement, how…

  17. Camden active spaces: does the construction of active school playgrounds influence children's physical activity levels? A longitudinal quasi-experiment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Kipps, Courtney; Aggio, Daniel; Fox, Paul; Robinson, Nigel; Trend, Verena; Munnery, Suzie; Kelly, Barry; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is essential for every facet of children's health. However, physical activity levels in British children are low. The school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity but limited empirical evidence exists on how a change in the outdoor physical school environment influences physical activity behaviour. The London Borough of Camden is redesigning seven existing school playgrounds to engage children to become more physically active. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the impact of the redesigned playgrounds on children's physical activity, well-being and physical function/fitness. This project will use a longitudinal quasi-experimental design. Seven experimental schools and one control school will take part. One baseline data collection session and two follow-ups will be carried out. Between baseline and follow-up, the experimental school playgrounds will be redesigned. At baseline, a series of fitness tests, anthropometric and questionnaire measurements, and 7-day objective physical activity monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) will be carried out on children (aged 5–16 years). This will be repeated at follow-up. Changes in overall physical activity levels and levels during different times of the day (eg, school breaks) will be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 4400/002).

  18. The Sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap--unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C; Naughton, Geraldine; Tranter, Paul; Wyver, Shirley; Baur, Louise; Schiller, Wendy; Bauman, Adrian; Engelen, Lina; Ragen, Jo; Luckett, Tim; Niehues, Anita; Stewart, Gabrielle; Jessup, Glenda; Brentnall, Jennie

    2011-09-01

    In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention), with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1) Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2) Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers) are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number ACTRN12611000089932.

  19. The sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap - unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luckett Tim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT, in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention, with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1 Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2 Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. Discussion These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Trial registration Australian

  20. Effect of a Smart Start Playground Improvement Grant on Child Care Playground Hazards. Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotch, Jonathan; Guthrie, Christine

    Smart Start (North Carolina) playground improvement grants were awarded to cover playground safety assessment, planning and evaluation, quality enhancements (such as fencing, surfacing, and new equipment), and safety programs. Visual inspections were conducted of the safety of child care home and center playgrounds after Smart Start-sponsored…

  1. Socially Aware Interactive Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Reidsma, Dennis

    Interactive playgrounds are technology-enhanced installations that aim to provide rich game experiences for children by combining the benefits of traditional playgrounds with those of digital games. These game experiences could be attained by addressing three design considerations:

  2. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children...

  3. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  4. The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: The Impact of Outdoor Play Activities in Pre-Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Ingunn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how play in the natural environment of three Norwegian kindergartens might stimulate 5- to 7-year-olds' motor fitness, focusing on the affordances of the landscape for versatile play. Found that children using the forest as a playscape performed better in motor skills than children on a traditional playground. Play activities related…

  5. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  6. Examining Playground Engagement between Elementary School Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum…

  7. Serious Playground: Using "Second Life" to Engage High School Students in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kerry; Foth, Marcus; Greenaway, Ruth; Young, Greg T.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual world platforms such as "Second Life" have been successfully used in educational contexts to motivate and engage learners. This article reports on an exploratory workshop involving a group of high school students using "Second Life" for an urban planning project. Young people are traditionally an under-represented demographic when it comes…

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  9. Accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meredith A; Devan, Hemakumar; Fitzgerald, Harry; Han, Karen; Liu, Li-Ting; Rouse, Jack

    2017-09-08

    Public parks and playgrounds are an environment for leisure activity, which all generations can enjoy at low or no financial cost. Evaluating the accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds is crucial because their design, environment (natural and built) and safety could restrict participation of persons with disabilities. To evaluate the accessibility and usability of 21 public parks and playgrounds in three metropolitan cities of New Zealand. Secondary aims were to compare the accessibility and usability by park type (destination or neighborhood) and deprivation level (high and low). Twenty-one parks were evaluated. A stratified random sampling was used to select 18 parks (six from each city). Three additional parks were purposely selected (one from each city) at the request of each respective city council. The parks and playgrounds were evaluated using a customized tool. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. None of the parks we evaluated met the national standards and/or international guidelines for park and playground design. We identified potential accessibility and usability issues with car parking spaces, path surfaces and play equipment as well as lack of lighting and fencing. The presence of amenities (e.g. toilets and drinking fountains) was more common in destination parks. Fewer parks in areas of higher deprivation had accessible car parking spaces and main paths wider than 1.5 m. Our evaluation identified potential design, environmental and safety barriers to park and playground based participation for persons with disabilities across the lifespan. A larger, more comprehensive evaluation of parks and playgrounds is required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Playground Safety is Associated With Playground, Park, and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard; Presley, Terry; Wasserman, Jason A; Mayfield, Carlene A; McClain, Elizabeth; Johnson, Mariah

    2015-03-01

    More than 200,000 children each year are treated at emergency departments for injuries occurring on playgrounds. Empirically derived data are needed to elucidate factors associated with playground safety and reduce injury rates. Determine if neighborhood, park and playground characteristics are significantly associated with playground safety. A 24-item report card developed by the National Program for Playground Safety was used to assess playground safety at 41 public parks in a small to midsized, Midwestern city. Trained assessors evaluated the parks and playgrounds in June/July and used a standardized method to count the numbers of users. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census were used to describe the neighborhoods surrounding the parks. The average safety score for all playgrounds was 77.4% which denotes acceptable safety levels. However, 17.1% of the playgrounds were potentially hazardous and in need of corrective measures. Playgrounds were safer in neighborhoods with more youth (safety levels need to be improved to reduce the risk of physical injuries. Future studies examining cause-effect associations between environmental features and playground safety are warranted.

  11. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...

  12. Adventure Playgrounds: The American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Adventure Playgrounds, adult-supervised spaces with raw materials which children can use to design their own play areas, is explained. California Adventure Playgrounds at Huntington Beach and Irvine are described. Costs, equipment requirements, and the need for community participation are discussed. (PP)

  13. "Girls Don't Play Soccer": Children Policing Gender on the Playground in a Township Primary School in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeza, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2014 with a group of 64 boys and girls aged 6-10, all attending the same township primary school in South Africa. The paper explores how the young children construct gender "boundaries" and "police" gender "transgressions" on the school playground…

  14. Recess, Playground Games, and the Aims of School: An Investigation into the Semiotic Affordances of Four Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple, Stacy Ann

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, recess has become threatened by the press for more academic instruction time and by fears of violent behavior. A dramatic indicator of this trend is seen in the increasing number of schools and school districts which have done away with or significantly reduced recess time (BBC news, 2007; Coughlan, 2007; Jarrett, 2002; Pressler,…

  15. Effectiveness of the PLAYgrounds programme on PA levels during recess in 6-year-old to 12-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Worldwide levels of daily physical activity (PA) in children are low. This has negative health consequences. Schools have been recognised as key settings to promote PA. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the playground programme PLAYgrounds on increasing PA. Methods: PLAYgrounds was

  16. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  17. The Use of Cross-Curricular Activity on Interactive Playgrounds to Supplement School-Based Physical Activity: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Amy; Dotterweich, Andy R.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are serious threats to the health and wellness of our schoolchildren. Research has shown that play and physical activity are important in development, behaviour and academic achievement. Through the efforts of coordinated school health program and a Physical Education for Progress grant, a county school…

  18. The Art of Playground Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case for integrating artistic expression into park and playground landscape design to create recreational areas with a more holistic look. The Foothills Community Park in Boulder, Colorado, is used to illustrate the use of artistic expression that preserves and celebrates the natural elements while creating a sense of community identity…

  19. Model playground for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thais; Castro, Alberto; Lima, David

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulties in learning the social skills and norms of peer social interaction, which severely affect and limit their social lives. Aiming at addressing this issue, through design, we developed a digital-analogue model playground to help them understand and cope w...

  20. 200 injuries caused by playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C; Brennan, P; Jay, A; Al-Rawi, F; Collick, M

    1975-11-08

    Two-hundred children with injuries caused by playground equipment were studied. Whereas only about 9% of the total casualty attendances are for fractures, 26-5% (53) of these children had fractures. The climbing frame and the slide seemed to be associated with more severe injuries than the swing or other equipment, but more cases need to be studied to confirm this. The youngest children were at particular risk on equipment such as the wooden rocking horse or roundabout, when the speed of operation could be controlled by older children. Many of the injuries to the very youngest children occurred when they were walking behind a moving swing. Faulty equipment did not seem to be a major factor in causing accidents, but the use by older children of apparatus designed for young ones led to accidents. There was supervision, either at home, in a school playground, or in a park, in 62% of the cases. Many of the accidents were the result of the normal desire of children for experimentation and adventure.

  1. How Can We Provide Safe Playgrounds? = Como podemos proveer lugares con juegos infantiles que no sean peligrosos para los ninos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    Outdoor playgrounds can be exciting places where children explore their environment and develop motor and social skills; however, they can also pose serious safety hazards. With the exception of California, no mandatory state or federal standards currently exist regarding manufacture or installation of playground equipment or surfaces. The…

  2. Child safety in parks' playgrounds (a case study in Tehran’s sub-district parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development

  3. Effectiveness of a Playground Intervention for Antisocial, Prosocial, and Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Carlene A.; Child, Stephanie; Weaver, Robert G.; Zarrett, Nicole; Beets, Michael W.; Moore, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the effectiveness of Peaceful Playgrounds™ (P2) to decrease antisocial behaviors (ASB) while increasing physical activity (PA) and prosocial behaviors (PSB) in elementary school children. Methods: A longitudinal, cluster-randomized design was employed in 4 elementary school playgrounds where students (third to fifth) from 2…

  4. Internet-chatrooms : A new playground for bullies. A comparison of bullying behavior in school and in chatrooms from the perpetrators' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, Catarina; Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Belschak, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a specific phenomenon of the school environment. Different forms of verbal victimisation and social manipulation are also common behaviors in internet chatrooms. The present study compares traditional bullying with chatroom bullying. A total of 1,700 pupils of different secondary

  5. Science Understanding through Playground Physics: Organized Recess Teaching (SUPPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Russell

    2010-03-01

    From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.

  6. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  7. Aldo van Eyck's Playgrounds : Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of

  8. Playground Accessibility and Neighbourhood Social Interaction among Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Scott A.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Williams, Allison M.; Kitchen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    While the positive association between social interaction and access to green space is well accepted, little research has sought to understand the role of children's playgrounds in facilitating social interaction within a community. Playgrounds are spaces designed to facilitate play and the interaction of children, but may also be important places…

  9. Approaches to psycho-pedagogical examination of game playgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotliar I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the game environment - playgrounds. The article discusses the history of children's playgrounds, analyses the different methodological approaches to their expertise: an ecological approach, socio-cognitive approach, subjective or personal approach, activity approach. Taking into account the latest contemporary foreign researches, the article discusses the facts concerning the link between the types of playgrounds, their equipment and the nature of child behavior. The article provides basic criteria for expertize of game environment: game value of plating objects or game environment in general, landscape features of playgrounds, the elements that trigger risky behavior, etc. The conclusion states that playgrounds must be assessed in terms of their compliance to the needs of children and the age related challenges of their development.

  10. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Kwon; Hongquan Zhang; Zhongwen Wang; Gian S. Jhangri; Xiufen Lu; Nelson Fok; Stephan Gabos; Xing-Fang Li; X. Chris Le

    2004-01-01

    .... Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children's exposure to arsenic...

  11. Lead-based paint on playground equipment in public children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead levels in paint on playground equipment were measured in situ using a hand-held Thermo Scientific NITON XLP 700 Series X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. Results. Playground lead levels ranged from 'too low to detect' to 10.4 mg/cm2. The mean and median lead concentrations were 1.9 mg/cm2 and 0.9 mg/cm2 ...

  12. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  13. Still Separate, Still Unequal: Social Determinants of Playground Safety and Proximity Disparities in St. Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Woodward, Krista; Milam, Laurel; Ackermann, Nicole; Komaie, Goldie; Goodman, Melody S; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity among youth is shaped by the natural and built environment within which they live; however, few studies have focused on assessing playground safety and proximity in detail as part of the built environment for youth physical activity. We analyzed data on 100 publicly accessible playgrounds from Play Across St. Louis, a community-partnered study of the built environment for youth physical activity. Outcomes included overall playground safety, maintenance, and construction scores; distance to nearest playground; and distance to nearest top playground. Independent variables included neighborhood % youth, % black residents, % owner-occupied units, and % vacant units. Playgrounds in the city have varying degrees of safety and proximity. Mean overall playground safety score was 67.0 % (CI = 63.5, 70.4). Neighborhood % youth and % black residents were inversely associated with overall playground safety (p = 0.03 and p safety scores were found in the northern and central areas while all high safety score clusters were found in the southern part of St. Louis. Public playground safety and proximity vary across St. Louis neighborhoods, especially by neighborhood demographics. Disparities in playground safety and proximity reveal an opportunity to develop community-wide interventions focused on playgrounds for youth activity. Further work is needed to examine the association between playground safety, proximity, and use and youth physical activity and weight.

  14. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  15. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    An approach for capturing and modeling individual entertainment (“fun”) preferences is applied to users of the innovative Playware playground, an interactive physical playground inspired by computer games, in this study. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from...... that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64...

  16. Children's Playgrounds and Everyday City Life of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Alexandra Gennadyevna; Syroed, Nadezhda Savvovna; Goncharova, Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    Play areas of entertainment and development are new recourses for modern city children, but at the same time, they produce risks of road traffic accidents, deviation, social inequality and social exclusion. Playgrounds in city/town yards are free zones of children's pastime, where children communicate and play together. The aim of this article is…

  17. Social Competence at the Playground: Preschoolers during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; de Leng, Wendy; Cachucho, Ricardo; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kok, Joost N.; Knobbe, Arno; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain…

  18. An Annotation Scheme for Social Interaction in Digital Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    This paper introduces a new annotation scheme, designed specifically to study children's social interactions during play in digital playgrounds. The scheme is motivated by analyzing relevant literature, combined with observations from recordings of play sessions. The scheme allows us to analyze how

  19. Automatic detection of social signals in digital playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Play is a vital activity in which children observe the world, learn new concepts and experiment with them. Even though the social aspect of play is very important, the computer science community has struggled to address it. Digital playgrounds have been built in which children can play in

  20. Assessment and Learning of Qualitative Physics in Newton's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Ventura, Matthew; Kim, Yoon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Digital games are very popular in modern culture. The authors are examining ways to leverage these engaging environments to assess and support student competencies. The authors examine gameplay and learning using a physics game they developed called Newton's Playground. The sample consisted of 167 eighth- and ninth-grade students who played…

  1. The Particle Physics Playground website: tutorials and activities using real experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Open Data Portal provides access to data from the LHC experiments to anyone with the time and inclination to learn the analysis procedures. The CMS experiment has made a significant amount of data availible in basically the same format the collaboration itself uses, along with software tools and a virtual enviroment in which to run those tools. These same data have also been mined for educational exercises that range from very simple .csv files that can be analyzed in a spreadsheet to more sophisticated formats that use ROOT, a dominant software package in experimental particle physics but not used as much in the general computing community. This talk will present the Particle Physics Playground website (http://particle-physics-playground.github.io/), a project that uses data from the CMS experiment, as well as the older CLEO experiment, in tutorials and exercises aimed at high school and undergraduate students and other science enthusiasts. The data are stored as text files and the users are provided with starter Python/Jupyter notebook programs and accessor functions which can be modified to perform fairly high-level analyses. The status of the project, success stories, and future plans for the website will be presented. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1307562.

  2. Cyber Worlds: New Playgrounds for Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lauren; Ratliffe, Katherine T.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of 247 middle school children around cyberbullying were examined through in-class questionnaires. Their use of different media, their experiences with cyberbullying, and the relationships among school type, gender, and grade level were analyzed. Of the students in this sample 33% of female and 20% of male students reported being a…

  3. Case study of PM pollution in playgrounds in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin; Mertoglu, Bulent; Demir, Goksel; Deniz, Ali; Toros, Hüseyin

    2012-05-01

    In a world where at least 50% of the population is living in urban environments, air pollution and specifically particulate matter (PM) have become one of the most critical issues for human health. Children are more susceptible than adults to air pollution and its adverse effects because they inhale and retain larger amounts of air pollutants per unit of body weight. In this study, PM pollution, particularly PM10 and PM2.5, at selected playgrounds were investigated in Istanbul city. Istanbul is a megacity of over 15 million inhabitants, and on-road traffic is increasing rapidly (over 3 million vehicles on the road). To estimate the effect of traffic emissions on children, the location of the playgrounds were selected according to traffic density. Measurements were carried out at five different playgrounds throughout the city in 2009. Field results show that the values of PM10 and PM2.5 have reached critical limits at the playgrounds close to the main roads, especially at P-1. Thus, we focused on this location and investigated a source other than traffic emissions. One of the episode days has been observed on 5-7 March 2009. Evaluations of meteorological events are very important to determine air pollution sources and their long-range transport. Therefore, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was used to simulate and forecast meteorological parameters and the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) applied to investigate long-range transport. According to the WRF model outputs, there was a low-pressure system over Geneva gulf on the 500-hPa level, and its core had been located over Britain on 5 March 2009 00UTC. The system had been sweeping dust from the Sahara Desert and carrying the air particles over Istanbul. Similarly, backward HYSPLIT analysis showed that air particles had moved through Istanbul from Northern Africa.

  4. Accessibility and usability of playground environments for children under 12: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alice; Lynch, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Playgrounds are important outdoor environments in many communities during childhood. However, playground spaces often do not meet the needs of typically developing children or children with disabilities, resulting in social exclusion for many children. This study explored the evidence regarding accessibility and usability of playgrounds for children of all abilities, to identify factors that enable or constrain social inclusion in community playgrounds. A scoping method was used as little research in this area has been collated and synthesized. Scoping reviews are effective for exploring and synthesizing broad and varied methods of inquiry around a phenomenon of interest. A total of 14 key articles were identified and two major themes emerged: (i) accessible playground environments--features and factors; (ii) from excluding to including--making playground environments usable. Findings indicate that numerous environmental barriers contribute to making playground environments inaccessible and unusable for many children, particularly children with disabilities. However, playground design is identified as a significant factor in enabling inclusion. Occupational therapists are in an ideal position to advocate for children's occupational right to play, by combining knowledge of environmental barriers with an understanding of disability and specific knowledge of occupation. Through focusing on advocacy and change at policy and community levels, therapists can work to maximize social inclusion in playground settings.

  5. Rationale and protocol paper for the Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Cotton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggest an association between physical activity levels and students psychological well-being. A number of research studies have evaluated playground interventions that aim to increase physical activity levels, decrease conflict and bullying, and improve students behaviour. The HAPPY Study will evaluate the success of an intervention combining environmental modifications, teacher development, and peer support that can culminate in an easy to implement, low cost and effective model for increasing physical activity, and improving psychological well-being for children. Methods/Design Data will be collected at six New South Wales (NSW primary schools, on physical activity levels, on-task time during classes, and social support for physical activity during a 12 month Cluster Controlled Trial (CT. Three quantitative data collection tools will be used to capture student’s physical activity levels during lunch and recess breaks (the SOPARC tool, student’s on-task behaviour during classes following recess and lunch breaks (the BOSS tool and where students receive the most encouragement to be physically active from (the Physical Activity Social Support Scale survey. Baseline data will be analysed against follow-up data, collected after an intervention that is rolled out in all schools as part of a stepped wedge CT design. Discussion A review of relevant Australian and New Zealand literature suggests that playground interventions can be successful at increasing physical activity levels, increasing social and conflict resolution skills in students, and decreasing incidences of bullying. This study will investigate any correlation between physical activity levels, and student behaviour during classes following breaks. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12616000575437 , registered May 2016.

  6. Translating the PLAYgrounds program into practice: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To present the results of the process evaluation of the PLAYgrounds program, using the RE-AIM framework. Design: This study provides information regarding Reach, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Methods: The PLAYgrounds program promotes increasing levels of physical activity in

  7. Do children create standardized playgrounds? A study on the gap-crossing affordances of jumping stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Douwe; Withagen, Rob; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    One point of critique on playgrounds is their omnipresent standardization the distances between, for example, jumping stones or the ropes in a climbing net tend to be equal. Although current psychological literature suggests that nonstandardized playgrounds are beneficial for the children's motor

  8. Children's Activity Levels in Different Playground Environments: An Observational Study in Four Canadian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in moderate to vigorous amounts of physical activity is needed for young children to grow and develop to their full potential and the playground environment can help play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity levels of children in preschool settings during outdoor playground activity time. Four…

  9. Intelligent Playgrounds: Measuring and Affecting Social Inclusion in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra, Olga; Karapanos, Evangelos; Kostakos, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Equal access to education has recently been declared by the United Nations a basic human right [14]. However, despite the substantial attention given to inclusive education in recent years, researchers have criticized a lack of empirical evidence on how exclusion is manifested in student behavior. Recent development in sensor technology and social network analysis techniques can provide a new perspective to the impact of educational pract...

  10. What's Eating into School Recess? Implications of Extended Eating for Free Play and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley; Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita; Naughton, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    An assumption made when designing recess interventions in schools is that there is a clear demarcation between eating time and play time. We used observational data conducted as part of the Sydney Playground Project to test if this assumption was correct. The Sydney Playground Project is a cluster randomised controlled trial of a recess…

  11. Il Playground come laboratorio di creatività e inclusione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lauria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, play areas are highly standardised place that include a set of standardised equipments alien to the reference context, poor in stimuli and incapable of triggering fruitful social relationships. Playing activities are often repetitive, boring and mechanical, contributing in a somewhat limited extent (and ever counterproductive to the development of the child and nurturing a passive and poor approach to play. Adequate play facilities for disabled children are not common. This article highlights the strategic role of the play for the well-being of children and analyses playground in ethical, social and architectural terms. It claims that playgrounds should be genuine ‘work of architecture’ well-grounded within the reference socio-cultural, environmental and architectural context and in ‘dialogue’ with nature. They should be able to encourage encounters and mutual enrichment between children that come from different walks of life through solutions able to fun, ease tensions and stimulate creativity, expression and self-knowledge.

  12. Adventure Playground as an Example of the Child’s Right to Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlyar (Korepanova I.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the history of creation, structure and psychological foundations of adventure playgrounds, which appeared and became widespread in Europe during the second half of the XX century. Adventure playground is an example of realization of children’s rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, especially in Article 31. Adventure playgrounds are designed by experts, parents, teachers, sharing the ideas of civil society and seeking new ways to support the initiative, independence of children and adolescents. At an adventure playground, modern urban children and adolescents have the opportunity to realize their intentions, and try to explore their capabilities in a joint productive activity with peers. In this article, adventure playgrounds are considered as one of the ways to facilitate public urban space to play and socialize. Adventure playground serves as a social-psychological-pedagogical center and has great potential for all age groups. We provide specific examples of the structure and activity on adventure playgrounds existing in the UK and Germany. Separately we discuss the contribution of professionals working at these sites (playworker.

  13. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  14. "Einstein's Playground": An Interactive Planetarium Show on Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary; Tan, Philip; Fairweather, Heather; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of many aspects of astronomy is closely linked with relativity and the finite speed of light, yet relativity is generally not discussed in great detail during planetarium shows for the general public. One reason may be the difficulty to visualize these phenomena in a way that is appropriate for planetariums; another may be their distance from everyday experiences that makes it hard for audiences to connect with the presentation. In this paper, we describe an effort to visualize special relativity phenomena in an immersive "everyday" scenario. In order to bring special relativity to human scale, we simulate a universe in which the speed of light is slower, so that "everyday" speeds become relativistic. We describe the physics and the technical details of our first planetarium show, "Einstein's Playground," which premiered at the Museum of Science, Boston.

  15. The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore

    2016-01-01

    local children and young people an opportunity to use their leisure time stimulating their bodies, having a great time with friends and other urban dwellers. The gift is accompanied by a number of (more or less camouflaged) crime prevention- and social education agendas, carried out by the SSP (a......The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism? In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater facility at the city's central squares. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give...... in educational leisure clubs instead. In that perspective, seemingly some groups of adolescents are more entitled to use the facility, whereas groups that confront, interpret and exploit the facility in other ways than the municipality intended, are constructed as less authorized users. In my presentation I...

  16. Maternal and paternal disciplinary styles: relations with preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations and peer status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; DeWolf, D M; Wozniak, P; Burts, D C

    1992-08-01

    To explore relations among parents' self-reported disciplinary styles, preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations, and peer status, 106 mothers and fathers of preschool-age children (age range = 40-71 months) participated in home disciplinary style interviews. Observations of their children's playground behavior in preschool settings and measures of sociometric status were also obtained. Results indicated that children of more inductive mothers and fathers (i.e., less power assertive) exhibited fewer disruptive playground behaviors. In addition, daughters and older preschoolers of inductive mothers exhibited more prosocial behavior. Children of inductive mothers were also more preferred by peers. Few significant relations were found between paternal discipline and child behavior/peer status. Age-related patterns of behavior also indicated that older preschoolers who engaged in more prosocial and less antisocial and disruptive playground behavior were more preferred by peers. In addition, child behaviors were found to mediate maternal discipline and peer status.

  17. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm2 up to 2880 cm2; but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm2; ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  18. Soil pollution fingerprints of children playgrounds in Sarajevo city, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jancan, Gordan

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study, 10 years after the war activities, to report about the content of heavy metals and metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in samples of soils from selected playgrounds in Sarajevo. Due to the fact that children are in direct contact with surface soils, it has been recommended that children's playgrounds should be given special consideration in this respect. Basic properties (pH in H2O, pH in 1 mol dm-3 KCl, humus, and CaCO3) of the examined soils were determined. Samples for the determination of heavy metals and metalloids were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion and determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Fluorine was determined potentiometrically. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used for determination of PAHs and PCBs. Determined contents (mg kg-1) for Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Fe, Se, As, B, and F were in the ranges from: 0.031 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05; 26.1 ± 2.5 to 47.7 ± 4.5; 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.50 ± 0.08; 26.2 to 50; 19.5 ± 1.6 to 33.3 ± 2.7; 12.8 ± 1.8 to 31.9 ± 4.5; 56.0 ± 4.0 to 89.0 ± 6.5; 6.7 ± 0.6 to10.6 ± 1.0; soils, and may be included in projects planning children's health risk assessments and adopting environmental legislation which has not been sufficiently regulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina so far.

  19. Lead-based paint on playground equipment in public children's parks in Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Angela; Singh, Elvira; Mogotsi, Mirriam; Timothy, Geraldine; Maduka, Bryne; Olivier, Jan; Ing, Dennis

    2009-11-01

    To determine the use of lead-based paint in public playgrounds in the municipalities of Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni. Forty-nine public parks were selected from the municipalities of Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni. Lead levels in paint on playground equipment were measured in situ using a hand-held Thermo Scientific NITON XLP 700 Series X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. Playground lead levels ranged from 'too low to detect' to 10.4 mg/cm2. The mean and median lead concentrations were 1.9 mg/cm2 and 0.9 mg/cm2 respectively. Forty-eight per cent of lead paint measurements exceeded the internationally accepted reference level of 1 mg/cm2. The study shows that lead-based paint is widely used in public playgrounds in the three study municipalities, and most likely throughout South Africa. We suggest key actions to ensure that children's playgrounds in South Africa are lead-free zones, and that childhood lead exposure in these settings is prevented.

  20. No “Obstacles” In Playgrounds That Are Not Only Accessible But Also Inclusive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ayataç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current century, the importance of play for children is a major issue addressed in the literature. Play enables the physical, mental and social development of children. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, engaging in play is a fundamental right for children. This article of the convention covers all children below the age of 18 and does not exclude the children with disabilities. Like their peers, children with disabilities should also enjoy the right to engage in play, and societies should use every means available in order to help children play whether indoors or outdoors.According to the 2011 Population and Housing Research, 6.6% of the population in Turkey has one or more disabilities. The target group of this study is ‘children with disabilities’ who live in İstanbul. In this group, speech disorders (21.9%, and mental disabilities (17.1% prove to be the most dominant disabilities. However, the number of playgrounds where disabled children can play are scarce in number.This study provides an analysis of children’s playgrounds, which are essential for the development of children, and evaluates the design features of these playgrounds based on inclusive design principles. The study also addresses the requirements of inclusive playgrounds by referring to the examples of inclusive playgrounds around the world as well as those few examples in Turkey.  The design principles of inclusive playgrounds were also evaluated for three parks in İstanbul which were designed and are currently in use - namely Kadıköy Göztepe 60. Yıl Park, Beşiktaş Dilek Sabancı Park and Kadıköy Selamiçeşme Özgürlük Park.

  1. "Where could paul street boys play?" child psychotherapy as co-construction of a playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Vittorio

    2014-03-01

    In this clinical paper, I present the development of the foundation of a child psychoanalytic treatment to explain in clinical terms what it means to build a "playground," a place where a child could go to play. The aim of the paper, with references to Paul Street Boys, a famous novel by Ferenc Molnár, a Hungarian contemporary of Sándor Ferenczi, is to use the metaphor of the "playground" for describing how, thanks to his personal use of the setting, and thanks to the development of the relationship with the therapist, a traumatized child could gradually begin to build, together with the therapist, a place unknown in his past.

  2. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  3. Children’s Caregivers and Public Playgrounds: Potential Reservoirs of Infection of Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Li, Tao; Gu, Qiuyun; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Xiashi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Danwei; Gao, Rong; He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Wangjian; Hao, Yuantao; Zhang, Dingmei

    2016-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children’s caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children’s 257 samples (98 children’s caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 5.84% (15/257, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.98%, 8.70%) of total samples had positive results of enterovirus. The enterovirus positive rates of children’s caregiver samples and environmental samples were respectively 7.14% (7/98, 95% CI: 2.04%, 12.24%), and 5.03% (8/159, 95% CI: 1.63%, 8.43%); 7.61% (7/92, 95% CI: 2.21%, 13.01%) of wiping samples from playgrounds and 1.49% (1/67, 95% CI: 0, 7.00%) of air samples in indoor market places had positive result of enterovirus. High positive rates of enterovirus in children’s caregivers and from playgrounds indicated that they would be potential reservoirs of HFMD infection, as children might be infected via contacting with asymptomatic-infected individuals or exposure of contaminated surface of public facilities.

  4. Digital labor: The Internet as playground and factory, edited by Trebor Scholz [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anne Brown

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review, Trebor Scholz, ed., Digital labor: The Internet as playground and factory. New York: Routledge, 2013, paper, $37.95 (258p ISBN 978-0-415-89695-5; hardcover $150 (258p ISBN 978-0-415-89694-8.

  5. Automatic behavior analysis in tag games: from traditional spaces to interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Martin, J-C.; Poppe, Ronald Walter

    Tag is a popular children’s playground game. It revolves around taggers that chase and then tag runners, upon which their roles switch. There are many variations of the game that aim to keep children engaged by presenting them with challenges and different types of gameplay. We argue that the

  6. Creative and Playful Learning on Technology-Enriched Playgrounds: An International Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.; Kangas, Marjaana; Ruokamo, Heli; Hyvönen, Pirkko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree that creative and playful learning (CPL) in a technology-enriched playground influences academic achievement of students and what factors are responsible for successes. The participants were 276 students from 12 elementary classrooms in the Netherlands and Finland. The…

  7. The Children’s Playground in the Context of Cultural-Historical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possible application of the principles of cultural-historical approach and activity theory to the inspection of toys and play environments. A children’s playground is treated as cultural means or artifact created by adults for starting a child’s activity. In terms of cultural and historical psychology, psycho-pedagogical analysis of a playground is based on the identification of the play value level and the compliance with the objectives peculiar to the age. Analysis and design are based on the understanding of the playground as a single space, where each element has the potential for any children’s development activity — games, communication, experimentation, etc. The following criteria of psychological and pedagogical inspection are identified and well-grounded: the principle of orientation to age-related peculiarities, the principle of high play value, the principle of transparency of objects, the principle of supporting acceptable risk, the principle of taking account of visitors’ activity levels, invitation to dialogue — the principle of dialogueness. The use of these principles in the course of designing playgrounds is illustrated by examples. These show that the conceptual apparatus of cultural and historical psychology may be used not only to explain the mechanisms and forms of mental development, but also for the analysis of particular conditions of a child’s mental development and design of play environments.

  8. Health and Physique of School Children. Bulletin, 1925, No. 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James Frederick

    1925-01-01

    This bulletin reports on the changes and progress in practice and conditions in: (1) School Housing; (2) Playgrounds; (3) Medical inspection; (4) Dental work; (5) Nutrition; (6) Open-air schools and open-window rooms; (7) The summer camp; (8) Other special schools and classes; (9) Health education; (10) Physical training; (11) Safety and first…

  9. Prevalence Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective; To study the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among primary school children in Nnewi Subjects / Methods: Two hundred and thirty seven randomly selected schools children (127 females, 110 males) in Nnewi Nigeria were assayed for Hepatitis antigen (HbsAg) using ELISA technique. Results: Eighteen ...

  10. Heavy metal exposure and risk charaterization of topsoils in urban playgrounds and parks (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Irén; Farsang, Andrea; Csépe, Zoltán; Bartus, Máté

    2014-05-01

    Contamination in urban soils can directly pose significant human risks through oral ingestion, particle inhalation and dermal contact, especially in public spaces. Parks and playgrounds are green areas in cities where dwellers (mainly children and seniors) can spend their outside freetime, thus the highest possibility of the human and soil interaction can be presumed here. Therefore, in 2013, composite surface samples (0-5 cm, from 10-15 subsoil samples) were collected from 96 public parks and 89 playgrounds (around playing equipment) of main functional zones (downtown, housing estates, industrial, prestigious, commuting areas) of three Hungarian cities (Budapest, Szeged, Gyula) representing capital, regional city and local town. Pseudo total metal content (Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Co) and physical, chemical soil properties influencing metal mobility (artefact, mechanical soil type, carbonate, humus, pH(H2O), salt) were determined to evaluate impacts of various anthropogenic activities in functional zones on the studied soils; to give the environmental buffering capacity and to model human health risk of exposure pathways (by RISC 4.0 ) in the case of contaminated soils. Insignificant amount of artefact, neutral pH, high humus and carbonate content, mainly loamy and loamy-clay texture, low salt content can provide suitable buffering capacity for the studied soils. The type and spatial location of functional zones have not exerted considerable impact on variability of soil properties. Out of 189 analyzed areas, 36 have exceeded the threshold values regulated by Hungarian government (6/2009. (IV. 14) KvVM-EüM-FVM collective decree). Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation of results, the identification of spatial patterns and the possible source of metal pollution have been carried out. In accordance with statistical analysis (correlation, cluster, factor analysis), we can explore relationship between metal concentrations and features of sample

  11. Chromium on the hands of children after playing in playgrounds built from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamula, Camille; Wang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Hongquan; Kwon, Elena; Li, Xing-Fang; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris

    2006-03-01

    Children's exposure to arsenic and chromium from playground equipment constructed with chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a potential concern because of children's hand-to-mouth activity. However, there exists no direct measure of Cr levels on the hands of children after playing in such playgrounds. In this study we measured both soluble and total Cr on the hands of 139 children playing in playgrounds, eight of which were constructed with CCA-treated wood and eight of which were not. Children's age and duration of play were recorded. The hands of each child were washed after play with 150 mL deionized water, which was collected in a bag and subsequently underwent analysis of Cr and 20 other elements, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total average Cr on the hands of 63 children who played in CCA playgrounds was 1,112 +/- 1,089 ng (median, 688; range 78-5,875). Total average Cr on the hands of 64 children who played in non-CCA playgrounds was 652 +/- 586 ng (median, 492; range 61-3,377). The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p CCA playgrounds (p CCA playgrounds (r = 0.252 and 0.486 for Cu and As, respectively). Principal-component analysis indicates that Cr, Cu, and As are more closely grouped together in CCA than in non-CCA playgrounds. These results suggest that the elevated levels of Cr and As on children's hands are due to direct contact with CCA wood.

  12. The Classroom that Is a "Playground of the Mind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Ron

    1989-01-01

    The author describes an award-winning high school program in film animation. Features of this program include (1) close ties with industry and community resources, (2) an interdisciplinary approach, and (3) a spirit of cooperative learning. (CH)

  13. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Hammad Ali

    2011-04-01

    The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  14. IMPACT OF THE ABSENCE OR LIMITEDNESS OF CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND ON CHILDREN PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistics shows that more than 25% of Indonesia's population in 2015 is comprised of children. For children, play is a very important activity in the process of their physical growth and social development. Play is also a right of children that is reinforced and protected by the constitution. But the rapid urban growth has resulted to the reduction of open spaces for children’s playground and this has limited their movement. Therefore, this paper assessed the impact of playground limitations on the playing activity of children in various places in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Qualitative research method was primarily used by which the data were collected through questionnaires, personal interviews, field observation, and literature review. The results showed how limited the spaces for children’s playground in the city of Yogyakarta which made children to utilize the road, the space around riverbank, the space around railroad tracks, and vacant land for playing and bicycling. These are spaces which are intended for other purposes but are perceived by children as available for them to play. They may be not aware that this is a very risky condition which they may have not fully realized particularly when no adults had intervened.

  15. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  16. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  17. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  18. Important roles of public playgrounds in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y H; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Tan, Y; Tang, Zh-Zh; Sornsrivichai, V; McNeil, E B

    2015-05-01

    Intra-home and kindergarten transmissions were the reported major modes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) transmission in preschool children. However, infection at home is not common and 65-80% of cases do not attend preschool. We conducted a matched case-control study to explore the role of public playgrounds in the transmission of HFMD in addition to direct and indirect exposure to HFMD patients. We used 156 hospital source cases and 156 community source controls. Univariate analysis was followed by conditional logistic regression with attributable fraction computed. Adjusted odds ratios were 11·70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·26-109·40] for having HFMD cases in the same class, 14·19 (95% CI 3·55-56·74) for having HFMD cases within the 20 nearest neighbourhoods, 6·03 (95% CI 2·84-12·80) for exposure to public playgrounds, 2·13 (95% CI 1·05-4·32) for finger sucking and 0·29 (95% CI 0·11-0·78) for hand washing with soap before meals. The attributable fractions for the first four risk factors were 6·4%, 20·9%, 57·2% and 27·5%, respectively, while the population prevented fraction for hand washing with soap before meals was 18·7%. Based on our findings, hand washing with soap should be advocated. Health education could include topics which underline the precautions which need to be taken and the advice given regarding avoiding the use of public playgrounds during epidemic periods, especially when children have been getting sick.

  19. School furniture and work surface lighting impacts on the body posture of Paraíba's public school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Bueno; Coutinho, Antonio Souto; da Costa Eulálio, Eliza Juliana; Soares, Elaine Victor Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of school furniture and work surface lighting on the body posture of public Middle School students from Paraíba (Brazil). The survey was carried out in two public schools and the target population for the study included 8th grade groups involving a total of 31 students. Brazilian standards for lighting levels, the CEBRACE standards for furniture measurements and the Postural Assessment Software (SAPO) for the postural misalignment assay were adopted for the measurements comparison. The statistic analysis includes analyses of parametric and non-parametric correlations. The results show that the students' most affected parts of the body were the spine, the regions of the knees and head and neck, with 90% of the total number of students presenting postural misalignment. The lighting levels were usually found below 300 lux, below recommended levels. The statistic analysis show that the more adequate the furniture seems to be to the user, the less the user will complain of pain. Such results indicate the need of investments in more suitable school furniture and structural reforms aimed at improving the lighting in the classrooms, which could fulfill the students' profile and reduce their complaints.

  20. Contributions of Playground Singing Games to the Social Inclusion of Refugee and Newly Arrived Immigrant Children in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kathryn; Dieckmann, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers from the fields of music education, ethnomusicology, folklore and sociology have developed an increasing interest in children's musical play traditions and the ways in which children teach and learn, perform, create and transform playground games and songs. Such repertoire is drawn both from oral traditions and from…

  1. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  2. Creating an Alternate Reality: Critical, Creative, and Empathic Thinking Generated in the "Global Village Playground" Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; Wilson, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The "Global Village Playground" ("GVP") was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering critical and creative thinking. In the "GVP", students work on simulated and real-world problems as a design team tasked with…

  3. Caregiver Perceptions of Inclusive Playgrounds Targeting Toddlers and Preschoolers with Disabilities: Has Recent International and National Policy Improved Overall Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to survey and interview caregivers of children with disabilities (ages 2-5 years) to obtain their input as to whether current playground equipment meets their child's needs. A total of 149 participants agreed to participate. Caregivers (i) indicated that their child with a disability could not fully participate…

  4. Severity of MIH findings at tooth surface level among German school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, M A; Giraki, M; Bissar, A-R; Wempe, C; Schäfer, M; Schiffner, U; Beikler, T; Schulte, A G; Splieth, C H

    2015-06-01

    This study was to investigate the distribution and clinical characteristics of teeth diagnosed with MIH at surface and defect type level in a cohort of German children. The study cohort included 242 children diagnosed with MIH which had been recorded during the compulsory dental school examinations of 20 German primary schools. The subjects had been enrolled by cluster sampling. All children attended the second to fourth grade (age 7-10 years, mean 8.1 ± 0.8). The children were examined by five calibrated examiners (kappa = 0.9) after tooth brushing. The recording comprised teeth, surfaces, type and severity of MIH defects and was conducted using a portable light, mirrors and cotton rolls. MIH was registered according to the EAPD criteria. Defects teeth were first permanent molars (71.4 %) followed by the maxillary central incisors (15.6 %). The most common defects were demarcated opacities (82.2 %), while the remaining 17.8 % of the affected teeth exhibited severe enamel defects. The most frequently affected surface in molars was the occlusal surface (72.4 %); in incisors, it was the buccal surface (73.5 %). There were no atypical restorations in the affected incisors. Different types of MIH defects at various surfaces of the same tooth were common. The number of affected tooth surfaces was positively correlated with the severity of MIH at child (p teeth. The knowledge of the intra-oral distribution and severity of MIH findings at the enamel surface level is important for assessing the treatment needs.

  5. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  6. Review of dissertation «A Comparison of Cognitive Play Skills Within a Natural and Manufactured Preschool Playground» by Kelly Groeber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florova N.B

    2016-01-01

    .... The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural) or artificial ( metal) elements.

  7. Instituting a Smoke-Free Policy for City Recreation Centers and Playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T.; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Community Context Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. Methods The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. Outcome More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Interpretation Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking. PMID:23845177

  8. Instituting a smoke-free policy for city recreation centers and playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond; Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F

    2013-07-11

    In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking.

  9. A survey on environmental contamination of suburban parks and playgrounds in Harare, Zimbabwe, with canine helminths of zoonotic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to assess the possible risk to humans of soil-transmitted canine helminths of of zoonotic significance, 161 faecal samples and 81 soil samples were collected from 6 public parks and playgrounds in Harare between March and June 1998 and examined for nematode ova. Of the 161 faecal samples collected, 17.4 % were positive for Ancylostoma sp. ova and 5.6 % were positive for T. canis ova. No other nematode species ova were found. Over 50 % of the faecal samples positive for Ancylostoma sp. ova were 'moist', and this suggests that the moisture content of faeces contributes to the development and survival of this parasite in the environment. Only 3 of the 81 soil samples collected were positive for T. canis. The low levels of contamination of public playgrounds and parks with T. canis ova suggests that environmental contamination might not be important in the aetiology of human toxocarosis in Harare.

  10. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds.

  11. The relationship between soil geochemistry and the bioaccessibility of trace elements in playground soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Mingot, Juan; Chacón, Enrique; Charlesworth, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    A total of 32 samples of surficial soil were collected from 16 playground areas in Madrid (Spain), in order to investigate the importance of the geochemistry of the soil on subsequent bioaccessibility of trace elements. The in vitro bioaccessibility of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated by means of two extraction processes that simulate the gastric environment and one that reproduces a gastric + intestinal digestion sequence. The results of the in vitro bioaccessibility were compared against aqua regia extractions ("total" concentration), and it was found that total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn were double those of bioaccessible values, whilst that of Cr was ten times higher. Whereas the results of the gastric + intestinal extraction were affected by a high uncertainty, both gastric methods offered very similar and consistent results, with bioaccessibilities following the order: As = Cu = Pb = Zn > Co > Ni > Cr, and ranging from 63 to 7 %. Selected soil properties including pH, organic matter, Fe and CaCO(3) content were determined to assess their influence on trace element bioaccessibility, and it was found that Cu, Pb and Zn were predominantly bound to organic matter and, to a lesser extent, Fe oxides. The former fraction was readily accessible in the gastric solution, whereas Fe oxides seemed to recapture negatively charged chloride complexes of these elements in the gastric solution, lowering their bioaccessibility. The homogeneous pH of the playground soils included in the study does not influence trace element bioaccessibility to any significant extent except for Cr, where the very low gastric accessibility seems to be related to the strongly pH-dependent formation of complexes with organic matter. The results for As, which have been previously described and discussed in detail in Mingot et al. (Chemosphere 84: 1386-1391, 2011), indicate a high gastric bioaccessibility for this element as a consequence of its strong association with calcium

  12. A microgeographic analysis of physical activity behavior within elementary school grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Fiene, Erin; Kutchman, Eve; Mainar, Melanie; Brink, Lois; Browning, Ray; Nigg, Claudio R

    2014-01-01

    There is little scholarship on physical activity among children within outdoor spaces and work is needed to advance the design of these spaces from "best practices" towards evidence-based design. This project examined how playground feature density relates to children's physical activity. We used the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity to observe children's physical activity. We observed children during school recess on 24 school grounds in the Denver metropolitan area of Colorado, in spring of 2010 and 2011. A total of 31,069 observations were made from an estimated 9900 children aged 5 to 12. These were aggregated and analyzed in 397 playground zones. We examined utilization, the number of children present in a particular activity zone during an observation, and the percentage of children engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity as they relate to the density of constructed features on school playgrounds. Ordinary least-squares linear regression model assessed the relationship between playground feature density and the utilization and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Significant positive associations were observed between utilization and feature density among all children (β = .20; p physical activity and feature density for girls (β = .12; p = .013), but not for boys. This analysis contributes to evidence that design features of play spaces may influence children's behavior within school grounds.

  13. Building a Playground: General Guidelines for Creating Educational Web Sites for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloncon, Lisa; Haynes, Erin; Varelmann, Megan; Groh, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Since 2004, the number of children online has increased 18%, compared with a 10% increase in total users. Not only do children represent a growing segment of Internet users, much of what they do online has a specific purpose: education. To help technical communicators create educational Web sites for children, we offer a set of guidelines to direct the design process. Nine children participated in a usability test of the CARES Playground, an educational Web site geared toward 7- to 9-year-olds. The site was designed by a group of graduate students in professional writing based on a review of the (admittedly limited) literature dealing with designing Web sites for children. This paper matches common themes from existing literature to the results of the usability tests. Since all the information on designing Web sites for children emerged from the literature of designing Web sites for adults, the themes of navigation, appearance, and content are not unfamiliar. However, the interpretation of those common issues for children-as well as the children's reaction to them-may be surprising. Technical communicators need to be conscious and deliberate when designing Web sites for children. To ensure that educational Web sites are able to meet their learning goals, careful consideration of children's developmental abilities and Web preferences must be considered. We present several guidelines as a starting point, though further research is needed to confirm and expand upon them.

  14. The Arctic Playground of Europe: Sir Martin Conway’s Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism is a significant aspect of the processes of modernity in the High Arctic. This article discusses the British art historian and mountaineer Sir William Martin Conway's two travelogues, The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897 and With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers (1898, in terms of a pioneering tourist approach to the archipelago of Svalbard. Unlike earlier yachting tourists, Conway described a journey into the uncharted interior of the main island, Spitsbergen. His books are therefore narrated as exploration accounts and following many of the demands of that genre, such as an emphasis on mapping, natural science and being the first. However, they may also be read as guidebooks for other discerning and undaunted British gentleman travellers. Inspired by the art critic John Ruskin’s “science of aspects”, which combined accurate scientific observations and practical knowledge with an imaginative and aesthetic response to the landscape, Conway attempts to give his readers a positive sense of the qualities of the Arctic. At the same time, he promotes Svalbard as an Arctic “Playground of Europe”, where adventurous Alpinists in addition to climbing unknown mountains and glaciers could find fraternal domesticity far away from home around the hearth of the campfire. In this way Conway locates natural beauty, life and recreational opportunities where travellers before him had only described desolation and death.

  15. The Untidy Playground: An Irish Congolese Case Study in Sonic Encounters with the Sacred Stranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Phelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the proposal that music, and particularly singing, has unique properties that render it amenable to encounters with “the other” or the sacred stranger. Drawing on the deconstructionist works of Kristeva and Derrida, as well as the postmodern hermeneutics of Kearney and Caputo, it explores current debate concerning the nature of “the sacred” in contemporary life and the erosion of the theistic/atheistic divide, while proposing a deepening of the debate through the inclusion of the performative. As philosophical and theological discourses embrace this aporia, it does so against the backdrop of unprecedented human migration. The concomitant cultural and social disruption throws up new questions around the nature and experience of religion, spirituality and the sacred. This paper explores these questions in the context of a Congolese choir called Elikya, which was established by a group of asylum seekers in Limerick city, Ireland, in 2001. In tracking the musical life of this choir over the last decade and a half, including two musical recordings and numerous liturgical, religious and secular performances, it suggests that the sonic world of the choir both performs and transcends these descriptors. Using a three-fold model of context, content and intent, the paper concludes that musical experiences such as those created by Elikya erode any easy divisions between the religious and the secular or the liturgical and the non-liturgical and provide sonic opportunities to encounter the sacred stranger in the untidy playground of creative chaos.

  16. Observations on the near-surface behaviour of sardinella schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean packing density of the sardinella schools was about 3 fish m–3, but this figure varied by two orders of magnitude among the schools. There was a linear relationship between the area and the biomass of the schools, which can be used in future surveys to convert recordings of school area by camera, lidar or sonar ...

  17. Internet-of-things as a Playground for Participatory Innovation and Business Potentials in Complex Modern Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlertz, Karoline; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif; Nielsen, Janni

    -up approach, self-organizing and co-creation. In this paper we will unfold how it is possible to use the IoT as a playground in a digital and social development, where the traditional simple dichotomy between state and market description of economies is challenged by the complexity of new institutional...... economies, transaction cost theories, commons based peer-production and governance of common pool resources. By using these new economies we envision that Participatory Innovation and Business Opportunity should take place in polycentric units of relations, where production, exchange and consumption of Io...

  18. Urban geochemistry of lead in gardens, playgrounds and schoolyards of Lisbon, Portugal: assessing exposure and risk to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Reis,A.P.; Patinha, C.; Wragg, J.; Dias, A.C.; Cave, M.; Sousa, A.J.; BATISTA, M. J.; Prazeres, C; Costa, C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Rocha, F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of potentially harmful elements in soil/dust on the health of children that use urban recreational areas to play outdoors, an urban survey of Lisbon, the largest city in Portugal was carried out, collecting soils and dusts from public gardens, parks, playgrounds and schoolyards. An exposure and risk assessment study for the incidental soil/dust ingestion of lead was carried out based on US EPA guidelines using a sub-set of 19 topsoil and 8 outdoor dusts, out o...

  19. Sex differences in the structure and stability of children's playground social networks and their overlap with friendship relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Gender segregated peer networks during middle childhood have been highlighted as important for explaining later sex differences in behaviour, yet few studies have examined the structural composition of these networks and their implications. This short-term longitudinal study of 119 children (7-8 years) examined the size and internal structure of boys' and girls' social networks, their overlap with friendship relations, and their stability over time. Data collection at the start and end of the year involved systematic playground observations of pupils' play networks during team and non-team activities and measures of friendship from peer nomination interviews. Social networks were identified by aggregating play network data at each time point. Findings showed that the size of boy's play networks on the playground, but not their social networks, varied according to activity type. Social network cores consisted mainly of friends. Girl's social networks were more likely to be composed of friends and boys' networks contained friends and non-friends. Girls had more friends outside of the social network than boys. Stability of social network membership and internal network relations were higher for boys than girls. These patterns have implications for the nature of social experiences within these network contexts.

  20. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children's school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinker, Charlotte D; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christian, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children's PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds...

  1. Conhecimento histórico e crianças pequenas: parques infantis e escola municipal de educação infantil Historical knowledge and small children: children's playgrounds and the state's primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Gobbi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a experiência com o projeto "Os parques infantis de Mário de Andrade ontem e hoje", empreendido por todos os profissionais e crianças de uma escola municipal de Educação Infantil da cidade de São Paulo. A preocupação com o conhecimento histórico e as crianças da primeira infância e suas especificidades, numa perspectiva não-escolarizante e não-antecipatória do Ensino Fundamental, foi a tônica e um desafio. Procura aliar história e memória, estabelecendo relações entre História da Educação, história da escolarização de crianças pequenas e formação docente.This article discusses an experience with the project "The children's playgrounds of Mario de Andrade, yesterday and today", undertaken by all the professionals and children of a state primary school in the city of São Paulo. The concern with historical knowledge and the children in the first years of primary school, with their specific qualities, their un-schooled perspective and their inability to predict the school's teaching approach, was the keynote of this study and the challenge faced. A link between history and memory is sought, establishing a relationship between the History of Education, the history of small children being schooled and teacher training.

  2. Gossip on the Playground: Changes Associated with Universal Intervention, Retaliation Beliefs, and Supportive Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Frey, Karin S.; Brockman, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    Relational forms of aggression are known to increase during the middle school years. To date, the majority of efficacy studies of elementary school-based programs have focused on the reduction of physical and direct verbal aggression, to the exclusion of effects on relational aggression. "Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program" is one…

  3. Relationship between Recreational Resources in the School Neighborhood and Changes in Fitness in New York City Public School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezold, Carla P; Stark, James H; Rundle, Andrew; Konty, Kevin; Day, Sophia E; Quinn, James; Neckerman, Kathryn; Roux, Ana V Diez

    2017-02-01

    Physical fitness in children has many beneficial effects, including the maintenance of a healthy weight. The built environment may influence youths' physical fitness by encouraging physical activity. This paper assessed whether higher density of parks, playgrounds, and sports facilities around a school is related to improvements in fitness in middle school boys and girls. Fitness scores and other student covariates collected as part of NYC FITNESSGRAM between the 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 school years were linked with school neighborhood data on characteristics of the built environment for NYC public school students in grades 6-8. Data were analyzed in 2015. Medium, but not high, density of recreational resources in the area surrounding a school was associated with greater annual improvements in fitness for both boys and girls. This association appeared to be driven mainly by the presence of parks. Findings for sports facilities and playgrounds were inconsistent. Overall, few associations were observed between recreational resources near a school and changes in student fitness. Future studies of school influences on student fitness should consider the influence of school resources and the home neighborhood.

  4. School recess, social connectedness and health: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lauren; Colley, Paige; Franklin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Children need opportunities to establish positive social connections at school, yet many school playgrounds are challenged by social conflict that can undermine these connections. When children's social needs go unmet, the resultant feelings of loneliness, isolation and self-doubt can cumulatively lead to mental and physical illness. Because recess is typically the only time during the school day that children are free to socialize and play, we propose a more thoughtful way of thinking about it: from the lens of belongingness. Schools are, historically, designed for instruction. We argue, however, that we need to attend to children's social needs at school. We highlight current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to delineate the pathways between daily school recess and developmental health trajectories. We then consolidate an array of research on play, social interaction and school change to suggest four areas that could benefit from consideration in research, practice and policy: (i) the culture of recess, (ii) the importance of healthy role models on the playground, (iii) the necessity of activities, options and variety during recess and (iv) the significance of space and spatial layout (indoor and outdoor). We bridge our discussion with the conception of health as described in the Ottawa Charter and emphasize the need to build alliances across sectors to assist schools in their efforts to support children's overall health needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Review of dissertation «A Comparison of Cognitive Play Skills Within a Natural and Manufactured Preschool Playground» by Kelly Groeber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the structure of the game space as a factor, providing formation of creativity which in its turn is regarded as personal competence in preschool children. The data obtained by the author contribute to the general knowledge about age dynamics and typology of skills that are gained by children in the process of shaping of their playing competences. They also demonstrate the deficit of child development in conditions of artificial gaming environment, lacking natural components. The article also contains a big number of pictures, showing the functional capacities of different playgrounds, tabular figures, and volumetric methodical applicationы. The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural or artificial ( metal elements.

  6. Playground diseños e infraestructuras seguras para nuestros niños y niñas…una urgencia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera-Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone en este artículo una serie de aspectos que se deben tomar en cuenta para el diseño e infraestructura de los campos de juego o playgrounds.  Además del equipamiento y componentes necesarios que faciliten la conformación de normativas de seguridad, que van a establecer un espacio seguro capaz de cumplir el objetivo de su creación, deben ser un medio que facilite  la formación integral de la población, sin poner en riesgo su salud, previniendo cualquier tipo de accidente  y garantizando sus derechos inalienables como costarricenses.   Es urgente, por tanto, que en Costa Rica se establezcan legislaciones claras que garanticen el cumplimiento en cuanto a la construcción, diseño y utilización de los playgrounds.

  7. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  8. Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

    A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

  9. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  10. The Use of Aggression in Primary School Boys' Decisions about Inclusion in and Exclusion from Playground Football Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sociometric studies have shown that some aggressive boys are popular, perceived as popular or cool, dominant, and central in the peer group (Estell, Cairns, Farmer, & Cairns, 2002; Milich & Landau, 1984; Prinstein & Cillessen, 2003; Rodkin, Farmer, Pearl, & Van Acker, 2006). This is not predicted by social information…

  11. Pictorial Playground-Based Physical Activity Assessment Instrument: Uses and Applications of the ADL-PP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christina; Babkes Stellino, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) are designed to support children in getting 60 minutes of daily physical activity, as well as meet SHAPE America's goal of developing physically literate individuals who have the knowledge, skills and confidence to be physically active for a lifetime. The Activities for Daily…

  12. Bullying in the New Playground: Research into Cyberbullying and Cyber Victimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the nature and extent of adolescents' cyberbullying experiences, and explores the extent to which various factors, including bullying, culture, and gender, contribute to cyberbullying and cyber victimisation in junior high schools. In this study, one in three adolescents was a cyber victim, one in five was a cyberbully, and…

  13. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school...... study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...

  14. The active surface of suspended particles as a predictor of lung function and pulmonary symptoms in Austrian school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Neuberger, Manfred

    At a central elementary school in the capital of Upper Austria children aged 7-10 years underwent repeated respiratory health checkups (questionnaires, diaries, spirometry). Between March and May 2001 the daily means of the signals of a diffusion charging sensor, measuring the "active surface" of suspended particles, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, measuring the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were related to spirometric results of the total 164 children examined and to the daily symptom scores of a susceptible subgroup. Significant reductions of forced vital capacity ( p=0.006) and forced expiratory volume in the first second ( p=0.001) and significant increases of wheezing ( p=0.001), shortness of breath ( p=0.041), cough in the evening ( p=0.031) and at night ( p=0.018) were found with increase of "active surface" of suspended particles measured at the adjacent outdoor monitoring station, but not with the increase of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring "active surface" of particles with diameters of about 10 nm-1 μm by means of a diffusion charging sensor might provide additional information in surveillance of particulate matter for prevention of acute effects on respiratory health.

  15. Crush: Mapping Historical, Material and Affective Force Relations in Young Children's Hetero-Sexual Playground Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuki, Tuija; Renold, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic multi-modal data of the gendered and sexual dynamics of pre-school play (age 6) in a rapidly declining fishing and farming community in North Finland, this paper offers a glimpse into our sense-making of a short video-recorded episode in which three boys repeatedly pile up on and demand a kiss from one of their girl…

  16. Mentally retarded hepatitis-B surface antigen carriers in NYC public school classes: a public health dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, C W; Novick, L F; Marr, J S; Millner, E S; Goldman, W D; Pitkin, O

    1980-07-01

    The placement of retarded children who have been institutionalized and are asymptomatic hepatitis-B surface antigen carriers into public school classes for the retarded has caused controversy and presented the New York City Health Department with an unusual medical-ethical dilemma. In this situation, the cost of interfering with deinstitutionalization, an important social advance, must be balanced against the benefit of controlling the unquantified but real risk of transmitting a potentially serious disease. The Health Department guidelines for managing this problem recommended serological surveillance, promotion of classroom hygiene where possible, and teaching of carriers in classes separate from their susceptible peers. A federal court disallowed the cohorting provisions of these guidelines. Changing policies and practices towards the mentally retarded, such as deinstitutionalization, raise important public health issues which will have to be faced by the involved communities.

  17. Facility provision in elementary schools: correlates with physical education, recess, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi; Sturm, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) document correlations among facility provision (availability and adequacy) in elementary schools, child sociodemographic factors, and school characteristics nationwide; and (2) investigate whether facility provision is associated with physical education (PE) time, recess time, and obesity trajectory. The analytic sample included 8935 fifth graders from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Cohort. School teachers and administrators were surveyed about facility provision, PE, and recess time in April 2004. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions that accounted for the nesting of children within schools were used. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds were more likely to attend a school with worse gymnasium and playground provision. Gymnasium availability was associated with an additional 8.3 min overall and at least an additional 25 min of PE per week for schools in humid climate zones. These figures represent 10.8 and 32.5%, respectively, of the average time spent in PE. No significant findings were obtained for gymnasium and playground adequacy in relation to PE and recess time, and facility provision in relation to obesity trajectory. Poor facility provision is a potential barrier for school physical activity programs and facility provision is lower in schools that most need them: urban, high minority, and high enrollment schools.

  18. Voices in the playground: a qualitative exploration of the barriers and facilitators of lunchtime play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Rebecca M; Boshoff, Kobie; Dollman, James

    2012-01-01

    To explore children's perceptions of the factors influencing their engagement in physical activity during the "critical" lunchtime period, using a social-ecological framework. This study was an in-depth descriptive qualitative design. Fifty-four South Australian children aged 10-13 years participated in same-gender focus groups. Transcripts, field notes and activity documents were analysed using content analysis. Using an inductive thematic approach, data were coded and categorised into perceived barriers and facilitators according to a social-ecological model. Children identified a range of environmental, social and intrapersonal barriers and facilitators. Bullying/teasing, the school uniform and school rules were exposed as explicit barriers to lunchtime play. Other important barriers included lack of access to, and poor suitability of, space, lack of access to programs/facilities and equipment, and lack of peer and teacher support. Perceived facilitators of lunchtime physical activity centred on access to equipment, enjoyment, motivation to improve skills, and peer support and acceptance. The freedom to make up or modify rules for games was also perceived to be a facilitator of lunchtime play. Communicating with children has been an effective approach in uncovering perceived barriers and facilitators to lunchtime play that may not have been previously considered in the quantitative correlate literature. Lunchtime interventions targeting children's physical activity should focus on addressing the barriers perceived to be important to lunchtime play. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  20. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  1. Momentos do parque em uma rotina de educação infantil: corpo, consumo, barbárie Playground moments in an early childhood education routine: body, consumption and barbarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Richter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho resulta de uma pesquisa de abordagem etnográfica realizada em uma creche da Rede Pública de Ensino de Florianópolis (SC. Os dados foram analisados considerando-se o "tempo didático" - recomendado pela legislação -, estruturado por uma rotina constituída por diferentes momentos: entrada, higiene, alimentação, sono, parque, atividade orientada, saída. Inspirado por tópicas da Teoria Crítica da Sociedade, o texto aborda os momentos de parque, declarados como "ocasiões privilegiadas de educação", tanto nos discursos das professoras, quanto nas ações que distinguem esses momentos dos demais, estabelecendo uma certa contraposição entre "tempo de trabalho" e "tempo livre". Nessa relação, além de configurarem-se como períodos de renovação das energias para as demais atividades, esses momentos acabam por escusar um acompanhamento mais atento por parte dos professores: o olhar adulto "precisará" apenas afastar as crianças de locais inconvenientes ou evitar feridas "expostas", conformando um conjunto de práticas sociossanitárias centradas nas necessidades vitais e que contribuem na eliminação de desvios e diferenças, na garantia de pseudogratificações. A ausência de uma aproximação mais atenta também colocará as crianças entregues a uma ambígua "espontaneidade", sujeitas à violência que acaba por produzir cicatrizes que se colocam, principalmente, sobre o corpo, fomentando uma educação que, ao invés de se contrapor à barbárie, a privilegia. Os resultados revelam ainda a presença de produtos para o consumo do lazer que informam, de antemão, a sequência de operações a reproduzir, exigindo gestos e ações automatizadas que preceituam a aridez da imaginação.The work results from an ethnographic research carried out in a daycare center of the public school system of Florianópolis (SC. The data were analyzed considering the "didactic time" - recommended by the legislation -, structured in a

  2. Status of School Safety and Security among Elementary Schools in the Fifth Class Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresente E. Glariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the status of school safety and security in terms of the school sites, school playground, school canteen services, water safety, fire safety, campus security, building security, and sanitary facilities situation in eight (8 elementary schools in Libertad town. The descriptive survey was used to find out the status of school safety and security in the elementary schools of Libertad, Misamis Oriental. A checklist on the standards of facilities as implemented by the Department of Education was used to gather the data. Checklist was based from the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. Evaluation based on the checklist showed that some of standards on 2010 Educational Facilities Manual were not observed. The schools have not complied with the requirements and specifications. The evaluation showed further that most of the schools did not comply within the standards set by the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. School authorities may review the standards in the 2010 Educational Facilities Manual. The school should try to meet the standard to ensure safety and security of the pupils. Action plan may be prepared to be implemented in case of emergency.

  3. Analysis on the relationship between the school furniture and the work surface lighting and the body posture of public Middle School students from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Bueno; da Costa Eulálio, Eliza Juliana; Souto Coutinho, Antonio; Gonçalves Soares, Elaine Victor; de Lourdes Silva dos Santos, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of school furniture and work surface lighting on the body posture of two public Middle School students from Paraíba (Brazil). The target population included 8th grade groups involving 31 students. Brazilian standards for lighting levels, the CEBRACE standards for furniture measurements and the Postural Assessment Software (SAPO) for the postural misalignment assay were adopted for the measurements comparison. The statistic analysis includes analyses of parametric and non-parametric correlations. The results show that the students' most affected parts of the body were the spine, the regions of the knees and head and neck and about 90% of the students presented postural misalignment. The lighting levels were usually found below 300 lux, below recommended levels. Such results indicate the need of investments in more suitable school furniture and structural reforms aimed at improving the lighting in the classrooms, which could fulfill the students' profile and reduce their complaints.

  4. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent serious falls in infants and toddlers. More Soft Surfaces Using playgrounds with soft material under them ... high school athletes after passage of a concussion law. Amer J Sports Med , May, 2014, 42(5): ...

  5. The Prevention Disaster Program of Flood in 2013 for the 4th Grade Students of Kawatanaka Primary School, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan and Underflow Channels Revealed in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Sanae; Murata, Mamoru

    2017-12-01

    The Typhoon No. 18 caused flood on September 15, 2013 in the Kawata River basin, Yoshinogawa City, Tokushima Prefecture. The Kawata River is a raised river bed of 36.7 m with banks to 40.5 m above sea level. The heavy rain did not destroy the banks but made the river level 39.4 m high and then pressed the underflow channel. As the Kawatanaka primary school is located at 36.2 m height, it was not submerged although the underflow channel overbanked the adjacent playground. An educational program on the prevention and reduction for natural disaster, which consists of science, social studies and presentation, was conducted to 18 students of the 4th grade in the period of integrated study in the Kawatanaka primary school from September 17, 2013. On the first day, flow current markings from 625 holes, 30 cm to 1 mm in diameter, on the playground were observed. The flow currents showed direction from SE to NW. On the basis of their observations on the flow currents that water runs from high to low, the students considered the phenomena as a result of tilting of the ground. They conducted activity as their homework to confirm their hypothesis to know if there is any tilt in the ground. They took plastic bottle filled with water and reviled that the ground had 1 to 2 degrees’ tilt to the NW during the experiment. On the bases of the difference between E to W flow of the Kawata River and their SE to NW estimated current flow on the playground and the fact that the bank of the river was not destroyed, the students suggested that the heavy rain had pressed the underflow channels. The suggested channels were found on the playground, where new school buildings were constructed in 2016, by one of the students who studied the program in 2013.

  6. Playground Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gravel, or shredded rubber. Wood chips containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment are not recommended since the ... the equipment to make sure that it is clean and well maintained. There should be no broken ...

  7. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  8. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  9. Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to

  10. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

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    Sara Crosatti Barbosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%, followed by light (4.6–7.6%, moderate (1.3–3.0% and vigorous (0.5–2.3% physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83 and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80 protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93 in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77, the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96 and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77 are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children.

  11. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2016-09-01

    To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of Surface and Deep Cues on Primary and Secondary School Students' Assessment of Relevance in Web Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Ros, Christine; Goumi, Antonine; Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Dinet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g.,…

  13. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India

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    Samiksha Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children’s physical activity in Delhi, India. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1 access to the school; (2 surrounding area; (3 school grounds; (4 aesthetics; (5 usage; and (6 overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Results Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together, and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13 and were well maintained (n = 10. One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. Conclusions The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as

  14. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Samiksha; Arora, Monika; Rawal, Tina; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-05

    Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1) access to the school; (2) surrounding area; (3) school grounds; (4) aesthetics; (5) usage; and (6) overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together), and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard) for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13) and were well maintained (n = 10). One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as school warning signs. However, most had playground equipment

  15. Evaluation of Single Surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART among 8-12 Year Old Rural School Children of India -A One Year Follow Up Study

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    V Siva Kalyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate survival rate of single surface ART restorations over a period of one year among 8-12 year oldrural school children in India. Materials & Method: A community based interventional study was designed. A total of 147 subjects were included in the study. Baseline data was collected on a specially designed proforma. Treatment was performed following standard procedures for ART using specially designed hand instruments. Evaluations were done at three, six, nine and twelve months intervals. Chi-square was used to test the significance. Results: The mean age of study subjects (147 was 9.69 ΁ 1.3 years. About 84.4% of subjects expressed that they did not had pain I discomfort during treatment; 86.4% of the subjects were willing to undergo theART procedure if required again.Overall survival rate was 91.6% at the end of one year. When the survival rate was compared between permanent and deciduous dentition at the end of 12th month survival rate was high for permanent dentition (95.8% compared to the deciduousdentition (89.5%. Conclusions: ART was accepted by majority of subjects. Survival rate of single surface ART restorations was extremely good and ART approach can be implemented in schools particularly in the rural areas where there is no adequate access to dental care. ART can be a very strong tool for preventive treatment in the control of dental caries in developing countries.

  16. The Expect Respect Project. Creating a positive elementary school climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraviglia, Martha G; Becker, Heather; Rosenbluth, Barri; Sanchez, Ellen; Robertson, Trina

    2003-11-01

    The Expect Respect Project, a violence prevention program, was developed to reduce the incidence of bullying and sexual harassment by creating a positive school climate in which inappropriate behaviors are not tolerated and staff members respond consistently to incidents. The project implemented an educational intervention for students, parents, and staff members on expecting respect in student relationships and strategies for responding to inappropriate student behaviors. This article describes the educational intervention and evaluation of the project. Findings from the project showed a significant increase in awareness of bullying following the educational intervention. Bullying was reported to have occurred in areas with less adult supervision such as the playground, cafeteria, hallway, and buses. Students thought staff would respond to inappropriate behaviors by telling students to ignore verbal bullying or sexual harassment. In contrast, staff at the elementary schools thought adults would respond to inappropriate behaviors by telling the bully to stop, calling his or her parents, or giving a specific punishment.

  17. Concurrent RFID/UID Implementation at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, A Naval Postgraduate School Master of Business Administration Thesis Study in Item Unique Identification and Radio Frequency Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Obellos, Ernan S.; Lookabill, Ryan D.; Colleran, Travis

    2007-01-01

    As part of their Master of Business Administration thesis at Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, California, United States Navy Lieutenant Commanders Travis Colleran, Ryan Lookabill, and Ernan Obellos developed an implementation plan to apply Unique Identification (UID) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) concurrently at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division (NSWC Crane) in Crane, Indiana.

  18. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo

    2014-01-01

    School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  19. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood.

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    Stéphanie Barbu

    Full Text Available Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.

  20. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Cabanes, Guénaël; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd

    2011-01-28

    Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.

  1. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PLAYGROUND DISEÑOS E INFRAESTRUCTURAS SEGURAS PARA NUESTROS NIÑOS Y NIÑAS…UNA URGENCIA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito dar a conocer los parámetros necesarios para el diseño e implementación de campos de juego seguros para la población. Ya que por medio de los campos de juego se suministran oportunidades únicas de desarrollo integral, especialmente en la edad infantil. En estos espacios públicos, los niños y las niñas tienen que aprender a resolver conflictos para seguir adelante con su juego, su diversión y su desarrollo. Este espacio lúdico se convierte en un lugar de aprendizaje que conlleva procesos de formación y grandes beneficios sociales, emocionales, físicos, cognoscitivos, intelectuales y espirituales. Sin embargo, estos beneficios se ven disminuidos por la falta de conciencia de las compañías constructoras que los diseñan en lugares no aptos, poniendo en riesgo a la población, también por el poco interés de las comunidades y la población adulta, en optimizar las condiciones para su uso. Por lo cual, es de suma importancia antes, durante y después de la construcción de un campo de juego tomar en cuenta: el diseño, la construcción, el material, los implementos, los componentes y los procedimientos que se deben de tener para que cumplan con los requerimientos necesarios de seguridad, y sin dejar de lado el objetivo de su creación, o sea un área diseñada, equipada, localizada y exclusiva para el juego y que facilite la formación integral de la población. Es urgente, por tanto, que en Costa Rica se establezcan legislaciones claras que garanticen el cumplimiento en cuanto a la construcción, diseño y utilización de los playgrounds, sin poner en riesgo la salud, previniendo cualquier tipo de accidente y garantizando los derechos inalienables de cada costarricense.

  3. The effects on student health of interventions modifying the school environment: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Wells, H; Harden, A; Jamal, F; Fletcher, A; Thomas, J; Campbell, R; Petticrew, M; Whitehead, M; Murphy, S; Moore, L

    2013-08-01

    Owing to the limited effectiveness of traditional health education curricula in schools, there is increasing interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by modifying the school environment. Existing systematic reviews cannot determine whether environmental intervention is effective because they examine interventions combining environmental modifications and traditional health education. This gap is significant because school-environment interventions are complex to implement and may be sidelined in underfunded and attainment-focused school systems without evidence to support such an approach. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school-environment interventions without health-education components on student health and inequalities. This was a systematic review of experimental/quasi-experimental studies of school-environment interventions. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and narratively synthesised. Sixteen reports of 10 studies were included, all from the USA and the UK. Five evaluations of interventions aiming to develop a stronger sense of community and/or improve relationships between staff and students suggested potential benefits particularly regarding violence and aggression. Two trials of interventions enabling students to advocate for changes in school catering and physical activity reported benefits for physical activity but not diet. Three evaluations of improvements to school playgrounds offered weak evidence of effects on physical activity. School environment interventions show the potential to improve young people's health particularly regarding violence, aggression and physical activity. Further trials are required to provide a stronger and more generalisable evidence base.

  4. Amount and environmental predictors of outdoor playtime at home and school: a cross-sectional analysis of a national sample of preschool-aged children attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Alexis J; Fletcher, Erica N; Whitaker, Robert C; Anderson, Sarah E

    2012-11-01

    Outdoor play is an important contributor to children's physical activity and the prevalence, correlates, and environmental predictors of it among young children are not well characterized. This study aims to estimate the amount of time preschool-aged children attending Head Start spend playing outdoors at home and school, and whether aspects of the home and school environment are associated with greater outdoor play. We analyzed data (n=2529) collected in spring 2007 in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES). Overall, 37.5% of children played outside at home >2h per weekday. Children who had a yard near home to play in or who had visited a park or playground or gone on a picnic with a family member in the last month were more likely to have >2h per weekday outdoor play at home, but having a playground within walking distance of the home was not related to home outdoor playtime. On average children played outdoors at Head Start for 36 min per day. The amount of time children played outdoors at home was not related to school outdoor time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. No safe haven: locations of harassment and bullying victimization in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Perkins, Jessica M; Craig, David W

    2014-12-01

    Given that adolescent bullying victimization is a significant concern for secondary education and adolescent development, identifying school contexts in which victimization is most likely to occur is salient. An anonymous online survey assessed the prevalence of being harassed or bullied in various locations within 20 middle schools (grades 5-9) in New Jersey and New York (N = 10,668). Seven types of bullying-related victimization (teased in an unfriendly way, called hurtful names, physically abused, excluded from a group to hurt feelings, belongings taken/damaged, threatened to be hurt, and negative rumors spread) were examined in 7 locations where each type of victimization could occur (classroom, lunchroom, hallways, gym, playground, bus, or bathroom). Prevalence of victimization types ranged from 4% to 38% depending on location. Prevalence of overall victimization was equal or greater in classrooms compared with other school locations (highest prevalence rates in hallways, classrooms, and lunchrooms), regardless of school demographic characteristics. Victimization in classrooms compared with other school settings was most highly associated with feelings of being unsafe. Vigilant attention to bullying is needed across all school environments and especially in the classroom context, which may mistakenly be perceived as a more protected area. Indeed, middle school classrooms are not safe havens. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  6. Policies to promote the community use of schools: a review of state recreational user statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, John O; Carroll, Michael S; Connaughton, Daniel P; Evenson, Kelly R

    2010-07-01

    Concern over liability is a barrier to allowing community use of school property for the purpose of engaging in active sport and recreational activities. Recreational user statutes have the potential to limit liability for public schools when use occurs outside of regular school hours, reduce the fear of liability among school administrators, and increase opportunities for access to school facilities for recreation and physical activity by community members. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of recreational user statutes to public schools when the use of school facilities for recreational purposes would occur outside of regular school hours. A review of recreational user statutes from all 50 states was conducted in 2007 and 2009. Characteristics of those statutes from states with laws potentially applicable to public school recreation and sport facilities were described in detail. Forty-two states had recreational user statutes that would potentially offer protection from liability for public schools. Protected activities listed in state statutes were summer sports (n=2); winter sports (n=22); athletic competition (n=1); sporting events and activities (n=1); exercise (n=4); and any other outdoor sport, game, or recreational activity (n=2). Specific protected physical activities listed were playing on playground equipment (n=1); running/jogging (n=2); roller-skating and rollerblading (n=4); skateboarding (n=2); disc golf (n=1); and bicycling (n=16). This study suggests the need for further statutory liability protections for public schools, and immunity provisions that target activities conducive to physical activity, common on school grounds, and popular among community residents. It further suggests that empirical studies be conducted to examine school administrator's perceptions relevant to liability as a potential barrier to opening school sport and recreational facilities to members of the community outside of regular school hours

  7. The multiverse is your playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers should not feel like failures for leaving academia — the multiverse is replete with engaging, satisfying and well-remunerated jobs that will value you, your education, your training and your unique skills.

  8. Novel kinetic trapping in charged colloidal clusters due to self-induced surface charge organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, Christian L.; Murata, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime; Williams, Stephen R.; Malins, Alex; Royall, C. Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Colloidal clusters are an unusual state of matter where tunable interactions enable a sufficient reduction in their degrees of freedom that their energy landscapes can become tractable -- they form a playground for statistical mechanics and promise unprecedented control of structure on the submicron lengthscale. We study colloidal clusters in a system where a short-ranged polymer-induced attraction drives clustering, while a weak, long-ranged electrostatic repulsion prevents extensive aggregation. We compare experimental yields of cluster structures with theory which assumes simple addition of competing isotropic interactions between the colloids. Here we show that for clusters of size 4 <= m <= 7, the yield of minimum energy clusters is much less than expected. We attribute this to an anisotropic self-organized surface charge distribution which leads to unexpected kinetic trapping. We introduce a model for the coupling between counterions and binding sites on the colloid surface with which we interpret our findings.

  9. Evaluation of Enviromental Health in Primary Schools, Kemalpasa-Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of environmental health and the differences in environmental health among primary schools of county seat and rural area in Kemalpasa county, Izmir. METHODS: Fourty six primary schools in Kemalpasa county constituted the research universe this cross-sectionel study. We intended to reach all of these schools. Surrounding conditions, toilet hygene, waste materials, food and water safety of the schools were evaluated. Data were collected from school administrators by questionnaire and by measuring and observing some of the variables. RESULTS: Of the 46 primary schools found in Kemalpasa county 9 are located in the county seat and 37 are located rural area. The mean number of classrooms was 10.8±1.4 (1-38 and students was 320.1±55.9 (7-1323 in these schools. Twenty (43.5% of these schools were located on the main roads with heavy traffic, 8 (17.4% had playground features appropriate for accidents, 31 (67.4% had enviromentproffesionals, 33 (71.7% had preventive walls around them, 28 (60.9% had connection to the canalization system, 31 (67.4% had the necessary measures taken for fire. Of the 16 (34.8% schools those had canteens, 12 (75.0% of them were not licenced for sanitation, 11 (68,8% of them could not get systematic porter inspection. Among these primary schools 37 (80.4% had sufficient amount of soap and 5 (10.9% had paper towels. Fourty four (95.7% of the schools had their water analyzed at various intervals, 17 (37.0% had water tanks in case of inadequate water supply. There was a significant difference among schools in the county seat of Kemalpasa compared to schools in the countryside on being connected to canalization network (p=0.007, on having necessary fire precautions (p=0.021, on providing waste baskets in the school coridors (p=0.001 and on making porter examinations in the canteen personels (p=0.035. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the primary schools in the county of

  10. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Ramjee; Bastola, Ramesh; Niroula, Rakshya; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-06-22

    Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Banke district, Nepal in 2013 among higher secondary school students using self-administered questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A sample of 405 students, 178 females and 227 males, of the age-group 15 to 20 years from seven schools were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with participation in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Engagement of female in leisure time physical activity was lower but mean time spent on sitting per day was higher. Students who walked to school and have playground/parks near home, younger females (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.18-8.08), females living in nuclear families (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.01-4.62) and males who cycled to school (OR: 8.09, 95% CI: 2.35-27.80) and have provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.04-5.97) were more likely to be engaged in leisure time physical activity. On the other hand, students who did not have playground in school and lived in rural areas were more likely to sit for more than 6 hours a day. Likewise, male students of private school (OR: 6.41, 95% CI: 2.89-14.21), who used vehicle to reach school (OR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.26-27.75) and have no provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.09-8.07) had longer sitting time. Difference in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour was found among male and female school adolescents. Interventions

  11. Profile of Geohelminth Eggs, Cysts, and Oocysts of Protozoans Contaminating the Soils of Ten Primary Schools in Dschang, West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiasis and protozoans infections have been recognized as an important public health problem. The aim of the present study was to screen soil samples collected from 10 primary schools in the city of Dschang for the presence of soil-transmitted helminth eggs, cysts, and oocysts of protozoans. A total of 400 soil samples were collected around latrines, at playgrounds, and behind classrooms in each school. These samples were examined using the sucrose flotation method. From the result obtained, an overall contamination rate of 7.75% was observed. Five genera of nematodes (Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, Cooperia, and hookworms were identified, while neither cysts nor oocysts of protozoans were detected. The contamination rate and the number of species found were significantly different in wet season as compared to the dry season. During the rainy season, this rate was 12.5% with all the parasitic stages identified, while, in the dry season, the soil contamination rate was 3% with the presence of only two genera (Ascaris and Trichuris. This suggests that parasite infection may occur mainly in rainy season rather than in the dry season. The most common eggs were those of Ascaris with 2% and 5% contamination rates in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Also, the soils around latrines were more contaminated (11.9% as compared to those collected behind classrooms (7.5% and those at playground (2.5%. It was concluded that the pupils of these schools may have played a major role in the contamination of their environment. Thus, sanitary education, enforcement of basic rules of hygiene, and deworming remain a necessity in the entire population of the study area in general and in the schools in particular in order to prevent helminth infections and to ensure effective environmental health.

  12. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  13. Effectiveness of ART and traditional amalgam approach in restoring single-surface cavities in posterior teeth of permanent dentitions in school children after 6.3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Taifour, D.; Al-Zaher, I.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was compared with the traditional amalgam (TA) approach in order to test their appropriateness to complement a preventive and educational school oral health programme in Syria. METHODS: Using a parallel group design, 370 and 311 grade 2

  14. Oxides Surfaces and Novel Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Pratik

    temperature owing to the presence of oxygen vacancies and surface band gap reduction. These results also indicated that the 4f-electrons are active components of the valence band electronic structure. We believe that the lanthanide scandates are a rich playground of material properties and have potential for applications in electronic and nano-mechanical devices.

  15. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... it possible to examine surfaces all the way down to their atomic layers and also to perform realistic durability tests. The many surface techniques are described in clear and simple language, and the book is richly illustrated with detailed drawings and photos. It also deals with replacing environmentally...

  16. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-05

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and health risk in urban nursery schools in Gliwice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in nursery school is believed to be different from elementary school. Moreover, younger children are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children because they spend more time indoors, and their immune systems and bodies are less mature. The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of the monoaromatic volatile benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene m,p-xylene and o-xylene (BTEX in urban nursery schools located in Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were chosen to include areas with different urbanization and traffic density characteristics in order to gather a more diverse picture of exposure risks in the various regions of the city. BTEX were sampled during winter and spring seasons in older and younger children classrooms. The samples were thermally desorbed (TD and then analyzed with use of gas chromatography (GC. In addition, outdoor measurements were carried out in the playground at each nursery school. BTEX quantification, indoor/outdoor concentration, and correlation coefficients were used to identify pollutant sources. Elevated levels of o-xylene and ethylbenzene were found in all monitored classrooms during the winter season. Outdoor concentrations were lower than indoors for each classroom. Indicators based on health risk assessment for chronic health effects associated with carcinogenic benzene or non-carcinogenic BTEX were proposed to rank sites according to their hazard level.

  18. Nature Elements and Fundamental Motor Skill Development Opportunities at Five Elementary School Districts in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Canadian children are not physically active enough for healthy development. School playgrounds are a primary location to promote physical activity and motor skill practice. The benefits of children’s play in nature have also been highlighted, but few studies have evaluated children’s access and exposure to nature for play on school grounds. This study examined children’s access to nature on school grounds and the opportunities afforded by those natural elements for motor skill practice. Results: Extensive naturescapes (multiple nature elements in one setting were not common, and natural elements were limited, ranging from 1.97 to 5.71 elements/school. The most common element was a forested area (26.5% of all natural elements identified. In comparison to built structures, the number of natural elements was low. Some elements differed between school districts and appeared to be related to local geography and terrain (hilly, rocky terrain, tidal flats, etc.. Our assessment showed that naturescape elements afforded opportunities for the development of some key fundamental motor skills (FMS, specifically, locomotor and stability skills, but opportunities to develop manipulative skills were limited. To maximize potential FMS development, physical literacy, and psycho-social benefits, additional elements or more comprehensive multi-element naturescapes and facilitation (social or environmental are recommended.

  19. Assessment of Morphological Variations and its Specific Location on the Surface of Adult Human Liver in Ethiopian Cadavers University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Mehare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver is the second largest organ next to skin and located in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and may extend to left hypochondrium in upper abdominal cavity. It accounts 2% to 3% of total body weight of individual. Land marking for interpreting different diagnostic image and localizing lesions in the liver is commonly done by major fissures. Sound knowledge about different morphological variations which are found on the surface of liver is mandatory to have safe surgical outcome. Segments of liver were extensively researched but there are only few studies dealt with the surface variation of the liver. Therefore, this study aims to assess morphological variations and its specific location on the surface of adult human liver in Ethiopian cadaver. Methodology: Institutional based cross sectional descriptive study design was conducted in 33 formalin fixed Ethiopian cadaveric livers in the Anatomy department of University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University. Results: 45.45% of the liver was normal but 54.55% showed one or more variations. Additional fissures and very small left lobe with deep costal impressions were seen 27.27% and 21.21% cases respectively. Pons hepatis connecting left lobe with quadrate lobe and very deep renal impression with corset constriction were noted in 9.09% cases each. Additional lobes and absence of quadrate lobes were found in 6.06% cases each. Conclusion and Recommendation: Morphological variations on the liver surface were accessory fissure, very small left lobe with deep costal impressions, pons hepatis, shape variation and absence of quadrate lobe. The most common one among the variations was accessory fissure on the visceral and diaphragmatic surface.

  20. Does small-scale vertical distribution of juvenile schooling fish affect prey availability to surface-feeding seabirds in the Wadden Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänhardt, Andreas; Becker, Peter H.

    2011-02-01

    Food availability is a key variable influencing breeding performance and demography of marine top predators. Due to methodological problems, proportionality between fish abundance and availability is often assumed without being explicitly tested. More specifically, better breeding performance of surface-feeding seabirds at times of large prey stocks suggests that prey availability is also a function of prey abundance. Using vertically resolved stow net sampling we tested whether local abundance and length composition of pelagic fish are reliable predictors of the availability of these fish to surface-feeding Common Terns ( Sterna hirundo) breeding in the German Wadden Sea. Prey fish were found to concentrate below the maximum diving depth of the terns. Individuals caught close to the surface were in most cases smaller than conspecifics caught at greater depth. Correlations between fish abundance within and out of reach of the terns appeared to be both species- and site-specific rather than driven by overall fish abundance. Vertical distribution patterns of the terns' main prey fish could be explained as anti-predator behavior, reducing prey availability to the terns. In 2007, when breeding performance was much better than in 2006, herring and whiting were much more abundant, suggesting that overall prey abundance may also increase prey availability in habitats other than those represented by the stow net sampling.

  1. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.

    2017-05-01

    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  2. Wood Play Structures Are a Joint Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Outlines how an elementary school in Storrs, Connecticut, developed and built its own wooden play structure for the playground. Discusses safety, liability, and risks involved when playground equipment is built by volunteers. (MD)

  3. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make......, nitriding, carbonitriding, and many other lesser-known thermochemical processes used for solving technological problems. The book is richly illustrated with pictures and figures showing how the technology creates new innovative solutions for industry and how surfaces are becoming integral to the function...

  4. Near-Road Exposure and Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases in Elementary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Hyun; Lee, Chung Soo; Yu, Seung Do; Lee, Jung Sub; Chang, Jun Young; Jeon, Jun Min; Son, Hye Rim; Park, Chan Jung; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Young Wook

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to classify schools based on traffic pollutants and their complex sources, to assess the environment, to determine the state of allergic diseases among students using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in children (ISAAC) questionnaire, and to assess their connection to air pollutants. A total of seven schools were divided into three categories according to the characteristics of their surrounding environments: three schools in traffic-related zones, two schools in complex source zones I (urban), and two schools in complex source zones II (industrial complex). ISAAC questionnaires were administered and the 4404 completed questionnaires were analyzed. The frequency of asthma treatment during the past 12 months showed a significant increase (pchildren's health, care, and prevention related to major spaces for children, such as school zones, spaces used in coming to and leaving school, playgrounds, and classrooms are essential to ensuring not only the safety of children from traffic accidents but also their protection from local traffic pollutants and various hazardous environmental factors.

  5. School governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2008-01-01

    Original title: De school bestuurd. Until now, little was known about school boards in primary and secondary schools. This study presents a national overview of the way in which these school boards interpret and fulfil their role. More and different demands have been placed on school boards in

  6. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    it possible to examine surfaces all the way down to their atomic layers and also to perform realistic durability tests. The many surface techniques are described in clear and simple language, and the book is richly illustrated with detailed drawings and photos. It also deals with replacing environmentally......, nitriding, carbonitriding, and many other lesser-known thermochemical processes used for solving technological problems. The book is richly illustrated with pictures and figures showing how the technology creates new innovative solutions for industry and how surfaces are becoming integral to the function......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...

  7. School governance

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Turkenburg

    2008-01-01

    Original title: De school bestuurd. Until now, little was known about school boards in primary and secondary schools. This study presents a national overview of the way in which these school boards interpret and fulfil their role. More and different demands have been placed on school boards in recent years, for example with regard to transparency of governance and public accountability. In a national survey of school boards, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP explored what they...

  8. Certified Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  9. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  10. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  11. Saturday School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Allen

    2011-01-01

    When the author became principal at South Pittsburg High School in the rural southeast corner of Tennessee, he noticed that the school had a serious problem with students arriving late to school in the morning and late to classes during the school day. When this issue was discussed, it was decided that there was a need to initiate a Saturday…

  12. Ternary wurtzite CaAgBi materials family: A playground for essential and accidental, type-I and type-II Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Shan-Shan; Liu, Lei; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Chen, Ziyu; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2017-09-01

    Based on their formation mechanisms, Dirac points in three-dimensional systems can be classified as accidental or essential. The former can be further distinguished into type I and type II, depending on whether the Dirac cone spectrum is completely tipped over along a certain direction. Here we predict the coexistence of all three kinds of Dirac points in the low-energy band structure of CaAgBi-family materials with a stuffed wurtzite structure. Two pairs of accidental Dirac points reside on the rotational axis, with one pair being type I and the other pair type II; while another essential Dirac point is pinned at the high symmetry point on the Brillouin zone boundary. Due to broken inversion symmetry, the band degeneracy around accidental Dirac points is completely lifted except along the rotational axis, realizing a kind of birefringent Dirac fermions, which may enable the splitting of chiral carriers at a ballistic p -n junction with a double negative refraction effect. We clarify their symmetry protections, and find both the Dirac cone and Fermi arc topological surface states.

  13. School Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠOVÁ, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis titled School maturity deals with the development of preschool age. The aim is to evaluate the optimal maturity in pre-school ride. The theoretical part describes preschool age, his motor, cognitive, perceptual, emotional and social development. It defines the concepts of school readiness and its components, school readiness, school immaturity. Describes measures for education immature kids. The practical part contains the results of investigations on a selected sample of chil...

  14. Chinese Graduate Students' Perspectives on Home Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Although an established alternative form of American education, the concept of home schooling is just beginning to surface in China. Few Chinese have knowledge of home schooling yet alone consider this form of education. However, graduate students studying in the field of education are aware of this unusual alternative to traditional schooling,…

  15. Schools and Schooling: Anthropological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norris Brock

    The thesis presented in this paper is that school failure among minority subgroups is related to the nature, characteristics, and function of public schooling as well as to the social structural position of the subgroups of which these children are members. An overview of some ethnographic studies of schools and the process of schooling is…

  16. Peacebuilders: a theoretically driven, school-based model for early violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, D D; Flannery, D J; Vazsonyi, A T; Powell, K E; Atha, H

    1996-01-01

    PeaceBuilders is a schoolwide violence-prevention program for elementary schools (K-5). A coalition of the Pima County Community Services Department, University of Arizona, and Heartsprings, Inc., (a Tucson-based company) are conducting a formal evaluation. Children who grow up to commit acts of violence show cognitive, social, and imitative differences from their peers. These characteristics can be ameliorated, most successfully through interventions that begin at an early age and involve multiple segments of the child's social experiences and interactions. PeaceBuilders activities are built into the school environment and the daily interactions among students, teachers, and administrative staff, all of whom are taught a common language and provided models of positive behavior, environmental cues to signal such behavior, opportunities to rehearse positive behavior, and rewards for practicing it. Four schools, one from each of four matched pairs, were randomly assigned to begin PeaceBuilders in Year 1. The remaining four schools begin in Year 2. Outcome assessments include student self-reports, standardized teacher reports, playground observations, and school and law enforcement records. Process assessments include school observations and surveys of teacher practices and satisfaction. Surveys were completed by 2,736 children. The sample is about 55% Hispanic, 26% Anglo, 14% Native American, and 4% African American. Among children in grades 3-5, during the past week 15% had been sent to the office for disciplinary problems, 13% tried to start a fight 27% hit someone, and 12% reported being threatened with a gun or knife. Violent behaviors and experiences are common among the studied children. A valid evaluation is underway of PeaceBuilders.

  17. Gender differences in personal, social and environmental influences on active travel to and from school for Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Eva; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W; Williams, Joanne W

    2010-11-01

    Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is an important contributor to adolescents overall physical activity (PA). This study examines associations between personal, social and environmental variables and active travel to and from school using data from a large observational study to examine active travel in 2961 year 6 and 8 students (48.7% male), aged 10-14 years (M=11.4, SD=0.8yrs) from 231 schools. Participants completed an on-line survey and all reported living within 2km of school. Data collected included mode of travel to and from school, self-reported health, and PA variables. Social environmental variables included having playgrounds, parks or gyms close by, feeling safe to walk alone, barriers to walking in the neighbourhood (e.g. traffic, no footpaths), peer and family support for PA, existence of sports teams/scout groups, community disorder and perceived neighbourhood safety. Results showed that while more girls (44.3%) than boys (37.4%) walked to school, lower proportions rode bikes (8.3% vs 22.4%) and hence fewer were active travellers overall. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, location and socio-economic status were conducted for active travel to/from school, separately for boys and girls. Predictors for boys and girls being 'active travellers' to/from school included recreational facilities close to home, higher perceived safety of the neighbourhood and higher community disorder. For boys, social support from friends, scout groups available and higher enjoyment of physical activity was also important. These findings suggest areas for future research and may be used to guide strategies to increase active travel to and from school. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Understanding and Dealing with Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerger, William; Gehret, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems that educators face today is dealing with bullying. This pervasive issue occurs in classrooms, lunch rooms, unsupervised areas, on playgrounds, and through electronic media. Based on the principles of protecting the child and establishing a safe environment for all students, this paper investigates the causes and…

  20. Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, David B.; Man, Kin F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of surface tension is observed inmany everyday situations. For example, a slowly leaking faucet drips because the force surface tension allows the water to cling to it until a sufficient mass of water is accumulated to break free.

  1. Superamphiphobic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Brutin, David

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent trends in the development, fabrication, and characterization of superamphiphobic surfaces. An amphiphobic surface repels both polar liquids, such as water, and nonpolar (oily) liquids, and has therefore useful technological application in microfluidics devices,

  2. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  3. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  4. School Timetabling

    OpenAIRE

    Všetička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with a hard real-life school timetabling problem of a Czech secondary school. In this problem, lessons are to be allocated to classrooms while respecting various constraints such as curricula and teacher availability. We study existing approaches used for school timetabling problems and we show how to represent introduced problem in existing school timetabling software. We then present a software prototype that solves introduced problem using constraint logic programming. Rel...

  5. Is It Safe to Allow Cell Phones in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones were banned from most schools years ago, but after the Columbine High School and 9/11 tragedies, parents started pressuring some school boards and administrators to reverse the bans. On its surface, allowing students to have cell phones under the guise of improved school safety may seem like a "no-brainer" to many board members and…

  6. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  7. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  8. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  9. School Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  10. Classing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    School prospectuses and promotional videos appeal to parents by presenting idealised images of the education a school provides. These educational idealisations visually realise the form of discipline a school is expected to provide, depending on the social habitus of the parents. This paper presents a content analysis of the images used in 33 sets…

  11. Grading Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Henderson, Michael; West, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Never before have Americans had greater access to information about school quality. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), all school districts are required to distribute annual report cards detailing student achievement levels at each of their schools. Local newspapers frequently cover the release of state test results, emphasizing…

  12. Healthy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittelmeyer, Christian

    A survey of several hundred German students led to two theses on school environment and learning. First, students find school buildings attractive only if they conform to certain features of the human sensory system such as balance. Second, students consider school buildings attractive and inviting only if their architectural message meets such…

  13. Participação de crianças com paralisia cerebral nos ambientes da escola Participation of children with cerebral palsy in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baleroni Rodrigues Silva

    2012-03-01

    activities in different school environments, from their teachers' perspective. The study included 10 teachers and their students with cerebral palsy in São Paulo. We applied the School Function Assessment−Part I with the teachers in order to examine the level of student participation in school activities in six environments: classroom, playground/break time, transportation to and from school, bathroom, and transitions to the classroom and cafeteria. The Friedman test and Wilcoxon test for two related populations were used to identify significant differences between the scores for participation in the various environments. The results showed significant differences in scores for participation between Transportation and Playground/Break Time, Transportation and Transitions, Transportation and Classroom, Transportation and Cafeteria, Bathroom and Classroom, Bathroom and Cafeteria. The children participated well in class, however architectural barriers interfered in the performance of tasks in the bathroom, such as sitting on the toilet, standing up, hand washing, and lack of adapted mobility resources. The use of mobility resources such as crutches and walkers were observed to facilitate participation in playground/break time and transitions. This study highlighted the need for further governmental actions implementing environmental changes in schools, especially related to transportation and transition facilitation.

  14. Art as A Playground for Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Art works which engage with the topic of human enhancement and evolution have begun appearing parallel to increased awareness about anthropogenic changes to our environment and acceleration of the speed of technological developments that impact us and our biological environment. The article...... connects artistic activity with play activity and evolution, which are considered on two levels. On the first level, play activity and its beneficial role to evolution is introduced through various science scholars’ research. On the second level, artistic activity that engages with human enhancement...... and related topics is proposed as play activity for adults, which simultaneously experiments directly with ideas concerning evolution and human development. The author proposes that these kinds of experimental art projects support our mental adaptation to evolutionary changes....

  15. Point vortex dynamics: A classical mathematics playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    the integrability of the three-vortex problem, the interplay of relative equilibria of identical vortices and the roots of certain polynomials, addition formulas for the cotangent and the Weierstrass zeta function, projective geometry, and other topics. The hope and intent of the article is to garner further...

  16. PLAYGROUND: Preparing Students for the Cyber Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Seth James

    2017-01-01

    Attempting to educate practitioners of computer security can be difficult if for no other reason than the breadth of knowledge required today. The security profession includes widely diverse subfields including cryptography, network architectures, programming, programming languages, design, coding practices, software testing, pattern recognition,…

  17. America's Poisoned Playgrounds: Children and Toxic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Louis

    Next to chemical and farm workers, today's children are at the greatest risk from toxic chemicals. Through their normal play activities, children are exposed to a frightening array of toxic hazards, including lead, pesticides, arsenic, and unknown dangers from abandoned landfills and warehouses. Through a series of documented examples, the author…

  18. Copper Tellurium Oxides - A Playground for Magnetism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, M. R.

    2018-04-15

    A variety of copper tellurium oxide minerals are known, and many of them exhibit either unusual forms of magnetism, or potentially novel spin liquid behavior. Here, I review a number of the more interesting materials with a focus on their crystalline symmetry and, if known, the nature of their magnetism. Many of these exist (so far) in mineral form only, and most have yet to have their magnetic properties studied. This means a largely unexplored space of materials awaits our exploration.

  19. Montessori Special Education and Nature's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Nimal

    2013-01-01

    Nimal Vaz takes us to the essentials of Montessori as an aid to life for all children, particularly children with special needs. She challenges teachers to truly provide experiences in nature: observing anthills, identifying bird nests, or taking an olfactory walk with a legally blind classmate. Finally, she demonstrates how a child's interest in…

  20. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2016-01-01

    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We give...

  1. School Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene V Glass

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen educators and scholars discuss vouchers as a means of promoting school choice and introducing competition into education. The discussion centers around the thinking of the economist Herbert Gintis, who participated in the discussion, and his notion of market socialism as it might apply to education. In 1976, Gintis published, with Samuel Bowles, Schooling in Capitalist America; in 1994, he is arguing for competitive markets for the delivery of schooling.

  2. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfant

    2012-01-01

      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary   Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress    Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website    http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf

  3. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2010-01-01

    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf  

  4. Trapped surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Senovilla, José M M

    2011-01-01

    I review the definition and types of (closed) trapped surfaces. Surprising global properties are shown, such as their "clairvoyance" and the possibility that they enter into flat portions of the spacetime. Several results on the interplay of trapped surfaces with vector fields and with spatial hypersurfaces are presented. Applications to the quasi-local definition of Black Holes are discussed, with particular emphasis set onto marginally trapped tubes, trapping horizons and the boundary of the region with closed trapped surfaces. Finally, the core of a trapped region is introduced, and its importance discussed.

  5. Trapped Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, José M. M.

    2013-03-01

    I review the definition and types of (closed) trapped surfaces. Surprising global properties are pointed out, such as their "clairvoyance" and the possibility that they enter into flat portions of the spacetime. Several results on the interplay of trapped surfaces with vector fields and with spatial hypersurfaces are presented. Applications to the quasi-local definition of Black Holes are analyzed, with particular emphasis set onto marginally trapped tubes, trapping horizons and the boundary of the region with closed trapped surfaces. Finally, the core of a trapped region is introduced, and its importance briefly discussed.

  6. Surface optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Song, W. Z.; Choi, J.-W.; De Sio, L.; O'Neil, C. P.; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2010-08-01

    Surfaces -defined as the interfaces between solids and liquids- have attracted much attention in optics and biology, such as total internal reflection imaging (TIRF) and DNA microarrays. Within the context of optofluidics however, surfaces have received little attention. In this paper, we describe how surfaces can define or enhance optofluidic function. More specifically we discuss chemical interfaces that control the orientation of liquid crystals and the stretching of individual nucleic acids, diffractive and plasmonic nanostructures for lasing and opto-thermal control, as well as microstructures that read pressure and form chemical patterns.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SANDPITS SECURITY SYSTEM AGAINST MICROORGANISMS AND INTESTINAL PARASITES SAND CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Błaszak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Playgrounds and sandpits (small architecture objects according to the Construction Law are subject to meticulous supervision, both at the design stage and subsequent status checks of the objects. One of the requirements arising from the need to protect playgrounds from animals is the necessity for fencing the object (Regulation of 31 December 2002 On Safety and Hygiene in Public and Private Schools and Institutions; Polish Standard PN-EN 1176 Playground equipment and surfacing. Does fencing playgrounds really reduce contamination of sand? To verify this hypothesis, the studies have been conducted on the residential areas’ sandpits, both fence secured and unsecured, located in close proximity to one another. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fences and nets as protection from microbial and parasite contamination of sandpits, mainly due to the access of animals to them. For several seasons of spring and summer the sand was examined in terms of the total number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi (organic matter contamination of sand indicators and for the presence of coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the Salmonella genus and the eggs of intestinal parasites. It can be concluded that fencing playgrounds affects sand pollution less with waste and plant material (as a consequence, it has been reported statistically significantly less heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the fenced sandpits’ sand. Unfortunately, the fence does not eliminate the risks associated with sand pollution of coliform bacteria. Cats and birds, but also dogs, still have a continuous access to sand. Due to the repeatedly stated carelessness of children and their caregivers, gates left open to the playground do not constitute an obstacle for domestic and stray animals. Another source of sand pollution with intestinal pathogens can be a manner of carriage of new sand, as there is no legislation governing the issue of transport

  8. Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Walter

    Recommendations from the first annual Utah Small Schools Conference resulted in several specific actions. After studying certification requirements to determine if greater flexibility could be attained to remedy some of the restrictive rules that burdened small schools, the Utah State Board made it possible to move administrators and supervisors…

  9. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes a variety of religious issues before United States courts, including two religion-in-the-schools cases in New Jersey and Georgia and two New York cases involving public assistance of private schools. Discusses a wrongful death lawsuit in Connecticut concerning a teenage suicide. (MLH)

  10. School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Héctor A.

    2015-01-01

    The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…

  11. School Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  12. Hacker School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Leonard

    1993-01-01

    The author reminisces about his educational experience at a small school in Maine during the late 1930s, revealing the respect he extended toward his teachers, what it was like to grow up during this time period, and his feelings upon returning to the now vacant school. (LP)

  13. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  14. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  15. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  16. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  17. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  18. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  19. The potential for brain injury on selected surfaces used by cheerleaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Although playground surfaces have been investigated for fall impact attenuation, the surfaces that cheerleaders use have received little attention. To determine (1) the critical height for selected surfaces used by cheerleaders at or below which a serious head impact injury from a fall is unlikely to occur, (2) the critical heights for non-impact-absorbing surfaces for comparison purposes, and (3) the effect of soil moisture and grass height on g(max) (which is defined as the multiple of g [acceleration due to gravity at the earth's surface at sea level: ie, 32.2 feet x s(-1) x s(-1)] that represents the maximum deceleration experienced during an impact) and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) at the critical height for a dry grass surface. Observational study. A local cheerleading gym, indoor locations within the authors' institution, and various outdoor locations. g(max), HIC, and critical height. Critical heights for the surfaces tested ranged from 0.5 ft (0.15 m) for concrete and vinyl tile installed over concrete to more than 11 ft (3.35 m) for a spring floor. Increases in grass height and soil moisture resulted in an increase in the critical height for grass surfaces. Only spring floors and 4-in (0.10-m)-thick landing mats placed on traditional foam floors had critical heights greater than 10.5 ft (3.20 m), thus providing enough impact-absorbing capacity for performance of 2-level stunts. The potential for serious head impact injuries can be minimized by increasing the shock-absorbing capacity of the surface, decreasing the height from which the person falls, or both. Cheerleaders and cheerleading coaches should use the critical heights reported in this study to compare the relative impact-absorbing capacities of the various surfaces tested, with critical height as an indicator of the impact-absorption capacity of the surface. The findings of this study can be used to select the most appropriate surface for the type of maneuver to be performed, based on the

  20. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  1. Surfacing Moves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -management policies that pressure such care in practice. Some scholars analyze this situation as opposition between ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ time. This article takes a different route. It explores how time surfaces in Swedish senior home care through relational movements of care. These enlist things...... such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring these different ‘spatial-timings’. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desks of ethnographic analysis....

  2. The Prevalence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens on Inanimate Objects in a State School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Tonja Denise

    2012-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces can reduce the transmissibility of potential pathogens on school surfaces. Determining the number of bacteria and investigating the presence of pathogens on school surfaces are beginning steps in managing the well-being of students contacting those surfaces. This research study examines the…

  3. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Role Modeling Energy Drinks Childhood Obesity Prevention Childhood Obesity Facts Youth Obesity Maps (2003-2015) Body Mass Index (BMI) Measurement in Schools Physical Education and Physical Activity Physical Activity Facts ...

  4. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  5. School Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossi, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Shows how architects are designing new schools to function as community centers, reflect contemporary teaching methods, address demands for technology, and meet increased standards in health and safety. (GR)

  6. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  7. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  8. Describing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    lightbulb. It is well-known (for exam~ple, do Carmo "" "..-’,.’.V .. .V...i ra I s ; ul ing-.. "’. Figure 11. The helicoid of a single blade. (Reproduced from [do Carmo 1976, Figure 2-27 Page 94]) where m and 1 are assumed...York. Do Carmo , Manfredo P, [1976], Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prent- ice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Faugeras, 0. D., et. al, [1982

  9. School readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Pamela C

    2008-04-01

    School readiness includes the readiness of the individual child, the school's readiness for children, and the ability of the family and community to support optimal early child development. It is the responsibility of schools to be ready for all children at all levels of readiness. Children's readiness for kindergarten should become an outcome measure for community-based programs, rather than an exclusion criterion at the beginning of the formal educational experience. Our new knowledge of early brain and child development has revealed that modifiable factors in a child's early experience can greatly affect that child's learning trajectory. Many US children enter kindergarten with limitations in their social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development that might have been significantly diminished or eliminated through early identification of and attention to child and family needs. Pediatricians have a role in promoting school readiness for all children, beginning at birth, through their practices and advocacy. The American Academy of Pediatrics affords pediatricians many opportunities to promote the physical, social-emotional, and educational health of young children, with other advocacy groups. This technical report supports American Academy of Pediatrics policy statements "Quality Early Education and Child Care From Birth to Kindergarten" and "The Inappropriate Use of School 'Readiness' Tests."

  10. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  11. Physical activity during recess in elementary school: Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... In the interaction between gender and weight status, the children who were overweight or obese exhibited high energy expenditure (p=0.002), fewer number of steps ... Keywords: Playground; Children; Overweight; Obesity; Physical exercise.

  12. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ), school principals and parents (Hein), classroom culture with its particular experiences and histories (Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed) and the virtual experiences of children – both in terms of their electronically mediated communications and the media products with and through which they play...... – to theoretical approaches developed and applied within the humanities (e.g., history, literature and philosophy) and the social sciences (e.g., anthropology, law, psychology/social psychology and sociology). Foucault’s work, for example, has been making a substantial impact on these disciplines for more than......, such as interviews, observations, school essays, drawings, school-policy documents, virtual ethnography and various other forms of fieldwork. The theoretical and analytical perspectives already mentioned have informed the analysis of this data and enabled the authors’ research into the complex processes of becoming...

  13. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... participated in a five-year research project based in Denmark called ‘Exploring Bullying in Schools’ (eXbus) and others have been collaborative partners. Many are based in the Nordic countries, and others are from Australia and the US; their collective experiences with conducting empirical research...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  14. Schools K-12 - Volusia County Schools (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County School Locations NOTE: This file includes closed schools designated in the Name field with (Closed) after the school name and 0 in the Schoolcode...

  15. The relationship between school inspections, school characteristics and school improvement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Visscher, Arend J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of school inspections on school improvement have been investigated only to a limited degree. The investigation reported on in this article is meant to expand our knowledge base regarding the impact of school inspections on school improvement. The theoretical framework for this research

  16. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney School for: ¿Hablas Español? Haga clic aquí. Introduction View Online Download English Español Listen Printing multiple ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Nutrition and Fluids for People on Dialysis People on ...

  17. Parental Education and Pre-School Children's Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Kaukonen, Riikka; Ylönen, Anna; Roos, Eva

    2018-02-20

    Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA) may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children's sedentary time (ST). Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys) with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools) study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821) wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808). Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children's lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children's ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekends, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one's own yard, is beneficial for lowering children's ST.

  18. School Effectiveness and Nongraded Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson

    Findings from a study that examined the relationship between two educational movements--effective schools and nongradedness--are presented in this paper. Methodology involved: (1) a research review of studies conducted from January 1968 to June 1991 that compared graded and nongraded student performance using standardized objective measures; and…

  19. No School like Freedom School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  20. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen M Brown

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school ...

  2. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  3. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to control marine bacterial adhesion under laboratory simulated conditions. CHOKKALINGAM PRIYA, GANESSIN ARAVIND and WILSON RICHARD THILAGARAJ. ∗. Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM University, Chennai 603 ...

  4. Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value.

  5. School Transportation: Administrator's Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Pupil transportation is an essential part of the overall school program, which requires constant supervision and direction. Perhaps no other phase of the school program is more closely observed by the public or has a greater tendency to mold public opinion about the schools than the school bus system. The success of any school district pupil…

  6. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  7. Small Schools, Great Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Today's schools are too big. If smaller schools and classroom settings are beneficial and less costly, why do we continue to operate and build large schools? Perhaps committing to smaller schools would require us to rethink the leadership, management, and organization theories that dominate school administration. Authority should be vested in…

  8. Are Charter Schools Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lawrence F.; Holifield, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Within the context of continual dissatisfaction with American public schools, charter school proponents view charter schools as a viable reform mechanism. Here, Garrison and Holifield compare the perceptions of charter school principals regarding the extent to which the effective school correlates have been implemented in their respective schools…

  9. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  10. The School Lunch Lottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that those interested in advocating healthier school lunches use a "School Lunch Lottery" to convince parents and administrators that change is necessary. During the lottery, key players are invited to experience one of three different school lunch options--a typical school lunch; a healthy bag lunch; and a school cafeteria…

  11. School Pharmacist/School Environmental Hygienic Activities at School Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The "School Health and Safety Act" was enforced in April 2009 in Japan, and "school environmental health standards" were established by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In Article 24 of the Enforcement Regulations, the duties of the school pharmacist have been clarified; school pharmacists have charged with promoting health activities in schools and carrying out complete and regular checks based on the "school environmental health standards" in order to protect the health of students and staff. In supported of this, the school pharmacist group of Japan Pharmaceutical Association has created and distributed digital video discs (DVDs) on "check methods of school environmental health standards" as support material. We use the DVD to ensure the basic issues that school pharmacists deal with, such as objectives, criteria, and methods for each item to be checked, advice, and post-measures. We conduct various workshops and classes, and set up Q&A committees so that inquiries from members are answered with the help of such activities. In addition, school pharmacists try to improve the knowledge of the school staff on environmental hygiene during their in-service training. They also conduct "drug abuse prevention classes" at school and seek to improve knowledge and recognition of drugs, including "dangerous drugs".

  12. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  13. Rugby school

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a sport for your kid? How about Rugby? Rugby is a team sport that allows children to develop their motor skills as well as their intellectual skills in a fun way. The CERN-Meyrin-Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby school, given its international location, welcomes children from the age of 5 from all nationalities and levels. Diversity is welcomed and encouraged to build a strong sense of belonging and team spirit. Training sessions take place on Wednesdays from 17h30 to 19h00 at the pitch by the parking lot of the Meyrin pool. Adding to the training sessions, children are also have the opportunity to participate in several Swiss tournaments. One of these tournaments will be organized by the CERN rugby school on Sunday, October 4th 2015 from 12h-16h in the Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby pitch (by the Gold des Serves). Do not hesitate to come see us for more information and support the kids on the date. The first 2015/2016 practice will take place on Wednesday, 26th of August. Come join us in Meyrin! For more...

  14. School and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse School and Concussions KidsHealth > For Teens > School and Concussions Print A ... a type of brain injury. How Can a Concussion Affect Me at School? All injured body parts ...

  15. Crisis response to schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K

    2000-01-01

    While community based crisis response teams offer needed resources to schools impacted by crisis, they are often not asked to help. Reports from crisis team leaders at the school shooting incidents at James W. Parker Middle School, Edinboro, Pennsylvania and Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado are contrasted regarding utilization of community resources. Factors limiting the usefulness of community based teams include unfamiliarity with school organization, culture, and procedures. Key differences in school vs. community team precepts, decision-making, and strategic paradigms render team coordination difficult. Successful cross training presents opportunities for school-community partnership and utilization of community teams for school duty.

  16. Internet safety among primary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Poljanec, Mojca

    2012-01-01

    We live in a world full of telecommunication and computer equipment. While using this equipment we are constantly exposed to threats. With development of computer science arose threats like spam and malware. With further development appeared illegal content, child pornography, identity theft in phishing. In the world we live in now youth don't socialize the way we did. They don't play in the playground anymore. They meet up on the internet and play games, but even this has become uninterestin...

  17. Understanding the Importance of Context: A Qualitative Study of a Location-Based Exergame to Enhance School Childrens Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Robertson

    Full Text Available Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a modify the intervention; b modify the context; c stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT of a location-based exergame (FitQuest in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground, school factors (cancellations due to other activities, school technology policy (rules

  18. Recent exposure to ultrafine particles in school children alters miR-222 expression in the extracellular fraction of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Annette; Nawrot, Tim S; Saenen, Nelly D; Provost, Eline B; Kicinski, Michal; Lefebvre, Wouter; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Van Deun, Jan; De Wever, Olivier; Vrijens, Karen; De Boever, Patrick; Plusquin, Michelle

    2016-07-26

    Ultrafine particles (children. This study examined whether exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is associated with changes in the extracellular content of miR-222 and miR-146a of children. Saliva was collected from 80 children at two different time points, circa 11 weeks apart and stabilized for RNA preservation. The extracellular fraction of saliva was obtained by means of differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Expression levels of miR-222 and miR-146a were profiled by qPCR. We regressed the extracellular miRNA expression against recent exposure to ultrafine and fine particles measured at the school site using mixed models, while accounting for sex, age, BMI, passive smoking, maternal education, hours of television use, time of the day and day of the week. Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) at the school site was positively associated with miR-222 expression in the extracellular fraction in saliva. For each IQR increase in particles in the class room (+8504 particles/cm(3)) or playground (+28776 particles/cm(3)), miR-222 was, respectively 23.5 % (95 % CI: 3.5 %-41.1 %; p = 0.021) or 29.9 % (95 % CI:10.6 %-49.1 %; p = 0.0027) higher. No associations were found between miR-146a and recent exposure to fine and ultrafine particles. Our results suggest a possible epigenetic mechanism via which cells respond rapidly to small particles, as exemplified by miR-222 changes in the extracellular fraction of saliva.

  19. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  20. School Assignment, School Choice and Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Simon; Briggs, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the chances of poor and non-poor children getting places in good schools, analysing the relationship between poverty, location and school assignment. Our dataset allows us to measure location and distance very precisely. The simple unconditional difference in probabilities of attending a good school is substantial. We run an analysis…

  1. School Breakfast Program and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alan; And Others

    Children who participate in the School Breakfast Program show significant improvement in academic performance and tardiness rates, and a trend toward improvement in absenteeism. The School Breakfast Program was created by Congress in 1966 to provide a breakfast on school days for low income children who would otherwise have none. Children…

  2. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  3. Schools Within Schools: the Countesthorpe Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael; King, Lesley

    1976-01-01

    A recent number of FORUM (Vol. 17, No. 3), focusing on "The Question of Size", suggested the formation of "schools within schools" as a possible solution to the problems of large schools. Here two teachers from Countesthorpe College, Leicestershire, develop this approach, based on their own experience. (Editor)

  4. Connecting and Networking for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  5. School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enrolls through school newsletters or websites or at parent-teacher events like back-to-school nights. Why Have ... Getting Involved at Your Child's School Gifted Education Parent-Teacher Conferences School and Asthma School and Diabetes Special ...

  6. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, S.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G_1 surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G_r NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding....

  7. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, s.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G(1) surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G(r) NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  8. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the 'Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth' (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L; Greene, David; Peralta, Louisa R; Cliff, Dylan P; Kolt, Gregory S; Gore, Jennifer M; Gao, Lan; Lubans, David R

    2016-08-24

    Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The 'Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth' (iPLAY) study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity. The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i) quality physical education and school sport, (ii) classroom movement breaks, (iii) physically active homework, (iv) active playgrounds, (v) community physical activity links and (vi) parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical education teachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e., Kindergarten - Year 6). These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will then deliver the iPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primary schools across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a representative sample of 20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions), will assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students' cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primary outcome in this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerometers), fundamental movement skill proficiency, enjoyment of physical education and

  9. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  10. Sexual Harassment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)

  11. The Worst School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls many acts of school violence. He states that while the dramatic school killings at Colorado's Columbine High School in 1999 and at Minnesota's Red Lake Reservation in 2005 were tragic, the most horrific school violence in history, measured by loss of life, occurred nearly a half century ago at Our Lady of the…

  12. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  13. Achieving Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  14. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  15. Choosing Between School Systems

    OpenAIRE

    MEIER, VOLKER

    2000-01-01

    Hierarchical and comprehensive school systems are compared with respect to efficiency. At given ability, a student's probability of not completing school rises with increasing mean ability in class. Both school systems can yield identical average failure rates. Given that output losses in case of failure are stronger for more talented students, the comprehensive school system will generally lead to a higher total income.

  16. Empowerment Schools. Luncheon Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    For the past half a century, the New York City public school system has undergone major transformations in its organization. The 1950s and 1960s community control movement led to decentralization of the school system in 1969. The school system broke into 32 community school districts, with superintendents appointed by local community school…

  17. Today's School Risk Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cheryl P.; Levering, Steve

    2009-01-01

    School districts are held accountable not only for the monies that contribute to the education system but also for mitigating any issues that threaten student learning. Some school districts are fortunate to have professional risk managers on staff who can identify and control the many risks that are unique to school systems. Most schools,…

  18. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  19. Pathways to School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development began implementing a multi-year school readiness project in several area schools. Evidence from both research and the field point to several key elements that foster school readiness and create pathways to school success for all children. This paper presents components of a…

  20. School Libraries in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a 50-year history of school library development and national educational programs in Fiji and discusses the future of Fiji's elementary and secondary school libraries. Examines obstacles to school library development including government ignorance, lack of trained librarians, changes in school curriculum, lack of financing, and high costs…

  1. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  2. Small Schools, Big Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrollment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the…

  3. HEPS tool for schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Grieg Viig, Nina

    The main aim of this publication is to serve as a practical guide for the development of a sustainable school policy on healthy eating and physical activity. It is hoped it will be used by all practitioners working within the field of health education and promotion in schools. Particularly...... it is aimed at school leaders, teachers and other staff in primary and secondary schools, vocational schools and special schools. School partners and supporters on local, regional and national levels could benefit from this publication as well as programme developers and policy makers more widely in the field...... of health promotion and education....

  4. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    provision were selected. All schools had a framework for student participation, a policy for including nutrition in the curriculum as well as canteen facilities. Schools were sampled to represent different social layers, different regions and different sizes of schools. The study investigated the attitudes......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime......". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...

  5. Architectural Survey of Pence Elementary School, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    of class- rooms with an applied Gothic , Greek Revival, or Victorian facade to create a cohesive building (Figure 5). ERDC/CERL TR-11-25 8...plans, Classroom No. 1 was originally used as the Music, Arts and Crafts room. Classroom No. 2: Classroom No. 2 is located at the north side of the...addition of newer playground equipment Interior: Original Architectural Features Replacement Features 11 classrooms, 1 music and art room, 1

  6. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  7. Childhood Obesity in the Testing Era: What Teachers and Schools Can Do!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increasing accountability and high-stakes testing in schools, a serious paradox has surfaced. Children are becoming overweight at an alarming rate, and mounting evidence points to a relationship between obesity and poor school performance. Ironically, pressure to improve children's academic achievement has led many schools to adopt…

  8. Designing Superoleophobic Surfaces (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuteja, Anish; Choi, Wonjae; Ma, Minglin; Rutledge, Gregory C; McKinley, Gareth H; Cohen, Robert E; Mazzella, Sarah A; Mabry, Joseph M

    2007-01-01

    .... However, superoleophobic surfaces - those that display contact angles greater than 150 degrees with organic liquids having appreciably lower surface tensions than that of water - are extremely rare...

  9. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  10. School and individual-level characteristics are associated with children's moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity during school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; Bremner, Alexandra; Salmon, Jo; Rosenberg, Michael; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify school environmental characteristics associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity during school recess, including morning and lunch breaks. Accelerometry data, child-level characteristics and school physical activity, policy and socio-cultural data were collected from 408 sixth grade children (mean age 11 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Hierarchical modelling identified key characteristics associated with children's recess moderate to vigorous physical activity (RMVPA). Nearly 40% of variability in children's RMVPA was explained by school environment and individual characteristics identified in this study. Children's higher daily RMVPA was associated with newer schools, schools with a higher number of grassed surfaces per child and fewer shaded grassed surfaces, and the physical education coordinator meeting Australian physical activity guidelines. Characteristics of the school physical and social environments are strongly correlated with children's MPVA during recess. The school environment is an ideal target for maximising children's physical activity during recess. Future research could examine the impact of modifying these environmental characteristics on children's school physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  12. PREFACE: Fermi surface analysis using surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, E. G.

    2007-09-01

    The Fermi surface of a crystalline solid represents a paradigm of quantum solid state physics: its shape is dictated by quantum mechanics, by the Fermi-Dirac statistics for electrons and by the character of Bloch states in solids. Most physical observables depend in one or other way on the shape of the Fermi surface. Due these reasons, the Fermi surface of solids has been investigated since more than 50 years using different techniques, the most important ones being the de Haas-van Alphen effect and Compton scattering. These techniques probe very precisely the Fermi surface of crystalline solids, but surface sensitive techniques are advantageous whenever no large single-crystalline samples are available, if the Brillouin zone is small or if the surface is significantly modified. In the case of low-dimensional materials, only surface sensitive techniques can be used to analyze the Fermi surface. Angle-resolved photoemission is the most powerful surface technique able to probe the Fermi surface of a solid or a surface. Also scanning tunnelling microscopy provides information on the Fermi surface, under favourable conditions. This special section presents a collection of nine invited review articles on the application of these two techniques to the study of the Fermi surface. The first paper by Kurtz reviews some general aspects on the measurement of a Fermi surface using photoemission. The next three articles deal with the Fermi surface of bulk materials. The case of a charge density wave material, where the Fermi surface is expected to play a crucial role in the stability of a particular phase, is considered in the paper by Aebi. Takahashi analyzes the electronic structure and Fermi surface of boride superconductors. Finally, Ding presents a study on how doping affects the Fermi surface of cobaltates and its relationship with other properties of these materials. The next four articles consider different examples of the application of angle-resolved photoemission to

  13. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  14. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  15. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  16. Sustainable schools. Better than traditional schools?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Boxem, G. [TU/e Building Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    In the United Kingdom several educational buildings were built in the last decades with a strong environmental ethos, real icons of a new generation of low-energy sustainable buildings. For some of the buildings the performance was assessed. Also in the Netherlands several new concepts were developed for sustainable schools during the last years. This is an interesting topic as many of those schools had problems concerning energy efficiency, indoor air quality and thermal comfort. In the case of sustainable schools much effort was put into the design process of the schools to try to find better solutions to face the problems of the traditional designs. This resulted in different solution concepts, which raises the question which are better school concepts. From the literature three evaluations from the UK and one overview of five sustainable educational buildings from the Netherlands are given, which show that sustainable educational buildings are not always without flaws. In the paper two of the first Dutch sustainable elementary schools are compared with nine more traditional schools of the Netherlands to conclude whether the sustainable schools perform better than traditional schools.

  17. The Risk Is That There Is "No Risk": A Simple, Innovative Intervention to Increase Children's Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C.; Luckett, Tim; Tranter, Paul J.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Wyver, Shirley R.; Ragen, Jo; Spies, Greta

    2009-01-01

    School playgrounds offer everyday opportunities for physically active and social play that combats obesity, develops skills, and promotes well-being. However, teachers' fear of the legal consequences of injury can elicit over-zealous risk reduction with the result that playgrounds lack challenge, and the potential benefits of play become limited.…

  18. Extension encourages parents to take a stand against bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    As students return to classrooms and playgrounds around the commonwealth for a new school year, Virginia Cooperative Extension is urging parents to talk to their child about bullying and to understand their school's policies on this important topic.

  19. Bridge to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the problem on children’s transition from preschool to school. Besides a number of so-called transition activities as for example children visit to school before school start, the author also argues for a practice using boundary objects in order to ease children’s transition...... to school. However the main message is to break the philosophical discontinuity (educational contradictions) between preschool and school by use of a common learning concept – a play-based learning understanding which both is useful in preschool and school....

  20. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which...

  1. The Whole against the Sky: The New Art of Separation (How Schools Can Help Guide Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Few children have had the chance to travel alone anywhere, certainly not to the store or the playground. Few have the opportunity to get even a dash of street smarts: to practice getting themselves out of even a minor jam, to develop wayfinding skills, to navigate their neighborhood and choreograph their day--all valuable components of school…

  2. Affordances in Outdoor Environments and Children's Physically Active Play in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, Rune; Hagen, Trond Loge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively and qualitatively explore children's physically active play outdoors in a traditional playground and natural (nature) environment and discuss how these environments influence children's physical activity. Fjortoft has previously explored the relationship between environmental affordances and…

  3. Covalent Surface Modification of Oxide Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujari, S.P.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    The modification of surfaces by the deposition of a robust overlayer provides an excellent handle with which to tune the properties of a bulk substrate to those of interest. Such control over the surface properties becomes increasingly important with the continuing efforts at down-sizing the active

  4. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  5. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  6. Philosophy in Schools: A Catholic School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…

  7. Family and school context in school engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Fernández-Zabala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Family, peers and school are the three main contexts associated with school engagement. This study aims to analyze possible gender and age differences in these contextual variables and school engagement, as well as the relationship between the two. Participants were 1543 secondary school children aged between 12 and 18 years (M=14.24; SD=1.63. Of the total sample group, 728 (47.2% were boys and 815 (52.8% were girls. All completed the Family and Peer Support (FPS scale, the Teachers’ Support scale of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC questionnaire, and the School Engagement Measure (SEM. The results reveal significant differences between boys and girls, with girls scoring higher in perceived peer support and behavioral and emotional engagement. Younger respondents were also observed to score significantly higher for perceived support from parents and teachers, as well as for school engagement. Significant correlation indexes were observed between contextual variables, as well as between these variables and school engagement, although it was for support from teachers that the strongest correlation was found.

  8. Sending Public School Students to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Public schools often contract with private schools to meet the needs of special-education students. When disagreement exists about placement, parents can forego the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) placement process in exchange for private education which is only partially subsidized by the government. Vouchers would provide…

  9. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  10. high-poverty schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty school. A tiny band of ... come severe poverty-related odds, such as hunger, homelessness, illiteracy, unemployment, gangsterism, drug ..... been erected, and the newest addition [thanks to an Australian donor) was a large school hall.

  11. VT School Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont School Districts and one Interstate School District. Part of data sets which model Vermont's education system governance boudaries for...

  12. Health Problems at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Health Problems at School Page Content Article Body There is ... not have access to health care. Acute Health Problems Most illnesses and injuries that arise during school ...

  13. School-Phobic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel

    1976-01-01

    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  14. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  15. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  16. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...

  17. School and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trips recognize and get treatment for low blood sugar episodes Diabetes management materials that need to go to school ... With Feelings 504 Education Plans School and Diabetes Carbohydrates and Diabetes Handling Diabetes When You're Sick Diabetes Control: ...

  18. Together at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Samen scholen Cooperation between parents and schools is important. By supporting schools, parents can contribute to the educational achievement of their children. This report explores this cooperation, looking in the first place from the perspective of parents. Several

  19. Truck Driving Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — his dataset is composed of any type of Post Secondary Education facility such as: colleges, universities, technical schools, or trade schools that provide training...

  20. The School of Deschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmon, Howard

    1973-01-01

    Presents a first-hand look at the Centro Intercultural de Documentacion, a Mexican experimental college founded by Ivan Illich. Considers the subjects taught, the school organization, types of students, and school philosophy. (Author/DN)

  1. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  2. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  3. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  4. School's out for bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    Homophobic bullying of school pupils has a devastating effect on students' physical, mental and emotional health. The RCN's Out group is working with Schools Out to tackle the problem. Schools Out was founded 31 years ago as the Gay Teachers' Group. Those who are bullied are at risk of mental health problems, which can lead to self-harm. A nurse--especially the school nurse--can be the first person a bullied child turns to for help.

  5. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  7. Workplace Incivility in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Reio, Stephanie M.

    This paper investigates the prevalence of coworker and supervisor incivility in the context of K-12 schools and incivility's possible link to teachers' commitment to the school and turnover intent. The data were collected via surveys from 94 middle school teachers in the United States. Results indicated that 85% of the teachers experienced…

  8. Community School Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Laura, Comp.; Sheeran, Melyssa, Comp.

    This booklet contains profiles of 26 community-school models. Although communities and states approach the development of community schools in various ways, all the models presented here reflect the shared vision of the Coalition for Community Schools, that is, a set of partnerships to establish a place where services, support, and opportunity…

  9. Virtual School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  10. Today's School Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of violence at education institutions typically do not rise to the horrific levels of Virginia Tech, Columbine High School, or Oikos University. But incidents that threaten school security--bullying, hazing, online harassment--take place in every month of the year and may occur in any classroom or campus from coast to coast. Schools and…

  11. School Violence. Web Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In answer to the concerns about school violence in the United States (especially since the tragedy in 1999 at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado), this Internet curriculum offers lessons and resources that address the topic of school violence and its causes, as well as the search for solutions. The curriculum presents four world wide web…

  12. Montessori and Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes the School of the Woods' (Houston, Texas) middle school environment, a learning environment developed to create trust and community, provide meaningful work, and allow adolescents to create a vision for their future. Explains the school's philosophy in terms of adolescent psychology, trust, and curriculum. (TJQ)

  13. School's Not Out, Yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of school reform activity focuses on criticism of a previously published article that challenged all school restructuring efforts based on the belief that advances in technology renders school obsolete. Topics addressed include problems with current public education; existing learning technologies; and speculations about future…

  14. EVE and School - Enrolments

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANT DATES Enrolments 2017-2018 Enrolments for the school year 2017-2018 to the Nursery, the Kindergarten and the School will take place on 6, 7 and 8 March 2017 from 10 am to 1 pm at EVE and School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 2nd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  15. A School Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of faculty growth and a sense of faculty community can help a good school really shine. This article explores ways in which a school environment supporting these two factors can be developed and maintained, using the private Sidwell Friends Lower School in Washington, D.C., as an example. (PGD)

  16. School Leadership Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  17. Nigerian School Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian School Library Journal is a scholarly publication of the Nigerian School Library Association that focuses on issues relating to school library media centers' establishment, administration, organization, media resources management, reading development, e-learning/m-learning, and other related topics of ...

  18. Learning from School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

    This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…

  19. Home Schooling Goes Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Milton

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that while home schooling may have particular appeal to celebrities, over the last decade families of all kinds have embraced the practice for widely varying reasons: no longer is home schooling exclusive to Christian fundamentalism and the countercultural Left. Along with growing acceptance of home schooling nationally has…

  20. Schooling at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joyce Fleck

    2001-01-01

    Presents one family's experience with home schooling, explaining that no two home schools are alike, which is both a strength and a weakness of the movement. The paper discusses the parent's educational philosophy and the family's personal curriculum and pedagogical choices. It concludes by examining the growing trend in home schooling. (SM)

  1. School@Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes home schooling movement and argues home schooling is viable alternative to public education system. Discusses increase in home-schooled students applying to college, taking and performing well on college entrance exams (ACT and SAT), engaging in extracurricular activities, and succeeding in college. Addresses and refutes criticisms of…

  2. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  3. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…

  4. School Safety Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esher, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    Jodi Esher, an art teacher at teach at a very large kindergarten through second grade school, finished a continuing ed course entitled Preparing a School Community to Cope with Crisis, and came away completely inspired to make a difference in her school. The object of her new project would be to design, then ultimately create, a mural to become a…

  5. Alienation from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  6. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  7. Cultivating an Ethical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Often the school is left as an institution seemingly ethically neutral, leaving untouched questions about whether the school itself is a site of injustice toward both educators and children. Springing from his well-known "Building an Ethical School", Robert J. Starratt now looks more closely at the educational leader's responsibility to ensure…

  8. Can Schools Improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton; Aaron, Sally; Clark, William

    2005-01-01

    The United States spends more money on public education than any other country in the world, but problems in the public schools abound. There is a struggle with variable quality among the country's more than 80,000 schools--particularly between schools in affluent suburbs and those in economically depressed inner cities. Certainly there are plenty…

  9. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  10. Your Teenager at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preventing “middle school malaise” is for mothers and fathers to fully understand just how different this new learning environment is and how much is being asked of their son or daughter. Compared to elementary school, middle school offers fewer ...

  11. Thrive Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Thrive Public Schools, a K-8 charter school in San Diego, expands the concept of school beyond core academics to encompass social-emotional intelligence and "real world" understanding. The blended learning model at Thrive integrates technology throughout a curriculum built upon project-based learning, targeted instruction, and tinkering.…

  12. Mandatory School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Carl A.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)

  13. School Uniforms Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  14. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  15. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  16. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  17. The Social Organization of the High School: School-Specific Aspects of School Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of three New York high schools (rural, suburban, and urban) that developed a model of high school social organization in order to provide a school-specific focus for examining school violence and crime. (JG)

  18. Improving School Accountability Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of states are using annual school-level test scores as part of their school accountability systems. We highlight an under-appreciated weakness of that approach the imprecision of school-level test score means -- and propose a method for better discerning signal from noise in annual school report cards. For an elementary school of average size in North Carolina, we estimate that 28 percent of the variance in 5th grade reading scores is due to sampling variation and about 10 pe...

  19. Performing privacy in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo

    . School life involves a wide range of technologies, including smartphones, online communication platforms between teachers and parents, and social media. These and other surveillance-enabling services all contribute to the tracking of and by school children and shape their perceptions of privacy (Monahan....... Rutgers University Press. Selwyn, N. (2010). Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age: A Critical Analysis. Routledge. Taylor, E. (2013). Surveillance Schools: Security, Discipline and Control in Contemporary Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Taylor, E., & Rooney, T. (2016). Surveillance Futures: Social...

  20. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  1. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  2. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  3. Integrated Surface Dataset (Global)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Surface (ISD) Dataset (ISD) is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from over 35,000 stations, though the best spatial coverage is...

  4. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.berthelot@cea.fr [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le, Xuan Tuan; Jegou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boizot, Bruno [Laboratory of Irradiated Solids UMR 7642 CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, CEA-DSM/IRAMIS LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Baudin, Cecile; Palacin, Serge [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-09-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  5. [Smoking in primary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestín, M; Jáuregui, O; Ribera, S; Villalbí, J R

    1992-10-15

    To analyze policies related to tobacco use in primary schools. Cross-sectional study. SITE. Primary schools in the city of Barcelona, Spain. Schools principals of a representative sample of the 493 primary schools in the city; 98 of the 100 selected schools participated. Schools are aware of the existing regulations in Catalonia. Although there is no smoking in classrooms--which represents an improvement compared with previous years--, visible use of tobacco by adults is frequent. Usually there is no formal policy on smoking. No smoking signs are rare, and usually there is no designated person with responsibilities for the enforcement of smoking policies. Schools rarely address smoking outside school hours, and adults are often allowed to smoke in the court, the dining room or the aisles. There are no significant differences between public and private schools. Although an improvement can be seen compared to the previous situation, smoking is still visibly present in schools. There must be specific prevention projects if schools are to have a positive influence in the social perception of smoking by schoolchildren.

  6. On purely real surfaces in Kaehler surfaces and Lorentz surfaces in Lorentzian Kaehler surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bang-Yen

    2013-01-01

    An immersion $\\phi \\colon M \\to \\tilde M$ of a manifold $M$ into an indefinite Kaehler manifold $\\tilde M$ is called purely real if the almost complex structure $J$ on $\\tilde M$ carries the tangent bundle of $M$ into a transversal bundle. In this article we survey some recent results on purely real surfaces in Kaehler surfaces as well as on Lorentz surfaces in Lorentzian Kaehler surfaces.

  7. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  8. Home Schooling in Alabama: Perspectives of Public School Superintendents and Home Schooling Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Anna T.

    This paper describes home schooling in Alabama from the perspectives of public-school superintendents and home-schooling families. It is based on a study that investigated the extent, causes, and experiences of home schooling; concerns about the practice of home schooling; and the relationship between home schoolers and public-school systems. Home…

  9. Healthy eating at schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne

    . The present PhD thesis is based on evaluation of the dietary effect of this project. There is room for improvement of the dietary habits of Danish children. Dietary habits are influenced by multiple factors across different contexts. The school setting is known as a suitable arena for promotion of healthy...... into account the multiple factors and environments which affect the dietary habits of children. The focus of such an intervention could be implementation of a sustainable school food programme. Another focus could be improvement of the packed lunches brought from home with the purpose to contribute......Background and aim In 2007, the Danish Food Industry Agency announced a project where Danish schools could apply for funds to establish a school food programme to provide the school children with free school meals for two months during 2008. This school food programme should be tested and evaluated...

  10. Surface phenomena in elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Problems of elasticity associated with the behavior of free surfaces of elastic bodies are reviewed with particular reference to the propagation of characteristic waves and the criteria of wrinkling of free surfaces. All transformations are given for the case when a free surface of an elastic body is streamlined by the flow of inviscid fluid. The wrinkling phenomenon is illustrated by example.

  11. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lonsdale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity. Methods/Design The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i quality physical education and school sport, (ii classroom movement breaks, (iii physically active homework, (iv active playgrounds, (v community physical activity links and (vi parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical education teachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e., Kindergarten – Year 6. These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will then deliver the iPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primary schools across New South Wales (NSW, Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT, involving a representative sample of 20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions, will assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students’ cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primary outcome in this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerometers, fundamental movement

  12. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  13. Screening for faecal contamination in primary schools in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, A; Drakopoulou, S; Georgaki, I; Fountoulakis, M; Mitsou, E; Lasaridi, K E; Manios, Y; Manios, T

    2009-03-01

    Hygienic conditions in primary schools are a major concern for both governmental organizations and families. Particularly, the occurrence of faecal indicators on children's hands and various school surfaces has been associated with increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases. The presence of faecal streptococci on environmental surfaces and children's hands and the possible correlation with socio-economic factors were examined. Overall, 1956 samples from hands and 1470 samples from surfaces were collected from 20 primary schools in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Faecal streptococci were found at 52.9% of children's hands and at 16.7% of other surfaces. Children, who had parents with the highest education level (>12 years), had the lowest percentage (48.8%) of faecal contamination on their hands. Furthermore, boys exhibited higher levels of hands contamination compared with girls. Among the environmental surfaces examined, the school canteen reception was the most contaminated area. High faecal contamination was detected in primary schools in the examined region. Children's hands were highly infected (52.9%), while boys exhibited higher levels of contamination. The educational level of parents correlated well with the contamination of children's hands.

  14. How School Climate Influences Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-10-08

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers' emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p-12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers' perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers' use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China.

  15. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Yao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12 schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China.

  16. School Breakfast Program and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The effects of participation in the school breakfast program by low income children on academic achievement and rates of absence and tardiness are reported from the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, Boston, MA.

  17. A School Day is a School Day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 7-13. 2003 Short description: The school Sint-Jozef-Klein-Seminarie in the Flemish town of Sint-Niklaas reveals a school system characterised by hard work, solicitude and tradition. Abstract......: Compared with the French communities, where many children have to repeat a year if they fail the tests, the children in the Flemish communities get a lot of help if they risk failing. In the beginning of the first school year, the students can do their homework in the school together with their own classes...... and class teachers. The teachers are mainly concerned with the students learning how to organise their homework better....

  18. Surface for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Make Microsoft's Surface work-and play-just the way you want it to Microsoft's Surface tablet has the features and personality you're looking for, with a robust environment for business computing that doesn't skimp on fun. Surface for Dummies, 2nd Edition explains how Windows 8.1 Pro and Windows RT differ, and helps you decide which Surface model is best for you. Step by step, this book walks you through both the hardware and software features of the Surface, including the touch cover and type cover, Windows RT and Windows 8.1 Pro operating systems, and the coveted Office Home & Student 2013 s

  19. Playable Cities : The City as a Digital Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and

  20. Playable Cities: The City as a Digital Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and the use of urban data for playful applications This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. T...

  1. A genetic playground for enhancing grain number in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-02-01

    Improving the yield stability of cereal crops with a view to bolstering global food security is an important priority. The components of final grain number per plant at harvest are determined by fertile spikes per plant, number of fertile spikelets per spike and number of grains per spikelet. In this review article, we focus on the genetic factors of floral development and inflorescence architecture known to influence grain number and provide a broad overview of genes and genetic pathways that potentially can be manipulated to increase the yield of cereal crops, in particular wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we discuss the outcome of multidisciplinary genomics knowledge to identify potential gene targets to develop conceptual ideotypes to meet the future demand. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Digital Playground: Kindergarten Children Learning Sign Language through Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kirsten; Blashki, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses a study of 4-5 year old children's use of technology to assist and enhance the acquisition of a play lexicon within a formal educational setting. The new language system to be learned was Auslan, a signed/nonverbal language. A purpose specific software program was developed by the authors, "Auslan Kids," in order to…

  3. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, the study investigated the ways in which boys explore gender roles in relation to pregnancy and birthing. Using a phenomenological approach, the purpose of this research was to explore the meaning of young children's gender and identity play, and the experiences they take to form their identity in the early ...

  4. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  5. Exclusionary violence and bullying in the playground: Football and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. The eye lens crystallins : a playground for evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werten, P.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    From the dawn of evolution where primitive one-cellular organisms oriented themselves to the light of our sun by simple photoreceptors in search of energy to sustain their existence, to the current day where light from the environment is captured by our eyes, focused on the retina by the eye lens

  7. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New concepts…

  8. Distributed Embodied Team Play, a Distributed Interactive Pong Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Gerritsen, Steven; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Destani, Mehdi

    This paper presents work in the field of distributed exertion games, which are controlled by moving the body. People play these games together while being located at different places in the world. The novel contribution of this paper is the introduction of distributed team play in which both

  9. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    view of teaching and learning in our everyday environment. Within this experience we found that the ordinary ..... people, including teachers, parents, students, and the community. Initially teachers “gather people's experiences because ..... The constant disagreement left me feeling frustrated, moving away from the euphoric.

  10. America's Outdoor Recreation Areas--Playgrounds for the Affluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John D.

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the societal benefits of outdoor recreation and to determine the relationship of social stratification to utilization of outdoor recreation facilities. Conclusions are that many of America's outdoor recreation sites are located at considerable distances from population concentrations and require substantial…

  11. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points...... in the projection within a tolerance given by the reference curve, and the rulings are lines perpendicular to the projection plane. Application of the method in ship design is given....

  12. Republication of "Linking an Apartment School with an Elementary School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Perry, Leslie; Hughes, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Why not set up a school in an apartment complex? After all, that is where children reside before and after they attend an actual school, and that is where they are during the summers when their actual school is closed. It is also where their parents are after work. And why not unite this school at an apartment complex with the school attended by…

  13. The Correlation between School Managers' Communication Skills and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali; Sahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Melek Alev; Yilmaz, Ozan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between school administrators' communication skills and school culture. This research was conducted as a survey using a descriptive method in order to ascertain the views of school managers and teachers about the correlation between school managers' communication skills and school culture in…

  14. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  15. School Refusal Behavior: Prevalence, Characteristics, and the Schools' Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 288 elementary and secondary North Dakota schools found 75% had a school refusal behavior (SRB) identification system in place, 57% had a school psychologist available, principals were most frequently responsible for identifying school refusers, 2.3% of students were identified as school refusers of which 49% falsely claimed illness,…

  16. Can a Charter School Not Be a Charter School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Shawgi

    2015-01-01

    Charter schools are, by definition, contract schools. Charter means contract. To understand this fundamental feature of charter schools and the limits that stem from this aspect, this paper analyzes the topic of contracts and what contracting means for coming to terms with charter schools. This analysis locates charter schools in the realm of the…

  17. School Related Alienation: Perceptions of Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Richard C.; And Others

    Responses to questionnaires administered to 10,000 senior high school students to ascertain their feelings of alienation as related to their schools are presented. The questionnaire items concerned: School as an Institution, The School as Teacher, Authority--Autonomy, and Parental Interest in School. The findings that resulted from the…

  18. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  19. 3. Medical emergencies in primary schools and school ownership of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Key words:Schools, First Aid Boxes, Medical Emergencies. ABSTRACT. Introduction: The school system aims at ... the school system, it is not completely devoid of health challenges to the enrolee if adequate measures .... example, the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations for schools since 1981 set out that schools must ...

  20. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  1. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  2. Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective school health instruction in primary schools is essential in addressing the health risks and needs of school age children and adolescents. This study sought to evaluate the status of school health instruction in public primary schools in Bonny Local Government Area. Method: This is a cross sectional ...

  3. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  4. Assisting School Management Teams to construct their school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative baseline study revealed the School Management Teams' general disregard towards the school improvement plan as well as limited insight into what skills ... Keywords: Action learning, action research, Circuit Team, school improvement plan, School Management Team(s), school self-evaluation, systems theory ...

  5. Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.

    2016-01-01

    This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…

  6. Home-school communication in South African primary schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    A broad and growing body of literature documents the importance of a school and family partnership for increasing learner success in school and for strengthening school programmes. Epstein's (1987:214) theory of overlapping spheres of influence of families and schools proposes that the work of the family and the school ...

  7. Sexting: New Challenges for Schools and Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.; McEachern-Ciattoni, Renee T.; Martin, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    Sexting, the practice of sending sexually explicit messages or photographs of oneself or others on digital electronic devices, presents challenges for schools and professional school counselors. The implications of sexting for schools, school counselors, students, and parents are discussed. School counselor interventions, developing school…

  8. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  9. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China; Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, ...

  10. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaii's Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Late 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This briefing will update the MoonRIDERS lunar surface flight experiment project between NASA-KSC, PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools investigating critical lunar dust-removal technologies. Launch planned in early 2017 on GLXP mission.

  11. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. School Health Services

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-13

    School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, you’ll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement.  Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2017.

  13. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  14. Why stay in school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    school. The background for the study is the political demands that more young people should complete a secondary education since dropping out of school have serious negative personal, social and economic consequences. The Danish vocational schools on the one hand have to deal with the political demands...... of increased student retention and on the other hand of the labor market demands of supporting the development of high quality vocational skills. It is examined how such structural conditions are related to the social constitution of student retention processes in a vocational school. The book should help shed...

  15. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  17. Hydrodynamic Vortex on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzo, Clodoaldo Grotta; de Barros Viglioni, Humberto Henrique

    2017-10-01

    The equations of motion for a system of point vortices on an oriented Riemannian surface of finite topological type are presented. The equations are obtained from a Green's function on the surface. The uniqueness of the Green's function is established under hydrodynamic conditions at the surface's boundaries and ends. The hydrodynamic force on a point vortex is computed using a new weak formulation of Euler's equation adapted to the point vortex context. An analogy between the hydrodynamic force on a massive point vortex and the electromagnetic force on a massive electric charge is presented as well as the equations of motion for massive vortices. Any noncompact Riemann surface admits a unique Riemannian metric such that a single vortex in the surface does not move ("Steady Vortex Metric"). Some examples of surfaces with steady vortex metric isometrically embedded in R^3 are presented.

  18. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials to provide the low surface energy that, when combined with bioinspired surface topography, is the key to unlocking oil-repellency. This review presents the state-of-the-art in the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces.

  19. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  20. Laser-surface interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    This book is about the interaction of laser radiation with various surfaces at variable parameters of radiation. As a basic principle of classification we chose the energetic or intensity level of interaction of laser radiation with the surfaces. These two characteristics of laser radiation are the most important parameters defining entire spectrum of the processes occurring on the surfaces during interaction with electromagnetic waves. This is a first book containing a whole spectrum of the laser-surface interactions distinguished by the ranges of used laser intensity. It combines the surface response starting from extremely weak laser intensities (~1 W cm-2) up to the relativistic intensities (~1020 W cm-2 and higher). The book provides the basic information about lasers and acquaints the reader with both common applications of laser-surface interactions (laser-related printers, scanners, barcode readers, discs, material processing, military, holography, medicine, etc) and unusual uses of the processes on t...

  1. Authenticity or School-only?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fougt, Simon Skov

    Challenging the apparent distinction among educational researchers between ‘authenticity’ outside schools and ‘school-only’ inside schools, this paper investigates the concept of meaningfulness from different perspectives with a focus on formal learning in schools, as it states that teaching...... and learning inside school also can be authentic....

  2. The "H" Word: Home Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shery

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses home schooling gifted children, including reasons families choose to home school their children, laws regulating home schooling, the educational background of parents who home school, and curriculum options. Advantages and disadvantages of home schooling are explored, along with data indicating the higher achievement of home…

  3. Charter Schools and Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to examine the effect(s) of charter school marketing on the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) education landscape with respect to the stratification of charter schools. Information from four sources: school websites, a survey of charter school parents, existing online statistics and data, and various…

  4. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  5. School Crisis Intervention in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOMURA, Naoyasu

    2009-01-01

    The situation of school crisis intervention in Japan was reviewed in this article. Recently, we have increasing numbers of crimes in schools. Several examples of school crisis intervention were demonstrated. Unfortunately, school crisis intervention is not well organized in Japan. Therefore, school crisis intervention system must be developed in the near future.

  6. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  7. Teacher Empowerment and Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, James R.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates an assumption used to legitimate charter school legislation, namely that such schools will reduce regulatory constraint burdening schools and school personnel. Reformers and policymakers have argued that charter schools will increase teacher empowerment and enable teachers to better carry out their education functions.…

  8. MAIN SURFACE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINTIANSCHI Andrei V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface characterization means splitting the surface geometry into basic components based usually on some functional requirement. These components can have different shapes, scales of size, distribution in space and can be constrained by multiple boundaries in height and position. The measurement can influence the importance of a parameter or feature. This paper presents the main features that need to be considered when a surface is analyzed, especially the roughness and the waviness.

  9. Landsat surface reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  10. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit......-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithm, the presented method gives matching prediction results for the synthetic evaluation samples and superior results for the direct scanner data....

  11. Impact of surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  12. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  13. School-Community Partnerships in New York State: Snapshot of Trends as Pre-K Expands. School Community Partnerships Project. Policy Brief II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Betty; Sudol, Teija

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of Pre-K in early childhood programs, both in the community and in schools, has the potential to build significant new alignment between the traditional K-12 education system and the preschool year. Most communities, however, have only scratched the surface of collaboration between public schools and community programs as…

  14. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  15. Surface science an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  16. Medical facial surface scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

    1992-05-01

    Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

  17. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In Rural ... technique was used to collect information from 220 school pupils in the state. ... child's birth order; household size; years of education of the household head ...

  18. Supporting High School Graduation Aspirations among Latino Middle School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lys, Diana B

    2009-01-01

    ... their selfperceived likelihood of graduating from high school. Middle schools are poised to help Latino students prepare themselves for a smoother adjustment to high school academic life and reinforce the enthusiasm with which they anticipate the transition...

  19. school absenteeism among primary school pupils in cross river state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    environment, anxiety, personality traits, phobia, race/ethnicity and learning disabilities, parental attitude, parental involvement and family poverty as causal factors for school absenteeism. Poor teaching skills, interpersonal conflict, dissatisfaction with school, school disciplinary practices, bullying, teacher's hostile attitude to.

  20. Effectiveness and implementation of interventions to increase commuter cycling to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active transportation to school has been positively associated with various health parameters whereas only sparse evidence exists on risk of injury while commuting to school. This study investigated the overall effectiveness of cycling promotion combined with structural changes...... = 12) or intervention schools (n = 13). All children (n = 2415) from the 4(th) and 5(th) grade were measured at baseline during spring 2010 and at follow-up one year later. RESULTS: No significant differences in commuter cycling were detected in the adjusted analyses comparing the intervention...... on cycling to school. METHODS: Interventions at public schools in three different regions in Denmark were based on planned infrastructural changes near schools (e.g. road surface and traffic regulation) and school-motivation for promoting commuter cycling. Participants were pupils from control schools (n...

  1. Effectiveness and implementation of interventions to increase commuter cycling to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    on cycling to school. METHODS: Interventions at public schools in three different regions in Denmark were based on planned infrastructural changes near schools (e.g. road surface and traffic regulation) and school-motivation for promoting commuter cycling. Participants were pupils from control schools (n...... with the control group neither when assessed as changes in short term (beta: 0.15 trips/week, p = 0.463) nor when assessed as changes in long term school cycling (beta: -0.02 units, p = 0.485). No differences were observed neither in the incidence of traffic injuries nor in the characteristics of injuries when...... comparing the control group and the intervention group. Approximately 50 % of all traffic injuries occurred during school transport with most injuries categorized as solo injuries. The only significant predictor of future traffic injuries was previous school transport injuries. CONCLUSION: This multifaceted...

  2. One-parameter family of solitons from minimal surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Mathematics, Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad 211 019, India. E-mail: rkmn@mri.ernet.in. MS received 29 December 2011; revised 9 February 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we discuss a one parameter family of complex Born–Infeld solitons arising from a one parameter family of minimal surfaces.

  3. Plasma Creatinine, Age and Body Surface Area in Nigerian Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to establish reference values for plasma creatinine in children and adolescents using age, and body surface area (BSA), 462 apparently healthy Nigerian children/adolescents aged one day to 15 years were studied. They were recruited from well baby clinics, as well as primary and secondary schools. Plasma ...

  4. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Surface antigen among apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of hepatitis B Surface antigen among apparently healthy primary school pupils in Batagarawa Local Government area of Katsina State, Nigeria. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  5. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Children of Primary School Age in a Community, North-Central, Nigeria. ... Furthermore, family history of HBV infection accounted for 3.6%, while male subjects that had traditional method of circumcision recorded a high prevalence of 3.3%. Unfortunately, the ...

  6. System architecture and operational analysis of medium displacement unmanned surface vehicle sea hunter as a surface warfare component of distributed lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF MEDIUM DISPLACEMENT UNMANNED SURFACE VEHICLE SEA HUNTER AS A SURFACE WARFARE...traceability, requirements and capabilities while determining the architecture framework in accordance with the Department of Defense Architectural

  7. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  8. School Board Member and School Counselor Perceptions of School Board Knowledge, Priorities, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Megyn L.

    2013-01-01

    The role and function of school counselors remains a consistent source of concern in the school counseling profession. Aligning school counseling activities with comprehensive school counseling practice is a way to standardize the profession. Creating a school board policy for counseling is a strategy to gain support for and institutionalize…

  9. School choice in Amsterdam: which schools are chosen when school choice is free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, N.; Oosterbeek, H.

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of increased school choice and competition assume that school choices are led by quality considerations. To test this assumption, this paper examines the determinants of secondary school choice in the city of Amsterdam. In this city there are many schools to choose from and school choice

  10. School Absenteeism and School Refusal Behavior: A Review and Suggestions for School-Based Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Bensaheb, Arva

    2006-01-01

    School absenteeism and school refusal behavior are particularly difficult problems that school health professionals often face. Unfortunately, few recommendations are available to such professionals about how to address this population. In this article, we (1) outline the major characteristics of school absenteeism and school refusal behavior, (2)…

  11. Switching Schools: Revisiting the Relationship between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and…

  12. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  13. Cyber and Home School Charter Schools: Adopting Policy to New Forms of Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.; Gonzalez, Maria-Fernanda; d'Entremont, Chad

    2006-01-01

    Cyber and home school charter schools have silently become a prominent part of the charter school movement. These alternative school models differ from conventional schools by relying on parents and the Internet to deliver much of their curriculum and instruction while minimizing the use of personnel and physical facilities. This article examines…

  14. Internationalization in schools - perspectives of school leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    through reflections of lived experiences, participation in meaningful activities, and active engagement in interaction with international and local colleagues. However, the realization of ideas depends on various elements, including leadership, teacher engagement, policy support, and financial support.......This paper explores how internationalization ideas in primary and lower secondary schools can be developed through the acquisition of international experience abroad by leaders. The study was inspired by existing literature on internationalization and leadership, and theories of experiential...... learning and reflection. Empirically, qualitative material was derived from a study of nineteen Danish school leaders participating in an eight-day delegation visit to China. This study shows that international experience for leaders can be used to develop ideas for internationalization at the school level...

  15. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  16. HYDRODYNAMIC BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF A SCHOOL BOAT USING CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Daniel Freitas; Mesquita, André Luiz A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. High amplitude wave wake due to water flow on a school boat hull can prejudice directly residents of riverside communities by inducing erosions, damage to fixed or floating structures and also, damage to smaller boats, fishermen and swimmers. Therefore, designers introduced wave deflector surfaces in a new fleet of school boats to reduce the amplitude ofthe boat wave wake. In this study, the applicability of these surfaces were evaluated using computational tools. Initially, a multi...

  17. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  18. Chapter 8:Surface Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Joseph Jakes; Mark R. VanLandingham; Shaoxia Wang; Jouko. Peltonen

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media, or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites where the...

  19. Surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2015-01-01

    Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic gaseous domains on immersed substrates which can survive for days. They were first speculated to exist about 20 years ago, based on stepwise features in force curves between two hydrophobic surfaces, eventually leading to the first atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  20. Modifying Surfaces with Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberstein, Jeff; Carrol, Greg; Pan, Feng; Wang, Peng; Turro, Nicholas

    2006-03-01

    The ability to locate particular functional groups at surfaces is an enabling aspect of many important technologies. Unfortunately, high energy functional groups are not thermodynamically stable at the surface of polymers and other low surface tension materials. We show that this difficulty can be overcome through the synthesis of surface active block copolymers and self-assembled monolayers that contain photoactive functional groups. Photoactive functional groups are protected during the synthesis step, but can be deprotected upon exposure to light. To accomplish this task we borrow from photoresist technology and employ photoacid generators to deprotect carboxylic acid groups delivered to a surface upon exposure to light. Since all modifications are accomplished with light, direct micropatterning of surface functional groups is possible simply by exposure through a mask. The technique is thus a simple, direct alternative to other patterning techniques such as stamping. We also demonstrate that polymers and carbohydrates can be photografted to a surface using photoactive groups that are capable of hydrogen abstraction. Applications that are demonstrated include prevention of thin film dewetting, general surface functionalization, micropatterning of functional groups, polymers and biopolymers, and the creation of the first covalently bound carbohydrate microarrays. This work is funded by grants from the Polymer Program of the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research and the U.S. Army Research Office.