Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...
Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines
During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish
Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie; Song, Kyunghee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and ...
Background: The objective of this study was to examine growth indicators, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy primary school children.
Barszcz, Barbara; Kolarzyk, Emilia
Proper nutrition is one of the main factors which influence peoples harmonious development. Teenagers media promote the patterns of physical appearance and behaviour that can cause and strengthen inadequate nourishment habits. People having problems with self-esteem may develop dangerous dysfunctions like anorexia or bulimia. The aim of this work was checking the number and quality of meals eaten by 13-15 year old student of secondary school in Niepołomice. A research has been carried out among two hundred students (111 girls and 89 boys) The way of nutrition on the basis of the questionnaire by Starzyńska and the frequency of incorrect nutritional behaviors on the basis of Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT26) were estimated. It was revealed too small consumption of dairy products, whole meal bread, and pulse crops. Such diet lowers nutritive and mineral components in organism. It may effect further health condition of grown people. Girls are more liable to suffer from the negative influence of media because it is a lot more difficult for them to accept their figure. Also disturbed eating attitudes and behaviour are observed particularly among girls in adolescence period.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Gitega health zone (Burundi) and Butembo health zone (Democratic Republic of Congo.DRC) with the objective of establishing dietary diversity and nutritional status of pre-school children fromrural-banana dependent households. The two health zones were selected based on ...
Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina Mara
To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n=2979). Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records) were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hanes, S; Vermeersch, J; Gale, S
This article describes the dietary analysis component of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. It addresses two research questions: 1) do participants and nonparticipants in the school nutrition programs have different calorie and nutrient intakes for 24 h, breakfast, and/or lunch and 2) if there are differences in the nutritional quality or total quantity of food consumed? Students who participate in the School Lunch Program get more than nonparticipants of almost all nutrients that were examined, both at lunch and during 24 h. The superior lunch and 24-h intakes of Lunch Program participants are due to the higher nutritional quality of the School Lunch compared with lunches that nonparticipants eat. The most important impact of the School Breakfast is that when the program is available, it increases the likelihood that children will eat breakfast, and children who eat breakfast have significantly higher intakes of nutrients than children who skip breakfast. The School Breakfast provides more calcium, phosphorus, protein, and magnesium than a non-US Department of Agriculture breakfast, but less vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron. The positive impacts of calcium and phosphorus carry over 24 h, while the negative impacts for vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron are made up during the remainder of the day. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn about the impact of the Milk Program, milk is an important component of all US Department of Agriculture school nutrition programs and makes a major contribution to student dietary intake. Its presence in the meal patterns probably accounts for some of the greater nutrient intakes associated with participation in the School Lunch Program and most of the greater intakes associated with participation in the School Breakfast Program.
Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh
Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
Zenebe, Mastewal; Gebremedhin, Samson; Henry, Carol J; Regassa, Nigatu
School Feeding Program (SFP) is a targeted safety net program designed to provide educational and health benefits to vulnerable children. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of the intervention on the nutritional status and school attendance of children. The study is aimed at examining the effects of SFP on dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children in Boricha district, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on a representative data collected from 290 students drawn from the district. A school-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on school children aged 10-14 years. Data were collected using structured pretested questionnaire. The effects of SFP on dietary diversity score (DDS), class attendance rate, body-mass-index for age (BAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were assessed using multivariable linear regression model. The finding showed significantly higher mean (±SD) of DDS in SFP beneficiaries (5.8 ± 1.1) than the non-beneficiaries (3.5 ± 0.7) (P nutritional status, and class attendance of school children, we strongly recommend scaling up the program to other food insecure areas.
Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie; Song, Kyunghee
Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P difference (P knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress.
Zulueta, B; Xarles Irastorza, I; Oliver, P; García, Z; Vitoria, J C
Nowadays the school canteen occupies a central place in the supply and in the nutritional education of the children in school age. To assess the nutritional adequacy of the school menus and the food intake of the children. 1,500 trays were selected in six school dining rooms of Biscay. Dietary intake was evaluated by means of the technique of double weighed and visual estimation of the residues. Evaluation of the menus: Macronutrients: carbohydrates 48%, proteins 20%, lipids 32%. Weekly offer: The first plate: vegetables 1.1; legumes 1.8; potatoes 0.4; pasta-rice 1.7. The second plate: meat 2.5; fish 1.4; eggs 0.6; precooked fried food 0.5. Garnish: potatoes 0.5; sauces 0.8; lettuce 1.7; cooked vegetables 1; no garnish 1. Dessert: fruit 2.8; dairy product 2; other 0.2. Significant changes have been observed in 4% of the menus. The vegetable garnish is not served in 40% of the occasions. 70% do not eat the vegetable garnish. Though the theoretical offer of vegetables is appropriate, due to the fact that frequently the vegetables are not served in garnish and to that when they are served children do not eat them, their final intake is poor. The protein contribution to the diet is higher than the recommended. Meaningful changes take place often in the composition of the menus.
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pinformation about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs.
Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Georgiou, Evanthia; Thanou, Ageliki; Zafiropoulou, Maria
The purpose of this study was first to assess and then to improve the diet of Greek primary school children teaching them healthy dietary habits and instructing them to face critically advertisements and media projected dietary models using a program which included intervention on cognitive, emotional, and social level. The results show that our…
Asakura, Keiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Sasaki, Satoshi
Improving the dietary habits of children is important to decrease the future burden of noncommunicable diseases. While various food education programs have been implemented worldwide, evaluation of nutrition knowledge is difficult, even at baseline. Further, the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake has not been clarified in non-western countries. After developing nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese primary school children and adults, we examined whether higher nutrition knowledge of children and their guardians was associated with better dietary intake in children. A total of 1210 children in four public primary schools and 319 guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrition knowledge questionnaires were developed for children in lower and higher grades and adults. Higher nutrition knowledge of the children was significantly associated with higher vegetable intake (p for trend = 0.024 for boys and children differed by children's sex. We developed nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese children and adults and identified a relationship between higher nutrition knowledge and healthier dietary habits. The child's own nutrition knowledge of dietary intake might be as important as that of the guardian for some foods. Sex differences in the effect of nutrition knowledge should receive greater attention in food education. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rossi, M C; Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C
The objective of this work was to assess dietary patterns and consumption of phenolic compounds from fruits and vegetables byschoolchildren of high altitude regions from northwest of Argentina. A nutritional survey including food-frequency consumption, 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements was applied to 241 children from 6 to 12years old. The amounts of the different classes of phenolic compounds were established from Food Composition Tables available in phenol-explorer website. Statistics analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 20.0. Nutritional status assessment showed underweight (2.2%), low weight (12.7%), overweight (12.7%) and obesity (7.4%). Mean intake of phenolic compounds was 412mg/day. Most consumed foods were infusions and sugar products, consumption of vegetables, fruits and dairy products were low compared to recommendations for this age. Considering that polyphenols have protective health effects, its low consumption could be a risk of development of chronic non communicable diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Improving the dietary habits of children is important to decrease the future burden of noncommunicable diseases. While various food education programs have been implemented worldwide, evaluation of nutrition knowledge is difficult, even at baseline. Further, the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake has not been clarified in non-western countries. Methods: After developing nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese primary school children and adults, we examined whether higher nutrition knowledge of children and their guardians was associated with better dietary intake in children. A total of 1210 children in four public primary schools and 319 guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Results: Nutrition knowledge questionnaires were developed for children in lower and higher grades and adults. Higher nutrition knowledge of the children was significantly associated with higher vegetable intake (p for trend = 0.024 for boys and <0.0001 for girls in lower grades, <0.0001 for boys and 0.020 for girls in higher grades. Higher nutrition knowledge of the guardians was also associated with higher vegetable intake, except for boys in higher grades. The relationship between guardians' nutrition knowledge and intake of staple foods and fruits in children differed by children's sex. Conclusions: We developed nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese children and adults and identified a relationship between higher nutrition knowledge and healthier dietary habits. The child's own nutrition knowledge of dietary intake might be as important as that of the guardian for some foods. Sex differences in the effect of nutrition knowledge should receive greater attention in food education.
Gougeon, Laura A R; Henry, Carol J; Ramdath, Dan; Whiting, Susan J
In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already
Indah Suci Anzarkusuma
RISKESDAS 2010 showed the prevalence of food consumption below 70% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI 2004 was 40.6% while among school-age children was about 41.2 %. The prevalence of underweight (Body-Mass-Index for age = BMI/A was 7.6%; in Banten province was about 9.5%. This study aims to determine the differences of nutritional status among school aged children in relation to their dietary pattern in a primary school, District of Rajeg, Tangerang, Banten. This is a cross-sectional study. The population is a primary school children, with total respondent of 124 children. Dietary patterns and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained junior nutritionists. Independent t-test, correlation and one-way Anova were employed to answer research questions. Most of respondent are male (53.2 % with an average 10 years of age and in mostly in 5th grade (62.1 %. Average value of Z –score BMI/Age was (-0.4 ± 1.8. About 53.2% have 3 meals a day, 94.4 % having breakfast, and if there is no breakfast at home (79% those students get their pocket money about 3200 ± 1400 rupiah/day. There is a difference OF nutritional status based on the frequency of meals (p< 0.05. There were no difference in nutritional status by sex, age, having breakfast at home, and no correlation with nominal allowances (p ≥ 0.05. Intensive counseling and nutrition education for school children should be given by teacher, especially information regarding the importance of breakfast or habit of bringing food or healthy snack, sanitation and personal hygiene. Keywords: Nutritional Status, Dietary Pattern, School Aged-children
Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera
Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (pnutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.
Marjan Manouchehri Naeeni
Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
Jul 4, 2011 ... With the high levels of malnutrition and low dietary diversity observed ... stakeholders work collaboratively in coming up with sustainable integrated .... been shown to increase intake of energy as well as micronutrients in developing .... The same pattern was also found when WFP supplement use was ...
LR Varte; Rawat S; Singh I; Choudhary S; Singh S; Singh SN
Objective: To assess the nutritional status of vegetarian and non vegetarian boys studying in Sainik school (based on z-scores). Methods: The present study was based on anthropometric data of 342 boys age group between 13 to 18 years collected at Sainik School, Bijapur. Three anthropometric indices were adopted for assessing the nutritional status of children. viz. weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI for age. The data were analysed statistically, using SPSS Window software. Result: A tota...
The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.
Jul 4, 2011 ... nutrition indices and results classified according to World Health Organization 2006 cut-off points. Findings showed that 48% and 42% of the children from Butembo. (DRC) and Gitega (Burundi) respectively had consumed food items from less than 3 food groups. Only 7% and 29% of children from Butembo ...
TO ASSESS NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ADOLESCENTS (10-12 YEARS) FROM NON GOVERNMENT FUNDED SCHOOLS (PRIVATE) OF AN URBAN INDIAN CITY & KAP OF PARENTS/ TEACHERS REGARDING HEALTHY DIETARY AND LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS FOR ADOLESCENTS.
Somila Surabhi; Meenakshi Bakshi Mehan; Sirimavo Nair
To assess nutritional status of adolescents (10-12 years) from non government funded schools (private) of Gujarat, India. Teachers & parents of adolescent children were assessed regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy dietary & lifestyle behaviours. School canteen services were also critically evaluated. Parent’s willingness, to start a nutrition program in the school was also assessed. A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (10-12 years) from two selected p...
Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.
Steyn, Nelia P; de Villiers, Anniza; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; de Waal, Marina; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lombard, Carl; Lambert, Estelle V
Numerous studies in schools in the Western Cape Province, South Africa have shown that children have an unhealthy diet with poor diversity and which is high in sugar and fat. HealthKick (HK) was a three-year randomised controlled trial aimed at promoting healthy eating habits. Sixteen schools were selected from two low-income school districts and randomly allocated to intervention (n = 8) or control school (n = 8) status. The HK intervention comprised numerous activities to improve the school nutrition environment such as making healthier food choices available and providing nutrition education support. Dietary intake was measured by using a 24-h recall in 2009 in 500 grade 4 learners at intervention schools and 498 at control schools, and repeated in 2010 and 2011. A dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from nine food groups and frequency of snack food consumption was determined. A school level analysis was performed. The mean baseline (2009) DDS was low in both arms 4.55 (SD = 1.29) and 4.54 (1.22) in the intervention and control arms respectively, and 49 % of learners in HK intervention schools had a DDS ≤4 (=low diversity). A small increase in DDS was observed in both arms by 2011: mean score 4.91 (1.17) and 4.83 (1.29) in the intervention and control arms respectively. The estimated DSS intervention effect over the two years was not significant [0 .04 (95 % CI: -0.37 to 0.46)]. Food groups least consumed were eggs, fruit and vegetables. The most commonly eaten snacking items in 2009 were table sugar in beverages and/or cereals (80.5 %); followed by potato crisps (53.1 %); non-carbonated beverages (42.9 %); sweets (26.7 %) and sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (16 %). Unhealthy snack consumption in terms of frequency of snack items consumed did not improve significantly in intervention or control schools. The results of the HK intervention were disappointing in terms of improvement in DDS and a decrease in unhealthy snacking. We
Hastert, Theresa A; Babey, Susan H
As rates of childhood obesity rise, the nutritional content of lunches eaten at school is more heavily scrutinized. We examined the association between dietary behaviors and the number of days that adolescents bring lunch to school. We analyzed cross-sectional data for 2,774 adolescents who responded to the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and reported dietary behaviors for a weekday. In bivariate analyses, adolescents who typically brought their lunch from home 5 days per week ate fast food on fewer occasions; consumed fewer servings of soda, fried potatoes, and high-sugar foods; and ate more fruit and vegetables compared with adolescents who never brought their lunch to school. In linear regressions controlling for demographics, body mass index, desire to change weight, parent education, and adult presence after school, students who typically brought their lunch to school 5 days per week ate fast food 0.35 fewer times and consumed 0.35 fewer servings of soda, 0.10 fewer servings of fried potatoes, 0.25 fewer servings of high-sugar foods, and 0.95 more servings of fruit and vegetables per day compared with students who never brought their lunch to school. These findings suggest that adolescents who bring lunch to school from home have more positive dietary behaviors than do adolescents who get their lunches from other sources. Improving the nutritional quality of foods offered from other sources, such as the National School Lunch Program and competitive foods, could help improve adolescent dietary behaviors.
Since growth monitoring records form the basis of diet and nutrition education and counseling, this lack of communication greatly undermines the objective of keeping growth records. Without their appropriate use, care-givers will be left unaware of both the children's nutritional status and appropriate dietary interventions.
Mrigen Kr. Deka
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%. Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs. The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%, more girls (46% were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001, those with better educated parents (P < 0.000, and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000. Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of vegetarian and non vegetarian boys studying in Sainik school (based on z-scores. Methods: The present study was based on anthropometric data of 342 boys age group between 13 to 18 years collected at Sainik School, Bijapur. Three anthropometric indices were adopted for assessing the nutritional status of children. viz. weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI for age. The data were analysed statistically, using SPSS Window software. Result: A total of 12.40% vegetarian and 11.40% non vegetarian boys were classified under moderate stunting z-score values for height for age. Around 5.70% vegetarian and 3.40% non vegetarian were underweight with a z-score value of moderate weight-for-age. Differences observed were higher body weight of non vegetarian boys as compared to vegetarian boys. The values of fat%, fat mass and mid upper arm circumference were significantly higher among non vegetarians as compared to vegetarians (p< 0.05. Conclusion: There were no significant difference between vegetarian and non vegetarian boys in terms of BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age. However, sigificant differences were observed for moderate z-score value of weight for age and height for age among non vegetarian and vegetarian boys. 5.7% vegetarian and 3.4% non vegetarian boys showed a moderate z-score value of weight-for-age indicating underweight and 12.4% vegetarian and 11.4% non vegetarian boys showed a moderate z-score value of height-for-age indicative of stunting. More than 85% of both vegetarian and non vegetarian boys/cadets were growing up normally and quite healthy.
O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E
Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child's daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is...
Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro
To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.
Klosterbuer, Abby; Roughead, Zamzam Fariba; Slavin, Joanne
Dietary fiber is widely recognized as an important part of a healthy diet and is a common addition to enteral nutrition (EN) formulas. Fiber sources differ in characteristics such as solubility, fermentability, and viscosity, and it is now well known that different types of fiber exert varying physiological effects in the body. Clinical studies suggest fiber can exert a wide range of benefits in areas such as bowel function, gut health, immunity, blood glucose control, and serum lipid levels. Although early clinical nutrition products contained fiber from a single source, it is now thought that blends of fiber from multiple sources more closely resemble a regular diet and may provide a greater range of benefits for the patient. Current recommendations support the use of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition when no contraindications exist, but little information exists about which types and combinations of fibers provide the relevant benefit in certain patient populations. This article summarizes the different types of fiber commonly added to EN products and reviews the current literature on the use of fiber blends in clinical nutrition.
Jennings, A; McEvoy, S; Corish, C
Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices. A telephone questionnaire completed by pre-school managers (n=54) examined pre-school dietary practices, food provision and the association between these and pre-school size, nutritional training attendance, possession of the Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Pre-school Services and having a healthy eating policy. Nutritional training needs were also investigated. Twenty-five pre-schools provided all food for attending children; parents were sole providers in six. Thirty-four pre-schools had a written healthy eating policy. Attendance at nutritional training was reported by 40. Possession of the Guidelines (n=40) did not consistently result in their use. Poor parental and staff involvement in policy and menu development was cited. Although the delayed introduction of iron-containing foods and a feeding beaker in infants was clearly evident, inappropriate beverages and snacks were served to children aged 1-5 years in 43 and 37 pre-schools, respectively. Training priorities cited by managers included parental education and the provision of information regarding menu planning and healthy food choices. Nutritional training should advocate whole staff familiarity with and use of current guidelines, in addition to encouraging nutritional policy development and enforcement. Parental education is warranted. Dietary education should focus specifically on appropriate weaning practices, healthy beverage and snack provision and menu planning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Blitstein, Jonathan L; Cates, Sheryl C; Hersey, James; Montgomery, Doris; Shelley, Mack; Hradek, Christine; Kosa, Katherine; Bell, Loren; Long, Valerie; Williams, Pamela A; Olson, Sara; Singh, Anita
Evidence supports the use of social marketing campaigns to improve nutrition knowledge and reinforce the effects of nutrition education programs. However, the additional effects of parent-focused social marketing with nutrition education have received little attention. Our aim was to assess the impact of the Iowa Nutrition Network's school-based nutrition education program (Building and Strengthening Iowa Community Support for Nutrition and Physical Activity [BASICS]) and the benefits of adding a multichannel social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) to increase parent-directed communication. A quasi-experimental design with three study conditions compared a school-based nutrition education program (BASICS) with a school-based and social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) and a no-treatment comparison group. The study included 1,037 third-grade students attending 33 elementary schools and their parents. Measures included parents' reports of their children's in-home consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) and use of low-fat/fat-free milk. Data on F/V were collected using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist; and data on milk use were collected using two questions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multilevel, mixed-effect regression models that account for correlation within repeated measures and children within school were used to compare the mean change over time in the outcome variable for one study group with the mean change over time for another study group. Children in BASICS increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.16 cups (P=0.04) compared with children in the comparison group. Children in BASICS Plus increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.17 cups (P=0.03) and mean consumption of vegetables by 0.13 cups (P=0.02). Children in BASICS Plus were 1.3 times (P=0.05) more likely to use low-fat/fat-free milk than children in either the BASICS group or the comparison group
Variyam, Jayachandran N
The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.
Park, Eun A; Chae, In Sook; Jo, Mi Na
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition counseling in schools. This study surveyed 94 nutrition teachers and 46 dietitians working at elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju during 7–14 May 2015. The importance and performance of 16 tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians were measured using questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software and Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). Importance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.72), dietary life education (4.37), and nutrition counseling (4.24); and performance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.48), dietary life education (3.70), and nutrition counseling (3.22). The importance–performance matrix showed that in Quadrant 4, the “Concentrate Here” item was “nutrition and dietary life education for students”, while in Quadrant 2, the “Possible Overkill” item was “cost control and office management”. These findings suggest that it is important to reduce unnecessary administrative and office management tasks in order for nutrition teachers and dietitians to implement effective nutrition education, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling programs. PMID:29065495
Park, Eun A; Chae, In Sook; Jo, Mi Na
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition counseling in schools. This study surveyed 94 nutrition teachers and 46 dietitians working at elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju during 7-14 May 2015. The importance and performance of 16 tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians were measured using questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). Importance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.72), dietary life education (4.37), and nutrition counseling (4.24); and performance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.48), dietary life education (3.70), and nutrition counseling (3.22). The importance-performance matrix showed that in Quadrant 4, the "Concentrate Here" item was "nutrition and dietary life education for students", while in Quadrant 2, the "Possible Overkill" item was "cost control and office management". These findings suggest that it is important to reduce unnecessary administrative and office management tasks in order for nutrition teachers and dietitians to implement effective nutrition education, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling programs.
Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient nutriture among ... AJOL jobs ... Objective: To determine whether nutrition education targeting the child-feeding practices of low-income rural caregivers will reduce anaemia
Full Text Available Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. Governments, community leaders, doctors, dieteticians, nurses, teachers, and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. School health and nutrition programs which part of public health and education are summarized in this review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 361-368
Objective: The aim of this study was to improve the dietary intake patterns and food choices of children aged 9-13 years in a periurban community. Methods: Two schools were randomly selected from within this periurban community. A nutrition education programme was implemented over one school term, with the testing of ...
Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth
Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…
橋本, 健夫; 小川, 理沙; 太田, 美也子
The importance of nutrition education in school education is strongly pointed out because of many dietary problems. In 2005, nutrition teacher system was established, and the teacher aimed to improve child fitness and promoting health by forging desirable eating habits. We investigated the amount of leftover in school provided-lunch and the situation of nutrition teacher in school. In the first case, the result revealed that although vegetable meals tended to be left, approach by nutrition st...
Lucinéia PINHO; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho,Ana Cristina de Carvalho; Caldeira,Antônio Prates
OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents p...
Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony
Purpose: School-based nutrition education programmes have the potential to reinforce healthy dietary behaviours in adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of secondary school students in Kolkata, India, regarding the food and nutrition curriculum, food skill acquisition at school and home and barriers to learning food…
Dortch, Katherine Skala; Gay, Jennifer; Springer, Andrew; Kohl, Harold W; Sharma, Shreela; Saxton, Debra; Wilson, Kim; Hoelscher, Deanna
To determine the association between youth sport team participation and dietary behaviors among elementary school-aged children. Cross-sectional survey. Public schools in Texas during 2009-2010. A total of 5035 ethnically diverse fourth graders. Participation in organized sports teams, consumption of select food items (fruits, vegetables, beverages, sweets/snacks). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between each food item (eaten at least once on the previous day) and number of sports teams as the independent class variable (0, 1 ,2, ≥3), adjusting for body mass index physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Significant dose-response associations were observed between number of sports teams and consumption of fruits and vegetables. For boys, the likelihood of eating fruit and fruit-flavored drinks was significantly higher and the odds of drinking soda were lower with the number of teams. For girls, the likelihood of consuming green vegetables increased as sports teams participation increased, and participation was positively associated with diet soda consumption. A positive association was observed between the number of sports teams and scores on the Healthy Food Index for boys and girls. The findings that sports participation is associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soda suggest that efforts should be focused on supporting youth team sports to promote healthier food choices. Since sports are available to all ages, sports may be an important venue for promoting healthier dietary behaviors.
Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.
Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…
Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...
Structured pretested questionnaires were used to collect information on 24-hour dietary intake as well as some socioeconomic and socio demographic factors. Information on Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) representing the number of food groups consumed over a 24 hour period was obtained using Food and Nutrition on ...
School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…
Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen
Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013
Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R
Food records or diaries, dietary recalls and FFQ are methods traditionally used to measure dietary intake; however, advancing technologies and growing awareness in personalised health have heightened interest in the application of new technologies to assess dietary intake. Dietary intake data can be used in epidemiology, dietary interventions and in the delivery of personalised nutrition advice. Compared with traditional dietary assessment methods, new technologies have many advantages, including their ability to automatically process data and provide personalised dietary feedback advice. This review examines the new technologies presently under development for the assessment of dietary intakes, and their utilisation and efficacy for personalising dietary advice. New technology-based methods of dietary assessment can broadly be categorised into three key areas: online (web-based) methods, mobile methods and sensor technologies. Several studies have demonstrated that utilising new technologies to provide tailored advice can result in positive dietary changes and have a significant impact on selected nutrient and food group intakes. However, comparison across studies indicates that the magnitude of change is variable and may be influenced by several factors, including the frequency and type of feedback provided. Future work should establish the most effective combinations of these factors in facilitating dietary changes across different population groups.
Gakenia, W M; Barugahara, Evyline Isingoma; Kikafunda, J
.... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, dietary and health risk factors of nutritional anaemia amongst 11-14 year old girls attending primary schools in Masindi District of Western Uganda...
van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, M.; Blonk, B.; Aiking, H.; Vellinga, P.
The objective of this study was to explore the synergies between nutritionally healthy and ecologically sustainable diets. The aim was to explore the possibilities for future integrated dietary guidelines that support consumers to make informed dietary choices based on both ecological and
Misyak, Sarah; Farris, Alisha; Mann, Georgianna; Serrano, Elena
Schools represent an ideal venue to influence dietary habits of large numbers of children. While the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is mandated to meet clear nutrition standards for calories, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, sodium, fat, and saturated fat, there are no nutritional requirements for packed lunches. This Current Issue…
Lonnie M. Lowery
Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.
Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…
Lesser, Lenard I; Mazza, Mary Carol; Lucan, Sean C
Healthy dietary intake is important for the maintenance of general health and wellness, the prevention of chronic illness, the optimization of life expectancy, and the clinical management of virtually all disease states. Dietary myths (i.e., concepts about nutrition that are poorly supported or contradicted by scientific evidence) may stand in the way of healthy dietary intake. Dietary myths exist about micronutrients, macronutrients, non-nutrients, and food energy. Representative myths of each type include that patients need to focus on consuming enough calcium to ensure bone health, dietary fat leads to obesity and is detrimental to vascular health, all fiber (whether naturally occurring or artificially added) is beneficial, and food calories translate to pounds of body weight through a linear relationship and simple arithmetic. A common theme for dietary myths is a reductionist view of diet that emphasizes selected food constituents as opposed to whole foods. Healthy dietary advice takes a more holistic view; consistent evidence supports recommendations to limit the consumption of ultraprocessed foods and to eat whole or minimally processed foods, generally in a form that is as close to what occurs in nature as possible. Family physicians can help dispel myths for patients and give sound nutritional advice by focusing on actual foods and broader dietary patterns.
Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen
Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.
Daneshvar, Pooya; Hariri, Mitra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Darvishi, Leila; Iraj, Bijan; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri
Young athletes have more nutritional needs than other adolescents because of physical activity and physical development. Optimal athletic performance results from a combination of factors including training, body composition, and nutrition. Despite the increased interest in nutrition and use of dietary supplements to enhance performance, some athletes might be consuming diets that are less than optimal. In wrestling it is common practice to optimize one's body composition and body weight prior to a competition season. This often includes a change in dietary intake or habits. Twenty-eight wrestlers, between the ages of 17 and 25 years, participated in this study. Dietary intakes of micro and macro nutrients were collected by face-to-face interview, structured food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary intake of energy, carbohydrates, fats and proteins and micronutrients was evaluated. Mean intakes of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fat were higher than recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The mean intakes of all vitamins and minerals were higher than the RDAs in these wrestlers, except for vitamin D, biotin, zinc, iodine, chrome and molybdenum. On the basis of our results, nutritional education should be given to these subjects and their families for promoting healthy eating habits.
Lucinéia de Pinho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.
Pinho, Lucinéia de; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI) of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA). Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.07-2.56), and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.35-0.91). deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Briefel, Ronette R; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M
Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (Pchildren (Pchildren. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (Pchildren (Pchildren's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack
Williamson, Claire; Wyness, Laura
A new British Nutrition Foundation (BNF) Task Force report has been published, which looks in detail at the impact of early life nutrition on health and the risk of diseases in later life, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone health, allergic disease and cognitive function. One of the aspects that the report covers in detail is the health and nutrition of pregnant women and where improvements in the maternal diet could be made. This article focuses on the report's findings with regard to the essential nutrients folic acid and vitamin D, including current intakes and status, uptake of supplements and vulnerable groups that are falling short of dietary guidelines.
Jan 4, 2010 ... normally.5 Furthermore, research has shown that dietary habits in childhood impact ... implemented globally, focusing mainly on obesity, the importance of ... the same group of 10 randomly selected primary school children.
The aim of the study was to investigate the dietary habits and hazards ensuing from poor nutrition among junior high schoolgirls. The research encompassed 100 randomly chosen girls at the age of 15, in the third class of junior high school. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire. Girls with proper body weight constituted 74%, whereas 26% were underweight. The surveyed girls made many dietary errors, such as long breaks between meals, not having the supper eating the last meal too late. 39% did not accept their appearance and 44% applied slimming diet earlier. The vast majority of the pupils (88%) gave their attention to the media promoting a very thin figure. In certain conditions, such behaviour can lead to disorders of dietary origin.
national food consumption survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. Public Health. Nutrition. 2005; 8: 533-543. 24. Osei-Boadi K, Lartey A, Marquis GS and EK Colecraft Dietary intakes and iron status of vegetarian and non- vegetarian children in selected communities in Accra and Cape Coast, Ghana. African Journal of Food,.
Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient nutriture among children in less-resourced areas: a randomised controlled intervention in Kabarole district, western ... Results: Caregivers in the intervention group reported improved child snacking patterns, food-selection practices, meal adequacy, and food
Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional compounds of banana flower of two cultivars grown in China. Z-W Sheng, W-H Ma, Z-Q Jin, Y Bi, Z-G Sun, H-T Dou, J-Y Li, L-N Han ...
Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive ... information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross ..... chronic muscle fatigue since it is needed to fuel the muscle during ...
The objective of the study was to determine the dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls (n=156) and young women students (n=367) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal (KZN), South Africa. No national prevalence rates for stunting, wasting and underweight could be found for adolescent girls in South Africa and the ...
Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive ...
Jennifer A. Jackson; Ellen Smit; Melinda M. Manore; Deborah John; Katherine Gunter
Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Pare...
Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol
Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased in their…
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...
The respondents showed average nutrition knowledge in the majority of the questions. Conclusions: This study observed malnutrition and average nutrition knowledge, with many gaps relating to aspects, such as the role of the various food groups in the diet and safe hygiene practices. Keywords: primary school children; ...
Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.
Bergman, Ethan A; Gordon, Ruth W
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that schools and communities have a shared responsibility to provide students with access to high-quality, affordable, nutritious foods and beverages. School-based nutrition services, including the provision of meals through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, are an integral part of the total education program. Strong wellness policies promote environments that enhance nutrition integrity and help students to develop lifelong healthy behaviors. ADA actively supported the 2004 and proposed 2010 Child Nutrition reauthorization which determines school nutrition policy. ADA believes that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans should serve as the foundation for all food and nutrition assistance programs and should apply to all foods and beverages sold or served to students during the school day. Local wellness policies are mandated by federal legislation for all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. These policies support nutrition integrity,including a healthy school environment. Nutrition integrity also requires coordinating nutrition education and promotion and funding research on program outcomes. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, and other credentialed staff, are essential for nutrition integrity in schools to perform in policy-making, management, education, and community building roles. A healthy school environment can be achieved through adequate funding of school meals programs and through implementation and evaluation of strong local wellness policies.
Kuhner, Jeanne Incantalupo
The U.S. Congress has passed a measure that would scrap the Child Nutrition Act's requirements and funding for more healthy lunches in schools. Unfortunately, foods of lower nutritional value are more available than healthier snacks in the nation's schools. The author argues that providing students with more fresh fruit and produce, whole grains…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014
Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…
Bethany Hilson Garner
Full Text Available Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001. Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes.
Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449
Walton, J; Hannon, E M; Flynn, A
The European Commission has identified schools as a priority setting for health promotion, including nutrition education and intervention. The present study examined the school-day diet of Irish primary-school children with the aim of identifying opportunities for dietary improvement. Data from The National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004) were used to establish a dataset of school-days. Dietary intake data were collected from 594 children (5-12 years) using a 7-day weighed food-record. The nutritional quality of the diet was examined for the total school-day and for food eaten 'before school', 'at school' and 'after school'. Examination of dietary intake on school-days has highlighted nutritional imbalances for intakes of fat, saturated fat, added sugars, sodium and dietary fibre (DF). Mean energy (E) intake for the overall school-day was 7.1 MJ, with 16% of energy provided from food eaten 'before school', 33%E from food eaten 'at school' and 53% of energy from food eaten 'after school'. Relative to the overall school-day, food eaten 'before school' was lower in saturated fat and sodium, and higher in DF and many micronutrients. Food eaten 'at school' was relatively high in added sugars and sodium; lower in DF and micronutrients; and similar in saturated fat compared to the overall school-day. Food eaten 'after school' was relatively high in DF and vitamin A; similar in saturated fat, magnesium and sodium; and lower in added sugars and other micronutrients compared to the overall school-day. To improve the overall nutritional quality of the school-day diet, food eaten at school should be targeted. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N
Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.
Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.
Gregorič, Matej; Pograjc, Larisa; Pavlovec, Alenka; Simčič, Marjan; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca
To holistically evaluate the extent of implementation of dietary guidelines in schools and present various monitoring systems. The study comprises three methods: (i) a cross-sectional survey (process evaluation); (ii) an indicator-based evaluation (menu quality); and (iii) a 5 d weighed food record of school lunches (output evaluation). Slovenian primary schools. A total 234 food-service managers from 488 schools completed a self-administrated questionnaire for process evaluation; 177 out of 194 randomly selected schools provided menus for menu quality evaluation; and 120 school lunches from twenty-four schools were measured and nutritionally analysed for output evaluation. The survey among food-service managers revealed high levels of implementation at almost all process evaluation areas of the guidelines. An even more successful implementation of these guidelines was found in relation to organization cultural issues as compared with technical issues. Differences found in some process evaluation areas were related to location, size and socio-economic characteristics of schools. Evaluation of school menu quality demonstrated that score values followed a normal distribution. Higher (better) nutrition scores were found in larger-sized schools and corresponding municipalities with higher socio-economic status. School lunches did not meet minimum recommendations for energy, carbohydrates or dietary fibre intake, nor for six vitamins and three (macro, micro and trace) elements. The implementation of the guidelines was achieved differently at distinct levels. The presented multilevel evaluation suggests that different success in implementation might be attributed to different characteristics of individual schools. System changes might also be needed to support and improve implementation of the guidelines.
Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele
Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated.
Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele
Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja
The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional
Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.
The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…
Full Text Available Despite its negative impact on performances because of lower protein and energy digestibility, increasing attention has been paid in the past decade to dietary fibre in swine nutrition due to its multiple functionalities. The present review examines the influence of dietary fibre on the digestive processes and the consequences on pig protein and energy nutrition, health concerns and environmental issues. Dietary fibre is defined as the plant polysaccharides that are resistant to digestive secretions and are potentially available for bacterial fermentation in the intestines of single-stomached animals. Resistant starch is also considered as a dietary fibre. The short-chain fatty acids released by bacteria contribute to the host energy supply and both regulate the composition of the flora and the growth of epithelial cells, especially in the case of butyrate. The bacterial growth supported by the fermentation induces a shift of N excretion from urine to faeces. Beside the fermentability, the physical properties of dietary fibre such as the water-holding capacity, the viscosity and the solubility influence the digestion, the satiety and the transit time. In relationship with the mechanisms of dietary fibre interaction with the digestive processes exposed in this review, the opportunities and treats of dietary fibre inclusion in swine rations for intensified and for more extensive tropical production systems are discussed. Dietary fibre is indeed a possible means to reduce nitrogen losses of production units and to improve pig intestinal health and animal welfare. Finally, the potential role of in vitro fermentation methods to investigate the fate of dietary fibre in the digestive system is discussed.
Bertin, Mélanie; Lafay, Lionel; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dubuisson, Carine
To improve the dietary offering in schools, the French authorities published recommendations on nutrition in 1999, which were then revised in 2007. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional offering in secondary school meals and the extent to which the recommendations promote balanced nutritional offerings. In 2005, a national survey was conducted on a representative sample of secondary schools, either administrated by the Ministry of Education (ES) or the Ministry of Agriculture (AS). Information on school-catering organisation and twenty consecutive meals was collected from each of the 707 secondary schools surveyed. Nutritional composition was estimated according to the French food composition database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of food-group frequency guidelines (FFG) on nutritional offering. It was found that 15 and 26 % of ES and AS schools, respectively, had high compliance with the FFG, at lunch. Macronutrient content was unbalanced in ES school lunches in which 42·8 % lipids, 21·5 % proteins and 35·7 % carbohydrates contributed to the energy. Nevertheless, proper offerings in Fe, Ca and vitamin C content were observed. In addition, a lower offering in lipids and a higher offering in proteins, Ca, vitamin C and Fe were found when the FFG were applied (P schools. This paper confirms the effectiveness of FFG in providing nutritionally balanced school meals. However, others measures such as nutrition promotion and actions to improve children's food habits have to be introduced to make the recommendations more effective and easier to understand.
George C. Fahey, Jr.
Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential
de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C
The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical
Prell, Hillevi C; Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Lena M; Lissner, Lauren
This study examined the effect of 2 school-based interventions on adolescents' consumption and knowledge of fish with the hypothesis that home economics education would enhance the effect of modifications in the school canteen. The school lunch intervention (SL) focused on changes in the school canteen, and the school lunch + home economics intervention (SL + HE) in addition consisted of changes in the home economics syllabus. Pupils in the 8th grade (n = 228) from 3 schools in Göteborg, Sweden, participated (control, n = 83; SL group, n = 58; SL + HE group, n = 87). A controlled design was used in which behavior and knowledge were assessed before and after the intervention. In contrast to much previous research of this type, measurement of behavior was based primarily on direct observation as opposed to self-reported intakes. Behavior (fish consumption) was measured individually by structured observations in the school canteen 5 times (once a week) when fish was served. Nutritional knowledge was measured by means of 10 items in a questionnaire. To analyze changes in behavior, a nonparametric statistical method assessing systematic change in paired ordered categoric variables was used. At follow-up evaluation, consumption had increased significantly in the SL + HE group, a change that also differed from the control group. In addition, significant positive changes in knowledge were observed in both intervention groups, but not in controls. The results suggest that dietary change was achieved by modifying conditions in the school canteen together with changing the home economics syllabus. This study shows the importance of the school in the promotion of dietary change among adolescents.
Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun; Song, Yoon Ju
Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-...
Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole
Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B 12 , C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids regulate several physiological functions. However, to exert their properties, they have to be present in the diet in an optimal balance. Particular attention has been focused on tissue highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs n-6/n-3 ratio, influenced by the type and the esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA when esterified to phospholipids (PLs are more efficiently incorporated into tissue PLs and seem to possess peculiar properties through specific mechanism(s of action, such as the capacity to affect endocannabinoid biosynthesis at much lower doses than EPA and DHA in triglyceride form, probably because of the above mentioned higher incorporation into tissue PLs. Downregulation of the endocannabinoid system seems to mediate the positive effects exerted by omega-3-enriched PLs on several parameters of metabolic syndrome. PLs are one of the major dietary forms of EPA and DHA we are exposed to with the everyday diet; therefore, it is not surprising that it guarantees an effective EPA and DHA nutritional activity. Future studies should address whether EPA and DHA in PL form are also more effective than other formulations in ameliorating other pathological conditions where n-3 HPUFAs seem to exert beneficial activities such as cancer and psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.
This article reviews research from published studies on the association between nutrition among school-aged children and their performance in school and on tests of cognitive functioning. Each reviewed article is accompanied by a brief description of its research methodology and outcomes. Articles are separated into 4 categories: food…
Pratt, Peggy; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the types of technology/software currently used by Southwest Region school nutrition directors (SNDs) and assessed their perceptions of barriers to purchasing new technology/software. In addition, the importance of future technology/software acquisitions in meeting school nutrition program (SNP) goals…
This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/13/2015.
Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda
The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…
Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M.
Objective To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening RCT (“LA Sprouts”) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden/eat/cook FV; motivation to garden/eat/cook FV; attitudes towards FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Design and Participants Four elementary schools with 304 predominately Hispanic/Latino 3rd–5th grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts (n=167 students) or Control group (n=137 students). LA Sprouts participants received 12 weeks of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored gardening, nutrition, and cooking classes after school. Questionnaire data examining dietary determinants were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. Results After the 12-week program, LA Sprouts participants compared with controls improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs. +5%; P=.001), nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs. −5.0%; P =.003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs. −4.4%; P=.003). Conclusions The LA Sprouts program positively impacted a number of determinants of dietary behaviors, which suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. PMID:26453367
de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz
The school canteen provides a substantial proportion of the daily nutritional intake for many children. There are nutritional standards for school meals, however, it is still difficult to assess the dietary quality. To design a questionnaire for assessing the dietary quality of school meals, quickly and easily. A dietary questionnaire (COMES) was designed on the basis of the current recommendations. COMES consist of 15 items related to the food-frequency and to other characteristics of school meals. Then, a longitudinal prospective study was performed in order to analyze, with COMES, 36 school meals of 4 catering companies from Castilla y León during the academic years 2006-2007 to 2010-2011. Differences in dietary quality menus according to the management system of catering companies (in situ vs. transported) were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was reached at p school meals are complied for all food groups, except for dairy and fruits. The variety of foods and culinary techniques were appropriate. No significant differences were found in the COMES score according to the management system (p=0,87), although catering system provides higher dietary quality. A new tool to assess quickly and easily the nutritional quality of school meals has been proposed. The assessment of the frequency intake of the most problematic foods for schoolchildren with this scale is much more demanding than the current recommendations. Even so, menus analyzed showed an acceptable quality in terms of variety of foods and culinary techniques, although milk frequency in the menus was excessive at the expense of fresh fruit. On the other hand, the transported system (i.e. catering, both hot and cold-holding) provides menus more consistent with the dietary recommendations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław
The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.
chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to be introduced to improve the nutritional environment at schools as the available food for ...
Kim, YeonSoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri; Lim, Yunsook
Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exerci...
Moore, Helen J; Ells, Louisa J; McLure, Sally A; Crooks, Sean; Cumbor, David; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Batterham, Alan M
Self-report recall questionnaires used to measure physical activity and dietary intake in children can be labour intensive and monotonous and tend to focus on either dietary intake or physical activity. The web-based software, Synchronised Nutrition and Activity Program (SNAP), was developed to produce a novel, simple, quick and engaging method of assessing energy balance-related behaviours at a population level, combining principles from new and existing 24 h recall methodologies, set within a user-friendly interface. Dietary intake was measured using counts for twenty-one food groups and physical activity levels were measured in min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A combination of the mean difference between methods, type II regression and non-parametric limits of agreement techniques were used to examine the accuracy and precision of SNAP. Method comparison analyses demonstrated a good agreement for both dietary intake and physical activity behaviours. For dietary variables, accuracy of SNAP (mean difference) was within +/- 1 count for the majority of food groups. The proportion of the sample with between-method agreement within +/- 1 count ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. For min of MVPA, there was no substantial fixed or proportional bias, and a mean difference between methods (SNAP - accelerometry) of -9 min. SNAP provides a quick, accurate, low-burden, cost-effective and engaging method of assessing energy balance behaviours at a population level. Tools such as SNAP, which exploit the popularity, privacy and engagement of the computer interface, and linkages with other datasets, could make a substantial contribution to future public health monitoring and research.
Dmitriy M. Uvarov
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.
Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de adolescentes da rede pública de ensino da cidade de São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brasil The nutritional status and dietary intake of adolescents in public schools in the city of São Mateus do Sul, in the State of Paraná, Brazil
Renata Labronici Bertin
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar o estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODOS: o Índice de Massa Corporal foi calculado e classificado pela proposta da Organização Mundial da Saúde. O consumo alimentar foi obtido pelo Questionário de Freqüência de Consumo Alimentar. Foi utilizada análise descritiva, de freqüência e teste t de Student com pOBJECTIVES: to characterize the nutritional status and dietary intake of adolescents attending public schools in the city of São Mateus do Sul, in the State of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: the Body Mass Index was calculated and classified as proposed by the World Health Organization. Dietary intake was calculated using the Survey of Consumer Food Frequency. Analysis was carried out using descriptive and frequency analysis, and Student's t test with p<0.05. RESULTS: most individuals presented a normal nutritional status (84% being eutrophic, 12% overweight/obese and 4% underweight. The diet was characterized by adequate energy intake, with a distribution of nutrients in accordance with recommendations and higher in boys than in girls. Ninety percent of the adolescents had an excessive intake of fatty acids. There was adequate intake of vitamin C (287 mg and 328 mg for boys and girls respectively and iron (27 and 21 mg respectively. The consumption of iron differed significantly between the genders (t=3.765; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: the abnormalities found in dietary intake demonstrate the need for better understanding and evaluation of the type of food offered to students, as a way of developing strategies for intervention both within and outside of schools, and of helping prevent health problems related to nutrition.
Jackson, Jennifer A; Smit, Ellen; Manore, Melinda M; John, Deborah; Gunter, Katherine
Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = -1.38, p = 0.04) and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted.
Milder, Ivon E J; Mikolajczak, Jochen; van den Berg, Saskia W; van de Veen-van Hofwegen, Madelon; Bemelmans, Wanda J E
(i) To identify determinants of participation in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program', a programme that encourages schools to set up their canteen in a way that promotes healthy dietary behaviour. (ii) To compare food supply and actions between participating and non-participating schools. (iii) To investigate what reasons schools have to increase attention for nutrition in the curriculum. A cross-sectional study based on information from questionnaires performed in 2010/2011. All secondary schools (age group 12-18 years) in the Netherlands (n 1145). Response was 33 % (n 375). Analyses included all schools with a canteen in which food is offered (28 %, n 325). None of the investigated determinants was associated with participation. Participating schools offered significantly (P schools. However, there was no difference in the number of less healthy products offered (e.g. candy bars, cakes and regular soft drinks). Participating schools reported more often that they took actions to improve dietary behaviour and more often had a policy on nutrition. Participating schools more often increased attention for nutrition in the curriculum in recent years than non-participating schools (57 % v. 43 %, P = 0·01). Reported reasons were similar and included media attention, eating behaviour of students and 'overweight'. Schools that participate in the programme seemed to offer more healthy products in their canteens and took more actions to improve dietary behaviour than non-participating schools. However, at all schools less healthy foods were also available.
Perera, Thushanthi; Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Wong, Siew Sun; Bobe, Gerd
Poor food choices in childhood are core contributors to obesity and chronic diseases during adolescence and adulthood. Food choices and dietary behaviors develop in childhood and are difficult to change in adulthood. Nutrition education in elementary schools can provide children with the information and skills to develop healthy food choices and…
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
Leung, Cindy W; Ding, Eric L; Catalano, Paul J; Villamor, Eduardo; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants.
Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E.; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T.
This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge
Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A
Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.
Susan K. Raatz
Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.
... Agriculture 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...
Brown, Katie Nicole
Adolescence is a time of increased control over food choices and dietary practices. Participating in high school sports or attending college presents unique nutritional concerns and health risks. Some female high school athletes have low energy availability (consuming inadequate calories to compensate for exercise energy expenditure), which can result in menstrual dysfunction, bone loss, and injury, also known as the female athlete triad (Triad). College students who consume diets low in frui...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.
Karen Weber Cullen
Full Text Available In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP and School Lunch Program (NSLP meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5–18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5–18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47% of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.
Cullen, Karen Weber; Chen, Tzu-An
In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5-18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5-18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47%) of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.
Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burkhart, Sarah; Pelly, Fiona
..., particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk...
Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kao, Mei-Ding; Hang, Chi-Ming; Cheng, Lieyueh; Pan, Wen-Harn
Dietary supplement consumption practices among 2417 children (1295 boys and 1122 girls) aged 6 to 12 years in Taiwan were derived from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT 2001-2002). The proportion (22%) of boys and girls using supplements was equivalent. Some 77% of the child supplement takers took only one type of supplement. The top five supplements consumed were: multivitamins and minerals, calcium, vitamin C, cod-liver oil and bee propolis in that order. Children in the most urbanized southern Taiwan had the highest usage (33%), but prevalence was lowest in the mountainous areas (5%). Higher parental education level and household monthly income were associated with higher intakes. Supplement users were more competent at school; however, the frequency and number of supplement types were not related to competence.
Full Text Available A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3–11.7. There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6 and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%, dairy products (19% and meats (17% were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine and Vitamins A; D and E intake.
del Refugio Palacios-Esquer, María; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Torres-Valencia, Eréndira
To assessment the nutrition condition and alimentary behavior in adolescents. A sample of 616 adolescents of high school system financed by the government was studied. The number of the meals having at home on a weekly basis diet. Body Mass Index (BMI), anemia and vitamin were measured. They were divide by region of residence: north (Nogales), center (Hermosillo) and south (Navojoa) differenced by human development index (HDI) and its components. The average age was 16 year with a range from 15 to 19 years. Teenagers whose dietary behavior was eating at home between five to seven times on a weekly basis, their consumption of kilocalories, proteins, iron and calcium is either adequate or very close to be, and the same for A serum vitamin. The lowest nutritional condition was registered in Navojoa which is placed in the south region of the Sonora state. To understand the nutritional problem in the adolescence is necessary to study the alimentary behavior. We observed differences by regions in the alimentary behavior in the Sonora state in Mexico.
Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel
A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days) in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females) with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3-11.7). There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6) and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine) and Vitamins A; D and E intake.
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A.M. Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13?18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequen...
Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali
Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.
Mâsse, Louise C; Frosh, Marcy M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Yaroch, Amy L; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Blanck, Heidi M; Atienza, Audie A; McKenna, Mary L; Igoe, James F
As policy strategies are rapidly being developed to address childhood overweight, a system was developed to systematically and reliably classify state policies related to the school nutrition environment. This study describes the development process, the inter-rater reliability to code state policies enacted as of December 2003, and the variability in state policies related to the school nutrition environment. The development of the School Nutrition Environment State Policy Classification System (SNESPCS) included a comprehensive review of published literature, reports from government and nongovernmental sources, input from an expert panel, and select experts. Baseline statutes and regulations for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were retrieved from Westlaw (data retrieved in 2005-2006 and analyzed in 2006) and pilot testing of the system was conducted. SNESPCS included 11 policy areas that relate to a range of environmental and surveillance domains. At baseline, states had no (advertising/promotion and preferential pricing) or modest (school meal environment, reimbursable school meals, coordinating or advisory councils, body mass index screening) activities in many of the policy areas. As of 2003, 60% of the states had policies related to the sale of foods in school that compete with the school meal program. Evaluation of policies that affect the school-nutrition environment is in its earliest stage. SNESPCS provides a mechanism for assessing variation in state policies that can be incorporated in an evaluation framework aimed at elucidating the impact of state policies on the school environment, social norms, and children's dietary behaviors in schools.
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…
Lomer, M C E; Gourgey, R; Whelan, K
Nutritional assessment and dietary intervention, particularly enteral nutrition, are important in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). National audits have reported that dietetic resourcing in gastroenterology is inadequate. The present study aimed to identify current practice in the nutritional assessment and dietary management of enteral nutrition in CD, as well as investigate the factors that influenced it. A nationwide questionnaire survey adopting complete population sampling of all 296 U.K. acute hospitals was undertaken aiming to determine dietetic resourcing for gastroenterology. In addition, the case-note review method was used to investigate approaches to nutritional assessment and dietary management of enteral nutrition as treatment for active CD. Data were returned from 149 (56%) hospitals, providing assessment and management information on 190 patients. The median number of dietetic sessions dedicated to gastroenterology was 2 per week (interquartile range 4). Hospitals with five or more sessions per week dedicated to gastroenterology used a greater number of components in their nutritional assessment [mean (SD) 21.5 ( 5.0)] than those with fewer sessions [mean (SD) 19.6 (SD) 6.1, P = 0.05]. Enteral nutrition was perceived to be effective in 100 (55%) of 182 patients. The major reasons for limited success were poor compliance and inadequate volumes consumed, as well as insufficient treatment duration. The components included in a nutritional assessment of CD patients are significantly lower in hospitals with fewer dietetic gastroenterology sessions. Focus on improving compliance and duration of enteral nutrition is urgently required to maximise the success of enteral nutrition in the treatment of CD. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai
To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.
There is a lack of data on trends in body composition among developing countries and the distribution of malnutrition among adults is poorly understood. Thus, the objective was to establish nutritional status, demographic make-up, dietary habits, and to determine if socioeconomic variables or dietary habits are associated ...
Bakel, van M.M.; Kaaks, R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Rohrmann, S.; Welch, A.A.; Pala, V.; Avloniti, K.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; A, van der A.D.; Du, H.; Halkjaer, J.; Tormo, M.J.
Objectives: To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics. Methods: Single 24-h dietary recalls
van Bakel, M. M. E.; Kaaks, R.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Rohrmann, S.; Welch, A. A.; Pala, V.; Avloniti, K.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; van der A, D. L.; Du, H.; Halkjaer, J.; Tormo, M. J.; Cust, A. E.; Brighenti, F.; Beulens, J. W.; Ferrari, P.; Biessy, C.; Lentjes, M.; Spencer, E. A.; Panico, S.; Masala, G.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Touvier, M.; Skeie, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Schulze, M.; Ardanaz, E.; Buckland, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.
Objectives: To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics. Methods: Single 24-h dietary recalls
Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.
Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face
...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...
Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa
In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.
Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.
Physical growth and nutritional status assessment of school children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Background: Physical growth of a child is a reflection of its state of nutrition. ... have normal growth with the remainder in both extremes of malnutrition.
Lesser, Lenard I; Mazza, Mary Carol; Lucan, Sean C
Healthy dietary intake is important for the maintenance of general health and wellness, the prevention of chronic illness, the optimization of life expectancy, and the clinical management of virtually all disease states. Dietary myths (i.e...
Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E
There is evidence that dietary quality declines as children age in North America, but few studies have explored whether food environment exposures in secondary schools as opposed to elementary schools are associated with changes in students' school-day food choices. This study examined differences in dietary practices (at or en route to and/or from school) between students in their last years of elementary school (grades 5 to 7) and first year of secondary school (grade 8) in Vancouver, Canada, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and school-level socioeconomic status. Demographic characteristics and dietary data were collected through a cross-sectional survey (n=950 from 26 schools) and combined with school-level socioeconomic data derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Multilevel logistic regression analyses indicated that secondary school students were significantly more likely to report daily consumption of fast foods (odds ratio=1.92; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.12) and minimally nutritious packaged snacks (eg, candy or chocolate bars) (odds ratio=1.60; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.45), and to report regular purchases from off-campus retailers (odds ratio=1.63; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.42). Gender, food insecurity, lower acculturation to Canada, and access to more weekly spending money were associated with nutritionally poor practices. Students attending schools drawing from lower-income neighborhoods were also significantly more likely to consume fast foods and packaged snacks daily. The majority of students sampled did not report consuming healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables, daily at or en route to and/or from school. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and low-fat milk did not differ significantly between elementary and secondary school students. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should address modifiable school-level exposures and policies to improve dietary practices for both elementary and secondary school-aged youth, while at the same time
Jun 19, 2014 ... chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to ... are more effective in changing learners' food choices. Young people.
Duma-Kocan, Paulina; Barud, Barbara; Głodek, Elżbieta; Gil, Marian
Appropriate nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting the proper development of man, nutritional status and maintaining good health. Adolescence is a period of development of skills of self-determination and self-realization, also in the case of nutrition. Children and school-age youth are the group most vulnerable to the effects of incorrect nutrition. The way of nutrition during this period determines psychophysical and emotional development, effectiveness in learning process and has influence on health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the habits and nutrition preferences in secondary school students from Rzeszów and Krosno age 16-19 years and to identify the differences between their eating behaviours. The study involved 300 secondary school students from Rzeszów and Krosno. The research material was the Authors’ questionnaire containing questions examining the eating habits of surveyed students. The statistical analysis was performed using the program StatSoft, Inc. STATISTICA version 12.0. To evaluate the differences between the two examined qualities there was used the Chi2 test of independence. As the statistically significant level there was assumed the level of p ≤ 0.05. In the surveyed group of high school students, more than half (59.66%) ate 4-5 meals a day. Snacking between meals declared 95% of high school students. Between meals the youth most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables (72.99%) and sweets (59.66%). Daily consumption of first breakfast before leaving the home declared more than half (62.33%) of the surveyed youth. Consuming products containing complete protein several times a week was declared by 49%. Whole wheat bread was daily consumed by 10.33% of the respondents, and grain products are daily consumed by 52.66% of the youth. 43.33% every day drank milk and milk products, while fruits and vegetables several times a day were consumed by 59.66% of the surveyed students. Consumption of products of
Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.
The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals’ dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer’s perspective. Methods Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. Results The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist’s time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs. Conclusions Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy
Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J
The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist's time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs). Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy-makers regarding the economic feasibility of implementing and scaling dietary
... January 26, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the...
... sent to Julie Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park... Standards for Food Sold in Schools in Competition With School Meals Federal child nutrition programs play a...
Wall, Catherine L; Gearry, Richard B; Pearson, John; Parnell, Winsome; Skidmore, Paula M L
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in New Zealand, but risk factors may be decreased by consuming a heart healthy diet. This pilot study investigated whether participants met the guidelines for a heart healthy diet and whether a novel heart healthy dietary pattern could be identified using principal components analysis (PCA). The second aim of this project was to assess if higher education, standard of living and nutrition literacy are associated with a heart healthy dietary pattern. This exploratory study was undertaken using data from the first participants enrolled in the Canterbury Health Ageing and Lifecourse study: an observational study of 50 year olds in the Canterbury District Health Board region. Eighty-two people were selected from the General and Maori electoral role and interviewed prior to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. PCA was conducted to identify dietary patterns, based on intake of specific nutrients as indicated by the New Zealand and international heart healthy dietary guidelines. 62 participants completed questionnaires and an estimated food record. No participants met all five of the heart healthy dietary guidelines. One dietary pattern was produced by PCA: a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Regression analysis indicated that higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were inversely associated with a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were associated with a healthier dietary eating pattern. However, as no participants met all the dietary recommendations more education and support is needed to help people meet these.
Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe
Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity in children under 6 years of age, who attend Nursery Schools belonging to INTEGRA Foundation (Chile, may be associated with the diet received at school, their home or both. Objectives: To determine if there is a relationship between children’s dietary patterns and their nutritional status. Material and Methods: A descriptive, associative, cross-sectional method was used. Sample (n=33 was children 4 and 5 years old from two Nursery Schools from Valparaiso. It was assessed: i energy intake provided by nursery school and household’s diets, according to the recommendations of the Chilean dietary guidelines and ii nutritional status, W/A; W/H; H/A; body mass index, growth charts for children under 6 years of age, World Health Organization (Standards of the National Chilean Health Program for Children. Fisher’s exact test was used in order to associate food consumption patterns with nutritional status. Results: Nursery school provided the expected caloric contribution, while household provided 67% over the expected percentage (354 additional kcal per capita/day. From 21.2% to 27% of the children were overweight (W/H and BMI. Children with food consumption pattern 1 had normal nutritional status. Those with pattern 2 presented a 50% of malnutrition related to overconsumption. Fisher’s exact test was p=0.001. Conclusions: There is an association between dietary pattern and nutritional status of preschool children attending two INTEGRA Nursery Schools. This study is limited due to sample size.
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...
To give an overview of the dietary habits among adolescents in the Nordic countries and to present results from studies showing the relationship between dietary habits and other lifestyle factors, nutritional status and socio-economic conditions. A number of nutritional studies among adolescents performed during recent decades using recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaire. Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Adolescents aged 13-18 y. Food habits are characterized by an irregular meal pattern; many adolescents skip breakfast and also the school lunch, whereas most of them have dinner. However, snacking and light meals are very common, contributing 25-35% of the daily energy intake. Smoking is linked to their dietary habits as well as socio-economic conditions. Dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are adequate for normal health and growth. Dietary calcium intake is high, whereas the intake of fibre, vitamin D, zinc and selenium and, in girls, iron is below the Nordic recommendations. Relatively low prevalence figures of iron deficiency were found. Many studies show a decrease over time in physical activity. The time spent in sedentary activities, such as television and video watching and computer games has increased during recent decades. Overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent in all the Nordic countries, even though the prevalence figures are far below those in the USA. On the other hand, dieting girls are common, which might be a factor behind their irregular meal pattern and food choice. In a perspective, overweight and diseases attributable to obesity will be an immense challenge in the coming decades for both the individuals and the society as well.
Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J
Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A; Neuhouser, Marian L
Reading nutrition labels on food packages may improve food choices and enable healthful dietary practices. This report describes the prevalence of nutrition label use and its association with demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors and diet among African-American adults. Self-reported data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 658 African Americans, aged 20 to 70 years, in North Carolina. An 11-page questionnaire assessed nutrition label use, fruit and vegetable consumption, total and saturated fat intakes, fat-related dietary behaviors, diet-related psychosocial factors, and demographic and behavioral characteristics. Chi2 tests and logistic regression analyses examined associations of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with nutrition label use. Linear regression was used to estimate the variation in diet explained by label use. The mean age of participants was 43.9+/-11.6 years, 41% were men, 37% were college graduates, and 75% were overweight/obese. Seventy-eight percent of respondents read nutrition labels when they purchased packaged foods. Nutrition label use was significantly higher among participants who were women, older, educated beyond high school, and obese (P nutrition label use were healthful eating self-efficacy, strong belief in a diet-cancer relationship, and trying to lose weight. Usual/often label users had higher fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat intakes (P nutrition labels explained 2% to 17% of the variance in dietary intake. Nutrition information on packaged foods appears to be a useful way to conduct point-of-purchase nutrition education among African Americans in North Carolina. Most respondents used food labels at least sometimes, but only about half usually or often did so. Efforts should be made to determine how all consumers could use nutrition labels effectively.
Dietary diversity was used as an indicator of dietary practice. A cross sectional study was done on 132 patients selected through simple random sampling technique, attending the .... Modifications were made on the clarity of questions and ... dislikes for example “which would be the best choice for low fat high fiber snack?”.
“Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools” School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery,
This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.
Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…
Only 12% of the children reported consuming animal source foods. Most of the school children were eating three times or less in a day with lunch and supper as the major meals. The diet of the school children did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for energy (69%), fat (21%), vitamin A (24%), iron (65%) and ...
Watts, Mary Lee; Hager, Mary H; Toner, Cheryl D; Weber, Jennifer A
The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Czepa, D; Hilberg, W; Poschmann, J; Straaten, S; Hilberg, T
In over two-thirds of deaths, nutrition is a determining factor. Nutritional condition and dietary recommandations are unspecified in the haemophilia treatment. Aim of this study was to examine the food consumption and dietary behaviour in affected patients before and after a nutrition consultation. Data were assessed via questionnaires and compared between 38 patients with haemophilia (PwH) and 20 controls without haemophilia. Furthermore, in a randomised controlled trial 11 patients with haemophilia (PwH-I) took part in an adapted nutrition consultation and were supervised over six months as opposed to 12 patients with haemophilia (PwH-O) without intervention. PwH were compared to controls more pleased with their weight (53 vs. 40%), used more nutrition consultations in the past (53 vs. 15%) and consumed more dairy products (40 vs. 15%) and fruits (45 vs. 30%). After nutrition consultation PwH-I were better informed about their own blood values than PwH-O. The nutrition rated high in both groups, but PwH-I were more mindful of the feeling of satiety (9 vs. 36%) compared to PwH-O (33 vs. 17%). Moreover, PwH-I ate less under stress and/or out of boredom, showed a higher satisfaction regarding their weight and increased the liquid intake (55 vs. 73%), which remained unchanged in PwH-O with 42%. Compared to PwH-O, PwH-I ate more roughage, low-fat food, fish and fruits, therefore consuming less coffee/tea. Food consumption and dietary behaviour are similar between patients with haemophilia and controls without haemophilia. A nutrition consultation affected the food consumption and dietary behaviour in patients with haemophilia positively and can consequently contribute to preservation of health and prevention of nutritional diseases.
May 19, 2017 ... The general wellbeing of primary school children is affected by various factors, of which the lack of foods of high nutritional value ‒ from the National School Nutrition Programme. (NSNP) or from lunch boxes, tuck shops and vendors ‒ is one factor. This article reports on sections of the baseline phase of a ...
Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…
Porter, Kathleen J.; Koch, Pamela A.; Contento, Isobel R.
Background: There are many potential health benefits to having nutrition education programs offered by expert outside sources in schools. However, little is known about why and how schools initiate, implement, and institutionalize them. Gaining this understanding may allow the impact and reach of nutrition and other health education programs in…
Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school‑age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, ...
SLP had a positive significant effect on the nutritional status of participating children. More schools and parents in similar environments should therefore be encouraged to venture into the SLP because of their positive outcome on nutritional status as well as the diet quality of participating children. Key words: School Lunch ...
Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony
Purpose: The current Indian secondary school curriculum has been criticised for its failure to deliver relevant skills-based food and nutrition education for adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of adolescents, their parents, teachers and school principals on the present food and nutrition curriculum and the role of…
Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rovner, Alisha J; Nansel, Tonja R; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J
To examine the association between food sold in school vending machines and the dietary behaviors of students. The 2005-2006 U.S. Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Dietary intake in students was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. School administrators completed questions regarding food sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence, and school poverty index. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th-10th grades. In all, 83% of the schools (152 schools; 5,930 students) had vending machines that primarily sold food of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips, and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruit and/or vegetables and chocolate and/or sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty index providing an explanation for 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit and/or vegetable consumption and 71.7% in sweets consumption. Among the older grades, there was no significant effect of food available in vending machines on reported consumption of those food. Vending machines are widely available in public schools in the United States. In younger grades, school vending machines were either positively or negatively related to the diets of the students, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence the diets of children; therefore, attention to the food sold at school is necessary to try to improve their diets. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Nutrition and physical development assessment of pre-school and primary school children practising artistic gymnastics. ... One of the few sports which children from pre-school and primary school can practise is artistic gymnastics. The aim ... In overweight children the aerobic exercises during the warm-up should increase.
Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi
The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M
Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice.
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and
Lofton, Kristi L.; Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.
Purpose: This study identifies best practices for school nutrition professionals serving the nutritional needs of Pre-Kindergarten (PreK) children in public schools. Methods: The two-phased study followed a best practices research model (BPRM) utilizing the seven practice categories identified from previous PreK research. In Phase I, an expert…
Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.
Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…
Calleja Fernández, A; Muñoz Weigand, C; Ballesteros Pomar, Ma D; Vidal Casariego, A; López Gómez, J J; Cano Rodríguez, I; García Arias, Ma T; García Fernández, Ma C
The establishment of healthy eating habits in children at school and in family life is very important for preventing obesity in children. To know the habits of late-breakfast in a scholar population, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and establish healthy dietary habits through the late-breakfast. A prospective interventional study was performed in a school group. Children from 10 to 13 years-old were included. The study had three phases: pre-intervention (anthropometric assessment and questionnaire of late-breakfast frequency), intervention (parents and teachers received information about "the importance of proper nutrition in school" focused on the transcendence of a healthy and balanced diet that includes a suitable late-breakfast every day at school, and the students received the late-breakfast during two weeks that included milk, fruit and a traditional sandwich), and post-intervention (questionnaire of late-breakfast frequency). Frequency of overweight was 10.6% and obesity 2.6%. After the intervention the proportion of children who had late-breakfast increased by 9.2%, and the kind of food which they ate changed. Dietary habits can be modified in a scholar population with an easy nutritional intervention.
Porter, Kathleen J; Koch, Pamela A; Contento, Isobel R
There are many potential health benefits to having nutrition education programs offered by expert outside sources in schools. However, little is known about why and how schools initiate, implement, and institutionalize them. Gaining this understanding may allow the impact and reach of nutrition and other health education programs in schools to be extended. A total of 22 school community members from 21 purposefully selected New York City public elementary schools were interviewed using a semistructured interview protocol about their schools' experiences initiating, implementing, and institutionalizing nutrition education programs. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Chronological narratives were written detailing each school's experience and passages highlighting key aspects of each school's experience were identified. These passages (N = 266) were sorted into domains and themes which were regrouped, resorted, and adjusted until all researchers agreed the domains and themes represented the collective experiences of the schools. The interviews elicited 4 broad domains of action: building motivation, choosing programs, developing capacity, and legitimizing nutrition education. Within each domain, themes reflecting specific actions and thoughts emerged. The identified domains of action and their themes highlight specific, practical actions that school health advocates can use to initiate, implement, and institutionalize nutrition education programs in schools. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Bertoli, S; Spadafranca, A; Merati, G; Testolin, G; Veicsteinas, A; Battezzati, A
Disabled persons are frequently affected by nutritional status impairment, consequent to quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of diet and physical inactivity, resulting in a significant reduction of fat-free mass and bone mineral density (BMD), and an over-expression of fat mass and an increased number of biochemical risk factors for chronic degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse the applicability and the efficacy of a nutritional counselling intervention in order to improve dietary intake and nutritional status in disabled people. Thirty-seven disabled subjects (24 with physical disability and 13 with both mental retardation and physical disability; age 33.5+/-9.2 years) underwent an assessment of nutritional status, and an intervention with nutritional counselling was proposed to each patient for one year. Anthropometric measurements, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and biochemical analysis at baseline (T0) and after one year (T1) of counselling intervention were performed. Sixty-five percent of patients dropped out. Overall, no significant improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and dietary patterns was reported at T1 in completer subjects. Six subjects who were obese or overweight at T0, reported significant weight and fat mass (FM) reduction at T1 (P=0.01 and P=0.00, respectively). Nutritional counselling seems to be ineffective and poorly applicable to disabled people. Further studies should be directed towards a treatment program associated with careful screening, motivation analysis, and follow-up in this patient population.
Nardone, Paola; Lauria, Laura; Buoncristiano, Marta; Pizzi, Enrica; Galeone, Daniela; Spinelli, Angela
to describe the dietary behaviour of children attending primary school and the school activities which promote healthy dietary habits. surveillance system with biannual prevalence studies. the fourth round of data collection of the surveillance system OKkio alla SALUTE took place in 2014, promoted and financed by the Ministry of Health and coordinated by the National Institute of Health in collaborations with all regions. 2,408 schools, 48,426 children and 50,638 parents participated. Stratified cluster sampling (with third grade classes as units) was used; information was collected using questionnaires completed by children, parents, teachers and head-teachers. consumption of breakfast, mid-morning snack, fruit and vegetables, sweetened and gassy drinks; school initiatives to promote healthy dietary habits. 31% of children have an adequate breakfast and 8% skip this meal; 52% consume an energy-dense mid-morning snack; 25% do not eat fruit and vegetables daily; 41% drink sweetened/gassy beverages daily. The unhealthy dietary habits are more common among children who have less educated parents or live in the South (more deprived area of the Country). Data show an improvement in the period 2008-2014, except in the consumption of fruit and vegetables. 74% of the schools include nutritional education in the curriculum, 66% have started initiatives of healthy dietary habits and 55% distribute healthy food; 35% involve parents in their initiatives. In the schools of the South nutritional education and involvement of parents are more frequent, while the distribution of healthy food and refectories are less common. the high frequency of unhealthy dietary behaviour and their geographic and social inequalities show that there is a great potential for improvement. Schools are very involved in initiatives of promotion, but they need more support from the institutions and involvement of the families.
Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.
Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…
Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde
The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.
... / Monday, July 8, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA...
Panova, Gordana; Dzidrova, Violeta; Nikolovska, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad
Early childhood is the most important for the overall development of the personality. During this period, each child realizes that it is an independent entity, and it expresses certain requirements, desires, actions, proceedings and behaviour. Our research aims to display nutritional status and degree of obesity among preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia and nutritional quality of their diet. Because of the increasing incidence of obesity in childhood and it...
Keirle, Kathleen; Thomas, Malcolm
A comparative investigation was conducted involving two school situations; one identified as being health promoting and having a comprehensive policy and a defined programme of health education, and the other not health promoting, having no policy and an unstructured programme of health education. A total of 367 students from two secondary and four primary schools participated in the study. The factors used to categorise schools are highlighted. A self-completion questionnaire was employed to assess students' knowledge and behaviour with regard to nutrition and health. Students' dietary intake was monitored by employing a frequency of consumption tick sheet. The results revealed that students from the more health promoting secondary school (School 1(H)) were more knowledgeable of what constitutes a healthy diet and the benefits and risks to health. The implications of these results are considered within the context of the many factors that could influence students' knowledge and behaviour.
Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Purpose To examine the association between foods sold in school vending machines and students’ dietary behaviors. Methods The 2005-2006 US Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Students’ dietary intake was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools (152 schools, 5,930 students) had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruits/vegetables and chocolate/sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty explaining 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit/vegetable consumption, and 71.7% in sweets consumption. In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods. Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. In younger grades, school vending machines were related to students’ diets positively or negatively, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence children’s diets; therefore attention to foods sold in them is necessary in order to try to improve children’s diets. PMID:21185519
Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri; Lim, Yunsook
Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth.
Full Text Available Melanie Paul, Melanie Baker, Robert N Williams, David J Bowrey Department of Surgery, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK Background and aims: Provision of adequate nutrition after esophagectomy remains a major challenge. The aims of this review were to describe the challenges facing this patient population and to determine the evidence base underpinning current nutritional and dietetic interventions after esophagectomy. Methods: Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases were searched for English language publications of the period 1990–2016 reporting on the outcome of nutritional or dietetic interventions after esophagectomy or patient-related symptoms. Results: Four studies demonstrated that early reintroduction of oral fluids was safe and was associated with a shorter hospital stay and ileus duration. One of three studies comparing in-hospital enteral nutrition against usual care showed that enteral feeding was well tolerated and was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Eight studies comparing enteral with parenteral nutrition showed similar surgical complication rates. Enteral feeding was associated with a shorter duration of ileus and lower health care costs. In hospital, all types of enteral access (nasoenteral, jejunostomy were equivalent in their safety profiles. Cohort studies indicate that technical (tube dysfunction and feed (diarrhea, distention problems were common with jejunostomies but are easily managed. The mortality risk associated with jejunostomy in hospital is 0.2% (reported range 0%–1%, principally due to small bowel ischemia. There have been no reports of serious jejunostomy complications in patients receiving home feeding. One study demonstrated the advantages of home feeding in weight, muscle and fat preservation. Studies reporting 12 months or more after esophagectomy indicate a high frequency of persistent symptoms, dumping syndrome 15%–75% (median 46%, dysphagia 11%–38% (median 27%, early satiety 40%–90
Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack
At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).
Nguyen, Kim A; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M; Bourne, Lesley T; Hendricks, Michael K
To explore the perceptions of educators from the Western Cape Province about the feasibility of implementing South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) in the national curriculum of primary schools. Combined quantitative and qualitative methods. We report on the quantitative component. Twelve public primary schools of different socio-economic status in three education districts of the Western Cape: Metro Central, Metro East and Cape Winelands. Educators (n 256) participated in the self-completed questionnaire survey. Educators assessed that FBDG were appropriate to South African schoolchildren (94%), could be used as an education tool (97%) and fill gaps in the current curriculum about healthy dietary habits (91%). Besides Life Orientation, FBDG could be taught in other learning areas from grades 3 to 7 (9-13 years old). Important barriers to implementing FBDG in the curriculum were educators' workload (61%), insufficient time (46%), learners' disadvantaged background (43%) and educators' lack of knowledge (33%). Other approaches to teach children about FBDG included linking these to the National School Nutrition Programme (82%), school tuck shops (79%), parent meetings (75%), school nutrition policy (73%) and school assembly (57%). Educators in high-income schools perceived that learners' lifestyle was significantly worse (P school assembly were the best means to teach pupils about FBDG (P school curriculum is seen as important together with optimizing the school physical environment. Key factors required for successful implementation in the curriculum are sufficient educational materials, adequate time allocation and appropriate educator training.
Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.
Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. The present study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related atti...
Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.
Haruna, Megumi; Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Yeo, SeonAe
This double cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on dietary intake, nutritional status, and infant birth weight. Healthy pregnant women were recruited at an antenatal clinic during two phases over 2 years. The historical controls were analyzed a year prior to the intervention group. In both groups, data were collected at 19-26 gestational weeks (baseline) and at 34-37 gestational weeks (outcome measurement). The intervention included the following: (a) assessments of maternal dietary nutritional intake using the brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, (b) individual feedback based on the assessments of maternal nutritional status, (c) tailored guidance for a healthy diet, (d) original cooking recipes, and (e) goal sharing. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the outcome data between the groups. Of the 378 eligible women, 309 women had follow-up questionnaire data. Blood samples were obtained from 202 women. Despite a lack of improvement in reported dietary intake, plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (p = .002), docosahexaenoic acid (p nutrition in pregnant women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feb 9, 2017 ... Dietary habits and choice of food influences nutrient and energy consumption and .... sis to identify effect modification and control for con- founding. Results ..... nutritious and/or junk foods; 5 binge eating and starva- tion.6 The ...
Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...
Dietary assessment included intake of main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner), skipping meals; methods used to control weight in the previous 30days; knowledge and preference of a balanced diet and food choices. Subject's height and weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined using the 2007 WHO charts.
Hilmers, Angela; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah; Cullen, Karen Weber
Low-income Hispanic women are at greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26-44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected using standard methods. Analysis of variance and logistic regression examined the influence of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on diet after adjusting for household characteristics, body mass index, and food security status. Most women did not meet recommended dietary guidelines. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants consumed higher amounts of total sugars, sweets-desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages than Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program nonparticipants. High sodium intakes and low dairy consumption were observed in both groups. Only 27% of low-income eligible women received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Low-income Hispanic women participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program reported less healthful dietary patterns than nonparticipants. This may contribute to the increased obesity prevalence and related comorbidities observed in this population. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program should play an important role in enhancing the overall dietary quality of low-income households. Policy initiatives such as limiting the purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages and education to enable women to reduce consumption of high sodium processed foods deserve consideration as means to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants. Effective measures are needed to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation rates among Hispanics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watt, R. G.; Dykes, J.; Sheiham, A.
Objectives: To assess the proportion of pre-school children meeting reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) and recommendations for daily intakes of iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. To assess whether meeting these five dietary requirements was related to a series of socio-economic variables.Design: Secondary analysis of data on daily consumption of foods and drinks from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years based on 4-da...
Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole
To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thais Borges CÉSAR
Full Text Available
The dietary quality of healthy seniors was compared to the USDA nutrient and food intake guidelines, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. Food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to obtain information on food and nutrient intakes. The sample included 80 elderly individuals, 60 to 80y old, that were attended in the Rehabilitation Center of the Health Public Service in Araraquara-SP. Nutrient intake, number of food servings, and the percentage of seniors who reached nutritional recommendation and food-serving intake levels were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI was used to assess the overall quality of the diet. The results showed that 45% of males and females had adequate diets; 54% needed to improve their diets and only 1% of this group had a poor or insufficient diet. KEYWORDS: Nutrition; dietary quality; elderly; Healthy Eating Index
Lowry, Richard; Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A
Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.
Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.
Full Text Available A nutrition education programme was conducted for 324 children of two (boys and girls Secondary schools in a village of Burdwan district. Lesson plans and evaluation parameters were formulated based on pre- determined learning objectives. The main methods of training were lectures and discussions using simple and relevant aids. Impact of training was evaluated by pre- training and post- training assessments of knowledge, attitude and dietary practice of students. Results revealed that poor pre- training mean score of knowledge was increased significantly following training but declined thereafter, although final mean score was significantly higher than basal knowledge status. Mean score of attitude also increased significantly but did not decline. Inconsistency of results regarding change in dietary practices observed was recognized as a short coming of isolated training of children only, because dietary habit of a community depends on various factors.
Wang, Dongxu; Shi, Yuhui; Chang, Chun; Stewart, Donald; Ji, Ying; Wang, Yanling; Harris, Neil
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of seventh-grade students regarding nutrition and dietary intake, to collect data that would facilitate the design and implementation of interventions aimed at promoting good nutrition in adolescents via the school and to contribute to the improvement of adolescents' health in rural regions. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which a 27-item, self-administered, structured questionnaire, designed in Chinese, was administered to seventh-grade students attending one of three rural middle schools, chosen randomly from 15 middle schools, in Mi Yun County, Beijing. In terms of nutrition knowledge, 84.5 % of respondents had scores of between 3 and 7. Based on our analysis of the completed questionnaires, during the 7 days preceding completion of the questionnaire 43.6 % of respondents had eaten fresh fruit at least once per day, 71.3 % had eaten vegetables at least once per day, 22.3 % had consumed at least one glass of milk (or soy milk or yogurt) each day and 68.6 % had eaten breakfast every day. In total, 95.2 % of respondents thought nutrition was very important or important to their health, and 94.2 % thought it was very important or important to develop healthy dietary habits. Of the respondents, 52.7 % thought good food quality was the most important aspect of nutrition and dietary intake and 62.2 % thought food safety was the most important aspect. Based on the results of our survey we suggest their should be continuous efforts to teach adolescents in rural areas of China about various aspects of good nutrition, to encourage diversity in their choice of breakfasts, to guarantee food safety and to improve food quality.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…
South Africa is regarded as food secure; however, food insecurity and malnutrition are still affecting school-aged children residing mostly in rural areas. This paper reports the nutritional status and consumption patterns of school children from two purposively selected schools located in Orange Farm informal settlement.
Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia
To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Crawford, Patricia B; Gosliner, Wendi; Kayman, Harvey
Schools may have an ethical obligation to act in response to the precipitous increase in the incidence of obesity among children. Using a bioethics framework, we present a rationale for school programs to improve the nutritional quality of students' diets. Because children are required to spend half their waking hours in school and because they consume a substantial portion of their daily food there, school is a logical focus for efforts to encourage healthy dietary behaviors to prevent obesity and its consequent individual and collective costs. We suggest that beyond strategic considerations, the concept of the common good justifies actions that may appear to conflict with freedom of choice of children, parents, and school staff, or with the interests of food and beverage companies.
Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania
Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.
Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania
Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003
Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.
of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....
Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae
of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. DESIGN: A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. SUBJECTS: A total of 254 school lunches. RESULTS: A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. CONCLUSIONS: The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....
Hart, K H; Bishop, J A; Truby, H
With the diet and exercise behaviours of UK school children showing little improvement over recent years, the need for dietary change is clearly indicated. This study aimed to assess the nutritional knowledge and understanding of primary school children in order to identify the most effective format for future nutrition messages. A qualitative methodology was employed and 114 children, aged 7-11 years, took part in 23 focus groups separated by age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). Issues discussed included parental food rules, children's perceptions of 'good' and 'bad' foods, diet-disease links and food groupings. Across the groups restrictive food rules were most frequently reported whilst between groups gender and SES differences were apparent in relation to parental control over food and children's nutritional knowledge. The limitations of the children's cognitive development could be seen in their conceptualization of food groups, where concrete grouping schemes were frequently used, and in the lack of understanding inherent in their food-health or food-nutrient associations. Taste and preference were confirmed as consistent influences in children's food classification. Primary school children may be receptive to food based dietary guidelines based on familiar, concrete food classifications. These should be cognitively appropriate and possibly need to be gender specific.
Eisenhauer, John E.; Bell, Paul E.
The involvement of seven elementary teachers in a summer nutrition workshop expanded into a complete nutrition education program on nutrients, caloric balance, junk foods, food selection, preparation, and storage. (MB)
nutritional composition of this material. Recently, more attention has been focused on the utilization of agricultural by-products. Over 1,442,134 tons of bananas have been produced in Hainan annually. (data provided by Ministry of Agriculture of the People's. Republic of China). The amount of banana flowers, which.
Nov 2, 2010 ... of this programme can be enhanced if nutrition education is integrated into other food-production and public health programmes. ... The cost of food was .... as rabbit and pork. Not boiling drinking water. Appropriate food-handling techniques that reduce contamination of meats. Iodine. Identifying iodinated ...
Volpe Stella L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups. Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016. The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008. There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029
Bontrager Yoder, Andrea Beth H.
Background. High overweight and obesity prevalence has instigated many programs to improve children's health. Farm to School (F2S) is a grassroots-organized program that seeks to improve children's dietary habits, especially fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, through various educational activities. Long-term goals include reducing obesity…
Berezowitz, Claire K; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B; Schoeller, Dale A
Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Database searches in CABI, Web of Science, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Education Full Text, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and PsychINFO were conducted through May 2013 for peer-reviewed literature related to school-day garden interventions with measures of dietary and/or academic outcomes. Among 12 identified garden studies with dietary measures, all showed increases/improvements in predictors of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Seven of these also included self-reported FV intake with 5 showing an increase and 2 showing no change. Four additional interventions that included a garden component measured academic outcomes; of these, 2 showed improvements in science achievement and 1 measured and showed improvements in math scores. This small set of studies offers evidence that garden-based learning does not negatively impact academic performance or FV consumption and may favorably impact both. Additional studies with more robust experimental designs and outcome measures are necessary to understand the effects of experiential garden-based learning on children's academic and dietary outcomes. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Dietary patterns and dental caries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. E. M. Ngatia, J. K. Imungi, J. W. G Muita, P. M. Ng'ang'a. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78 (12): 673-677). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
This work is focused on the point of the secondary school youth attitude on the issue of the rational nutrition. Using the questionnaire investigation that is divided into several research areas I am trying to prove or disconfirm the existence of the mutual relationship between the branch of study and the preferences of healthy nutrition and healthy lifestyle for youth. My thesis deals with the question of a provable relationship in knowledge achieved in the field of healthy nutrition and hea...
Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна
School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...
Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge
The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( 25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.
Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Arnoldi, Anna
A correct lifestyle is crucial in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Innovative nutritional strategies to reduce the main risk factors have been developed including either dietary changes or consumption of specifically targeted functional foods and dietary supplements. These nutraceutical products may also provide an alternative to lipid lowering, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic drugs. Functional foods and beverages have the appearance of normal foods, but contain specific components whose activity on at least one measurable risk factor has been scientifically demonstrated. Dietary supplements, having formulations similar to drugs, allow the delivery of a bioactive ingredient in dosages that exceed those obtainable from food products. Among bioactive components, at present dietary proteins from both vegetable and animal sources are of high interest, because of their specific effects on cholesterolemia and blood pressure. Active peptides have been identified for the latter indication, whereas works is in progress in attempting to identify specific cholesterol lowering peptides.
Saarela, Riitta K T; Lindroos, Eeva; Soini, Helena; Hiltunen, Kaija; Muurinen, Seija; Suominen, Merja H; Pitkälä, Kaisu H
We examined the relationships between dentition, nutritional status and dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients among older people in assisted living facilities in Helsinki. Poor dentition is associated with malnutrition. Less is known about how dentition is associated with detailed nutrient intakes in institutionalised older people. This cross-sectional study assessed 343 participants (mean age 83 years). Dentition was assessed by trained ward nurses and divided into edentulous participants without dentures (group 1), edentulous participants with removable dentures (group 2) and those with any natural teeth (group 3). Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The energy, protein and nutrient intakes were calculated from detailed 1-day food diaries and compared with the recommendations of the Finnish National Nutrition Council as a measure of dietary adequacy. Assessment included also participants' cognitive and functional status. Of the participants, 8.2, 39.1 and 52.8% were in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Altogether 22% were malnourished according to MNA. Group 1 had the poorest nutritional status. A large proportion of participants consumed less than the recommended amounts of energy, protein or micronutrients. Half of the participants consumed older people with multiple disabilities in assisted living facilities. Assessment of dental status should be part of good nutritional care in long-term care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.
Inservice training should motivate school food workers to participate in children's nutrition education. The training lesson includes a series of service manager/director guidelines, information sheets, and an audiovisual aids list. Food staff nutrition lessons for classroom presentation to grades 4 to 6 cover the daily food guide, snacks,…
de Sousa, Lucilene Maria; Martins, Karine Anusca; Cordeiro, Mariana de Morais; Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; da Silva, Simoni Urbano; Alexandre, Veruska Prado
The Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE) is a Food and Nutritional Security (SAN) strategy for public school students. This article seeks to discuss the challenges and opportunities of school nutrition in 'quilombola'* communities and report on the experience of the Cooperation Center for Student Food and Nutrition of the Federal University of Goiás and the Midwest Region (CECANE UFG/ Centro-Oeste). It includes a report on the experience with the systematization on PNAE, SAN and other policies. Continued access and adequate social policies are a challenge for the 'quilombola'* communities. Some economic, structural and social barriers have been identified in PNAE. In this context, Law 11.947/2009 encourages local development, with the acquisition of food from the region, and it establishes differentiated values per capita, which are translated into menus including products inherent to Afro-Brazilian culture that provide at least 30% of daily nutritional requirements. In the nutrition, health and quality of life project of 'quilombola'* schoolchildren, the CECANE UFG/Midwest carry out food and nutritional security actions. The area of school nutrition has proven responsive to local needs and supports the development and promotion of quality of life.
Jun 19, 2014 ... lead to the development of obesity in children and adolescents need to be understood. Limited data exist on the availability of nutrition policies and the quality of food sold in and around secondary schools in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the nutrition environment at selected secondary ...
Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.
Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A
To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (Pschool. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (Pschool environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.
Full Text Available The mathematical toolkit created and used for the design of durable nutrition systems aimed at the prevention and therapy of the diseases caused by calcium deficiency is analyzed. In particular, these are: the complex of mathematical models of the expendable diets and methods of the ingredients content optimization in them, mathematical model of daily diets optimization, and formalizationed method of fast and light determination of a diet’s biological value.The ways for the improvement of the developed mathematical toolkit aimed at the creation of the nutrition systems with higher level of both nutrients balance and provision of daily needs in them on the basis of using unconventional floury products enriched with the deficient nutrients, functionals for balancing the connected groups of nutrients are determined, as well as the introduction of aggregated restrictions on these groups of nutrients to the models (both products and rations.
Fallaize, Rosalind; Seale, Josephine V; Mortin, Charlotte; Armstrong, Lisha; Lovegrove, Julie A
Malnutrition has been reported in the homeless, yet the specific nutritional issues faced by each homeless community are unclear. This is in part due to nutrient intake often being compared with dietary reference values as opposed to a comparative housed population. In addition, the complex interplay between nutrient intake, reward mediated behaviour and mental illness is frequently overlooked. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, nutritional status and mental wellbeing of homeless and housed adults. Homeless (n 75) and matched housed (n 75) adults were recruited from Reading (UK). Nutrient intake was determined using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk FFQ. The Patient Health Questionnaire: Somatic Anxiety Depressive Symptoms (PHQ-SADS) assessed for signs of mental illness. Demographic, behavioural and physiological information was collected using closed-ended questions and anthropometric measurements. Overall, dietary intake was poorer in homeless adults who reported higher intakes of salt (8·0 v. 6·4 g, P=0·017), SFA (14·6 v. 13·0 %, P=0·002) and alcohol (5·3 v. 1·9 %, Pnutritional status in homeless and housed populations and the need for dietary intervention in the homeless community.
Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.
BACKGROUND Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third-graders residing in three rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved their dietary intake. METHODS Dietary intake was measured for 238 third-graders at the beginning of the 2007-2008 school year and for 224 third-graders at the end of that year. The FoodMASTER curriculum was delivered to 204 students (test group). Intake was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2004. The final analysis included 138 students. RESUTS The FoodMASTER curriculum did not significantly affect the diets of the students in the test group, as no significant differences in intake of macronutrients, specific nutrients, or food groups were found between the test and control groups. Majorities of students did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intakes for fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The students as a whole did not meet the MyPyramid recommendations for any food group, and nearly one-fifth of their calories came from sweets. Significant differences in percentages of kilocalories from protein and sweets and in servings of fats, oils, and sweets were seen between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Energy-dense foods are replacing healthy foods in the diets of Ohio children living in rural Appalachia. The prevalence of poor dietary intake in Appalachia warrants further nutrition interventions involving programming for nutrition, such as future FoodMASTER curricula. PMID:21039552
Levine, A M; Nash, M S; Green, B A; Shea, J D; Aronica, M J
To examine the nutritional composition of the dietary intake of chronic healthy spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals, 33 subjects affiliated with 3 SCI rehabilitation centers logged their food consumption for 7 days. Prior to record keeping, subjects were trained by a registered dietitian on the accurate recording of their standard food choices and portion size, and were provided with scales to weigh food accurately. Dietary macro and micronutrients were analyzed with a computer software package, with nutritional analysis compared to the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Analysis showed caloric intake to be 75% of that recommended for able bodies persons, with a high reliance on fat for calories. Fat intake accounted for 37.9% of calories, well above the recommended level of 30%, but typical of the American diet. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat was approximately one half the recommended level, with carbohydrate calories averaging 16.5% below optimal RDA. Protein consumption was within normal range, but average dietary fiber was only 25% of recommended levels. Micronutrient analysis showed deficiencies in both water and fat-soluble vitamins, with suboptimal intake of multiple minerals. Given the apparent reliance on a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, this research shows that nutritional intervention and education of SCI persons are needed, and that a registered dietitian should be included in the SCI health care team.
Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun
The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517
Ey Chua, E Y; Zalilah, M S; Ys Chin, Y S; Norhasmah, S
It is known that dietary diversity improves diet quality and nutritional status of young children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve. A total of 216 children from three Orang Asli sub-tribes (Jah Hut, Temuan and Che Wong) aged 1 to 6 years from 162 households in 16 villages participated in this cross-sectional study. Children and mothers were measured for body weight and height. Mothers were interviewed for household socio-demographic information and diet diversity of children in the last 7 days. Diet diversity score (DDS) was calculated based on 15 food groups. There was a high prevalence of underweight (50.9%) and stunting (61.6%) in Orang Asli children. For mothers, 11.1%, 27.8% and 7.4% were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Mean DDS of children was 6.38 [95% CI-6.10, 6.65] of the possible 15. Higher DDS of children was significantly related to older age (p nutrition problem among Orang Asli children living within the forest reserve. Efforts to promote dietary diversity should emphasise traditional and nutritious foods that could improve health and nutritional status of the Orang Asli children.
Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that
Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A
To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.
Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda C; Farmer, Anna; Downs, Shauna M; Olstad, Dana L; Willows, Noreen D
This study describes dietary changes among university students who completed a travel study program. Seventeen undergraduate nutrition students travelled from Edmonton to Italy for 6 weeks to take 2 courses on the Mediterranean diet. In both locations students completed a 24-h dietary recall and a Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score (MDQIS). A MDQIS of 48 indicates perfect adherence to eating patterns of the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP). While in Italy students altered their diets in positive ways (increased consumption of fish and seafood (P = 0.002), wine (P Students had a significant increase in the percentage of energy from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and alcohol. The MDQIS was low in Edmonton (21.9 ± 3.7) and Italy (22.9 ± 3.9). The overall dietary pattern of students did not adhere to the THMDP. Education about the THMDP and living in Italy for 6 weeks was insufficient to change students' dietary patterns to one characterized as traditional Mediterranean. The findings highlight the challenges of implementing dietary changes even with nutrition education and increased food access.
Full Text Available Kleopatra Papavasiliou, Emilia Papakonstantinou Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women, which leads to reproductive, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, polycystic ovaries, gonadotropin abnormalities, obesity, adipose tissue dysfunction, difficulty to conceive and high-risk pregnancy are the most common PCOS-associated complications. The aim of this review was to describe and evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on PCOS-associated outcomes and to provide some evidence-based dietary advice for use in clinical practice. There is no optimal diet or macronutrient composition for PCOS. However, lifestyle modification, including a small-to-moderate weight loss of 5–10% (combined diet with regular physical activity with any dietary pattern of choice, depending on the individuals’ preferences, culture, habits and metabolic needs (ie, Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] diet or moderately low-carbohydrate diets [30–45% of energy], as well as alternative dietary interventions, including small, frequent meal (five to six meals daily consumption at regular times, with the majority of carbohydrates consumed at lunch time or equally distributed throughout the day, seems to offer the evidence-based first-line strategy for the management of PCOS symptoms and insulin resistance. No conclusions can be drawn at this time for high protein diets, polyunsaturated fatty acids or micronutrient supplementation. Keywords: nutrition, meal frequency, dietary strategies, insulin resistance
Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current
Nielsen, Daiva E; Shih, Sarah; El-Sohemy, Ahmed
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have facilitated easy access to personal genetic information related to health and nutrition; however, consumer perceptions of the nutritional information provided by these tests have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess individual perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing and to determine whether a personalized nutrition intervention modifies perceptions. A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted among healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138). Participants in the intervention group (n = 92) were given a report of DNA-based dietary advice and those in the control group (n = 46) were given a general dietary advice report. A survey was completed at baseline and 3 and 12 months after distributing the reports to assess perceptions between the two groups. No significant differences in perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing were observed between the intervention and control group, so responses of both groups were combined. As compared to baseline, participant responses increased significantly toward the positive end of a Likert scale at 3 months for the statement 'I am interested in the relationship between diet and genetics' (mean change ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.99, p = 0.0002). The majority of participants indicated that a university research lab (47%) or health care professional (41%) were the best sources for obtaining accurate personal genetic information, while a DTC genetic testing company received the fewest selections (12%). Most participants (56%) considered dietitians to be the best source of personalized nutrition followed by medical doctors (27%), naturopaths (8%) and nurses (6%). These results suggest that perceptions of personalized nutrition changed over the course of the intervention. Individuals view a research lab or health care professional as better providers of genetic information than a DTC genetic testing company
Liu, X; Piao, J; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Yun, C; Yang, C; Yang, X
To assess the selenium nutritional status of 3458 school-age children recruited from rural areas using the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 and 2012 (CNHS 2002 and CNHS 2012). The serum selenium concentration was determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The prevalence of dietary selenium intake insufficiency was calculated according to the formula suggested by and the estimated average requirements of the new Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. The percentage of low selenium was based on the cutoff values with a serum selenium concentration below the threshold limit of clinical importance in coronary and cardiovascular diseases (selenium concentration was 64.3 μg/l in the CNHS 2002 and 74.2 μg/l in the CNHS 2012. The median calculated dietary selenium intake was 26.7 μg/day in the CNHS 2002 and 33.2 μg/day in the CNHS 2012 together with a 61.1% and 52.8% dietary selenium intake insufficiency in the CNHS 2002 and in the CNHS 2012. In addition, the percentages of low selenium (selenium nutritional status of school-age children was significantly improved in the CNHS 2012 versus the CNHS 2002. However, the health risk for selenium malnutrition in school-age children remains a potential problem affecting children's health.
Ding, Eric L; Catalano, Paul J; Villamor, Eduardo; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C
Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. Objective: We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. Design: The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999–2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. Results: Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13–22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: −57%, −15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Conclusion: Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants. PMID:23034960
Larsson, Christel L; Johansson, Gunnar K
Adolescents sometimes become vegetarian for ethical rather than health reasons. This may result in health problems caused by lack of interest in and knowledge of nutrition. We compared the dietary intake and nutritional status of young Swedish vegans and omnivores. The dietary intakes of 30 vegans (15 males and 15 females; mean age: 17.5 +/- 1.0 y) and 30 sex-, age-, and height-matched omnivores were assessed with the use of a diet-history interview and validated by the doubly labeled water method and by measuring nitrogen, sodium, and potassium excretion in urine. Iron status and serum vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations were measured in blood samples. The diet-history method underestimated energy intake by 13% and potassium intake by 7% compared with the doubly labeled water method and 24-h urine excretion, respectively. Reported dietary nitrogen and sodium intakes agreed with the 24-h urinary excretion measure. Vegans had higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, and dietary supplements and lower intakes of cake and cookies and candy and chocolate than did omnivores. Vegans had dietary intakes lower than the average requirements of riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and selenium. Intakes of calcium and selenium remained low even with the inclusion of dietary supplements. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of low iron status among vegans (20%) and omnivores (23%). Two vegans with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had low serum concentrations. The dietary habits of the vegans varied considerably and did not comply with the average requirements for some essential nutrients.
Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L
Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.
Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S
Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity.
Posner, B M; DeRusso, P A; Norquist, S L; Erick, M A
Risk factor screening and establishing realistic goals are key steps for the dietitian to follow in planning strategies to prevent coronary heart disease. The major risk factors that are responsive to dietary intervention include: elevated plasma total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, glucose intolerance, and obesity. The criteria used in assessing nutrition-related risk in coronary heart disease are presented. The long-term goals of preventive nutrition intervention in heart disease are discussed, with emphasis on a unified and progressive approach to diet planning.
Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven
Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the
Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João
Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z
Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school
... Child Nutrition Database, USDA Foods nutrition fact sheets, and information directly from the... Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...
Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun
Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P performance (each with P performance and dietary habits that find a positive association with eating breakfast and consuming fruits and milk and a negative relation with soft drinks, instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.
Lissau, I; Poùlsen, J
sent to all private and public schools and all after school care institutions in Denmark. The participation rate was 70 at schools and 66 at after school care institutions. RESULTS: In total, 3% of schools and 4% of after school care institutions have a written policy on nutrition. All Danish children....... CONCLUSION: The paper highlights the important aspects of the institutional level as one of six important levels as regards the prevention of obesity and an important level at which to act to increase nutrition habits in school children....
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for magnesium. The Panel considers that Average Requirements (ARs) and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) for magnesium cannot be derived...
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.
Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…
Full Text Available Although nutritional self-help literature is directed at the general public, which usually allows the authors to evade critical review by the medical and scientific community, both doctors and lay people need to read with discernment and educated scepticism when major health claims are made. Many published claims are based on misconceptions and questionable logic, and it is important to be aware of the inconsistencies and wrong conclusions commonly found in dietary fads. Patients' questions and dietary practices over the past few years have helped the present authors become familiar with certain food fads and nutrition 'self-help' books, and develop responses to popular gut topics such as food allergies, food combinations and commercial food supplements. The authors also discuss whether fads can deliver on their promises and what to tell patients.
Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; .... kind of sport, duration of training and frequency of training. b. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, arm-span and skin-fold thickness (at four sites: ..... loss methods of high school wrestlers.
Donini, Lorenzo M.; Leonardi, Francesco; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Banderali, Giuseppe; Battino, Maurizio; Bertoli, Enrico; Bordoni, Alessandra; Brighenti, Furio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cairella, Giulia; Caretto, Antonio; Cena, Hellas; Gambarara, Manuela; Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Giovannini, Marcello; Lucchin, Lucio; Migliaccio, Pietro; Nicastro, Francesco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Piretta, Luca; Radrizzani, Danilo; Roggi, Carla; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Scalfi, Luca; Vettor, Roberto; Vignati, Federico; Battistini, Nino C.; Muscaritoli, Maurizio
Human nutrition encompasses an extremely broad range of medical, social, commercial, and ethical domains and thus represents a wide, interdisciplinary scientific and cultural discipline. The high prevalence of both disease-related malnutrition and overweight/obesity represents an important risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. It is the opinion of Federation of the Italian Nutrition Societies (FeSIN) that these two sides of the same coin, with their sociocultural background, are related to a low “nutritional culture” secondary, at least in part, to an insufficient academic training for health-care professionals (HCPs). Therefore, FeSIN created a study group, composed of delegates of all the federated societies and representing the different HCPs involved in human nutrition, with the aim of identifying and defining the domains of human nutrition in the attempt to more clearly define the cultural identity of human nutrition in an academically and professionally oriented perspective and to report the conclusions in a position paper. Three main domains of human nutrition, namely, basic nutrition, applied nutrition, and clinical nutrition, were identified. FeSIN has examined the areas of knowledge pertinent to human nutrition. Thirty-two items were identified, attributed to one or more of the three domains and ranked considering their diverse importance for academic training in the different domains of human nutrition. Finally, the study group proposed the attribution of the different areas of knowledge to the degree courses where training in human nutrition is deemed necessary (e.g., schools of medicine, biology, nursing, etc.). It is conceivable that, in the near future, a better integration of the professionals involved in the field of human nutrition will eventually occur based on the progressive consolidation of knowledge, competence, and skills in the different areas and domains of this discipline. PMID:28275609
Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit district, Gauteng, South ...
The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…
Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir
After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.
Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda
Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…
Izumi, Betty T.; Pickus, Hayley A.; Contesti, Amy; Dawson, Jo; Bersamin, Andrea
Purpose/Objectives: Fish and other seafood high in omega-3 fats are important components of a healthy diet. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions regarding serving fish in school meals among nutrition professionals in Alaska. Methods: Interviews with 22 school nutrition professionals in Alaska were conducted to investigate the…
Reguła, Julita; Smidowicz, Angelika
The aim of the study was to assess the intake of vitamins and minerals from the food ration and levels recorded after synthetic supplementation in patients following a gluten-free diet. The study included a cohort of 25 individuals aged 20-54. Nutrient intakes were assessed based on a 24-hour diet recall interview and an original questionnaire prepared by the authors specifically for this study. Anthropometric measurements were recorded in order to assess the nutritional status of the patients. A low energy intake and an excessive share of fat were observed in daily food rations of coeliac disease patients. Uptake of most minerals with the diet was too low, while that of vitamins too high. Most participants declared the administration of supplements, which greatly contributed to the coverage of requirements for these nutrients. It was observed that the administered supplementation was frequently unjustified, which led to the allowances being considerably exceeded for many vitamins and minerals.
Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun
The purpose of this article is to examine the effect of a school-based nutrition intervention using an ecological approach to improve adolescents' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in rural China. A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two middle schools were randomly selected and assigned to the school that was conducting a holistic school-based intervention using health-promoting school (HPS) framework, 'HPS School', or to the 'Control School' in Mi Yun County, Beijing. From each school we randomly selected 65 seventh-grade students to participate in the study. Their nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour were measured by pre- and post-intervention surveys with the same instrument. The nutrition intervention lasted for six months. Adolescents in the intervention school were more likely to know the nutrition knowledge items, with an odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.09) to 6.34 (95% CI: 3.83-10.47); more likely to think nutrition is very important to health, developing healthy dietary habits is very important, and that expired foods should be thrown away, with ORs of 3.03 (95% CI: 1.60-5.76), 2.76 (95% CI: 1.66-4.59) and 2.35 (95% CI: 1.33-4.17) respectively, and more likely to consume no soft drinks, desserts or fried food, and to eat vegetables every day of the last week, with ORs of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.31-3.04), 3.96 (95% CI: 2.43-6.46), 3.63 (95% CI: 2.26-5.85), and 2.51 (95% CI: 1.41-4.48) respectively, as compared with those in the control school after interventions. Our intervention using the HPS framework, an ecological approach, was an appropriate model to promote nutrition among adolescents in rural China and its use should be advocated in future school-based nutrition promotion programmes for adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.
This study took the effect of breakfast on the function of the body as the key point, by analyzing the breakfast quality problems at the present stage of the sports training major students, proposed the suggestions for improving breakfast nutrition dietary of the sports training major students, since the reasonable diet can not only promote the students' physical health, but also can enhance the immunity ability and improve the efficiency of learning, so as to guarantee the professional sport...
S. Fernandez-Barres; N. Martín; T. Canela; M. García-Barco; J. Basora; V. Arija
Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: Evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12310 Background: Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. Methods: The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care p...
Cunha, Madalena; Saboga-Nunes, Luís; Cunha, Berta
Introduction: A low level of functional education is a risk factor for lower levels of health literacy which in turn is considered to be a mediator in health results, currently representing an issue of interest in research on the management of the individual’s state of health. Objectives: To determine the effects of literacy on health through the mediation of dietary habits on nutritional status - Body Mass Index (BMI) and indicators of metabolic risk – Abdominal Perimeter (AP), Neck Circumfe...
Aline Tecchio Borsoi
Full Text Available The Food and Nutrition Education is a strategy to promote health and healthy eating habits. The school environment rises as a suitable place to develop these actions. Through Integrative Literature Review, we could identify the characteristics of scientific production on the Food and Nutrition Education at school from 2002 to 2013. The sample of this review consisted of 17 articles. It was observed that it has been giving more emphasis to this issue from 2009. Nine of the selected studies opted for intervention methodologies, and eight of them have proposed to consolidate the practice of educators, administrators and school cafeteria owners, the understanding of Food and Nutrition Education. The actions accomplished were characterized as slightly critical and participatory strategies based on the transmission of information. It concludes the need for approaches to treating eating disorders broadly at school, through problem-solving methodologies that go beyond the mere transmission of information.
Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena
Incorporating nutrition topics in the primary school curricula should support the acquisition of nutrition knowledge in different ways and indirectly the development of healthy eating habits in children and teenagers. In Slovenia, nutrition education is part of all primary school education levels and may take the form of compulsory and/or elective…
This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.
Douglas, P D; Douglas, J G
The purpose of this study was to analyze the food practices and nutrition knowledge of high school athletes currently participating in interscholastic sports and to evaluate differences in terms of selected sports variables. The data for the study were obtained by a questionnaire administered to a sample of 943 athletes from randomly selected high schools in Connecticut. The stated hypotheses were tested statistically using analysis of variance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients where appropriate. The results of the study indicated that the female athletes had better knowledge of nutrition but poorer food practices than the male athletes. There were also significant relationships between sport forms, seasons, and nutrition knowledge and food practices. High school athletes perceived their best source of nutrition knowledge to be their parents. Results on the nutrition knowledge component of the instrument showed that out of 48 possible answers, the mean correct was 26.4, while out of a possible score of 5, the mean score for food practices was 2.2. Because a positive relationship existed between the number of sport seasons and nutrition knowledge and food practice scores, sport participation may be a catalyst for learning about nutrition.
Stefańiska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Sajewicz, Joanna
The research was conducted into 360 students of Medical University in Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status. The study involved 251 female students (46 with underweight, 186 with normal weight, 19 with excessive body weight) and 69 male students (7 with underweight, 47 with normal weight, 15 with excessive body weight). The quantity analyze of daily food rations was conducted on the base of the previous day 24 h dietary recall method. The computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw was used for calculations. Energetic value and basic nutrients supply was estimated and also the average content of dietary fiber and cholesterol. The results of the conducted research indicate lack ofbalanced content ofessential nutrients in daily food rations of the tested students of both sexes, irrespective of nutritional status. Energy supply was far too low comparing to recommended standards. It was proved that carbohydrate and fat supply was definitely lower than recommended standards. The research also showed low consumption of dietary fiber in all investigated groups and high consumption of cholesterol in men.
Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Ilich, Jasminka Z
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.
Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen
Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…
Hajira, Bibi; Manzoor, Maryam; Samiullah, Muhammad; Chawla, Rattan Kaur
To investigate the effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. This study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November to December 2015, and comprised patients of either gender with protein energy wasting. The nutritional status assessment was based on four categories, including biochemical indicators (haemoglobin, serum albumin and cholesterol), measure of body mass index, reduced body fatness, decreased muscle mass and low protein or energy intake. Energy and nutrients intake of patients before and after counselling were estimated by 24-hour dietary recall method. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 patients, 74(74%) were males and 26(26%) were females. The overall mean age was 41.45±17.44 years. Dietary counselling was significantly effective in increasing the intake of energy (p=0.010), protein (p=0.003) and fats (p=0.002). There was significant improvement in mid-upper arm circumference (pnutritional status and dietary intake of end-stage renal disease patients.
Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M
This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar
This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.
Ito, Tomoko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Kawakami, Ryoko; Higuchi, Mitsuru
Objectives Dietary patterns are studied to determine the relationship between diet and health. However, little is known about whether various dietary patterns fulfill adequate nutrient intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between major dietary patterns and nutritional intakes in middle-aged and elderly men. Furthermore, we examined the associations between dietary patterns and micronutrients status by using the reference values from the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRIs-J 2010).Methods A total of 229 middle-aged and elderly men (age range, 40-79 years) participated in this study. The dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis of 52 food and beverage items via a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Overall, micronutrient intake status was quantified using a dietary reference intakes score (DRIs-score) for 21 micronutrients (based on the DRIs-J 2010). The association of the nutrient intake and the DRIs-score with each factor score was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient.Results Three dietary patterns were identified: "side dish", "evening drink", and "snack". The "side dish" pattern was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, seaweeds, mushrooms, and potatoes, and low intake of rice. Spearman's correlation showed that the "side dish" pattern correlated with each of the 21 micronutrients, and positively correlated with the DRIs-score (ρ=0.782, P<0.001).Conclusions The "side dish" pattern was positively related with the DRIs-score, calculated from the DRIs-J 2010. The result suggested the "side dish" pattern may provide a favorable nutrient balance in middle-aged and elderly men.
Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be energy density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density energy density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Penergy-density recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density energy density energy density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tur, J A; Colomer, M; Moñino, M; Bonnin, T; Llompart, I; Pons, A
To describe the dietary intake of free-living, non-institutionalised, elderly people of Palma de Mallorca, and to evaluate their nutritional status and risk of undernutrition. Anthropometric and dietary survey (3-day food record), and risk of undernutrition (MNA-SF) were assessed in 230 (89 men and 141 women) free-living elderly people (average age 72.7 +/- 5.9 years) in Palma de Mallorca. Prevalence of undernutrition (1% in men and 5% in women), overweight (56% in men and 39% in women) and obesity (17% in men and 21% in women) were found. Mean daily energy intake (+/- SD) was 5.7 +/- 1.5 MJ in men and 5.3 +/- 1.3 MJ among women. The contribution of macronutrients to the total energy intake was different from the Recommended Intake for the elderly, since it was too derived from proteins, fats, SFA and sugars, but in only small amounts was derived from complex carbohydrates. Animal protein intake was two-thirds the total protein intake. Dietary fibre was low. Cholesterol/SFA ratio showed dietary risk of atherogenic potential. High percentages of elderly persons showed inadequate intake of calcium, magnesium, zinc, folic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin E. An increase in dietary complex carbohydrate and fibre, a decrease in fats, especially SFA, and a balanced intake of animal/vegetable proteins and fats are recommended. Dietary supplementation, especially with calcium, vitamin C and E, and occasionally vitamin D, may be useful to improve nutritional and health status of free-living elderly people in Palma de Mallorca.
Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio
The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004),
Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, Audrey; Kuznesof, Sharron; Poínhos, Rui; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Fischer, Arnout; Frewer, Lynn J
The notion of educating the public through generic healthy eating messages has pervaded dietary health promotion efforts over the years and continues to do so through various media, despite little evidence for any enduring impact upon eating behaviour. There is growing evidence, however, that tailored interventions such as those that could be delivered online can be effective in bringing about healthy dietary behaviour change. The present paper brings together evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies that have considered the public perspective of genomics, nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, including those conducted as part of the EU-funded Food4Me project. Such studies have consistently indicated that although the public hold positive views about nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, they have reservations about the service providers' ability to ensure the secure handling of health data. Technological innovation has driven the concept of personalised nutrition forward and now a further technological leap is required to ensure the privacy of online service delivery systems and to protect data gathered in the process of designing personalised nutrition therapies.
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.
Tomey, Kristin M; Chen, David M; Wang, Xin; Braunschweig, Carol L
To evaluate nutritional status, dietary intake, nutrition knowledge, and depression of healthy urban men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare these findings with national guidelines and data. Cross-sectional. Urban university. Ninety-five community-dwelling men with paraplegia (age range, 20-59 y). Not applicable. Dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, knowledge of nutrition, and depression. Diets included too much total and saturated fat, and inadequate fiber, calcium, fruit, and dairy intake. Most participants met protein needs, but most calorie levels were at or below recommendations. By using standard BMI and waist circumference cut-points for the able-bodied, approximately half of participants were overweight, 19% were obese, 7.5% were underweight, and more than one third had large waist circumferences. Participants with low knowledge of nutrition and high BMI who lived alone, smoked, and who had low family incomes were at significantly higher risk for lower quality diets. African Americans had the poorest diets. Intake of several key nutrients did not meet guidelines, and many BMI and waist circumference values were outside recommended ranges. These data highlight the need for clinicians to screen, counsel, and treat people with SCI to prevent related chronic diseases.
Manders, M; de Groot, C P G M; Blauw, Y H; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; van Hoeckel-Prüst, L; Bindels, J G; Siebelink, E; van Staveren, W A
(1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by decreasing their habitual food consumption. A 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention trial in homes for the elderly (n=3), in nursing homes (n=3) and 'mixed' homes (n=3) in The Netherlands. Institutionalised elderly people (n=176) older than 60 years of age, with a body mass index nutrition-related analyses in fasting blood samples were measured in all participants. Data on dietary intake were collected in a subsample (n=66). A significantly favourable effect (Pvitamin intake, mineral intake and vitamin status in blood (for example, homocysteine decreased from 14.7 to 9.5 micromol/l in the intervention group as compared with that in the placebo group (17.2-15.9)). The difference in change in total energy intake between the two treatment groups was 0.8 MJ/day (P=0.166). Energy intake from food decreased in both groups to the same extent (-0.5 MJ/day). Therefore, this decrease cannot be considered as compensation for the energy content of the product. This group of institutionalised elderly people does not compensate for the energy content of a concentrated nutritional supplement. Therefore, this supplement is effective for counteracting the development of malnutrition in this population.
There are more and more children and adolescents with poor eating habits which put them in the risk group exposed to a high risk for development of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. An adequate nutritional literacy of children and adolescents contributes to the prevention of these diseases. Nutritional literacy is a term indicating knowledge, skills, and behaviours of individual, which are necessary for planning, assurance, choice, preparation, and intake of food in order to meet...
Full Text Available Maintenance of proper health and prevention of diseases of civilization are now significant public health problems. Nutrition is an important factor in the development of youth, as well as the current and future state of health. The aim of the study was to show the benefits of the application of cluster analysis to assess the dietary habits of high school students. The survey was carried out on 1,631 eighteen-year-old students in seven randomly selected secondary schools in Bialystok using a self-prepared anonymous questionnaire. An evaluation of the time of day meals were eaten and the number of meals consumed was made for the surveyed students. The cluster analysis allowed distinguishing characteristic structures of dietary habits in the observed population. Four clusters were identified, which were characterized by relative internal homogeneity and substantial variation in terms of the number of meals during the day and the time of their consumption. The most important characteristics of cluster 1 were cumulated food ration in 2 or 3 meals and long intervals between meals. Cluster 2 was characterized by eating the recommended number of 4 or 5 meals a day. In the 3rd cluster, students ate 3 meals a day with large intervals between them, and in the 4th they had four meals a day while maintaining proper intervals between them. In all clusters dietary mistakes occurred, but most of them were related to clusters 1 and 3. Cluster analysis allowed for the identification of major flaws in nutrition, which may include irregular eating and skipping meals, and indicated possible connections between eating patterns and disturbances of body weight in the examined population.
Virginia López Bastida
Full Text Available Objective: our piece of work pretends to evaluate the efficacy of dietary nutritional treatment in IBS in recent years, analyze their efficacy at the individual level or as part of a multidisciplinary treatment, and describe the adverse events, in case that there are. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Wiley Online Library databases, in which we have introduced different descriptors related to our aims and we have selected our inclusion criteria. We have collected a total of 21 articles. Results: LOW-FODMAP, gluten-free, lactose-free and fructose-restricted diets are the nutritional interventions that most IBS patients take to alleviate their symptoms. Conclusions:The different limitations of the studies, the considerable restriction of food as well as the possible adverse events, preclude the affirmation of the effectiveness in the nutritional treatment of IBS. There is symptomatic improvement, maybe due to the psychological component, which takes preference in these patients?
Coqueret, Victoire; Le Bot, Jacques; Larbat, Romain; Desneux, Nicolas; Robin, Christophe; Adamowicz, Stéphane
The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T. absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae. Tomato plants were raised under controlled conditions on N-sufficient vs. N-limited complete nutrient solutions. Plants were kept healthy or artificially inoculated with larvae for seven days. Serial harvests were taken and the N, C, dry mass and water contents were determined in roots, stems and leaves. Leaf and mine areas were also measured and the N, C, dry mass and water surface densities were calculated in order to characterize the diet of the larvae. The infestation of a specific leaf lessened its local biomass by 8-26%, but this effect was undetectable at the whole plant scale. Infestation markedly increased resource density per unit leaf area (water, dry mass, C and N) suggesting that the insect induced changes in leaf composition. Nitrogen limitation lessened whole plant growth (by 50%) and infested leaflet growth (by 32-44%). It produced opposite effects on specific resource density per unit area, increasing that of dry mass and C while decreasing water and N. These changes were ineffective on insect mining activity, but slowed down larval development. Under N limitation, T. absoluta consumed less water and N but more dry mass and C. The resulting consequences were a 50-70% increase of C:N stoichiometry in their diet and the doubling of faeces excretion. The observed limitation of larval development is therefore consistent with a trophic explanation caused by low N and/or water intakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma
Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.
Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.
The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)
Beckman, Lauren Lautenschlager; Smith, Chery
Unhealthful eating patterns established early in life tend to be maintained into adulthood, and as a result, chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and obesity may develop. These nutrition-related problems could be reduced through dietary changes; and to facilitate these changes, nutrition education for youth that is delivered…
Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid J M; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne H M; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F
The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counseling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counseling as compared with athletes not receiving dietary counseling. Of the athletes, 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counseling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counseling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counseling seemed to result in better-informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.
Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.
Lai, Janice; Porter, Judi
Dietary apps for mobile technology are becoming increasingly available and can assist in recording food and fluid intake for nutrition assessment or monitoring. Patients with chronic renal disease, particularly those on dialysis, are required to make significant dietary changes. This study systematically reviews the current literature to assess whether dietary mobile apps improve dietary intake and clinical outcomes in the renal population, specifically those with Chronic Kidney Disease levels 3-5, including dialysis. A systematic search of Medline Complete, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was performed and supplemented by manual searches of citation and reference lists. Of the 712 studies considered, five were eligible for inclusion in this review. The quality of each included study was assessed using a Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Among five studies (two RCTs and three case studies/reports), none found significant changes in nutrient intake, biochemical markers or intradialytic weight gain, through the use of dietary mobile apps. The included studies show potential for clinical benefits of mobile app interventions in a renal population. However there is a need for additional rigorous trials to demonstrate if there is a clinical benefit to mobile phone app interventions in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. To describe the methodology used to clean up and estimate dietary intake (DI data from the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Materials and methods. DI was collected through a shortterm SFFQ regarding 140 foods (from October 2011 to May 2012. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated accordingto a nutrient database constructed specifically for the SFFQ. Results. A total of 133 nutrients including energy and fiber were generated from SFFQ data. Between 4.8 and 9.6% of the survey sample was excluded as a result of the cleaning process. Valid DI data were obtained regarding energy and nutrients consumed by 1 212 pre-school children, 1 323 school children, 1 961 adolescents, 2 027 adults and 526 older adults. Conclusions. We documented the methodology used to clean up and estimate DI from the SFFQ used in national dietary assessments in Mexico.
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) provides guidance on the translation of nutrient based dietary advice into guidance, intended for the European population as a whole, on the contribution of different foods or food groups to an overall diet...... that would help to maintain good health through optimal nutrition (food-based dietary guidelines). The main focus of this Opinion is put on the scientific process of developing food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for the diverse European populations, following a stepwise approach which should ideally...
邱, 昱; 中山, 玲子
To clarify the dietary life of children in urban areas of China, we have conducted this research to investigate the daily habits, dietary awareness and dietary behavior of children in Guangzhou. A questionnaire was conducted among 814 parents of children at two public elementary schools in 2015. The dietary habits were related to the school year and gender of child. Students of lower grades showed better eating habits, better exercise, life rhythm regularly. However, the percentage of upper g...
Stefanska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Cwalina, Urszula; Kowzan, Urszula; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Ostrowska, Lucyna
An increased incidence of depressive disorders observed in recent years in the Polish and world population is a serious health problem. The aim of the study was to compare dietary habits and nutritional status of patients with recurrent depressive disorders, depending on their place of residence. Their impact on selected metabolic parameters was also considered. The study group comprised 96 women and 84 men reporting to the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok in north-eastern Poland. The average age of the women was 46.7±11.7 years, and of men 47.0±11.3 years. In the quantitative assessmentof diets, 24-hour food recall interviews were conducted. Assessment of the nutritional status of the respondents consisted of anthropometric measurements, body composition analysis and biochemical parameters. It was show that the diets of female urban inhabitants were characterized by a significantly lower energy value and total fat content, compared to their rural counterparts. The food rations of men living in the city had a significantly higher energy value, protein content and total FAT, compared to rural residents. It was also noted that urban residents of both genders were characterized by a lower percentage of body fat, both visceral and subcutaneous (women), and a higher water content than rural residents. The study showed dietary errors in all compared groups, regardless of place of residence, which was reflected in the nutritional status of the respondents. The results also indicated that during the declared change in dietary habits, the treatment of depressive patients should include dietary instructions in order to ensure an optimum supply of nutrients.
Наталия Ивановна Ковтюк
Full Text Available School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the development of somatic pathology
Gariballa, Salah; Forster, Sarah
Although smokers have poor health and consequently poor dietary intake compared with nonsmokers, no study has examined the effects of smoking on nutrition status during acute illness. The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of smoking on nutrition status in hospitalized patients. Four hundred and thirty-four patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nutrition supplementation were nutritionally assessed based on anthropometric, hematological, and biochemical data at baseline and 6 weeks later. Nutrition status was compared between current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who never smoked. Mortality was evaluated during the hospital stay and at 6 and 12 months after hospitalization. The association between smoking and nutrition status and mortality was measured after adjustment for poor prognostic indicators. Body weight, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, serum albumin level, and plasma concentrations of vitamin C, red-cell folate, and vitamin B12 were all lower in current smokers compared with those who never smoked. Being a current smoker was associated with lower body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, and plasma vitamin C concentration compared with those patients who never smoked. Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking and increasing age were significantly and independently related to 1-year mortality. No significant difference in nutrition status between the supplement and the placebo group was found at the end of 6 weeks. Smoking was independently associated with poor nutrition status in hospitalized patients. This may partly explain the poor clinical outcome associated with smoking.
Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V
Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Costa Louzada, Maria Laura da; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF - Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods.
Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods
de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Velicia, M C; Sánchez Antolín, G; García Pajares, F; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L
The aim of our study was to examine, in a prospective way, whether any nutritional parameter could predict outcomes after liver transplantation. A nutritional assessment was performed in 31 consecutive patients six months prior to undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at a single center (Hospital U. Río Hortega) and after six months of OLT (December 2002-June 2004). The nutritional evaluation included Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini Nutritional Assessment test (MNA), anthropometry, laboratory tests, and three-day diet diary completed. The body composition analysis was performed by tetrapolar body electrical bioimpedance and skin folds in a standard way. Our patients had an average age of 56.2 +/- 8.11 years; weight was 72.9 +/- 15.3 kg, and body mass index was 26.6 +/- 4.1. The anthropometric evaluation showed the following data: tricipital skin fold 12.2 +/- 6.1 mm, mid-arm circumference 24.5 +/- 4.1 cm, fat-free mass 54.5 +/- 10.9 kg, fat mass 18.4 +/- 6.5 mm, and body water 41.4 +/- 9.1 kg. After six months from liver transplantation, these parameters remained unchanged. Energy intake, as corrected by weight, was similar pre- and post-liver transplantation (28.1 +/- 6 kcal/kg vs. 27.5 +/- 5.8 kcal/kg: ns). Albumin, prealbumin and transferrin improved after 6 months from transplantation. Length of stay in hospital was 22.4 +/- 14.9 days, and length of stay in ICU was 0.7 +/- 1.7 days. The nutritional status (SGA and MNA tests) of patients did not influence length of stay in either hospital or ICU. No intercurrent events (infections: urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and peritonitis) were recorded during the 6-month study period. Two patients died after liver transplantation (6.5%), and 3 patients had acute rejection (9.6%). Patients with malnutrition (SGA and MNA tests classification) showed no differences in rejection and mortality. Our liver transplantation population had normal nutritional status and dietary intake. Nutritional
Zhao, Chunyan; Zhou, Ruihua; Tian, Yongzhi; Tang, Yongmei; Ning, Hongzhen; Liu, Haiyan
To study the effect of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis. Ninty middle-aged and senile osteoporosis patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control group) with 45 cases each. The control group was received conventional therapy and the intervention group added with nutritional education and dietary intervention for six months on the basis of conventional therapy. The methods of education and intervention included seminars, brochures distribution, dietary survey and individual guidance. The nutritional status and BMD were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the intervention respectively. After the intervention, the ratios of subjects whose intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and beans in line with recommended intake of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P nutritional education and dietary intervention could promote middle-aged and senile patients' reasonable diet, improve their nutritional status, enhance bone mineral density and improve the effect of conventional therapy for osteoporosis.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.
Song, Yoonju; Joung, Hyojee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Yoo, Sun Young; Paik, Hee Young
Korea has experienced exceptionally rapid economic developments. Even though the country has managed to maintain aspects of its traditional diet, dietary habits are changing, especially among adolescents. This study was carried out to identify prevailing dietary patterns among Korean adolescents and to compare the nutrient intakes and dietary behaviours between the patterns. A 3 d diet record, collected from 671 Korean adolescents aged 12-14 years in Seoul, Korea, was assessed. By cluster analysis, subjects were classified into a modified (69.9 %) and a traditional (30.1 %) dietary pattern group. The modified group consumed more bread, noodles, cookies and pizza/hamburgers compared with the traditional group, which consumed mainly rice and kimchi (fermented cabbage). The modified group had significantly higher intakes of all nutrients. It had a higher total daily energy intake (7719 kJ), a higher daily energy intake from fat (29.8 %) and a higher cholesterol intake (326 mg/d), compared with the traditional group (6686 kJ, 24.8 % and 244 mg/d, respectively). The modified group was more likely to consume fast foods, fried foods and carbonated beverages even though they consumed more fresh fruits and milk, while the traditional group was more likely to have a rice-based diet and not to skip breakfast. These results suggest that monitoring dietary behaviours of adolescents, especially in a society experiencing a nutrition transition, is necessary in order to identify both negative and positive changes in respect of risk factors for nutrition-related chronic diseases as well as for undernutrition.
The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and
Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Pre- and postsurvey data were collected (N = 2255) during the 2012-2013 academic year from 14 New York City public high schools. An 18-item knowledge questionnaire addressed 3 domains; 26 behavioral items were analyzed by factor analysis to identify 6 behavior domains, breakfast being a seventh 1-item domain. We examined the effects stratified by sex, applying mixed-effects models to take into account clustering effects of schools and participants adjusted for age. The HealthCorps program significantly increased all 3 knowledge domains (p mental health, and physical activity. It also improved several key behavioral domains, which are targets of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to address obesity in youth. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations.
Lo, Yen-Li; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Hsu, Li-Lin; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn
To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. Cross-sectional. Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Presence of 5 frailty phenotypes was determined using modified Fried criteria and are summed into a frailty score. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), reduced rank regression was used to find a dietary pattern that explained maximal degree of variation of the frailty scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between frailty and dietary pattern. The findings were validated with data from 2016. The derived dietary pattern was characterized with a high consumption of fruit, nuts and seeds, tea, vegetables, whole grains, shellfish, milk, and fish. The prevalence of frailty was 7.8% and of prefrailty was 50.8%, defined using the modified Fried criteria. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), the dietary pattern score showed an inverse dose-response relationship with prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty. Individuals in the second dietary pattern tertile were one-third as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.85), and those in the third tertile were 4% as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (aOR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.18). The dietary pattern score estimated using FFQ data from the NAHSIT 2016 was also significantly and inversely associated with frailty. Individuals with a dietary pattern with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods, tea, omega-3-rich deep-sea fish, and other protein-rich foods such as shellfish and milk had a reduced prevalence of frailty. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings and investigate whether related dietary interventions can reduce frailty
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.
Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean
School recess before lunch (e.g., reverse recess) has been suggested as a means to improve dietary intake and classroom behavior but limited research explores this school-based policy. This pilot study tests the impact of recess scheduling on dietary intake at school lunch. A mixed methods approach included assessment of dietary intake assessed by measured plate waste on five non-consecutive days at Madras Elementary School, Madras, Oregon, United States (n = 104 intervention; 157 controls). Subjects included primary school children in grades kindergarten, first and second. Logistic regression was used to test associations between recess timing and dietary intake. Four focus groups involving teachers and staff explored reactions to the intervention. Qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and assessed for key themes. Milk consumption was 1.3 oz greater in the intervention group (5.7 oz vs. 4.4 oz); and 20% more of the intervention participants drank the entire carton of milk (42% vs. 25%, p < 0.0001). Intervention participants were 1.5 times more likely to meet the nutritional guidelines for calcium (≥267 mg, p = 0.01) and fat (≤30% of total energy, p = 0.02). Consumption of entrees, vegetables, and fruits did not differ between groups. Teachers perceived recess before lunch beneficial to classroom behavior and readiness to concentrate following lunch. The recess before lunch intervention yielded increased milk consumption; the nutritional and social benefits observed warrant policy change consideration. Future research should assess the impact of recess before lunch in larger districts.
Kardasz, Małgorzata; Ostrowska, Lucyna
The aim of the study was the assessment of dietary habits in haemodialysed women and men with differentiated state of nutrition. The study was conducted into 74 haemodialysed patients who, based on BMI (kg/m2), were allocated into two research groups of women: normal-weight group n =17 (48.6%) and excessive body weight group n = 18 (51.4%) and two groups of men: normal-weight group n = 17 (43.6%) and excessive body weight group n = 22 (56.4%). Daily food rations (DFR) were quantitatively evaluated by a 24h dietary recall method covering 3 days preceding the examination. The computer program "Diet 4" designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw was used for calculations. Calculations were performed using the Statistica 9.0 program. Results were compared to the nutritional standards for haemodialysed subjects. Energetic value and basic nutrients supply was estimated and also the average content of dietary fiber and cholesterol. The results of the conducted research indicate lack of balanced content of essential nutrients in daily food rations of the patients of both sexes, irrespective of nutritional status. The diet was characterized by low energetic value and low contents of proteins and carbohydrates in all the study groups of women. The mean intake of protein (89.4 +/- 40.6 g/day) and cholesterol (343.9 +/- 207.4 mg/day) in the daily food rations of men with normal weight were found to have a significantly higher as compared to the mean intake of protein (71.9 +/- 25.2 g/day) and cholesterol (253.4 +/- 142.5 mg/day) in the daily food rations of hemodialysed men with excessive body weight. The research showed low consumption of dietary fiber in all investigated groups of women and men. Since improper the energetic value of daily food rations and intake of the basic nutrients in the diets, may have an unfavourable effect on the disease course, the provision of regular dietary advice is a necessity.
Full Text Available Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group. Keywords: lung cancer, nutrition, malnutrition
Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong
Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid–base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.
Adriana Silva Matos
Full Text Available Currently there is growing media and society pressure on the cult of the perfect body. This often leads adolescents and young adults to adopt restrictive diets and dietary practices that are questionable from the health point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state and dietary practices adopted by 712 individuals who carry out physical activities in seven fitness centers in the city of Aracaju. We used a semi-structured interview asking the number of daily meals, diet adoption and type and source of orientation. Weight and height were self-reported. Body mass index (BMI data of the participants were inconsistent with their physical conditions, invalidating recall technique for these measurements and for the classification of the nutritional state of this population. Out of the total 22% of the members claimed to adopt some kind of dieting alongside the physical activity. Out of these, 90.38% were hypocaloric diets. Only 26.14% of the dieters had indication from a professional nutritionist, whereas 73.85% had indication from non-recommended sources. Ninety-five percent of the informants exercised at least 3 times a week and 56% had 4 to 5 meals a day. The data show preoccupation with eating patterns and dieting, suggesting the need for nutritional education programs and diet changes monitored by professionals.
Adriana Silva Matos
Full Text Available Currently there is growing media and society pressure on the cult of the perfect body. This often leads adolescents and young adults to adopt restrictive diets and dietary practices that are questionable from the health point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state and dietary practices adopted by 712 individuals who carry out physical activities in seven fitness centers in the city of Aracaju. We used a semi-structured interview asking the number of daily meals, diet adoption and type and source of orientation. Weight and height were self-reported. Body mass index (BMI data of the participants were inconsistent with their physical conditions, invalidating recall technique for these measurements and for the classification of the nutritional state of this population. Out of the total 22% of the members claimed to adopt some kind of dieting alongside the physical activity. Out of these, 90.38% were hypocaloric diets. Only 26.14% of the dieters had indication from a professional nutritionist, whereas 73.85% ad indication from nonrecommended sources. Ninety-five percent of the informants exercised at least 3 times a week and 56% had 4 to 5 meals a day. The data show preoccupation with eating atterns and dieting, suggesting the need for nutritional education rograms and diet changes monitored by professionals.
Uster, Alexandra; Ruefenacht, Ursula; Ruehlin, Maya; Pless, Miklos; Siano, Marco; Haefner, Mark; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E
Weight loss is common in patients with malignant tumors and it can adversely affect quality of life and survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention in cancer patients in an outpatient setting. Cancer outpatients (N = 58) who were classified as undernourished or at high risk for undernutrition by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool were randomized into two groups. One group (n = 30) received standardized individual nutritional therapy, including counseling by a dietitian, food fortification, and oral nutritional supplements if required. The second group (n = 28) received standard care. The nutritional intervention lasted 3 mo. Dietary intake (3-d dietary record), nutritional status (body weight), physical functioning (performance status, hand-grip strength) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire version 3.0) were assessed at baseline and after 6 wk and 3 mo. An additional follow-up assessment was carried out 3 mo post-intervention. Nutritional intervention led to a significantly higher average energy and protein intake in the nutritional therapy group (+379 kcal; 95% confidence interval [CI], 117-642; P = 0.007, respectively; +10.4 g; 95% CI, 2.3-18.5; P = 0.016). However, the increased dietary intake was not associated with improvements in nutritional status, physical functioning, or quality of life. Individual nutritional counseling significantly and positively influenced energy and protein intake, but did not improve nutritional or physical outcome or quality of life. These results indicate that nutritional therapy alone is of limited efficacy in cancer patients whose nutritional status has already deteriorated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.
Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige
A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.
Rodríguez Manzanilla, L; de Pablo González, R; Romero Alvira, D; Martínez García, E; García Pérez, M A
To investigate dietary intake patterns among school-students. An observational prospective study. A dietary survey was used to establish how many times habitual foods were eaten each week. SITE. The population of the northern half of the city of Soria. (North Soria Health Centre). All the school-children aged 6 and 7 (74 boys and 57 girls in both the private and public sectors) took part in the programme. The intake of foodstuffs was stratified as greatest in quartiles. The consumers of sweet "junk" foods also ate significantly more savory "junk" food (p = 0.00009). We found and inverse consumption relationship between savory "junk" foods and an intake of greens and root-crops (p = 0.03) and of pasta and rice (p = 0.008). The lower consumption of greens and fruits was linked to a lower consumption of fish (p = 0.023), to a lower consumption of meat (p = 0.037) and of meat products (p = 0.008). Lower consumption of eggs was linked to a greater consumption of meat (p = 0.016) and fish (p = 0.029). The consumption of savory "junk" foods and meat products can replace nutrients of a high biological value which are found in greens and root-crops. New studies to deepen the taxonomical analysis of the school diet are required. These should identify eating patterns which could endanger health in adult life.
Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M
Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.
Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Tomczak, Andrzej; Krulikowska, Natalia; Przysławski, Juliusz; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta
Nutritional habits and physical activity influence the health status of young adults. In this study, we engaged a group of 151 students from a medical university (90 female and 61 male subjects). Anthropometric parameters, dietary habits (a 7-day dietary recall), and level of physical activity were measured. It was found that the daily food rations of female (F) and male (M) students were improperly balanced and characterized by high amount of total and animal protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, cholesterol, and insufficient intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. Female subjects consumed low amounts of total fat and calcium. The intake of protein (total and animal), fat, phosphorus, and cholesterol correlated with higher body mass. The physical activity of the students was found to be higher than the average physical activity of the European Union populations, and a general tendency of lowering level of physical activity with age was observed. Students with the highest level of physical activity (MET > 1500) consumed lower amounts of simple carbohydrates (galactose and saccharose) when compared to students with lower physical activity (MET < 600, p < 0.05). Therefore, this study concluded that the dietary habits should be modified to prevent the development of diet-dependent diseases. Various forms of physical activity should be proposed to students and they should be encouraged to participate in high level of physical activity so as to promote good health status.
Jeffrey B. Blumberg
Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.
Jeffrey B. Blumberg
Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of age-group differences in the impact of dietary supplements on nutrient intake and inadequacies. Compared to food alone, use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all age groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17, 8/17 and 6/17 nutrients examined among individuals age ≥71, 51–70 and 19–50 years, respectively. Compared to the other age groups, older adults (≥71 years had lower rates of inadequacy for iron and vitamins A, C, D and E, but higher rates for calcium. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was seen for 8–9 of 13 nutrients, but were mostly less than 5% of the population. In conclusion, dietary supplement use is associated with increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and slight increases in prevalence above the UL, with greater benefits seen among older adults.
Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S
The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akerele, D; Sanusi, R A; Fadare, O A; Ashaolu, O F
This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients. While higher level of income, education and non-farm enterprise engagement may strongly stimulate adequate nutrient intakes, increases in the number of adolescents would substantially diminish it. Although our findings call for renewed attention on diet diverseness, we stress the complementary/synergistic roles of education and rural income improvement, especially through non-farm enterprise diversification in tackling multiple nutritional deficiencies in rural Nigeria.
Martínez, A B; Caballero-Plasencia, A; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Velasco, J; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F
It has been considered a study of nutritional menus offered at noon School in Granada. Balanced diet in children and youth will enable the prevention of diseases in adulthood. Comparing the menus prepared on school and the services offered by catering. The menus are aimed at 5,399 children from Granada, analyzed 354 school menus from 29 centres, public and private schools. Eleven colleges have their own kitchen, while 18 had hired a catering service. The amounts provided in each menu were estimated using standardized photographs of different sizes ration identified by those responsible for the dining room or by weighing Served directly from the ration. Nutritional assessment was determined by software, and the statistical treatment with the program SPSS v. 15.0. There were statistically significant differences in the intakes of energy and nutrients from the menus developed in the centres and catering services. In the catering firms, the available energy and nutrition is similar, and in the menus prepared at the centres, there are significant differences in relation to some nutrients, depending on whether public school or private. The energy, protein and lipid is high and low input from carbohydrates. It is the frequency of excessive consumption of meat and derivatives. To balance the diet of school, it is necessary to complement the menu of midday meals with the rest of the day.
Full Text Available The type of alimentation and the food quality of individuals has undergone remarkable changes along with the progress of the human species. This study contains an historical overview regarding human nutrition from the primitive forms until the paradoxes of contemporary alimentation. Nutritional education aims to inform and to train a person about food choices, dosage and cooking, how to identify authentic food and to understand the value of nutrition. Children need a balanced diet in order to grow and to become healthy adults. The importance of nutritional education in school is discussed taking into account the need of creating healthy eating habits which should be followed through the whole life, but also the lack of physical activity to children.
Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...
Nutrition-friendly Schools Initiative (NFSI): Another brain-storming strategy. A Chiabi, M-T Obama. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
in Durban completed a nutrition education questionnaire (NEQ) to identify activities and visuals suitable for this age group (Phase 1). Consequently, a classroom-based NEP was developed by the researcher in consultation with the foundation phase teacher recruited to teach the NEP. The participating schools were.
Paige, David M.; And Others
Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)
Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy. The World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study predicts that non-communicable diseases linked to obesity will create the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) by 2030. Given this forecast and the limited success ...
range of nutrients, a child needs to consume a good variety of foods from different food groups, every day and in the right proportions. Packing adequate meals including fruits and. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary. School Children in Nnewi, Nigeria. Ugochukwu EF, Onubogu CU, Edokwe ES, Okeke KN.
Furthermore, all best practice studies were grounded on a firm theory of behaviour, such as social cognitive, social marketing or stages of change. Most of the interventions that included a food service component had best practice behavioural outcomes. Conclusions: Numerous school-based nutrition interventions have ...
Natália Sales de CARVALHO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate dietary patterns and significance of diet for pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in eight health units in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with 201 pregnant women. The following instruments were used: a socio-economic and health questionnaire, the Free-Word Association Test, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components and factor analysis. Poisson regression with 5% significance level was used. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: current Brazilian pattern (beans, rice, processed meats, fats, refined grains, pasta and pastries, soft drink, sugar and sweets, cookies and crackers; healthy pattern (fruits and fruit juices, vegetables, whole grains, seafood, dairy products; and energy-rich pattern (salty deep-fried snacks, popcorn, packaged snacks, instant noodles, tubers, and chicken. Women who did not receive nutrition guidance during prenatal care showed less chance of adherence to the current Brazilian dietary pattern (PR=0.87, and therefore their level of consumption of foods commonly present in Brazilian diets was low. For most women, the significance of diet was reported as important and healthy, but it was not associated with any of the diet patterns identified. However, the women who did not consider that during pregnancy diet should be healthy showed greater chance of adherence to the energy-rich pattern (PR=1.18. This finding deserves special attention since excessive weight gain can have a negative effect on pregnancy. Conclusion: Nutrition guidance during prenatal care and the way pregnant women perceive their eating habits can influence their food choices during pregnancy.
Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun
Abstract Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once. A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance. Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20–2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62–1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37–1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28–1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55–0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80–0.93) were negatively associated with school performance (each with P instant noodles, fast foods, and
Sahyoun, N R; Otradovec, C L; Hartz, S C; Jacob, R A; Peters, H; Russell, R M; McGandy, R B
A dietary and biochemical assessment of the nutritional status of 260 elderly men and women, 60-101 y (average 80.5 y), was conducted in 15 long-term-care facilities in the Boston area. Subjects were free of clinically apparent terminal or wasting illness. Nutrient intakes were comparable to those in a simultaneously studied free-living population as were most biochemical markers of nutrient status. Although no specific nutrient deficiencies were identified, blood levels of vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in males and of zinc in both sexes were lower in this institutionalized group than in the free-living subjects. Hematologic indices, albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin levels were also lower than in noninstitutionalized elderly populations. These differences may reflect the greater prevalence of chronic diseases and medication use in a long-term-care population. However, there is no evidence that institutionalization in itself leads to impairment of nutritional status.
May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip
In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip
In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797
Nabhani-Zeidan, Maya; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara
Socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated to be a major predictor of dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in adults. To date, very few studies have addressed this effect among adolescents. To explore differences in nutrient intake and nutrition-related knowledge among adolescents of contrasting SES in Lebanon. In a cross-sectional survey, 209 males and females, aged 17 to 19 years, were recruited from a private university with high tuition and a free public university in Beirut. The participants completed a multicomponent, self-administered questionnaire that inquired about demographic characteristics and nutrition-related knowledge. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained through interviews. Energy-adjusted means of dietary intake and age-adjusted nutrition-related knowledge were compared between groups using a general linear model. Adolescents in the high-SES group consumed more vegetables, meats, and fats and oils (p carbohydrates (p Nutritional knowledge, although high among all participants, was higher in the high-SES group (p nutrition-related knowledge, SES significantly affected dietary intake in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This warrants consideration of other factors, such as cost and environment, that may modulate eating behavior among adolescents from different socioeconomic strata.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Martin, Molly A; Guzman, Marieli; Olinger, Tamara; Pleasant, Andrew; Cabe, Jennifer; Powell, Lynda H
This report describes the development and validation of a technology-based system that integrates data on food choice, nutrition, and plate waste to generate feedback reports summarizing students' dietary intake at school meals. Cafeteria staff used the system to document the school lunch choices of seventh-graders (n = 37) in an urban charter school for 5 months. Plate waste was assessed by research staff using a visual estimation method that was validated against directly weighed plate waste. Most food choices (97.1%) were correctly recorded through the system. Visual estimates of plate waste had excellent interrater reliability (r's ≥ .94) and agreement with direct measurements (ρ's ≥ .75). Plate waste assessment required approximately 10 s/tray. Fifty-four percent of parents received feedback reports consistently. The technology-based system enabled staff to monitor dietary intake accurately at school meals. The system could potentially inform lunch menu modifications aimed at reducing plate waste. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guren, M G; Tobiassen, L B; Trygg, K U; Drevon, C A; Dueland, S
Patients with rectal cancer receive curative radiotherapy towards the pelvis for 5 weeks. Little is known about the impact of radiotherapy on dietary intake and nutritional status. The objective was to examine whether curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer promoted altered intake of energy and nutrients, and change in nutritional indicators. Prospective study. Department of Oncology in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 31 consecutive patients receiving radiotherapy for rectal cancer (50 Gray). A 7-day food intake registration, body weight, upper arm circumference, and analyses of blood samples were performed at the start and the end of radiotherapy, and at follow-up 4-6 weeks and 1 year after the end of radiotherapy. At the end of 5 weeks of radiotherapy, the mean daily energy intake was reduced by 15% from 8.9 to 7.6 MJ as compared with baseline (P = 0.002), and the intake of several nutrients was reduced (P < 0.01). The percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates did not change, nor did the nutrient density. A transient body weight reduction of < 1 kg was observed (P = 0.009). Serum concentrations of vitamin A and 25-OH vitamin D did not change during radiotherapy. The daily intake of energy and nutrients, and body weight, had increased towards pretreatment values 4-6 weeks after radiotherapy. Radiotherapy for rectal cancer caused a transient reduction in energy intake and nutritional indicators. The nutritional quality of the diet was unchanged during radiotherapy.
Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas
Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Piernas, Carmen; Wang, Dantong; Du, Shufa; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Zhihong; Su, Chang; Popkin, Barry M
China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income. 14% of Chinese school-aged children and ~20% of those from urban areas and higher income households had overweight/obesity (p=30% of those from urban areas and higher income households had impaired glucose/ HbA1c (p<0.05). More than half of the studied children had pre-dyslipidemia (i.e. at least one lipid measurement above borderline levels) and 21% of children had dyslipidemia. Approximately 30% of all children had energy intakes above requirements and 38% of them had excessive proportions of dietary fat and saturated fat. Children with higher intakes of total daily energy and total and added sugars had a greater likelihood of having impaired blood pressure and glucose/HbA1c. Childhood overweight and CM risk is prevalent in urban and rural areas of China and across different socioeconomic groups although disparities between classes still pervade. Several dietary factors such as sugars were significant correlates of CM risk.
Louise Bruun Werner
Full Text Available Background: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods: We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006. Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results: The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001 throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions: When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.
Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine
Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995-2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.
Pollitt, E; Jacoby, E; Cueto, S
In 1993, in Peru, the Institute of Nutritional Research conducted two studies in Huaraz in the Andean region to evaluate the educational and nutritional impact of the government's School Breakfast Program. The school breakfast included a small cake and a glass of Amilac (similar in taste and color to milk), which provided 30% of each child's energy requirements, 60% of recommended dietary allowances for minerals and vitamins, and 100% of dietary iron needs. A case control study examined the effects of breakfast on cognition among 54 elementary schoolchildren 9-11 years old. It found that the school breakfast did not have a significant effect on the children's performance in the Number Discrimination, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, or Reaction Time tests. Children nutritionally at risk who received the placebo had significantly slower short-term memory scanning than their counterparts who received the breakfast. The no-risk placebo group exhibited more rapid discrimination between visual stimuli than the no-risk breakfast group. A field evaluation of the program in 10 rural schools, which were randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition, was conducted. In terms of energy, protein, and iron intake, the children in the case and control conditions were not significantly different. The children tended to be either very stunted or overweight. School attendance increased 0.58 points in the experimental group, while it decreased by 2.92 points in the control group (p 0.05). When both groups received the breakfast, attendance rates increased significantly in both groups (p 0.05). Vocabulary was sensitive to the effects of the breakfast. Specifically, the greater the child's weight, the higher his/her vocabulary test scores (p 0.05). These findings suggest that the brain is sensitive to decreases in the short-term availability of nutrients, and that an overnight and morning fast produces a physiological state accompanied by changes in
Huang, Donghong; Sun, Zhenqiu; Hu, Jingxuan; Shen, Minxue; Peng, Zhen; Zeng, Na
To evaluate the effect of nutrition and food safety education among middle school students in a poverty-stricken county in west China, and to explore the better education model for further education. Students of grade 7 to 9 were selected from 4 middle schools in the country through multi-stage cluster sampling for the questionnaire, and the schools were assigned into an intervention group or a control group. After students in the intervention schools completed one year nutrition and food safety education with the textbooks, students were chosen from the same 4 schools to finish the same questionnaire again. A total of 410 students from grade 7 to 9 were selected at the baseline study, and 474 students in the final study. The essential characteristics of the 2 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the baseline investigation, the differences in the scores on nutrition and food safety knowledge, attitude and practice between the 2 groups were not significant (P>0.05). In the final study, the scores on the knowledge, attitude of nutrition knowledge learning, and dietary habits among students in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group (Pstudents mixed model demonstrated that the intervention was protective factor on scores of knowledge, in particular with nutrition related diseases and reasonable diet (P0.05). Nutrition and food safety education can improve the nutrition and food safety knowledge effectively. The curriculum should be further standardized and different emphases should be set up to different grades to cultivate healthy diet behaviors.
Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Kim B; Nguyen, Tam; Kim, Miyong T
The purpose of this article is to describe the process of translating evidence-based dietary guidelines into a tailored nutrition education program for Korean American immigrants (KAI) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a research process involving researchers and communities to build a collaborative partnership. The study was conducted at a community-based organization. In a total of 79 KAI (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39) with uncontrolled type 2 DM (A1C ≥ 7.5%), 44.3% were female and the mean age was 56. 5 ± 7.9 years. A culturally tailored nutrition education was developed by identifying community needs and evaluating research evidence. The efficacy and acceptability of the program was assessed. In translating dietary guidelines into a culturally relevant nutrition education, culturally tailored dietary recommendations and education instruments were used. While dietary guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to frame nutrition recommendations, additional content was adopted from the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) guidelines. Culturally relevant intervention materials, such as Korean food models and an individually tailored serving table, were utilized to solidify nutritional concepts as well as to facilitate meal planning. Evaluation of the education revealed significantly increased DM-specific nutrition knowledge in the intervention group. The participants' satisfaction with the education was 9.7 on a 0 to 10-point scale. The systematic translation approach was useful for producing a culturally tailored nutrition education program for KAI. The program was effective in improving the participants' DM-specific nutrition knowledge and yielded a high level of satisfaction. Future research is warranted to determine the effect of a culturally tailored nutrition education on other clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.
Farghaly, Nadia F; Ghazali, Bothaina M; Al-Wabel, Huda M; Sadek, Ali A; Abbag, Fuad I
To evaluate the life style and dietary habits of school students and the prevalence of some nutritional problems. We conducted this study in Abha city during the scholastic year 2000. A two-stage random sample was used to select the students. The sample consisted of 767 male and female students in different grades of education. A designed questionnaire was used to collect data regarding life style practices and dietary habits. Weight, height, and body mass index were obtained. Diets were rich in carbohydrates, and deficient in fiber. Breakfast was a regular meal for 72% of primary school students compared to 49% of secondary school students. Milk was consumed daily by 51.5% of the sample; fast food consumption was low (2.0 +/- 1.7 times/month). Physical exercise was practiced significantly longer by males than by females; 8.6% and 5.8% of males in intermediate and secondary grades were smokers. Sleeping hours during school days were adequate (7.4 +/- 1.7 hours/day), but relatively higher (9.5 +/- 2.3) during vacation. Underweight (18.9%), obesity (15.9%), and overweight (11%) were prevalent. Overweight and obesity were significantly more prevailing among females of primary and secondary grades. Health education and physical education programs in the schools are recommended to promote healthy life styles and dietary habits. School feeding programs may be required to achieve some of these goals.
Hołyńska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Panczyk, Mariusz
Diabetes is one of the fastest spreading XXI century diseases. One of the most important element of diabetes therapy should constitute dietary treatment resulting from thorough nutritional knowledge. The aim of study was to investigate the connection between the level of knowledge and way of feeding among patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin. The research was conducted among 105 patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Knowledge level was assessed in accordance with author's questionnaire, way of feeding in accordance with 24 hour nutritional interview. Diet 5 and Statistical 10 has been used to carry out data analysis. The largest correctness has been demonstrated in the question about the carbohydrate content in food (60%), the lowest correctness while carbohydrate exchanges knowledge has been checked (12%). Generally, patients demonstrated medium knowledge level (41% correct answers). Good level of knowledge (>50% corrects answers) has been represented by 26%, medium level of knowledge (30-50% corrects answers) by 49%, low level of knowledge (Knowledge assessment has shown too high percentage of energy from carbohydrates and saturated fatty acids and too high consumption of cholesterol and sodium. Moreover dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids shortage has been observed in analyzing diets. Interdependence between knowledge level and way of feeding has not been found (exception: lower percentage of energy from fat in patient's with medium level of knowledge diets). Improper way of feeding and low level of knowledge can constitute a obstacle to achieve optimal treatment results. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Graham, Dan J; Laska, Melissa N
Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. Our study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related attitudes and dietary behaviors among young adult college students. Using cross-sectional online survey data collected in 2010 from a convenience sample in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN (598 attending a 2-year community college; 603 attending a public 4-year university; mean age 21.5 years; 53.4% nonwhite; 52.5% women), study findings indicate that students who reported frequently reading nutrition labels were more likely to have healthier dietary intakes (eg, less fast food and added sugar; more fiber, fruits, and vegetables) compared to those who read labels sometimes or rarely (Pnutrition label use was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between eating-related attitude (ie, feeling that it is important to prepare healthy meals) and dietary quality, indicating that label use may be one means by which individuals who value healthy eating translate their attitude into healthy eating behaviors. Even among those who did not believe it was important to prepare healthy meals, frequent nutrition label use was significantly associated with healthier dietary intake, suggesting that label use may operate independently of nutrition-related attitude in contributing to healthful diet.
Anumudu, C; Afolami, M; Igwe, C; Nwagwu, M; Keshinro, O
The most common cause of anemia is a deficiency of iron; but it may also be caused by deficiencies of folates, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemias are not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pre-school and school- aged children in two rural areas of Odogbolu Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. A total of 177 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin and hematocrit were used to classify anemia. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serum ferritin was compared with standard methods of determining iron deficiency. Under-nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) was classified according to the National Centre for Health Statistics standards. Values below-2SD were defined as mild-moderate under-nutrition, and those below-3SD as severe malnutrition. Most of the children were anemic, 87.1%, having PCV values below the 32% cut-off and 95% with hemoglobin levels lower than the 11 g/dl, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 36% of the children were stunted, 18.3% wasted and 44.2% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than PCV in detecting anemic children. Although anemia was higher in boys and preschoolers compared to girls and school aged children, the difference was significant only in preschoolers (P? = ?.004). Anaemia was also significantly higher in Irawo village school than in Iloti (P? = ?.0001) The anemia detected in this population may be due more to under-nutrition than to malaria.
Students need more than just "any" lunch or breakfast to do well in school--the "quality" of these meals counts also. Studies have demonstrated the role healthy diets can play in students' academic achievement. That's why President Obama signed into law the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in December 2010. This historic legislation provides free…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John
Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.
Grandjean, Ann C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Reimers, Kristin J; Agarwal, Sanjiv
Popcorn is a whole-grain food/snack that is included among foods recommended in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid to increase whole-grain consumption. The purpose of the present study was to use 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recall data to determine the average popcorn intake among Americans, and whether popcorn consumers exhibited different dietary intake patterns or physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease compared with popcorn non-consumers. Mean intake among consumers of popcorn was 38.8 g/day. Compared with non-consumers, popcorn consumers had approximately 250% higher (Ppopcorn consumers), protein, niacin, and folate (lower intake in popcorn consumers). In addition, popcorn consumers had a greater (PPopcorn consumption was associated with increased intake of whole grains, dietary fiber, and certain other nutrients.
Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning Keinke; Snorgaard, Ole
Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided by a regis......Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided...
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use in a fact......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use...
Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Phelps, Josh; Brown, Barbara
Extension is positioned to provide school-based nutrition education programs as required by the 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act. To enhance program acceptance and sustainability, it is important to consider school administrators' and teachers' interests and preferences regarding nutrition education programming. The project…
Castetbon, K; Méjean, C; Deschamps, V; Bellin-Lestienne, C; Oleko, A; Darmon, N; Hercberg, S
Although initiatives are setting up to improve the nutritional status of deprived people, few studies have described the food aid user profile and evaluated their nutritional needs. The contributions of food aid to the food supply, dietary behaviour and nutritional status of food aid users were evaluated in the ABENA study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n = 1664, age ≥18 years). Sociodemographic and economic characteristics, food insufficiency, food supply and diet behaviours were assessed using standardised questionnaires. A subsample of participants underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed taking into account sample weights. Over 70% of participants used food aid as the only source of supply among numerous food groups, and one-quarter of them (27.2%) were using food aid for 3 years or more. The mean food budget was €70.0 per person per month, and 46.0% of subjects were classified as 'food-insufficient'. Half of the subjects fulfilled the French recommendations for starchy foods (48.7%) and 'meat, fish and eggs' (49.4%); 27.3% met the requirements for seafood. Only a very small proportion of participants met the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (1.2%) and dairy products (9.2%). In addition, 16.7% of subjects were obese, 29.4% had high blood pressure, 14.8% were anaemic, 67.9% were at risk of folate deficiency and 85.6% had vitamin D deficiency. These results provide evidence of an unhealthy diet and poor health profiles in severely disadvantaged persons and highlight the importance of food aid in this population. Thus, this study points to the necessity of improving the nutritional quality of currently distributed food aid. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Munk, T; Tolstrup, U; Beck, A M
Background: Many older patients are undernourished after hospitalisation. Undernutrition impacts negatively on physical function and the ability of older patients to perform activities of daily living at home after discharge from acute hospital. The present study aimed to evaluate the evidence...... for an effect of individualised dietary counselling following discharge from acute hospital to home on physical function, and, second, on readmissions, mortality, nutritional status, nutritional intake and quality of life (QoL), in nutritionally at-risk older patients. Methods: A systematic review of randomised......L and readmissions as a result of a lack of data. Conclusions: Individualised dietary counselling by dietitians following discharge from acute hospital to home improved BW, as well as energy and protein intake, in older nutritionally at-risk patients, although without clearly improving physical function. The effect...
Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association--Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs.
Briggs, Marilyn; Safaii, SeAnne; Beall, Deborah Lane
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Society for Nutrition Education (SNE), and the American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) that comprehensive nutrition services must be provided to all of the nation's preschool through grade twelve students. These nutrition services shall be integrated with a coordinated, comprehensive school health program and implemented through a school nutrition policy. The policy should link comprehensive, sequential nutrition education; access to and promotion of child nutrition programs providing nutritious meals and snacks in the school environment; and family, community, and health services' partnerships supporting positive health outcomes for all children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is directly attributed to physical inactivity and diet. Schools can play a key role in reversing this trend through coordinated nutrition services that promote policies linking comprehensive, sequential nutrition education programs, access to and marketing of child nutrition programs, a school environment that models healthy food choices, and community partnerships. This position paper provides information and resources for nutrition professionals to use in developing and supporting comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.
Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.
Rushing, Keith; Asperin, Amelia Estepa
Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this project were to investigate the application of brand personality concepts in the school nutrition (SN) setting and to explore high school students' awareness and acceptance of these branding initiatives. Methods: An embedded, multiple-case replication design included structured interviews with SN…
Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cassady, Diana L.
Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., stra...
Renata Maria Padovani
Full Text Available As avaliações de dietas e o planejamento de consumo são atividades tradicionalmente realizadas por meio da comparação de médias de ingestão contra valores de referência de energia e nutrientes, seja para indivíduos ou grupos. Limitações de ordem técnica devem ser levadas em conta, sem as quais se pode chegar a conclusões equivocadas quanto ao atendimento das necessidades nutricionais. As Recomendações Nutricionais propostas pelo Institute of Medicine dos Estados Unidos, em conjunto com a agência Health Canada, a partir de 1997, conhecidas como Dietary Reference Intakes, representam um novo paradigma para o estabelecimento de indicadores nutricionais de consumo, ao aperfeiçoarem o uso do conceito de risco na avaliação de dietas. Fontes de erro intra ou interindividuais, devidas à variabilidade de padrão de consumo e decorrentes da distribuição das necessidades na população, aliadas a um pequeno número de dias de observação, têm grande impacto sobre a confiabilidade da análise. Por esta razão devem orientar a utilização dos valores, que foram organizados em tabelas com as quatro categorias de nutrientes, publicadas entre 1997 e 2005. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo destacar algumas características de aplicação e consolidar os valores diários de Tolerable Upper Intake Level, Adequate Intake e Recommended Dietary Allowance, facilitando a consulta por parte de profissionais e estudantes da área de nutrição.Diet planning and food intake evaluation are professional activities classically performed by comparing mean values of ingestion against reference values of nutrient and energy intakes, for either groups or individuals. Without considering certain intrinsic limitations of the reference values, such task may render equivocal conclusions with regard to nutritional adequacy. The nutritional recommendations, prepared as a joint effort between the US Institute of Medicine and Health Canada published since
Bhattacharjee, Abhinandan; Bahar, Iqbal; Saikia, Abijit
Head and neck cancer (HNCA) patients have poor nutritional status which clearly bears a negative prognosis in cancer. There is no study and consensus on nutritional assessment tools and diet structure for such patients. This study intends to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and formulate a diet chart keeping in view the general food habit and economic condition of HNCA patients of North East (NE) region. To find out an affordable dietary intervention for HNCA patients based on dietary principles. To assess the role of nutritional assessment tools in these group of patients. This is a 1-year prospective interventional study on HNCA patients attending the Dept of ENT of a teaching hospital. The outcome of the nutritional intervention using a specific diet were assessed using clinical, laboratory and anthropomorphic assessment tools and indices like Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) and Nutritional Assessment Index (NAI). The study diet provided appropriate amounts of nutrients to HNCA patients as evident from improvements in anthropomorphic parameters and nutritional indices. Clinically, Hemoglobin percentage (Hb%), Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm Circumference (MAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TST) were found to be reliable malnutrition markers. Nutritional Assessment Index has been found to be the best index to evaluate malnutrition. The daily requirement of nutrients for HNCA patients can be satisfactorily met by adopting specific diet chart presented in our study. As no structured diet plan are available in literature, our diet chart can act as a template diet appropriate for HNCA patients of this region.
Combet, Emilie; Jarlot, Amandine; Aidoo, Kofi E; Lean, Michael E J
To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular 'junk food' to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal. Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting. Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status. Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations. Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The 'nutritionally balanced pizza' provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (choice. Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate 'junk food' ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.
Pérez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices.
Watt, R G; Dykes, J; Sheiham, A
To assess the proportion of pre-school children meeting reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) and recommendations for daily intakes of iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. To assess whether meeting these five dietary requirements was related to a series of socio-economic variables. Secondary analysis of data on daily consumption of foods and drinks from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years based on 4-day weighed intakes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-five British pre-school children aged 1.5-4.5 years in 1993. Only 1% of children met all five RNIs/recommendations examined; 76% met only two or fewer. Very few children met the recommendations for intakes of zinc (aged over four years) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (all ages). The number of RNIs/recommendations met was related to measures of socio-economic class. Children from families in Scotland and the North of England, who had a manual head of household and whose mothers had fewest qualifications, met the least number of RNIs/recommendations. Very few pre-school children have diets that meet all the RNIs and recommendations for iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. Dietary adequacy with respect to these five parameters is related to socio-economic factors. The findings emphasise the need for a range of public health policies that focus upon the social and economic determinants of food choice within families.
Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out to determine dietary fiber and energy intake and nutritional status of children during the treatment of chronic constipation. Twenty-five patients aged 2 to 12 years with chronic constipation were submitted to clinical evaluation, assessment of dietary patterns, and anthropometry before and after 45 and 90 days of treatment. The treatment of chronic constipation included rectal disimpaction, ingestion of mineral oil and diet therapy. The standardized diet prescribed consisted of regular food without a fiber supplement and met the nutrient requirements according to the recommended daily allowance. The fiber content was 9.0 to 11.9 g for patients aged less than 6 years and 12.0 to 18.0 g for patients older than 6 years. Sixteen patients completed the 90-day follow-up and all presented clinical improvement. The anthropometric variables did not change, except midarm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness which were significantly increased. Statistically significant increases were also found in percent calorie intake adequacy in terms of recommended daily allowance (55.5 to 76.5% on day 45 and to 68.5% on day 90; P = 0.047. Percent adequacy of minimum recommended daily intake of dietary fiber (age + 5 g increased during treatment (from 46.8 to 52.8% on day 45 and to 56.3% on day 90; P = 0.009. Food and dietary fiber intake and triceps skinfold thickness increased during follow-up. We conclude that the therapeutic program provided a good clinical outcome.
Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O
The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.
Siddique, Saadia; Ayub, Muhammad; Shore, Najla; Tariq, Usman; Zaman, Shakila
In Abbottabad district, with the vast poverty stricken rural majority and 80% literacy rate, primary-level education faces great influx of students. This study was carried out to see the nutritional status of children 5-10 years of age attending primary schools of Abbottabad. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 on 400 schoolchildren of 5-10 years of age from three randomly selected primary schools of Abbottabad. After informed consent by the parents/ teachers, a semi-structured Performa/questionnaire was filled for each child. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Correlation of age of the child with height, and weight was calculated. The nutritional status of the study children was particularly optimum; 90% children were in optimal nutritional status and had sound skeletal growth irrespective of their socioeconomic background. There was a significant correlation of nutritional status and skeletal growth of children with parents socioeconomic status. There was a direct correlation between height and weight of children, and their age. Anthropometric measurements indicate a high majority of children in healthy status despite the overall poor setup.
Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.
Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rezola, J G; Santolaya, J; Orduna, J; Dehesa, F
The Bilbao School Health Service was created at the beginning of the century with the aim of preventing transmittable diseases among children as well as improving nutrition. At that time such services were established in many other countries. Since then, according to evolving societal changes and emerging needs, the Service has reoriented its scope and structure towards the Health Promotion scheme. Current tasks include health screening examinations and hygiene surveillance as well as preventive and health education programmes.
Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.
Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…
Feinstein, L; Sabates, R; Sorhaindo, A; Rogers, I; Herrick, D; Northstone, K; Emmett, P
To empirically test the impact of dietary intake at several time points in childhood on children's school attainment and to investigate whether any differences in school attainment between children who ate packed lunches or school meals was due to who these children were, their pre-school dietary patterns, or to what they ate at school. Using longitudinal data available in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relative importance of diet at different ages for school attainment. Three indicators of school attainment were used: at ages 4-5 entry assessments to school, at ages 6-7 Key Stage 1 national tests and at ages 10-11 Key Stage 2 national tests. These outcome variables were measured in levels as well as in changes from the previous educational stage. The key finding at age 3 was that "junk food" dietary pattern had a negative association with the level of school attainment. A weak association remained after controlling for the impact of other dietary patterns at age 3, dietary patterns at ages 4 and 7 and other confounding factors. The authors did not find evidence that eating packed lunches or eating school meals affected children's attainment, once the impact of junk food dietary pattern at age 3 was accounted for in the model. Early eating patterns have implications for attainment that appear to persist over time, regardless of subsequent changes in diet.
Wong Les G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood
Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Arija Val, Victoria; Maíz Aldalur, Edurne; Martínez de la Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Quiles Izquierdo, Joan; Rodríguez Martín, Amelia; Román Viñas, Blanca; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Tur Marí, Josep Antoni; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra Majem, Lluis
Objective: The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) designed in 1994 a food guide for the Spanish population, updated in 2001. This report presents a new updated edition based on the best scientifi c evidence available. Methods: From a health in all policies approach, a group of experts in nutrition and public health associated with SENC was convened to review the evidence on diet-health, nutrition intake and food consumption in the Spanish population, as well as food preparation and consumption habits, determinants and impact of diet on environmental sustainability. Existing systematic reviews, updates, reports, meta-analysis and the latest quality studies have been considered. The collaborative group contributed to draft the document and design the graphic icon, then subject of a consultation process, discussion and qualitative evaluation, particularly relevant through the Advisory Group for the SENC-December 2016 Dietary Guidelines. Results: The new recommendations and its graphical representation highlights as basic considerations the practice of physical activity, emotional balance, energy balance to maintain body weight at adequate levels, healthy cooking procedures and adequate water intake. The recommendations promote a balanced, varied and moderate diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, varying amounts of dairy and alternating consumption of fi sh, eggs and lean meats, along with the preferential use of extra virgin olive oil for cooking and seasoning. Reinforce the interest in a healthy, sympathetic, supportive, sustainable diet, based on seasonal and local products, axis for conviviality, devoting adequate time and encourage the use of nutrition labelling information. Conclusions: The analysis of the evidence available and updated information on food consumption in Spain highlights the need to strengthen and implement the recommendations contained in this document to progressively achieve a greater adherence.
Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M
To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. The study was school-based. Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students.
Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J
Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P growth of Filipino children.
Doocy, Shannon; Cohen, Sarah; Emerson, Jillian; Menakuntuala, Joseph; Santos Rocha, Jozimo
Food and nutrition security in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo are threatened by political instability and chronic poverty. The Jenga Jamaa II project, implemented between 2011 and 2016 in South Kivu Province, aimed to improve household food security and child nutritional status using various intervention strategies, including farmer field school (FFS) programs. To characterize the changes in agricultural production techniques, household food security, and child nutritional status associated with participation in FFS programs. We used a community-matched design to select FFS intervention and control households from 3 health zones in which the project was operating. Data on food security (Household Dietary Diversity Score [HDDS] and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [HFIAS]) and child anthropometry were collected semiannually for 3.5 years in both groups. Additional data on agricultural practices were collected annually in the FFS group only. Focus groups with FFS staff and beneficiaries were conducted in the final project year. Statistical analyses included basic descriptive statistics such as paired t tests and analysis of covariance; regression models using a bootstrap were applied to generate P values and confidence intervals while accounting for differences between groups. The study enrolled 388 FFS beneficiaries and their households in the intervention group and 324 non-FFS households in the control group. FFS participants reported increasing the number of different agricultural techniques they used by an average of 2.7 techniques over the project period, from 5.1 in 2013 to 7.9 in 2016 ( P .05). Although FFS participants diversified their agricultural production strategies and experienced improvements in household food security, there was not a positive impact on child nutritional status. In this food-insecure context, improvements in agricultural production alone are unlikely to significantly change child nutritional status-a health outcome
Lua, Pei Lin; Wan Putri Elena, Wan Dali
The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future. PMID:22977369
parenteral nutrition was considered to be the most convincing, but overall data do not provide sufficient information on the reversibility of the possible deficiencies and the nature of any dose–response curve in order to identify a dietary requirement for humans. The Panel concludes that no Average...
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the general principles for development and application of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based...... on the available data. For the age group pregnant and lactating women. Interpolation or extrapolation between population groups...
Cust, A. E.; Skilton, M. R.; van Bakel, M. M. E.; Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Agnoli, C.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Buurma, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Jensen, M. K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Kaaks, R.; Noethlings, U.; Chloptsios, Y.; Zylis, D.; Mattiello, A.; Caini, S.; Ocke, M. C.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Skeie, G.; Parr, C. L.; Molina-Montes, E.; Manjer, J.; Johansson, I.; McTaggart, A.; Key, T. J.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.
Objective: To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35-74 years, were administered a
Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for calcium. These include Average Requirement (AR), Population Reference Intake (PRI) and Adequate Intake (AI). For adults, data were analysed from a number...
Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris
Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak
Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.
Rivera, Juan A; Pedraza, Lilia S; Aburto, Tania C; Batis, Carolina; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; González de Cosío, Teresita; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea
Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition: stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in young children, iron deficiency in pregnant women, and widespread obesity across age groups. The aim was to summarize and discuss findings published in this supplement on dietary intakes and the eating habits of the Mexican population. A 24-h recall questionnaire that used the multiple-pass method with a repeated measure in a fraction of the sample was applied in a nationally representative sample. We estimated mean intakes and percentages of inadequacy for macronutrients and micronutrients; mean intakes and percentages of the population who adhere to dietary recommendations for food groups; sources of added sugars; intakes of discretionary foods by mealtime, place, and activity; and mean dietary intakes in children malnutrition and are useful to design food and nutrition policies. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Ells, Louisa J; Hillier, Frances C; Shucksmith, Janet; Crawley, Helen; Harbige, Laurence; Shield, Julian; Wiggins, Andy; Summerbell, Carolyn D
The aim of the present review was to perform a systematic in-depth review of the best evidence from controlled trial studies that have investigated the effects of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education and performance in school-aged children (4-18 years) from the UK and other developed countries. The twenty-nine studies identified for the review examined the effects of breakfast consumption, sugar intake, fish oil and vitamin supplementation and 'good diets'. In summary, the studies included in the present review suggest there is insufficient evidence to identify any effect of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education or performance of school-aged children from the developed world. However, there is emerging evidence for the effects of certain fatty acids which appear to be a function of dose and time. Further research is required in settings of relevance to the UK and must be of high quality, representative of all populations, undertaken for longer durations and use universal validated measures of educational attainment. However, challenges in terms of interpreting the results of such studies within the context of factors such as family and community context, poverty, disease and the rate of individual maturation and neurodevelopment will remain. Whilst the importance of diet in educational attainment remains under investigation, the evidence for promotion of lower-fat, -salt and -sugar diets, high in fruits, vegetables and complex carbohydrates, as well as promotion of physical activity remains unequivocal in terms of health outcomes for all schoolchildren.
Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza
The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition.
Christine Persson Osowski
Full Text Available Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR, which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6 and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7. The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results: The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Conclusions: The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met.
Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A.; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes
This Comment by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to provide a summary of the role of nutrition-related factors on obesity prevention in children ages 2 to 18 years. This Comment emphasizes that dietary interventions
Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M
Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)Dchildren enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Márquez Moreno, Raúl; Beato Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo García, M Ángeles
Living habits, several nutritional aspects and relationship between them were studied of Hospital de Mérida health professional of the Extremadura Health Service (SES). Forty-three employed workers participates voluntary in this project by submitting a questionary about personal details and life style, and a seven-days-food-intake-dietary. Finally, their anthropometric data were also measured. Men tend to play more physical activities than women. They also were more sedentary. They use to smoke less than women, but they do drink more. Normal-weight subjects tried to practice sport during more time than overweight and obese ones. However, they also remained sitting for longer periods on a weekly basis. The average daily intakes of kilocalories were higher in men, but protein intakes were higher in women. Fat intake was increased in both sexes. The average daily intake of kilocalories was lower in obese subjects than over and normal-weights ones. An increase in the body mass index was accompanied by a bigger waist perimeter, waist to hip ratio, fat mass and body fat percentage. The majority of people interviewed in the survey have healthy living and dietary habits. Protein and fat daily intake is slightly higher than the values recommended by the WHO. Carbohydrates intake, by contrast, is lower. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Saracco, M G; Calabrese, G; Cavallini, M; Montano, V; Rinaldi, B; Valfrè, W; Aguggia, M
The role of food associated with the headache has been the subject of scientific research since 1900, especially for migraine patients. A substantial proportion of patients (ranging from 12 to 60 %) report that their migraine attacks may be precipitated by dietary elements, certain eating habits (fasting) and abuse (caffeine and alcoholic beverages abuse and withdrawal). The biological mechanism by means of triggers in general and food in particular precipitate migraine attacks remains obscure. Based on the data in the literature, we performed an osservational study searching for possible correlations between nutrition and primary headaches. We enrolled 50 consecutive patients from the Headache Center of the Neurology Department of Hospital "Cardinal Massaia" of Asti and submitted them a 14-item questionnaire for the assessment of relationship between primary headache and food. Our preliminary data, although the follow up is still in progress, show that there are strong associations between the onset of the headache and dietary habits. It will be necessary to analyze a larger sample in order to draw more precise conclusions on this topic.
Yang, Chung S; Chen, Jayson X; Wang, Hong; Lim, Justin
Epidemiological studies have observed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of certain types of cancer. Extensive studies have been conducted on the cancer preventive activities of constituents from food and beverages. While laboratory research has shown impressive and promising results, such promising cancer preventive activities have not been demonstrated in many human intervention trials. This article analyzes the major differences between these different types of studies and the limitations of these studies. Animal and cell line studies usually use optimal conditions in order to demonstrate the hypothesized effects, sometimes without considering the human relevance. On the other hand, some clinical trials were designed without a good understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological properties of the agents used. Lessons learned from these studies will be illustrated using vitamin E, β-carotene and selenium as examples for nutrients, and green tea polyphenols as an example for non-nutritive dietary constituents. From the lessons learned, we believe that more interdisciplinary collaboration and integration of laboratory and human studies would effectively advance the field of cancer prevention. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…
Nikitinа T. A.
Full Text Available In competitive and constantly changing market conditions special attention has been paid to market researches. The results of these studies become the basis for formation of sales estimates, and projected levels of revenues and profits from sales. Market researches are the essential condition to make offered goods successful at the market. It is market researches that help companies to realize the control of consumers' needs changing. The market researches on demand for dietary and prophylactic nutrition in the Saratov Region have been the research objective. In accordance with the given objective the following goals have been formed: 1 finding out the most spread diseases among the population; 2 determination of the average age of people suffering from one or another disease; 3 studying demand of products with food fiber additives; 4 analysis of respondent's preference regarding the addition of natural vegetable additives to foodstuff; 5 demand for dietary and prophylactic foodstuff among the population. Since the survey has been carried out among people suffering from various diseases, particular attention during the market research has been turned to the medical and prophylactic properties of food fibers to find out the attitude of the respondents to functional foodstuff. The dynamics of noninfectious diseases, the population health status depending on age, and increase of overweight people during 2012–2014 have been shown. As a result of questionnaire data processing it has been ascertained that the population is of low awareness regarding the necessity to consume foodstuff with radioprotective and chelator properties. The researches have demonstrated that dietary and prophylactic foodstuff is in demand and consequently the development of such products is reasonable.
Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Demarest, Chelsea L; Dixon, Crystal E; Dortche, Ciarra Jm; Bullock, Sally L; McGuirt, Jared; Ward, Rachel; Ammerman, Alice S
Because farmers' markets include a variety of fruits and vegetables, shopping at farmers' markets would likely improve diet quality among low-income consumers, as well as promote sustainable direct farm-to-consumer business models. However, not much is known about how to promote farmers' market shopping among low-income consumers. Therefore, the purpose of the present paper was to examine barriers to and facilitators of shopping at farmers' markets and associations between shopping at farmers' markets and self-reported dietary behaviours (fruit and vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption) and BMI. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between farmers' market shopping frequency, awareness of markets, access to markets, dietary behaviours and BMI. Department of Social Services, Pitt County, eastern North Carolina, USA. Between April and July 2013, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (n 205) completed a quantitative survey. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets included does not accept SNAP/electronic benefit transfer, out of the way and lack of transportation. Farmers' market shopping was associated with awareness of farmers' markets (estimate =0·18 (se 0·04), Pvegetable consumption was positively associated with farmers' market shopping (estimate =1·06 (se 0·32), P=0·001). Our study is one of the first to examine SNAP participants' farmers' market shopping, distance to farmers' markets and dietary behaviours. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets and increasing awareness of existing markets should be addressed in future interventions to increase SNAP participants' use of farmers' markets, ultimately improving diet quality in this high-risk group.
Goris, Janny M; Zomerdijk, Nienke; Temple, Victor J
To assess the nutritional status of infants, children and non-pregnant women and underlying factors, dietary diversity and community food security, in the Kamea community in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Prospective cross sectional study. Study population 69 infants (0-59 months), 151 children (6-12 years) and 79 non-pregnant women from 10 villages in Kotidanga Local Level Government, Kerema District, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Among infants prevalence of moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 38.9%, 8.3% and 44.4%, respectively; after adjusting Hb concentration for altitude, the anaemia prevalence was 53.8%. Among children prevalence of severe stunting was 21.2%; moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 57.6%, 12.2% and 48.5%, respectively; anaemia was 30.3%; median urinary iodine concentration was 32.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 88.1%. Among women, mean height, weight and BMI were 1.46±0.04 m, 43.9±5.91 kg and 20.4±2.32 kg/m2, respectively; low BMI (infants; complementary foods were limited in variety and frequency. Dietary diversity was limited, implementation of the universal salt iodisation strategy restricted and community food security was inadequate. The high prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia among the three age groups, including moderate status of iodine deficiency among women and children, are significant public health concerns. Improvements in dietary diversity, adequate use of iodised salt and community food security are needed.
Sarah J. Burkhart
Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.
Burkhart, Sarah J; Pelly, Fiona E
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384-18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0-9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%-79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3-4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10-138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%-48%) and 24% TE (range 8%-44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.
Díaz, Nayka; Páez, María Concepción; Solano, Liseti
This study assessed nutritional status of 590 children from Naguanagua, Valencia, attending school, aged between 4 and 14 years and its relation to social stratification, age and gender. Body dimension indicators were used for nutritional diagnosis. NCHS/OMS and Frisancho references were used for height/age (HA) weight/height (WH) cut-off points, and body mass index (BMI). Graffar modified by Mendez was used to establish socioeconomic status. Statistical analyses included descriptives, x2 and student-test. 91% of the children were in poverty, (71% relative and 20% critical). For HA, 6.4% classified as short, 27.6% in risk, and 4.9% tall for age without significative differences between sex. For WH, 0.6% were in nutritional deficit, 10.2% in risk and 22.1% in excess. For BMI, 12.9% had nutritional deficit, 7.3% excess but no significative differences for sex. Stunting and deficit were present in all age groups, but more significantly in those older than 10 years (12%; 23.9% respectively). Social stratification was associated with WH and BMI being deficit more prevalent in III and V class, predominating excess in IV class. The high prevalence of obesity makes this group as a high risk one for chronic degenerative diseases.
Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie
Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…
Park, Sohyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kweon, Soon Ju; Wang, Youfa; Gittelsohn, Joel
The role of a school's nutrition environment in explaining students' eating behaviors and weight status has not been examined in an Asian setting. The purpose of this study was to create a school nutrition environment index and to pilot test the index in elementary and middle schools in urban South Korea. This study used a mixed-methods approach. Environment assessment tools were developed based on formative research, which comprised literature reviews, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Key elements from the formative research were included in the assessment tool, which consisted of a structured survey questionnaire for school dietitians. Fifteen school dietitians from 7 elementary and 8 middle schools in Seoul completed the questionnaire. The formative research revealed four main sections that guided a summary index to assess a school's nutrition environment: resource availability, education and programs, dietitians' perceptions and characteristics, and school lunch menu. Based on the literature reviews and interviews, an index scoring system was developed. The total possible score from the combined four index sections was 40 points. From the 15 schools participating in the pilot survey, the mean school nutrition-environment index was 22.5 (standard deviation ± 3.2; range 17-28). The majority of the schools did not offer classroom-based nutrition education or nutrition counseling for students and parents. The popular modes of nutrition education were school websites, posters, and newsletters. This paper illustrates the process used to develop an instrument to assess a school's nutrition environment. Moreover, it presents the steps used to develop a scoring system for creation of a school nutrition environment index. As pilot testing indicated the total index score has some variation across schools, we suggest applying this instrument in future studies involving a larger number of schools. Future studies with larger samples will allow investigation
Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Hendriks, Wouter H
Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13,000 and 17,000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. This has led to the classification of dogs as omnivores, but the origin of these 'omnivorous' traits has, hitherto, been left unexplained. We discuss the foraging ecology of wild wolves and calculate the nutrient profiles of fifty diets reported in the literature. Data on the feeding ecology of wolves indicate that wolves are true carnivores consuming a negligible amount of vegetal matter. Wolves can experience prolonged times of famine during low prey availability while, after a successful hunt, the intake of foods and nutrients can be excessive. As a result of a 'feast and famine' lifestyle, wolves need to cope with a highly variable nutrient intake requiring an adaptable metabolism, which is still functional in our modern-day dogs. The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog's closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges. The present study provides new insights into dog nutrition and contributes to the ongoing optimisation of foods for pet dogs.
Craine, Joseph M.; Elmore, Andrew; Angerer, Jay P.
With over 1 billion cattle in the world as well as over 2 billion sheep, goats and buffalo, these animals contribute approximately 15% of the global human protein supply while producing a significant proportion of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and global nutrient fluxes. Despite increasing reliance on grazers for protein production globally, the future of grazers in a changing world is uncertain. Factors such as increased prevalence of drought, rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and sustained nutrient export all have the potential to reduce cattle performance by reducing the nutritional quality of forage. However, there are no analyses to quantify changes in diet quality, subsequent impact on cattle performance and cost of supplementation necessary to mitigate any predicted protein deficiency. To quantify the trajectory of nutritional stress in cattle, we examined more than 36 000 measurements of dietary quality taken over 22 yr for US cattle. Here, we show that standardizing for spatial and temporal variation in drought and its effects on forage quality, cattle have been becoming increasingly stressed for protein over the past two decades, likely reducing cattle weight gain. In economic terms, the replacement costs of reduced protein provision to US cattle are estimated to be the equivalent of 1.9 billion annually. Given these trends, nitrogen enrichment of grasslands might be necessary if further reduction in protein content of forages is to be prevented.
Susan M. Bengtson Nash
Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.
Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D
Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.
Whatnall, Megan C; Patterson, Amanda J; Ashton, Lee M; Hutchesson, Melinda J
Brief interventions are effective in improving health behaviours including alcohol intake, however the effectiveness of brief interventions targeting nutrition outcomes has not been determined. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of brief nutrition interventions in adults. Seven databases were searched for RCT/pseudo RCT studies published in English to April 2016, and evaluating brief interventions (i.e. single point of contact) designed to promote change in eating behaviours in healthy adults (≥18 years). Of 4849 articles identified, 45 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies targeted fruit and/or vegetable intake (n = 21) or fat intake (n = 10), and few targeted diet quality (n = 2). Median follow-up was 3.5 months, with few studies (n = 4) measuring longer-term outcomes (≥12 months). Studies aimed to determine whether a brief intervention was more effective than another brief intervention (n = 30), and/or more effective than no intervention (n = 20), with 17 and 11 studies, respectively, reporting findings to that effect. Interventions providing education plus tailored or instructional components (e.g. feedback) were more effective than education alone or non-tailored advice. This review suggests that brief interventions, which are tailored and instructional, can improve short-term dietary behaviours, however evidence for longer-term behaviour change maintenance is limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliver, Antonio J Sánchez; León, María Teresa Miranda; Hernández, Eduardo Guerra
The abuse of all types of substance to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements in a group of 415 individuals (260 males and 155 females) from 4 gyms in Seville (Spain). The users completed a previously designed questionnaire whose content validity had been tested in a pilot study. Out of the total sample, 56.14% had consumed a supplement at some time. Among these, the objective was improvement of physical appearance in 57.16%, health care in 16.7%, and sports performance enhancement in 13.2%. The profile of the supplement consumer is a young man who has performed activities in gyms for some time, goes to the gym for several hours a week and is on some type of diet. The percentage of nutritional supplement users (56%) is within values reported in other studies. The five supplements most frequently consumed by these individuals were (in decreasing order): proteins (28%), L-carnitine (18.6%), sport drinks (18.3%), creatine (17.1%) and vitamin complex (17.1%).
Vassilopoulou, E; Christoforou, C; Andreou, E; Heraclides, A
Aim. To determine whether food allergy affects overall dietary intake and food choices in Cypriot primary school children. Methods. As part of the first epidemiological study in Cyprus on food allergy in primary school children, two 24-hour recalls (one from a week and one from a weekend day) of twenty-eight food allergic children (21 girls) and thirty healthy children (20 girls) aged 6-11 years old, were analysed and compared regarding their macro- and micronutrient content, food choices and meal distribution. Results. Significant differences between the two subgroups of children were estimated regarding the total energy intake and macronutrients, where food allergic children were found to consume in lower quantities, as well as for calcium, niacin, fiber and vitamin E. Food allergic children were also found to avoid combining foods from the various food groups in their meals, and to prefer specific food products from each category, whereas they consumed higher amounts of sugar and fructose. Conclusion. Food allergy in Cypriot food allergic children impacts on both the quality and quantity of food choices, probably due to lack of nutritional education regarding proper elimination diet and alternative nutrient sources.
Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, under-nutrition is a common health problem, but for socio-cultural background, it is most predominant among the female population starting from their early life to motherhood. For the adolescent girls, there has been no such study though they will be the future mothers. Therefore, this study is designed to address the lifestyle and nutrition of the Bangladeshi female adolescents. The study was conducted purposively in Dhaka selecting randomly 15 of 95 City corporation wards of Dhaka City. All adolescent girls aged 10–18 years were considered eligible participants of an urban population of Bangladesh. The study included socio-demographic information, clinical examination, dietary intake, physical activities and body mass index (BMI = weight in kg / height in m. sq.. Overall, 352 adolescent girls volunteered. Socio-economically, 51% of them had monthly family income ³ 20,000 BDT and 11.4% had <10,000 BDT. Of the participants, 14.8% had BMI <18.5, 80.7% had 18.5 – 24.9, and 4.6% had ³ 25. BMI was found not to have significant association with physical activities. No clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency were observed. On clinical examination 75% of the participants were found healthy, 15.9% had anemia and 5.7% had diarrhea. Compared with the national dietary intake, the cereal intake was lower but protein containing foods like pulse and nuts, meat, egg, fish, milk and milk products were found very much close to the national intake. On the average, 95 % of calorie, 93.5 % of protein and 96.5 % of fat requirement were met. For micronutrient requirement, very low intake was observed with calcium (62 % and iron (63 %. In conclusion, the participants consumed rice daily with frequent consumption of vegetables. Although the study subjects were mostly from higher class of urban dwellers their dietary intake was found not healthy as evidenced by daily rice intake and very low intake of fruits, calcium and iron indicating lack of
Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo
Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…
Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…
Kang, M; Kim, D W; Lee, H; Lee, Y J; Jung, H J; Paik, H-Y; Song, Y J
The use of dietary supplements (DSs) by children and adolescents is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of DS users and examine the nutritional contributions of DSs to total nutrient intakes in children and adolescents, using data obtained from a national survey. In total, 3134 subjects aged 9-18 years who participated in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) were selected; the survey included 24-h recall questions on food intake and questions on DS use over the past year. Nutrient intakes from DSs were calculated using the aid of a label-based database on such supplements, and individual total nutrient intakes were derived by combining information on the foods and DSs consumed by each subject. There were 895 DS users (28.5%), 85.2% of whom (n=577) had complete DS nutrient information and were therefore defined as identified-DS users. Identified-DS users were slightly younger and had a greater household income and better nutritional knowledge than did non-users. The most frequently consumed type of supplement was a 'multivitamin and minerals' complex. For total nutrient intake, identified-DS users had a significantly higher intake of most of the nutrients, except for macronutrient and sodium than non-users. In all identified-DS users, the contribution of vitamins and minerals from DSs to total nutrient intake was higher than energy and macronutrients. DS use by children and adolescents can improve micronutrient status, but it also increases the risk of excessive intake of certain vitamins and minerals.
Kunkel, H O
Evidence is provided showing that interests, values and belief systems have affected the development of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and nutrition guidelines for Americans in the past and can be expected to do so in the future. The conflicts of the 1980s relative to the nutritional guidelines for Americans and the RDAs illustrate the tension among values that can parallel a conflict of interests. In the conflicts of the 1980s, we saw an apparent conflict between those policies that attempt to optimize outcomes for a large class of affected parties and those policies that attempt to establish constraints on actions which appear to threaten individual autonomy and freedom of choice. The former approach derives from utilitarian, consequential moral philosophy which evaluates policies by evaluating costs and harms, and weighing them against benefits to all parties. The latter has its strongest advocates in contemporary libertarianism which takes individual freedom to be the bottom line. Ethical vegetarianism, a belief system which would limit RDAs and guidelines to those that can be translated to vegan and other vegetarian diets, has been a more recent entry into the discussions. Such human value issues suggest that a set of RDAs or of nutrition guidelines is analogous to and may be considered to be an ethic. An ethic is a theory reached via the method of reflective equilibrium that is a coherent ordered triple set of beliefs: a set of considered moral judgments, a set of moral principles, and a set of relevant scientific background theories. The reasoning, however, can become circular and unsound when the considered moral judgments, moral principles and relevant background are not independent sources of information. If they are mixed or, for example, an intuition is mistaken for a scientific conclusion, the reasoning can be flawed.
Kruseman, Maaike; Barandereka, Nelly-Ange; Hudelson, Patricia; Stalder, Hans
To conduct an assessment of perceived dietary changes and problems by African asylum seekers, in order to develop appropriate nutritional education interventions. A cross-sectional qualitative study among a convenience sample. Analysis compared and contrasted reported dietary changes and migration-related difficulties. Nineteen interviews were analysed. After migration, main dietary changes were the decrease in different fruits and vegetables consumed weekly from 10 to 2 and 17 to 10 respectively. The number of respondents drinking sweetened beverages more than 3 times a week increased from 3 to 18. Reasons for changes were related to prices, taste, choice and accessibility. These dietary changes may have serious health consequences. Future remedial interventions based on suggestions of the respondents could easily be implemented.
Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Ji-Yun
Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for healthy eating is an effective approach.
Zeisel, Steven H
Science is beginning to understand how genetic variation and epigenetic events alter requirements for, and responses to, nutrients (nutrigenomics). At the same time, methods for profiling almost all of the products of metabolism in a single sample of blood or urine are being developed (metabolomics). Relations between diet and nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiles and between those profiles and health have become important components of research that could change clinical practice in nutrition. Most nutrition studies assume that all persons have average dietary requirements, and the studies often do not plan for a large subset of subjects who differ in requirements for a nutrient. Large variances in responses that occur when such a population exists can result in statistical analyses that argue for a null effect. If nutrition studies could better identify responders and differentiate them from nonresponders on the basis of nutrigenomic or metabolomic profiles, the sensitivity to detect differences between groups could be greatly increased, and the resulting dietary recommendations could be appropriately targeted. It is not certain that nutrition will be the clinical specialty primarily responsible for nutrigenomics or metabolomics, because other disciplines currently dominate the development of portions of these fields. However, nutrition scientists' depth of understanding of human metabolism can be used to establish a role in the research and clinical programs that will arise from nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling. Investments made today in training programs and in research methods could ensure a new foundation for clinical nutrition in the future. PMID:17823415
Akingbade Ayowale Kelvin
Full Text Available Background Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity which are indices of nutritional status with their health complications are on the increase, and obesity has been reported as a potential health problem in developing countries despite the prevailing poor socio-economic situation. Objective This study was designed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. Methodology A descriptive cross sectional study design involving a 4-stage sampling technique was used to select 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs randomly from each of the 3 senatorial districts in Ekiti state .The LGAs selected were Ido/Osi, Oye, Ado, Ekiti west, Ikere and Ise/Orun, 2 wards from each LGA, 16 secondary schools and 789 students. Data on demographic, socio-economic characteristics and family composition were obtained using pre tested interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Dietary intake of respondents was assessed using 24-hour dietary recall. WHO Body Mass Index-for-age (BMI-for-age chart was used to determine the BMI-for-age and adapted Total Diet Assessment (TDA software was used to estimate nutrient intake of respondents. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for data analysis, and level of significance was set at 5.0%. Results Age, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and BMI-for-age of the respondents were 14.4±1.9 years, 0.8±0.1m, 0.7±0.1m, 0.9±0.1, and 45.1percentile respectively. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were 11.7%, 8.7% and 4.9% respectively. Respondents at risk of abdominal obesity were 1.4% and 21.2% for males and females respectively. The energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat intakes of participants were 2004.73±1301.02kcal, 57.23±39.43, 328.21±165.39g and 16.06±13.33g respectively. Female respondents have higher mean dietary intakes compared with the male’s respondents. Nutrient intake adequacy did not have
Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…
Siobhan A. O’Halloran
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.
Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania
Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time child...
Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L
The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Richter, Shannon L; Vandervet, Laura M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Salvadori, Marina I; Seabrook, Jamie A; Dworatzek, Paula D N
Increased attention has been directed toward the school food environment because children consume important contributions toward their daily food intake while at school. In Canada, most elementary school students bring a lunch to school and there are minimal data on the composition and consumption of these lunches. Dietary assessment of home-packed lunches is challenging compared with assessment of standardized school meals due to greater diversity of items, nonstandard portions, and opaque containers. We assessed accuracy and reliability of a food observation method whereby upper-year nutrition students (n=15) were trained to assess packed lunch contents and intake in elementary schools. Accuracy and reliability was assessed during 2010-2011 in three observational phases: sample lunches, volunteer-consumed lunches, and elementary school students' lunches (n=32). Observers accurately identified 96% and 95% of items in the sample and volunteer lunches, respectively. Similarly, they accurately reported portion sizes for 86% and 94% of the items in the sample and volunteer lunches, thus showing improvements in successive phases. Interobserver reliability for amount consumed, by portion size and macronutrient content, ranged from 0.79 to 0.88 in the volunteer-consumed lunches and 0.78 to 0.86 in the students' lunches, with a majority ≥0.80. It is noteworthy that the analyses for the amount consumed were conducted as absolute amounts with no allowances for discrepancies, which differs from other interobserver reliability assessments where as much as 25% discrepancy is considered agreement. Observers with prior nutrition knowledge assessed packed lunch contents and intake accurately and reliably by direct observation in an elementary school setting. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Su-Juan; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Ting; Xu, Jia-Pei; Tang, Yi; Liu, You-Xue; Chen, Jie
To investigate the association between the development of hypertension and nutrition in school-age children in Fengdu County of Chongqing, China. A total of 8 033 children from 2 public primary schools in Fengdu County of Chongqing, whose registered residence was in the subdistricts where the two schools were located, were selected as study subjects using cluster random sampling. Body height, body weight, and blood pressure were measured, and the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary survey. The association between body mass index (BMI), dietary nutrients, and the development of hypertension in children was analyzed. A total of 7 538 children were enrolled for analysis. The detection rates of obesity, overweight, and hypertension were 9.11%, 12.27%, and 11.83% respectively. In children with obesity and overweight, the detection rate of hypertension was 33.62% and 17.84% respectively, 4.02 and 2.13 times that in normal children. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis revealed that increased intake of calcium and sodium increased the risk of hypertension (OR=1.003 and 1.002 respectively), while the increased iron intake and calcium intake per unit body weight reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=0.979 and 0.926 respectively). The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in school-age children in Fengdu County of Chongqing is high. BMI and dietary nutrients are closely associated with the development of hypertension in children. Active control of body weight, adjustment of dietary structure, and limitation of sodium intake should be adopted to reduce the development of hypertension in school-age children.
The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.
Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.
In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality
Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie M; Venter, Christina S; Kruger, H Salomé; Veldman, Frederick J; Macintyre, Una E
HIV-infected subjects who followed a diet rich in animal foods had smaller decreases in serum albumin, haemoglobin and lipid variables, and smaller increases in liver enzymes, than those who consumed a diet based on staple foods. This suggests that animal foods are associated with improved nutritional status in HIV-infected persons. These results should be confirmed with intervention studies before dietary recommendations for asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals can be made.
Ongan, Dilek; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah
To evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake of institutionalized elderly in Turkey. Cross-sectional study. 25 institutions in 19 cities throughout Turkey. Elderly residents aged 65 years and older (n=554). Nutritional status using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food consumption with 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)). The mean age of the elderly was 76.1±7.3 years. BMI of elderly men and women were found to be 26.59±4.58kg/m(2) and 30.07±6.32kg/m(2), respectively. WC of elderly men and women were found to be 98.90±1.33cm and 100.62±1.34cm, respectively. Most of the elderly were overweight based on BMI and at risk of metabolic diseases based on WC. According to MNA, 44.2% had normal nutritional status, 49.1% were at risk of malnutrition, 6.7% had malnutrition. All nutrients intake was favorable according to requirements, except for calcium and magnesium. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, C folat, iron, zinc intake of elderly who had normal nutritional status, who were at risk of malnutrition and malnourished were significantly different. Energy and nutrients intake of elderly who had normal nutritional status was found to be better than the others. Nutritional status should be periodically screened in the institutionalized elderly to prevent malnutrition. Also, it was noted that adequate energy and nutrients intake of the elderly played a crucial role in maintaining nutritional status and preventing malnutrition within residential homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A
Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p eating habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.
Rosi, Alice; Scazzina, Francesca; Ingrosso, Lisa; Morandi, Angelica; Del Rio, Daniele; Sanna, Alberto
The aim of this study was observing and improving children's eating habits through an edutainment technological platform. A single-group education intervention was carried out in primary schools in Parma and Milano, Italy. A total of 76 children (32 females and 44 males, 8-10 years old) were involved in a 3-month nutritional program including lessons and educational videogames. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, juices and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured using 3-day food diaries before and after the intervention. The daily total consumption of fruit and vegetables increased from 421.8 (320.3) to 484.3 (337.2) g/day (p = 0.016). Consequently, daily dietary TAC increased by 26%, rising from 1.4 (1.3) to 1.6 (1.3) mmol of Trolox equivalents (p = 0.006). The methods and, particularly, the use of technological tools proved to be effective in conducting an educational intervention in children aged 8-10 years old.
Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar
Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E
The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources
Cashman, Kevin D; Kinsella, Michael; McNulty, Breige A; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead
It has been suggested that vitamin D₂ is not very prevalent in the human food chain. However, data from a number of recent intervention studies suggest that the majority of subjects had measurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ (25(OH)D₂) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D₂, unlike 25(OH)D₃, is not directly influenced by exposure of skin to sun and thus has dietary origins; however, quantifying dietary vitamin D₂ is difficult due to the limitations of food composition data. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterise serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations in the participants of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) in Ireland, and to use these serum concentrations to estimate the intake of vitamin D₂ using a mathematical modelling approach. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS method, and information on diet as well as subject characteristics was obtained from the NANS. Of these participants, 78.7 % (n 884) had serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations above the limit of quantification, and the mean, maximum, 10th, 50th (median) and 90th percentile values of serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were 3.69, 27.6, 1.71, 2.96 and 6.36 nmol/l, respectively. To approximate the intake of vitamin D₂ from these serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations, we used recently published data on the relationship between vitamin D intake and the responses of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The projected 5th to 95th percentile intakes of vitamin D₂ for adults were in the range of 0.9-1.2 and 5-6 μg/d, respectively, and the median intake ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 μg/d. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that 25(OH)D₂ concentrations are present in the sera of adults from this nationally representative sample. Vitamin D₂ may have an impact on nutritional adequacy at a population level and thus warrants further investigation.
Jaeschke, Elizabeth M.; Schumacher, Julie Raeder; Cullen, Robert W.; Wilson, Mardell A.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of various school personnel who are key participants in child nutrition and wellness regarding the sustainability and use of school gardens. Methods: A convenience sample of staff from schools with school gardens across the United States was established, consisting of:…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and implementation efficiency of Nutritional Report Cards (NRCs in helping children make healthier food choices at school. METHODS: Pilot testing was conducted in a rural New York school district (K-12. Over a five-week period, 27 parents received a weekly e-mail containing a NRC listing how many meal components (fruits, vegetables, starches, milk, snacks, and a-la-carte foods their child selected. We analyzed choices of students in the NRC group vs. the control group, both prior to and during the intervention period. Point-of-sale system data for a-la-carte items was analyzed using Generalized Least Squares regressions with clustered standard errors. RESULTS: NRCs encouraged more home conversations about nutrition and more awareness of food selections. Despite the small sample, the NRC was associated with reduced selection of some items, such as the percentage of those selecting cookies which decreased from 14.3 to 6.5 percent. Additionally, despite requiring new keys on the check-out registers to generate the NRC, checkout times increased by only 0.16 seconds per transaction, and compiling and sending the NRCs required a total weekly investment of 30 minutes of staff time. CONCLUSIONS: This test of concept suggests that NRCs are a feasible and inexpensive tool to guide children towards healthier choices.
Lisa A. Hark
Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.
Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen
School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…
Trabal, J; Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Hervás, S
The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and quantitative food intakes of non-terminal admitted cancer patients receiving oral feeding. As well as to evaluate what kind of relation exists between the quality of life, and the nutritional status and current intake. Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy Service ward at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona. Fifty admitted patients in the Service ward. There was a follow-up of the dietary intake during 3 working days through direct observation, as well as an assessment of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, a record of symptomatology related data, and a QoL assessment through the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Our data show that 32.6% of the patients did not reach 25 kcal/kg/day, and 23.3% did not even fulfill 1 g protein/kg/day. Concerning QoL, mean score for global health status and overall QoL for all patients was 46.2. Compared to the general population, there were important deficits among cancer patients regarding physical, role and social functioning. The most pronounced differences in the symptom scales were for fatigue, and in single items for appetite loss and constipation. A low protein intake was associated to a poorer perception on physical functioning (p = 0.01), and fatigue was close to significance (p = 0.058). No significant differences were found regarding caloric intake and QoL. A significant percentage of patients who received exclusive oral feeding did not cover a minimum acceptable quantity of their protein-energy requirements. Our results point-out that poor food intakes can affect QoL by themselves.
Rana, Leanne; Alvaro, Rita
To assess the effectiveness of using a Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework to deliver a nutrition intervention in schools. 'CREATE healthy eating in schools' used a HPS framework to assist key school health stakeholders to increase healthier food and drink choices across 68 schools in South Australia. Data were collected on a range of measures including workshop feedback, resource evaluation, canteen menu assessments and case studies. Twenty-nine workshops were provided across 10 metropolitan and rural locations. Overall, 254 participants from 60 schools attended workshops, with an average of three people from each school. An average of 90% of all respondents found workshops useful/very useful, with most participants reporting they had increased knowledge and skills of healthy eating, healthy eating guidelines and menu planning at the end of workshops. At the completion of the program, many participants reported increasing healthy food choices across the school. Menu assessments of a small selection of participating school menus (n=10) supported these findings, with the majority of menus (n=9) showing increases in healthy food choices from 2005 to 2006. Implementation of the 'CREATE healthy eating in schools' program resulted in self-reported improvements in healthy eating activities and increases in healthy food choices in a number of schools.
Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E.; O'Rourke, Karen A.
Introduction We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. Methods We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre–Chapter 51 and post–Chapter 51 of soda, ot...
Parackal, Sherly M; Smith, Claire; Parnell, Winsome Ruth
.... Nutrient intake data from 24 h diet recalls and data from the dietary habits questionnaire, anthropometry and biochemical analyses from the cross-sectional 2008/09 Adult National Nutrition Survey...
Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna
Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)
Goff, Louise M; Timbers, Louise; Style, Hannah; Knight, Annemarie
... differences according to ethnicity and duration of residence. Observational study. Dietary intake was assessed using multiple, standardised triple-pass 24 h recalls and analysed using a nutritional composition database...
Okely Anthony D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Barrantes, Mauro; Holst, Ileana; Nuñez-Rivas, Hilda; Alfaro, Thelma; Rodríguez, Sara; Cunningham, Lowella; Cambronero, Priscilla; Salazar, Lisbeth; Herrmann, F H
The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of selected nutritional status indicators and the dietary intake of Costa Rican Cabécar Indians aged 10 to 16 years. The results showed that 65% of the adolescents had an adequate body mass index (BMI) for their age, and 32% had a BMI 10 micromol/L (29%), and homozygous mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (49%). The diet was poor, being high in saturated fat and low in polyunsaturated fat, fiber, and several micronutrients. The dietary intakes of more than 55% of the adolescents did not meet 50% of the estimated average requirements (EAR) for zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B12, vitamin B2, and folate. Furthermore, a high prevalence of parasitosis was found (68%). Our results show an adolescent Cabécar population with a mosaic of nutritional deficiencies and cardiovascular risk factors.
Kose, Ayse; Ozen, Mehmet O; Elibol, Murat; Oncel, Suphi S
Microalgal proteins are promising sources for functional nutrition and a sustainable candidate for nutraceutical formulations. They also gain importance due to emerging focus on a healthy nutrition and increase in the number of chronic diseases. In this study, dried dietary species of microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, and cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were hydrolyzed with pancreatin enzyme to obtain protein hydrolysates. The hydrolysis yield of biomass was 55.1 ± 0.1 and 64.8 ± 3.6% for C. vulgaris and S. platensis; respectively. Digestibility, as an indicator for dietary utilization, was also investigated. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) values depicted that cell wall structure due to the taxonomical differences affected both hydrolysis and digestibility yield of the crude biomass (p microalgae, which shows elevated digestibility values as a sustainable and reliable source.
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values for energy, which are provided as average requirements (ARs) of specified age and sex groups. For children and adults, total energy expenditure (TEE) wa...... ARs for energy may need to be adapted depending on specific objectives and target populations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values for energy, which are provided as average requirements (ARs) of specified age and sex groups. For children and adults, total energy expenditure (TEE......) was determined factorially from estimates of resting energy expenditure (REE) plus the energy needed for various levels of physical activity (PAL) associated with sustainable lifestyles in healthy individuals. To account for uncertainties inherent in the prediction of energy expenditure, ranges of the AR...
Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women; and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by two 24-h recalls and a semi-quantitative 90-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Results from the study demonstrated that 40% of cases belonged to the high fruit group as compared to 30% following a high meat; fast food dietary pattern. Both groups increased the odds of NAFLD by four-fold (p < 0.05. The traditional diet decreases the odds by 33% after adjustment with the covariables. The high fruit diet group was, as with the high meat, fast food dietary pattern, the main potential risk factor for NAFLD in Lebanese patients.
Slade, Alexander N; Kim, Hyun
Dietary modification has been shown to substantially reduce blood pressure among people with hypertension. This article uses data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cross-sections of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the extent to which a hypertension diagnosis can influence individuals' dietary choices. Several models were estimated to clarify the association of a hypertension diagnosis with dietary factors related to hypertension management. A comparison group of individuals at risk for developing hypertension was used. Results suggest that individuals who received a recent diagnosis of hypertension are more likely to have lower intakes of some dietary factors important in blood pressure management, including sodium. The results also highlight a discrepancy between added salt use and dietary sodium intake. While more recent hypertensive patients tended to consume lower levels of dietary sodium, patients diagnosed longer ago tended to use less added salt. Given that those diagnosed were more likely to have lower blood pressure profiles and improved diets, especially close to the time of diagnosis, the results of this study underscore the need for a prompt and accurate diagnosis of hypertension.
Joo, Soonnam; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
This study investigated the distribution density of fast food outlets around schools, and the relationship between dietary health of children and adolescents and the density of fast food outlets in Korea. A distribution map of fast food outlets was drawn by collecting information on 401 locations of 16 brands within a 15-minute walk (800 meter) of 342 elementary and secondary schools in Suwon, Hwaseong and Osan. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary life of 243 sixth and eighth grade students at eight schools. Schools in the upper 20% and lower 20% of the fast food outlet distribution were classified as high-density and low-density groups, respectively. The practice rate of dietary guidelines published by the Health and Welfare Ministry and the fast food consumption pattern of children and adolescents from low and high density groups were determined. The number of schools with a fast food outlet within 200 meters or in the Green Food Zone around its location was 48 of 189 (25.4%) in Suwon and 14 of 153 (9.2%) in Hwaseong and Osan. Students in the low-density group visited fast food outlets less often than those in the high-density group (pchildren did not show a significant difference between the two groups. The distribution map of fast food outlets within 200 meters of schools was useful for identifying the effectiveness of the Green Food Zone Act and nutrition education programs.
Arboix-Calas, France; Lemonnier, Geneviève
Nutrition education in schools must be based on a collaborative approach between teachers and school nurses. The objective of this study was to compare the nutrition education representations and practices of primary school teachers and school nurses in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in the South of France. We used the theoretical framework of complexity, which is particularly suited to multifactorial phenomena such as nutrition education. We interviewed 112 primary school teachers and 33 school nurses about three aspects of their nutrition education representations and practices: actors, content and place of nutrition education at school. Nurses had a more comprehensive and complex approach to nutrition education, including a collaborative a