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Sample records for school girls interested

  1. The Effects of "Girls in Science Day" on Middle School Girls' Attitudes and Interests in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Carmen S.

    Because of the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, many organizations are hosting days to promote middle school girls' interest in science. The purpose of this dissertation examines one of these days, and is three-fold: Number one, to determine if the event "Girls in Science Day [GIS]" affected the interests and attitudes of the middle school girls who attend. Number two, to examine how GIS affected their interests and attitudes in science, and number three, to examine if there is a long time impact on the girls who attend GIS in middle school by interviewing them when they are older and determine if attending GIS made lasting impressions on their lives. It utilizes a mixed-methods approach by using a quantitative Likert-type scale to determine the first purpose mentioned, pre- and post- attendance interviews to examine purpose two, and longitudinal interviews of past participants to determine purpose three. These methods are then combined using meta-inference and results and implications are examined. Future research is then recommended to improve the status of women in science careers.

  2. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

  3. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  4. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.

  5. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  6. Facilitating interest and out-of-school engagement in science in secondary school girls: Increasing the effectiveness of the teaching for transformative experience in science model through parental involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin Charles

    This study investigated the impact of adding a parental involvement intervention to the Teaching for Transformative Experience in Science (TTES) model in science courses (biology and chemistry) in an all-girl middle and high school (N = 89). Specifically, the goal was to increase out-of-school engagement, interest, parental involvement, and achievement. Analysis showed that TTES with the addition of a parent intervention (TTES+PI) facilitated more out-of-school engagement and parent involvement than a comparison. Furthermore, a high initial level of situational and individual interest was maintained in the TTES+PI condition; whereas both forms of interest decreased in the comparison. A content analysis of transformative experience journal entries suggested that when parents showed value for science concepts, students' experiential value increased. The results provide evidence that the addition of a parent intervention may increase the effectiveness of TTES and maintain girl's interest in science, which has theoretical and practical implications.

  7. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  8. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  9. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  10. Promoting Girls' Awareness and Interest in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Deborah A.; Mancuso, Tina A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple initiatives have been launched to try to widen the pipeline for women to enter engineering careers, including reviews of gender differences in enrollment in technology and pre-engineering courses from middle school through doctoral degrees. National agencies have also studied some of the social and cultural forces at play with regard to…

  11. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  12. A message to school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  13. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  14. Interpreting the relationships between single gender science classes and girls' academic motivation and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonya L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a single gender science class. The study also measured whether the students' level of interest in science and desire to major in science changes based on their enrollment in a single gender class. Finally, the study investigated the career and college major intentions of the sample population used in the study. Girls in single gender groupings engage in more academic risk taking and participate more than girls in coeducational classes. This benefit alone responds to reform efforts and supports the abolition of gender-based obstacles. Single gender grouping could help encourage more girls to take interest in majoring in science, a field that is considered to be masculine. By increasing students' interest in science while enrolled in single gender classes, students may become more motivated to learn science. This study was conducted using seven, eighth, ninth and tenth grade girls from single sex and coeducational science classes. The students participated in 2 surveys, the Science Motivational Survey and the Test of Science Related Attitudes, at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. In respect to girls in high school single gender science classes, results were contrary to recent studies that state that girls who received science education in a single gender setting have an increase in motivation and attitude towards science. The results did show that middle school girls in single gender science classes did show an increase in motivation.

  15. Elementary girls' science reading at home and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie

    2006-03-01

    Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.

  16. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  17. Childhood adversity accelerates intended reproductive timing in adolescent girls without increasing interest in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Clutterbuck

    Full Text Available Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1 childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2 childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3 intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies.

  18. A longitudinal study on boys' and girls' career aspirations and interest in technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardies, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijbels, David

    2015-09-01

    Background: More young people, boys and girls, are needed in technical studies and professions, as the relative number of students in technology-related studies has been decreasing in most industrialised countries. To overcome this decrease several countries implemented mandatory technology classes in the curriculum of secondary education. Purpose: This study has two goals: exploring the evolution of pupils' interest during the year(s) they attend the mandatory technology classes and exploring determining characteristics for differences in boys' and girls' attitude change over time. Sample: This study focuses on data gathered in the first and second grade of the first cycle in general secondary education in the North region of Belgium, Flanders. In a first stage we selected a good representation of geographically spread schools (n = 20), from which over 1300 students participated. Design and methods: A longitudinal study with eight measurement occasions spread over the course of two years is presented in order to capture the evolution of students' attitudes, making use of a multilevel growth model analysis. Results: The results show that students' interest in technology decreases over time, although at the end of each grade interest is increasing again. Boys' and girls' interest in technology also evolves a little different in the first cycle of secondary education. For career aspirations we didn't see any significant difference between boys and girls. Boys' and girls' aspirations decrease over time with a little increase by the end of the second grade. Students with a more technological curriculum also have more career aspirations in the field of technology than their peers with other curricula. Although students' perceptions about technology as a subject for boys and girls are largely stable. Conclusions: The evolution of students' attitude is far from linear, this strengthens us in the choice for a more complex analysis model and the choice for more measuring

  19. Girls Negotiating Sexuality and Violence in the Primary School

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    Bhana, Deevia

    2018-01-01

    Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…

  20. The relationship of mentoring on middle school girls' science-related attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynette M.

    This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.

  1. The Impact of Length of Engagement in After-School STEM Programs on Middle School Girls

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    Cupp, Garth Meichel

    An underrepresentation of females exists in the STEM fields. In order to tackle this issue, work begins early in the education of young women to ensure they are interested and have the confidence to gain a career in the STEM fields. It is important to engage girls in STEM opportunities in and out of school to ignite their interest and build their confidence. Brigid Barron's learning ecology perspective shows that girls pursuing STEM outside of the classroom is critical to their achievement in the STEM pipeline. This study investigated the impact after-school STEM learning opportunities have on middle school girls by investigating (a) how the length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the confidence of female students in their science and math abilities; (b) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect the interest of female students in attaining a career in STEM; (c) how length of engagement in after-school programs can affect interest in science and math classes; and (d) how length of engagement can affect how female students' view gender parity in the STEM workforce. The major findings revealed no statistical significance when comparing confidence in math or science abilities or the perception that gender plays a role in attaining a career in STEM. The findings revealed statistical significance in the areas when comparing length of engagement in the girls' interest in their math class and attaining a career in three of the four STEM fields: science, technology, and engineering. The findings showed that multiple terms of engagement in the after-school STEM programs appear to be an effective catalyst to maintain the interest of girls pursuing STEM-related careers, in addition to allowing their interest in a topic to provide a new lens for the way they see their math work during the school day. The implications of this study show that schools must engage middle school girls who are interested in STEM in a multitude of settings

  2. Are Korean secondary school girls physically active during leisure time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng; Kwon, Wook-Dong; Jeon, Yong-Bae

    2010-03-01

    Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time on individualized or noncompetitive activities, and 88.3% of them were classified into underactive and inactive levels with no gained health benefits during leisure time. No significant differences were observed in the physical activity levels between middle school girls and high school girls. The results of this study may be explained by the lack of perceived appropriateness for secondary school girls' participation in physical activity, which traditionally did not favor them participating in dynamic physical activities and sufficient physical activity level to gain health benefits.

  3. Religion, class and schooled sexuality among Minangkabau teenage girls

    OpenAIRE

    Lyn Parker

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the meanings attached to sexuality and femininity by Minangkabau teenage girls in schools in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Schools in West Sumatra communicate a hegemonic, normative understanding of womanhood, and a moral consciousness of the female sexual body, to students. Different types of schools – academic, vocational and Islamic senior high schools – have a different ‘curriculum of the body’ (Lesko 1988) and differently discipline bodies and shape sexuality. School girls...

  4. "SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF THE STATE" FROM DEFECTIVE DELINQUENT GIRLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohasky, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    The 1911 mental classification, "defective delinquent," was created as a temporary legal-medical category in order to identify a peculiar class of delinquent girls in a specific institutional setting. The defective delinquent's alleged slight mental defect, combined with her appearance of normalcy, rendered her a "dangerous" and "incurable" citizen. At the intersection of institutional history and the history of ideas, this article explores the largely overlooked role of borderline mental classifications of near-normalcy in the medicalization of intelligence and criminality during the first third of the twentieth-century United States. Borderline classifications served as mechanisms of control over women's bodies through the criminalization of their minds, and the advent of psychometric tests legitimated and facilitated the spread of this classification beyond its original and intended context. The borderline case of the defective delinquent girl demonstrates the significance of marginal mental classifications to the policing of bodies through the medicalization of intellect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Middle School Girls: Perceptions and Experiences with Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the impact a robotics curriculum might have on the experiences and perceptions of middle school girls in two California classrooms. The research found that middle school girls in two different California classrooms felt that their experiences with robotics were personalized experiences…

  6. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  7. School Absenteeism during Menstruation among Rural Adolescent Girls in Pune

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...

  8. Computing Whether She Belongs: Stereotypes Undermine Girls' Interest and Sense of Belonging in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Computer science has one of the largest gender disparities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. An important reason for this disparity is that girls are less likely than boys to enroll in necessary "pipeline courses," such as introductory computer science. Two experiments investigated whether high-school girls' lower…

  9. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  10. Relative Strengths of Predictors of Middle School Girls' Suspendable Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…

  11. The long-term impact of a math, science and technology program on grade school girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra Judd

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a math, science, and technology intervention program improved grade school girls' attitudes and stereotypes toward science and scientists, as well as participation levels in science-related activities, two years after their participating in the program. The intervention program evaluated was Operation SMART, developed by Girls Incorporated. Participants were recruited from the 6th and 7th grades from two public middle schools in Northern California. One hundred twenty-seven girls signed up for the survey and were assigned to either the SMART group (previous SMART participants) or Non-SMART group (no previous experience with SMART). The survey consisted of five parts: (1) a background information sheet, (2) the Modified Attitudes Toward Science Inventory, (3) the What Do You Do? survey, (4) the Draw-A-Scientist Test-Revised, and (5) a career interests and role models/influencer survey. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the SMART and Non-SMART groups on any of the test measures. However, middle school attended did have a significant effect on the outcome variables. Girls from Middle School A reported more positive attitudes toward science, while girls from Middle School B reported higher participation levels in extracurricular science activities. Possible explanations for these findings suggest too much time had passed between treatment effect and time of measurement as well as the strong influence of teacher and school environment on girls' attitudes and stereotypes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  13. Girls and Upper School Physics: Some Optimism and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrevski, Juliana; Treagust, David

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the numbers of girls in secondary and tertiary education studying Physics have declined. This research sought to investigate Years 10 and 11 female students' views about Physics and their physics teachers and was conducted in an all-girls independent school. While the findings show that in general these students do not relate well…

  14. GeoGirls: A Geology and Geophysics Field Camp for Middle School Girls at Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, C.; Allstadt, K.; Melander, S.; Groskopf, A.; Driedger, C. L.; Westby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 2015 GeoGirls program was a project designed to inspire girls to gain an appreciation and enthusiasm for Earth sciences using Mount St. Helens as an outdoor volcanic laboratory. Occupations in the field of science and engineering tend to be held by more males than females. One way to address this is to introduce girls to possible opportunities within the geosciences and encourage them to learn more about the dynamic environment in which they live. In 2015, the GeoGirls program sought to accomplish this goal through organizing a five day-long field camp for twenty middle school-aged girls, along with four high school-aged mentors and two local teachers. This group explored Mount St. Helens guided by female scientists from the USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO), the Mount St. Helens Institute (MSHI), UNAVCO, Boise State, Georgia Tech, University of Washington and Oregon State University. To introduce participants to techniques used by volcanologists, the girls participated in hands-on experiments and research projects focusing on seismology, GPS, terrestrial lidar, photogrammetry, water and tephra. Participants also learned to collect samples, analyze data and use microscopes. Through this experience, participants acquired strategies for conducting research by developing hypotheses, making observations, thinking critically and sharing their findings with others. The success of the GeoGirls program was evaluated by participant and parent survey questionnaires, which allowed assessment of overall enthusiasm and interest in pursuing careers in the geosciences. The program was free to participants and was run jointly by MSHI and CVO and funded by NSF, the American Association of University Women, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists and private donors. The program will run again in the summer of 2016.

  15. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…

  16. MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRLS ACCORDING TO BIRTH SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lepeš

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Body height, weight and motor performances data of 348 junior level primary schools girls 122 seven, 151 eight, 76 nine year olds. The results show that girls born in summer and in autumn generally had better performances in most of the skills, than those born in spring and winter and the differences were proved statistically in each case, expect obstacle race test. Girls who were better than average at some motor skills, generally outdid their school maters or contemporary group average at other motor skill performance as well.

  17. An Exploration of the Ways that Parents Can Influence African American Girls Interest in Achieving in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lori L.

    Math and science is the core of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. It is the staying power of economic growth, job opportunities, new technology, innovation and emerging research on a global spectrum in the 21st century. Data reports that African American women are underrepresented in the STEM career field. The focus of this project was to specifically address African American middle school girls achievement gap, awareness and interests in the STEM pipeline. Data for this research was gathered by using Action Research Methodology approach using journals, questionnaire survey and dialogue. Five parents/educators participated in this empirical research study by sharing their personal, lived and unapologetic experiences through eight weeks of action/reflection inquiry. The finding of this research is that parents need to be engaged about STEM and the importance for girls to do well academically early in school with math and science.

  18. Understanding girls' enrollment at Louise's Farm School: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Ashley E. P.

    This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.

  19. Schooling of girls in pre-partition Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, K

    1997-01-01

    This study examines female school enrollment during 1920-47 in the Punjab, India, prepartition. Data were obtained from reports, such as the Progress of Education in the Punjab. This period includes an active social reform movement. Punjabi Hindu men changed their attitudes toward purdah and seclusion and the education of women. Educated wives were in demand. Educational institutions were initially religiously affiliated. Schools for girls were set up by British missionaries and American Presbyterians in the late 1800s. The most active missionary societies were the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission and its precursor, the Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society. Education was expanded by private organizations. The 1916-17 Report on Education in the Punjab indicates substantial public support for girls' education. The demand for education was strongest initially in urban areas. Government secondary schools for girls were set up in each district of the Punjab by 1931-32. By 1936-37 there was one girl school for every 46.3 sq. miles. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s the government established high or middle schools in smaller towns. Almost all large cities had colleges for women. Demand for girls' education rose at the same time as constraints neutralized the attitude changes. Constraints included a lack of trained women teachers, shortages of resources, poor infrastructural facilities, irrelevant curricula, and prejudice against women becoming teachers. Two measures encouraged the advancement of education. The growth of middle and high schools did not keep pace with the growth of primary schools. Female enrollments increased from 62,571 to 237,446 during 1921-45. Primary and middle coeducational school enrollment of girls declined during the 1940s. Muslim and Sikh enrollments increased. High-caste Hindu enrollments declined, but still represented half of all girls in colleges and universities.

  20. Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science, GEMS: A Science Outreach Program for Middle-School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubetz, Terry A.; Wilson, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science (GEMS) is a science and math outreach program for middle-school female students. The program was developed to encourage interest in math and science in female students at an early age. Increased scientific familiarity may encourage girls to consider careers in science and mathematics and will also help…

  1. The influence of school on whether girls develop eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; De Stavola, Bianca; Magnusson, Cecilia; Micali, Nadia; Dal, Henrik; Evans, Jonathan; Dalman, Christina; Lewis, Glyn

    2016-04-01

    Clinical anecdote suggests that rates of eating disorders (ED) vary between schools. Given their high prevalence and mortality, understanding risk factors is important. We hypothesised that rates of ED would vary between schools, and that school proportion of female students and proportion of parents with post-high school education would be associated with ED, after accounting for individual characteristics. Multilevel analysis of register-based, record-linkage data on 55 059 females born in Stockholm County, Sweden, from 1983, finishing high school in 2002-10. Outcome was clinical diagnosis of an ED, or attendance at a specialist ED clinic, aged 16-20 years. The 5-year cumulative incidence of ED diagnosis aged 16-20 years was 2.4%. Accounting for individual risk factors, with each 10% increase in the proportion of girls at a school, the odds ratio for ED was 1.07 (1.01 to 1.13), P = 0.018. With each 10% increase in the proportion of children with at least one parent with post-high school education, the odds ratio for ED was 1.14 (1.09 to 1.19), P < 0.0001. Predicted probability of an average girl developing an ED was 1.3% at a school with 25% girls where 25% of parents have post-high school education, and 3.3% at a school with 75% girls where 75% of parents have post-high school education. Rates of ED vary between schools; this is not explained by individual characteristics. Girls at schools with high proportions of female students, and students with highly educated parents, have higher odds of ED regardless of individual risk factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Middle school girls: Experiences in a place-based education science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Charlene K.

    The middle school years are a crucial time when girls' science interest and participation decrease (Barton, Tan, O'Neill, Bautista-Guerra, & Brecklin, 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of middle school girls and their teacher in an eighth grade place-based education (PBE) science classroom. PBE strives to increase student recognition of the importance of educational concepts by reducing the disconnection between education and community (Gruenewald, 2008; Smith, 2007; Sobel, 2004). The current study provides two unique voices---the teacher and her students. I describe how this teacher and her students perceived PBE science instruction impacting the girls' participation in science and their willingness to pursue advanced science classes and science careers. The data were collected during the last three months of the girls' last year of middle school by utilizing observations, interviews and artifacts of the teacher and her female students in their eighth grade PBE science class. The findings reveal how PBE strategies, including the co-creation of science curriculum, can encourage girls' willingness to participate in advanced science education and pursue science careers. The implications of these findings support the use of PBE curricular strategies to encourage middle school girls to participate in advance science courses and science careers.

  3. Religion, class and schooled sexuality among Minangkabau teenage girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Parker

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the meanings attached to sexuality and femininity by Minangkabau teenage girls in schools in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Schools in West Sumatra communicate a hegemonic, normative understanding of womanhood, and a moral consciousness of the female sexual body, to students. Different types of schools – academic, vocational and Islamic senior high schools – have a different ‘curriculum of the body’ (Lesko 1988 and differently discipline bodies and shape sexuality. School girls articulate their understanding of and practise their sexuality in ways that are characteristic of their class, gender and religiosity, mediated by their schools. The schools articulate a religiously-ordained and gendered social order, and impose social control. The different types of school render girls chaste and virtuous to varying degrees. Through everyday practices, this curriculum effects girls’ embodied experience of sexuality. Minangkabau teenage girls have a highly developed sense of their own sexuality, but, far from experiencing a sexual revolution as a result of globalization, most have developed a sexual awareness that is weighted with cultural and religious burdens. Minang female adolescent sexuality is a moral sexuality based on Islam and adat.

  4. Interests in School Subjects and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Lennart; Drottz, Britt-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study in which Swedish high school students' academic interests were related to perceived effort, ability, and perceived vocational job prospects. Notes that academic interests were based on subjects' logical appeal and practical value. Notes that vocational preferences correlated strongly with individual job prospects but weakly with…

  5. MULTIPLE TRANSITIONS AND HIV RISK AMONG AFRICAN SCHOOL GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2012-01-01

    Why are orphaned girls at particular risk of contracting HIV? Using a transition to adulthood framework, this paper uses qualitative data from Nyanza province, Kenya to explore pathways to HIV risk among orphaned and non-orphaned high school girls. I show how co-occurring processes such as residential transition out of the parental home, negotiating financial access and relationship transitions interact to produce disproportionate risk for orphan girls. I also explore the role of financial provision and parental love in modifying girls’ trajectories to risk. I propose a testable theoretical model based on the qualitative findings and suggest policy implications. PMID:21500699

  6. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  7. Einstein girls: Exploring STEM careers, interest, and identity in an online mentoring community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill Rice

    The purpose of this project was to create and study an online mentoring community that connected fifth and sixth grade girls and female STEM mentors. The project was designed to give girls who were interested in science the chance to communicate online with women who were successful STEM professionals. The community provided the girls a venue to ask the women questions about their careers, their interests, and their science identities. Through this venue the girls were able to explore various STEM careers, be exposed to role models, and potentially increase their interest in science for the future. Mentoring has been shown to have a positive impact on girls and help improve their attitudes toward science and interests in STEM. The project examined the nature of the online mentoring process as well as the participants' perceptions of the opportunities and constraints of the community. The girls were members of an afterschool academy and the mentoring took place through the Internet using a secure educational social networking program. The program spanned a four-week period between April and May 2013. The main purpose of this study was formative since online mentoring is a relatively new area of research. This investigation produced detailed accounts of activities between the girls and the mentors. Findings revealed that the participants approached the community uniquely and explored many aspects of career exploration, STEM interest, and science identity. The participants also identified what they perceived as the opportunities afforded by the community as well as the constraints posed by the community. The research represented by this study was practitioner research with the work connecting theory with practice. The knowledge gained through the intentional reflection on and study of the Einstein Girls online mentoring community was useful in the production of knowledge that is transformative for the researcher's professional practice and transferable to other

  8. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Middle school girls and one STEM OST program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holba, Andrea

    This dissertation examines motivation in middle school girls involved in one STEM OST program. Specifically, motivation is examined through four distinct components. These components are attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. Although these components are unique, they cumulatively create a holistic picture of motivation in program design. The middle school girl participants were observed at program workshops and personal interviews. Exploring program design elements through this lens of motivation was a qualitative effort to both understand how participants respond to design elements, and what might encourage future participation in STEM activities.

  10. Variation by Gender in Abu Dhabi High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls and boys were below the score of (3.0). The most interesting topics for both genders were connected with fantasy items. The least interesting items (particularly for girls) were connected with artifacts and technological processes. Girls assigned the highest scores for "why we dream" and "life and death." Boys assigned the highest scores for "inventions and discoveries" and "life outside of earth." The main message of the study is that new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed through combining technological and human contexts. The implications for curriculum development, teacher professional development programs, and other education strategies in Abu Dhabi are discussed in light of the ROSE survey.

  11. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

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    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  13. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods.

  14. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  15. DROP OUT FROM SCHOOL AMONG GIRLS IN EDO STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    this paper is to investigate why girls dropout from school in Edo State. The descriptive survey ... women. It allows them greater control of their lives and provides them with skills to ... in an attempt to protect their teenage daughters, give them out to wealthy old friends. .... Counselling intervention for gender equality. A paper.

  16. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  17. Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Jane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adolescents are not sufficiently active and girls are less active than boys. Physical activity interventions delivered during curriculum time have reported weak effects. More sustained changes in physical activity may be obtained by facilitating participation in enjoyable activities. Dance is the favourite activity of UK girls but there is a shortage of dance provision. Dance sessions delivered after the school day could prove to be an effective means of engaging adolescent girls in physical activity. There is a lack of information about the factors that would affect girls' recruitment and retention in an after-school dance programme. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 65, Year 7 (11-12 year old girls from 4 secondary schools in Bristol. In-depth phone interviews were also conducted with 16 (4 per school of the girls' parents. Interviews and focus groups examined issues that would affect recruitment into the intervention, strategies that could be used to attract girls who have little or no previous experience in dance, any factors that would increase their interest in participating in an after-school dance programme and any factors that would affect retention in the programme. All interviews and focus groups were digitally recorded and thematically analysed. Results Girls reported that a taster session in which they had an opportunity to sample the intervention content and "word of mouth" campaigns by peers, who did not need to be their friends, would encourage them to participate in an after-school dance programme. Sessions that maximised enjoyment and facilitated socialisation opportunities would enhance retention. Parents reported that encouraging groups of friends to join the programme, and stressing the enjoyment of the session would increase participation. Conclusions Recruitment and retention campaigns that focus on enjoyment, socialisation, mastery, goal setting and relating to other girls may be effective

  18. Evaluation of a technology unit in a girls' primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Marion; Gardner, Paul L.

    1991-12-01

    Rapid advances in technology are changing the structure of the workforce. There are elite highly-paid hi-tech occupations and low status poorly-paid jobs. Women are unfortunately more likely to be found in the latter category. To allow them to qualify and compete for the higher-status positions, girls need to participate in the physical sciences and in technology studies. However, they are rarely attracted to them in secondary school, possibly because they are already alienated from them by the time they leave primary school. This paper reports some of the outcomes of a curriculum unit taught in two primary school classes in an independent school for girls. The unit was cross-curricular, involving technology, science and other fields of knowledge; it made extensive use of LEGO Technic materials. The evaluation of the unit, based on observations, a teacher journal and pupil questionnaires, focussed upon the issue of whether it assisted the girls to feel happier about working with unfamiliar technology and feel more capable of doing so. Implications for teaching technology are also discussed.

  19. Why girls of Syuta drop out of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A

    1998-01-01

    In India, the Center for Science and the Environment analyzed barriers to girls' schooling in a Himalayan village with a population of 213 where households farm narrow terraces of poor soil that must be heavily supplemented each season with cow-dung and leaf manure. This requires transportation of tons of biomass material in addition to the collection of tons of firewood for cooking. Of the 92 workers in the village, 50 are women, and women assume the role of "main worker" at a younger age than men. Because of their agricultural chores, much domestic work is delegated to girls, and of the 39 children aged 5-10 years, the work of 1 boy and 4 girls was important to the household economy. Depending upon the season, women may work 9-15 hours/day, and women put in 52% of total work hours as compared to 26% by children and 15% by men. Even excluding household chores, children work 1.4 times more than the men. The village has its own primary and secondary schools, but the recorded high rate of literacy includes many with very low levels of education, and school attendance is less than 50%. Children may begin schooling as late as age 10 and stop by age 15. As the population of the village grows, the men will increasingly migrate for work, and increased environmental pressure will intensify the women's agricultural chores. Girls will be the first to be removed from school to provide extra labor. Until economies are reorganized, the demands on women of living in a subsistence economy will supersede their ability to take advantage of educational opportunities.

  20. Text Messaging in the School Lives of American High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, Margaret; Allaman, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Digital technologies open new windows for ethnographic explorations of cultural experiences. In this paper, we examine text messaging among academically talented teenage girls of colour at three US urban high schools. Texting introduced a new communication modality into the girls' lives and created a space for new discourses mediating their…

  1. Reaching the unreached: enabling Dalit girls to get schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, M V

    1999-01-01

    The 1991 census showed a female illiteracy rate of over 39%, requiring a major new effort to include all women, especially the poor, in a program of universal primary education. Institute for Socially Disadvantaged Groups' Educational Improvement (ISDGEI) based in Kolhapur (Maharashtra) is working for social transformation through education. Most disadvantaged are poor Dalit women and girls living in urban slums. The institute has been providing primary education to Dalit girls in the Rajendranagar slum of Kolhapur for the past 12 years. In the beginning they also had boy students in their schools, but as they grew they recognized that the need for schools for poor girls, especially Dalits, was so vastly unmet that they decided to put all their efforts into devising an appropriate and effective educational experience for these children. In this article, the Honorary Director of the ISDGEI, M. V. Sreedhar, explains the challenges they face and the many innovations they have evolved in order to make education accessible to the most disadvantaged of India's children--Dalit girls.

  2. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  3. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  4. The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on middle and high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, James E; Fineran, Susan

    2007-06-01

    The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on six health outcomes among middle school girls were compared to these outcomes among high school girls. High school girls experienced more bullying and sexual harassment and poorer health outcomes than their middle school counterparts, but the impact of these experiences was less among high school students. Differences in outcomes may be the result of better support systems and coping mechanisms among high school girls and/or challenging developmental changes during middle school. Sexual orientation, race, and disability had some notable relationships to bullying and sexual harassment experiences as well as health outcomes.

  5. Flipped Science Inquiry@Crescent Girls' School

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    Peishi Goh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.

  6. Schooling the Mean Girl: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teacher Resource Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, Jennifer; Gonick, Marnina

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a critical discourse analysis of teacher resource materials about girl bullying. The "mean girl" phenomenon has been widely taken up as one of the current key narratives about schools and school girls. This paper argues for the importance of understanding the origins of this discourse within behavioural psychology, which…

  7. "You Make Me Erect!": Queer Girls of Color Negotiating Heteronormative Leadership at an Urban All-Girls' Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Therese M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of leadership endorsed by an urban all-girls' public school and how heteronormative ideas about female success were resisted by a group of the school's gay students through gender performances and named sexualities. The author argues that queer students are gender projects that the school uses to define and…

  8. Catching Up: Gender Values at a Canadian Independent School for Girls, 1978-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Candace B.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the 15-year transformation in gender values at a Canadian independent school for girls and their effect on the students and the school structures. Gender-stereotyped, outside-world realities are still influencing the school environment and students' thinking. The author believes single-sex schools for girls are an important antidote to…

  9. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  10. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  11. Talking Circles for Adolescent Girls in an Urban High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Schumacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Practices (RP in schools is a new and emerging field. Meeting in Circles to build friendships, develop emotional literacy skills, resolve conflict, or learn interactively are some of the core components of these programs. This article describes a 2-year study of 12 weekly Talking Circles organized under the auspices of a RP program in an urban high school with 60 adolescent girls. Primary data sources included 257 hr of participant observations in Talking Circles and individual, semi-structured interviews with 31 students. The Relational Cultural model, rooted in the work of Jean Baker Miller, served as the conceptual framework for understanding teens’ interactions within the Circle’s unique set of social conditions in a school environment. Findings demonstrated that Talking Circles provided a safe space for peers helping peers, and that the girls improved their listening, anger management, and empathic skills, which led to greater self-efficacy. It appears that Talking Circles could provide another venue for developing social-emotional literacy skills and growth-fostering relationships in schools.

  12. Sexual Harassment, Bullying, and School Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  14. An Exploration of Stem, Entrepreneurship, and Impact on Girls in an Independent Day School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P.

    The 21st century has seen a pervasive theme in STEM continue from the 20th century: women do not pursue and persist in STEM careers at anywhere near the rate of men. Furthermore, STEM education has fallen short in preparing its students to enter the workforce as entrepreneurial knowledge workers prepared to innovate. As STEM and entrepreneurship receive unprecedented attention in scholarly circles, the first purpose of this mixed methods study at an independent day school was to examine the impact of a predominately female STEEM (i.e., science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship and mathematics) teaching staff on girls' perceptions of STEEM. The second purpose of this study was to examine the impact of adding entrepreneurship to a STEM curriculum. The ultimate goals of this study were to inform local policy and practice. Through teacher interviews, student focus groups, and a student survey, this study investigated the impact of female teachers and a recently established entrepreneurship-infused curriculum. The theory of action guiding this school is that female STEEM teachers and the inclusion of entrepreneurship skills and projects can improve girls' perceptions of the STEM classroom, helping them to view STEM as less gender-oriented (i.e., male-oriented), and thereby make these classes feel more welcoming to girls. This is aimed at increasing their adoption of STEM majors in college and STEM careers after they graduate. This study has four major findings. First, the predominantly female STEEM faculty appeared to build girls' confidence in their STEEM classes. Second, the STEEM teachers use active learning and critical thinking to engage the girls in their classes. Third, the introduction of entrepreneurship appears to have helped increase girls' interest in STEM. Last, even while discussing their efforts to increase girls' engagement with STEM, many teachers celebrate gender blindness. These findings raised a number issues that should be important

  15. Menstrual characteristics amongst south-eastern Nigerian adolescent school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B

    2009-03-01

    Information on pattern of menstruation and its implications is lacking amongst adolescents in Nigeria. To examine the characteristics of menstruation amongst adolescent Igbo school girls with respect to the biosocial characteristics, the pattern of menstruation, associated complications, and the source of information on menstruation. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 550 students recruited from a multi-sampling of 50 secondary schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, using pre-tested, semistructured, and interviewer administered questionnaires. Four hundred and sixteen (75.6%) respondents were aged 15-17 years; 338 (61.4%) of whom were Catholics. Menarcheal age range of respondents was 11-16 years, with a mean age of 13.40 +/- 1.15 years. Menstruation was regular in 410 (74.5%), and irregular in 124 (22.5%) of respondents. Duration of menstrual flow ranged between two and eight days, although a four-day flow occurred most commonly, 268 (53.6%). Abdominal pain, (66.2%), and waist pain, (38.5%), constituted the major problems associated with menstruation, followed by depression, (24.4%); vomiting, (6.9%); school absenteeism, (4.5%); anorexia, (1.8%); weakness, (1.5%); and increased appetite, (1.1%). The commonest source of information on menstruation (prior to menarche) amongst respondents was from the mother, 48.4%, followed by elder sister, and friends --14.2%, and 8.7% respectively, while the teacher constituted the least source, 1.1%. The characteristics of menstruation in this study do not differ considerably from what obtains amongst other adolescent girls. Associated complications may have profound psychosocial impact on the growing adolescent girl, requiring address, best achieved through the empowerment of mothers and teachers under a comprehensive family life education scheme.

  16. Sexual Harassment of Girls in Elementary School: A Concealed Phenomenon within a Heterosexual Romantic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadin, Katja Gillander

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses…

  17. Fitness, Fatness and Healthism Discourse: Girls Constructing 'Healthy' Identities in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheryl Laura

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on longitudinal, qualitative research into girls' participation in physical activity and sport in the UK, this article will explore girls' embodied constructions of 'healthy' identities. My research with girls (aged 10-13) found that over the transition to secondary school, classed and gendered healthism discourses had come to powerfully…

  18. Premenarcheal Mexican Girls' and Their Teachers' Perceptions of Preparation Students Receive about Menstruation at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Luisa; Bejarano, Janett

    2005-01-01

    This survey explored how fifth-grade Mexican premenarcheal girls (N = 80) and their teachers (N = 16) view the preparation students receive about menstruation at school. The most discussed topics in class included hygiene and body functions. The main discrepancies between girls and teachers were as follows: (a) more teachers than girls reported…

  19. Factors affecting school completion by the girl child in Binga Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the plausible increase in the enrolment rate of girls, progress in education among rural girls at global, regional and local level has been impeded by high influx of school dropouts. The objectives of the study were to assess factors that prohibit girls from completing their formal education in Binga rural district in ...

  20. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  1. Characterizing Verified Head Impacts in High School Girls' Lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Stone, Hannah; Kelshaw, Patricia; Putukian, Margot; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Cortes, Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Girls' high school lacrosse players have higher rates of head and facial injuries than boys. Research indicates that these injuries are caused by stick, player, and ball contacts. Yet, no studies have characterized head impacts in girls' high school lacrosse. To characterize girls' high school lacrosse game-related impacts by frequency, magnitude, mechanism, player position, and game situation. Descriptive epidemiology study. Thirty-five female participants (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) volunteered during 28 games in the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants wore impact sensors affixed to the right mastoid process before each game. All game-related impacts recorded by the sensors were verified using game video. Data were summarized for all verified impacts in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA). Descriptive statistics and impact rates were calculated. Fifty-eight verified game-related impacts ≥20 g were recorded (median PLA, 33.8 g; median PRA, 6151.1 rad/s 2 ) during 467 player-games. The impact rate for all game-related verified impacts was 0.12 per athlete-exposure (AE) (95% CI, 0.09-0.16), equivalent to 2.1 impacts per team game, indicating that each athlete suffered fewer than 2 head impacts per season ≥20 g. Of these impacts, 28 (48.3%) were confirmed to directly strike the head, corresponding with an impact rate of 0.05 per AE (95% CI, 0.00-0.10). Overall, midfielders (n = 28, 48.3%) sustained the most impacts, followed by defenders (n = 12, 20.7%), attackers (n = 11, 19.0%), and goalies (n = 7, 12.1%). Goalies demonstrated the highest median PLA and PRA (38.8 g and 8535.0 rad/s 2 , respectively). The most common impact mechanisms were contact with a stick (n = 25, 43.1%) and a player (n = 17, 29.3%), followed by the ball (n = 7, 12.1%) and the ground (n = 7, 12.1%). One hundred percent of ball impacts occurred to goalies. Most impacts

  2. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  3. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  4. Technology Education in Elementary School: Boys’ and Girls’ Interests and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Björkholm

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an initial study investigating gender differences in interests and attitudes by pupils, aged 8-12 years, to school technology teaching in Sweden. The types of learning activities and content topics in technology teaching preferred by girls and boys were studied, as well as the differences regarding self-confidence in technology. The pupils’ attitudes to technological professions were also investigated. The study was conducted in ten schools. A total of 256 pupils completed a questionnaire that was administrated during their school technology sessions. The analysis of the answers showed that a vast majority of both boys and girls experienced school technology as very positive. No gender differences in preferences for different types of content and activities were detected. The pupils’ judgement of their own capability in the field of technology showed that both boys and girls considered themselves to be very competent. The boys felt, however, somewhat more certain about their competence compared with the girls. Gender differences were found in views of possible future occupations, but the pupils’ views of future occupations in technology showed no significant gender differences.

  5. STEM Out-of-School Time Programs for Girls. Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Research Update, No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Katie; Harris, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Increasing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become part of education reform efforts in recent years in order to prepare students for the challenges of the twenty-first century global economy. Out-of-school time (OST) programs that focus on girls' involvement in STEM can play an essential role in improving…

  6. Imagining Selves. School Narratives from Girls in Schools in Eritrea, Nepal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius

    2006-01-01

    The article has a double aim. First, to study the relation between education, schooling and the construction of identity as this is played out in everyday life and school among young girls in secondary schools in Eritrea, Nepal and Denmark; second, to explore challenges and opportunities...... for ethnographic comparison of schooling cutting across culture and context. Inspired by contributions on globalisation and education the article focuses on the consequence and implications of schooling. Taking point of departure in girls’ narratives individual responses to and resistance against national projects...... on education and the making of future citizens is explored....

  7. Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.

  8. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  9. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  10. Kenya studies its schools to identify obstacles for girls. Education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with almost 800 adolescents and their parents in 3 districts representing the range of school experience in Kenya. Researchers also visited 36 primary schools attended by more than 80% of the adolescents sampled, holding interviews with teachers and students, documenting facilities, observing interactions, and compiling measures of performance. Boys were seen bullying girls outside of classrooms, teasing them and blocking their movements. In focus group discussions, boys and girls reported that boys routinely grab girls' breasts, while teachers ignore the abuse. Teachers described girls as stupid and lazy, with both male and female teachers who expressed a preference for teaching one sex or the other preferring boys. The teachers more often allocated menial chores to girls and teaching tasks to boys. Even in schools in which girls performed almost as well as boys on exams, teachers awarded twice as many prizes to boys. The teachers created a context in which girls perform poorly. When the girls do in fact fail to achieve, teachers' prejudices are simply reinforced. On the other hand, schools at which girls performed better on exams had more female teachers who presumably served as role models. Also, girls in schools with more female students scored higher on the final, nationwide exam.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  12. Age of Menarche among basic level school girls in Madina, Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to determine the age at which menarche occurs among school girls in Madina, Accra. A survey was conducted among 529 girls selected using multi-stage sampling from basic schools in Madina, Accra. Respondents completed a questionnaire that recorded age-at-first menstruation by recall, ...

  13. Girls' career choices as a product of a gendered school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prising 20 sixth form school girls and 20 teachers was used. These were ... led on the English system (see also Wolpe, 2006), with Zimbabwean girls being educated for ... fore, in spite of the Zimbabwean education system's claim to be liberative, it has remained ... a disadvantage as regards school and career aspirations.

  14. Girl Talk: A Qualitative Study of Girls Talking about the Meaning of Their Lives in an Urban Single-Sex Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Hassell Hughes, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    The suburban-urban achievement gap (diminishing until the 1980s) has stopped its narrowing trend, and single-sex schools are proliferating as a reform model, especially in urban areas. In this study researchers interviewed eight elementary school girls (in an all-girls school) three times over 2 years, and the resulting 23 transcripts were…

  15. Seroprevalence of rubella in school girls and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.

  16. Coeducational or Single-Sex School: Does It Make a Difference on High School Girls' Academic Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Roch; Vezeau, Carole; Bouffard, Therese

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single-sex and coeducational school environments on girls' motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls (7th to 9th grade; 9th to 11th grade) from eight coeducational and two single-sex schools were followed during a period of three…

  17. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  19. Do Schools Affect Girls' and Boys' Reading Performance Differently? A Multilevel Study on the Gendered Effects of School Resources and School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Few studies on male-female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls' and boys' educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools' socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly educated teachers, and school practices, being…

  20. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  1. Social and Psychological Factors Related to Risk of Eating Disorders Among High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.

  2. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  3. Gender Differences in High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the interests of high school students in Physics and variable of how the influential factors on their interests depending on gender. The research sample included 154 (F:78 M:76) high school students. A structured interview form was used as the data collection tool in the study. The research data were…

  4. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity...

  5. The influence of gymnastic exercises to correct posture for girls of primary school age.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMOLÍKOVÁ, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    This work is adicted to observation of younger school age girls posture. Respondents are divided anto two groups. One group consists of girls who are practising sport´s gymnastic and the other group are girls practising different or any sports. Disparity of these two groups is examined by means of a questionnaire In the theoretical part there are all information and continuity which are important for this subject, questions concerning gymnastic exercises respectively sports gymnastics. Such a...

  6. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  7. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  8. Crafting a Future in Science: Tracing Middle School Girls' Identity Work over Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Angela Calabrese; Kang, Hosun; Tan, Edna; O'Neill, Tara B.; Bautista-Guerra, Juanita; Brecklin, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls from nondominant backgrounds in the sciences and engineering continues despite recent gains in achievement. This longitudinal ethnographic study traces the identity work that girls from nondominant backgrounds do as they engage in science-related activities across school, club, and home during the middle school…

  9. Subjective Discipline and the Social Control of Black Girls in Pipeline Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer; Smith, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Using an intersectional feminist critical race lens, we utilized the Education Longitudinal Study (2002) data comparing tenth grade African American girls to White girls, analyzing whether the student was ever held back, teacher reports of problem behaviors in classrooms, and whether the student did not graduate from high school in the four years…

  10. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  11. "Girls Are Not Free"--In and out of the South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Interviews conducted with township girls in South Africa show enduring experiences of sexual violence both in and out of the school. Fear of boys and men were articulated in relation to boyfriends, male teachers, men in the township neighbourhood and men in the home. While the girls attempted to exercise agency in arresting their fears, these…

  12. Perceptions and practices on menstruation amongst Nigerian secondary school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu Dolly; Adinma, J I B

    2008-04-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted amongst 550 secondary school girls in southeastern Nigeria to determine their perceptions, problems, and practices on menstruation. Majority of the students, (75.6%), were aged 15-17 years. Only 39.3% perceived menstruation to be physiological. Abdominal pain/discomfort, (66.2%), was the commonest medical problem encountered by the respondents, although 45.8% had multiple problems. Medical problems were most commonly discussed with the mother, (47.1%), and least commonly discussed with the teachers, 0.4%. Analgesics, (75.6%), were most commonly used to relieve menstrual pain. Only 10% of respondents used non-pharmacologic remedies. Unsanitary menstrual absorbents were used by 55.7% of the respondents. Menstruation perceptions are poor, and practices often incorrect. A multi-dimensional approach focusing on capacity building of mothers, and teachers on sexuality education skills; using religious organizations as avenues for sexuality education; and effectively using the Mass Media as reproductive health education channels are recommended towards improving adolescents' perceptions and practices on menstruation.

  13. Correct gender socializing in school avoids the fabrication of divisions among girls and boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Topçiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of gender based role socializing is supported by the postulate: men and women learn gender based attitudes and behaviours of the environment which surrounds them. Gender based socializing serves to teach individuals the difference between sexes, as well as, the hierarchy between them. Education is an extremely important instrument whereby social change can be achieved. School should take the indispensable responsibility to clearly demonstrate that both genders possess equal values in the present society. It is time for the education in schools to seriously take in consideration issues concerning gender based education with a view to prevent the violation of women’s and girls’ rights and integrity in both, private and public environments. It is time for the education in schools to lend a helping hand in addressing pupils toward nontraditional stereotypes, yet in development. This education should similarly focus on the natural difference between both genders and the equity between them. School remains one of the social institutions that should set up intentional gender education. Especially the secondary education cycle which coincides with the “culminating age” of the youth development should identify the latter one as a necessity. To avoid the creation of a masculine subjectivity, radically different from the feminine one, school education ought to be led by a correct, affirmative, representative, integrative curriculum that includes experiences, necessities and interests of girls and boys.

  14. Can the implementation of aerospace science in elementary school help girls maintain their confidence and engagement in science as they transition to middle school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Margot

    2018-06-01

    There is a global crisis due to a lack of qualified applicants entering STEM careers, especially in science. Add the fact that women are greatly underrepresented in science, and the solution becomes obvious. Go to the source, and find out why girls as young as 12 years old are losing an interest in scientific endeavors that they once found to be captivating. This action research project sought to find out if the implementation of aerospace science, embedded both in the classroom and in an after school Space Club, could assist girls in maintaining their confidence and engagement in science overall as they transition to middle school. Furthermore, girls in fifth through seventh grade, who had previously been the teacher researcher's students, were included in the study in order to discover if their previous participation in a variety of authentic and ongoing aerospace activities had any impact upon their engagement in science as they entered the notable years of declined interest. The research took place at an international American school, Academia Cotopaxi, in Quito, Ecuador from September 2015 through April 2016. Data was collected through both qualitative and quantitative sources, and included attitude surveys, parent questionnaires, a writing prompt, photos, video, interviews and observations. Additionally, a control group was utilized in grades five to seven for purposes of comparison. Innovative activities included engaging and first-hand experiences with the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA), the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), Space X and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). Inquiry-based activities included, but were not limited to, experiences with: speaking live with both astronauts and cosmonauts on the International Space Station, robotics, rocketry, Skype chats with aerospace professionals, utilizing the Design Process, online resources and more. Findings suggested that embedding aerospace science in grade four, both during and after

  15. Modernizing dermatology interest groups in medical school: Certificate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jordan V; Korta, Dorota Z; Keller, Matthew

    2017-11-15

    This commentary addresses the increasingly competitive nature of applying to dermatology residency programs and how both interest groups in medical schools and their dermatology departments can help to better prepare applicants. As previous literature argued that dermatology has been underemphasized in medical school curricula, we propose five fundamental options that interest groups can implement in order to offer increased exposure to our field in medical training. Furthermore, with therecent trend of many schools conferring certificates in various specialized concentrations, we also discuss interest groups pioneering certificate-grantingprograms in dermatology competency. The pros and cons of having a recognized certificate program in dermatology are presented.

  16. A comparison between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    Background This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual

  17. Educational challenges of internal migrant girls: a case study among primary school children in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate education-related challenges encountered by internal migrant girls studying at primary schools in Turkey. From the perspectives of participants, the emerging themes included adaptation, language, low socio-economic status, peer relations, discrimination and

  18. Environmental Influence on the Writing of Gifted High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rae

    1988-01-01

    Compared essays of gifted adolescent girls in the files of the Guidance Institute for the Talented (GIFTS), on "Dominant forces that have directed my life" and "The future as I see it and my place in the future," for girls born in 1944 and 1957. Found essays reflected changes in attitudes occurring in the United States during…

  19. Exploring Teacher Trust in Technical/Vocational Secondary Schools: Male Teachers' Preference for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtte, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    This article explores whether teachers' trust in pupils in technical/vocational schools is associated with teachers' and pupils' gender. As for the teachers, besides gender, age, socioeconomic origin, and subject taught are considered and, as for the pupils, the gender composition of the school (proportion of girls at school), the socioeconomic…

  20. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  1. Gender Tracking and Student Choice: Case Study of a Girls' Vocational High School, 1911-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nancy

    The Lucy Flower Technical High School was the only Chicago public high school exclusively for girls. Its founders' goal was to train young women both for sex-segregated employment and for their "primary function" as housewives. The form this aim took in practice and the response to the school over time by Chicago's young women offer…

  2. Educational Challenges and Diminishing Family Safety Net Faced by High-School Girls in a Slum Residence, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, Dakysha

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, there was a slight decrease in the number of out-of school adolescents from 75 million in 2009 (UNESCO, 2009) to 71 million in 2010, of which 55% are girls (UNESCO, 2010). In Kenya, only 17% of girls have secondary education (CBS, 2004). This paper analyzes the role of families in girls' secondary education in two schools within Nairobi…

  3. Differences in the intensity of physical activity during school days and weekends in Polish and Czech boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, Karel; Kudlacek, Michal; Groffik, Dorota; Chmelik, Frantisek; Jakubec, Lukas

    2016-06-02

    The physical, mental and social development that occurs in young people through physical activity (PA) is primarily through extracurricular activities. Family, peers and social environment, in addition to schools, interest groups and school sports, play a unique role during this developmental period. The objective of the study was to examine the differences in the intensity of PA during school days and weekends and the relationship between PA and physical inactivity (PI) during these days in Polish and Czech boys and girls. In total, there were 816 participants among whom 333 met the requirements of 8 hours of continuous recording of PA (ActiTrainer accelerometers) during at least one school and one weekend day. Boys and girls from both countries engaged in virtually the same amount of PA during school and weekend days, and participated in more PA at lower intensities on the weekends compared with school days. This study surveyed important issues related to global public health, specifically for the school environment and school settings. The important and crucial relations with family were emphasized, which should increase the awareness and understanding of public health problems of this particular research sample. The results indicated that less time was spent in PI, but also that the largest amount of time during the weekends was spent in front of a screen.

  4. Girls in Foster Care: Risk and Promotive Factors for School Adjustment Across the Transition to Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Leve, Leslie D

    2012-01-01

    Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2(nd) year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2(nd) year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1(st) year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care.

  5. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  6. Valeologic knowledge in adolescent girls studied at secondary and professional schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: The study was performed to estimate the valeologic knowledge in adolescent girls. Material and methods: The study included 169 girls (aged 12-18. The anonymous questioning, the lessons on a healthy life style and sexual education were conducted. Results: The investigation showed that girls have had low level of the healthy life style and sexual education. More than half of girls in this study had no accurate understanding about the menstruation, normal sexual development. After the healthy life style lessons among the girls the level of valeologic knowledge was increased in 1.5-5 times. Conclusion: The awareness among girls on issues related to sexual and reproductive health through valeologic and sex education may be developed by means of school programs.

  7. Do disordered eating behaviours in girls vary by school characteristics? A UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; De Stavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-15

    Previous research on eating disorders, disordered eating behaviours, and whether their prevalence varies across schools, has produced inconsistent results. Our previous work using Swedish record-linkage data found that rates of diagnosed eating disorders vary between schools, with higher proportions of girls and higher proportions of highly educated parents within a school being associated with greater numbers of diagnosed eating disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a UK population-based sample and hypothesised that a similar association would be evident when studying disordered eating behaviours. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to test the hypothesis that prevalence of self- and parent-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, restrictive eating, and fear of weight gain), and body dissatisfaction cluster by school. We had complete data on body dissatisfaction, school attended, and other possible risk factors for 2146 girls in 263 schools at age 14 and on disordered eating behaviours for 1769 girls in 273 schools at age 16. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to assess whether prevalence varied between and within schools, and logistic regression to investigate the association between specific school characteristics and prevalence of disordered eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction. At age 14, there was no evidence for body dissatisfaction clustering by school, or for specific school characteristics being associated with body dissatisfaction. At age 16, there was no evidence for clustering, but higher rates of disordered eating behaviours were associated with attending all-girl schools and lower levels with attending schools with higher academic results. We found no evidence for clustering of disordered eating behaviours in individual schools, possibly because of the small cluster sizes. However, we found evidence for higher levels of disordered eating behaviours in 16

  8. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES ABOUT MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Issues related to menstruation and its practices are still foggy due to taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining uninformed of the technical facts and hygienic practices to keep good health that is why sometimes it results in to adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To find out the age of menarche.(ii To elicit the beliefs, perception and source of information regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 120 adolescent girls of a higher secondary school situated in Varanasi District. Information was obtained with the help of a predesigned and pretested questionnaire in a local language. Results: About half of the girls (58.3% were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. The mean age of menarche was found to be 12.98yrs (+0.77.The most common menstrual pattern was 30/3 days. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of (41.66% of girls. Most of the girls (85.8% believed it as a physiological process. Regarding practices, only 61(50.8% girls informed about the use of sanitary pads during menstruation. Most of the girls 59 (49.16% used old plain cloth as menstrual absorbent. About (82.5% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusion: Menstrual hygiene is still a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections and it is a vital component of the health education to the adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/ health personnel, motivated school teachers, and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the critical messages of correct practices about menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girls of today.

  9. "Girls cannot think as boys do": socialising children through the Zimbabwean school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R

    1998-07-01

    What little attention donor-sponsored research on gender and education in Zimbabwe has paid to how schools educate children to assume gender roles has focused on the effect of girls, but it is equally important for development purposes to deconstruct masculinity and the ability of Western stereotypes to foster patriarchy. In Zimbabwe, the school curriculum continues to be gender-differentiated and, when offered a choice, girls and boys choose subjects that fall within the traditional male/female split, which is promoted by teachers, parents, and peers. In addition, males dominate positions of authority in the secondary school system, and teachers of both sexes consider it their duty to steer pupils towards "gender appropriate" behavior. School textbooks further this stereotyping. Interviews in 1995 with 15 secondary school boys at each of six schools sought to uncover attitudes about gender and education. Most boys (77.5%) reported that it is equally important to educate girls and boys, but only 50.6% believed that girls are as intelligent as boys (while differentiating between the type of intelligence possessed by girls with that enjoyed by boys). The boys also gender-typed school subjects on the basis of perceived differentials in abilities and because they are prerequisites for gender-differentiated occupations. Almost 90% of the boys reported that a wife should obey her husband. Thus, patriarchal values are internalized in schools in a way that will impede development.

  10. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  11. Profiling interest of students in science: Learning in school and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Pay O.; Höffler, Tim N.; Parchmann, Ilka

    2014-05-01

    Background:Interest is assumed to be relevant for students' learning processes. Many studies have investigated students' interest in science; most of them however have not offered differentiated insights into the structure and elements of this interest. Purpose:The aim of this study is to obtain a precise image of secondary school students' interest for school and out-of-school learning opportunities, both formal and informal. The study is part of a larger project on measuring the students' Individual Concept about the Natural Sciences (ICoN), including self-efficacy, beliefs and achievements next to interest variables. Sample:Next to regular school students, a specific cohort will be analyzed as well: participants of science competitions who are regarded as having high interest, and perhaps different interest profiles than regular students. In the study described here, participants of the International Junior Science Olympiad (N = 133) and regular students from secondary schools (N = 305), age cohorts 10 to 17 years, participated. Design and methods:We adapted Holland's well-established RIASEC-framework to analyze if and how it can also be used to assess students' interest within science and in-school and out-of-school (leisure-time and enrichment) activities. The resulting questionnaire was piloted according to quality criteria and applied to analyze profiles of different groups (boys - girls, contest participants - non-participants). Results:The RIASEC-adaption to investigate profiles within science works apparently well for school and leisure-time activities. Concerning the interest in fostering measures, different emphases seem to appear. More research in this field needs to be done to adjust measures better to students' interests and other pre-conditions in the future. Contrasting different groups like gender and participation in a junior science contest uncovered specific interest profiles. Conclusions:The instrument seems to offer a promising approach to

  12. The Implementation of a One-Day Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Career Exploration Workshop for Middle School Girls in Elmira, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Carol-Witkowski CW

    Even now, women are underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The literature shows that one significant approach to address this issue is to work with middle school girls, ages eleven to thirteen, to get them interested and excited about STEM career paths. In addition to appropriate in-school support a review of many different middle school programs indicates that such programs exist in certain service areas but are still missing in others, especially the rural areas. To address this situation, a one-day STEM workshop called "Full STEAHM Ahead!" was implemented spring 2012 in Elmira, New York, to address the career exploration "turning point" for rural middle school girls. The implementation involved pre-workshop, workshop, and post-workshop phases. The success and effectiveness of the workshop was demonstrated by survey comments and verbal feedback from both the girls and educators who attended.

  13. School connectedness and daily smoking among boys and girls: the influence of parental smoking norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2005-01-01

    connectedness and smoking, although a modifying tendency was observed among girls. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking behaviour of Danish adolescents may be influenced by complicated interactions of varying sets of experienced smoking norms, and any research project or preventive programme focusing on the influence......BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether an association between school connectedness and smoking exists among Danish school children, and if so, to examine whether parental smoking attitude and parental smoking behaviour influenced this association. METHODS: Data were collected by the Danish...... and smoking among both boys and girls. Parents' attitude to their children's smoking significantly modified this association among boys. Among girls the modifying effect was less marked. Neither among boys nor girls did parental smoking behaviour significantly modify the association between school...

  14. Shelley Jones: Helping Ugandan girls stay in school | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shelley Jones with her Masters of Education students debating gender issues ... early pregnancies, limited family support, or educational gender discrimination.” ... Girls' Secondary Education in Uganda: Assessing Policy within the Women's ...

  15. Improving Academic Self-Efficacy, School Connectedness, and Identity in Struggling Middle School Girls: A Preliminary Study of the "REAL Girls" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J.; Smith, Megan L.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.

    2015-01-01

    Girls struggling to be successful in middle school are often dealing with negative life experiences that affect their ability to achieve academically. Frequently, their academic failures and problem behaviors are associated with feeling overwhelmed by difficult and challenging life circumstances. In the absence of intervention, these patterns may…

  16. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates......AIMS: To quantify the correlation between male and female smoking prevalence in elementary school classes by group-level analysis. METHODS: This study was the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 1998. Ninety school classes at grade nine (1......,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...

  17. Hemoglobin status of non-school going adolescent girls in three districts of Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliyy, Gandham; Mallick, Gitanjali; Sethy, Girija Sankar; Kar, Santanu Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem in young children and pregnant women in SouthEast Asia, but a paucity of data on anemia in adolescent girls in India. Studies are lacking on the entire non-school going adolescent population. To determine the prevalence of anemia in non-school going adolescent girls and the association between hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and socioeconomic and nutritional factors. A cross-sectional community study conducted on a sample of 1937 healthy adolescent girls aged 11-19 years from three districts of Orissa, India. Sample size was determined using a probability proportionate to size cluster sampling. The adolescent girls were interviewed and anthropometric measurements were collected. The Hb estimation was carried out in capillary blood samples using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia and nutritional status were evaluated according to standard procedures. The mean Hb concentration was 9.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL (range, 4.5-13.4 g/dL). Of the total adolescent girls, 1869 (96.5%) were anemic (Hb education levels of girls and their parents' family income, body mass index, and mid-upper arm circumference. This study revealed that prevalence of anemia was extremely high in non-school going adolescent girls (most were moderately anemic) and stressed the need for more research and public health interventions.

  18. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  19. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  20. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. A More "Livable" School? A Diffractive Analysis of the Performative Enactments of Girls' Ill-/Well-Being With(in) School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi; Palmer, Anna

    2013-01-01

    School girls in Sweden are reported to develop psychological (ill)health in relation to their school behaviour and over-achievements. The methods offered as prevention and treatments are aimed at the individual girl's self-management of stress, health and psychological state, putting the responsibility on the girls themselves. This feminist…

  2. Understanding Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics Using Girl-Friendly and Integrated STEM Strategies: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily Anna

    According to the American Physical Society, women accounted for only 20% of bachelor's degrees in the fields of physics and engineering in 2010. This low percentage is likely related to young girls' K-12 education experiences, particularly their experiences prior to high school, during which time young women's perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and STEM careers are formed (Catsambis, 1995; Maltese & Tai, 2011; National Research Council, 2012; Sadler, Sonnert, Hazari, & Tai, 2012; Tai, Liu, Maltese, & Fan, 2006; Scantlebury, 2014; Sikora & Pokropek, 2012). There are no significant gender differences in academic achievement in middle school, yet young women have less positive attitudes towards careers in science than their male peers (Catsambis, 1995; Scantlebury, 2014). This suggests that the low female representation in certain STEM fields is a result of not their abilities, but their perceptions; for fields like physics where negative perceptions persist (Haussler & Hoffman, 2002; Labudde, Herzog, Neuenschander, Violi, & Gerber, 2000), it is clear that middle school is a critical time to intervene. This study examines the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM strategies (Baker & Leary, 1995; Halpern et al., 2007; Haussler & Hoffman, 2000, 2002; Labudde et al., 2000; Moore et al., 2014b; Newbill & Cennamo, 2008; Rosser, 2000; Yanowitz, 2004) guided this work to understand how these instructional strategies may influence student's perceptions of physics for both girls and boys. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions about physics and physics-related careers. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study uses a series of student surveys and focus group interviews to identify and understand these similarities and

  3. Persuading Girls to Take Elective Physical Science Courses in High School: Who Are the Credible Communicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies communicators whom eighth-grade girls perceive as credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school. Finds that father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student are ranked highly. Attributes associated with the communicators were classified as prestige, trustworthiness, similarity,…

  4. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  5. The Austin High School Girls' Band of Chicago, Illinois: 1925-1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the history of the Austin High School (AHS) Girls' Band (AHSGB) of Chicago, Illinois, which existed from 1925 to 1956. This research focused on the band's (a) organization and leadership, (b) activities within the school and community, (c) relationship to the AHS Boys Band, and (d) efforts to challenge and…

  6. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  7. Mis/Representations in School-Based Digital Media Production: An Ethnographic Exploration with Muslim Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahya, Negin; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss findings from a digital media production club with racialized girls in a low-income school in Toronto, Ontario. Specifically, the authors consider how student-produced media is impacted by ongoing postcolonial structures relating to power and representation in the school and in the media production work of…

  8. Girls Talk Back: Changing School Culture through Feminist and Service-Learning Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; Beese, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the intersection of feminism and service-learning by describing the creation of a women's studies course for girls attending an alternative high school. In the course participants could critique sexist practices in the media and in the school, as well as establish cultural competence through engaging in service projects that…

  9. Mothers of the Race: The Elite Schools for German Girls under the Nazi Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a seeming contradiction of earlier education policy and ideology, the Nazi regime opened three elite schools for girls beginning in 1938. These relatively short-lived and little known institutions symbolized a Nazi penchant for the schooling of females as a preparation for motherhood and a means of preserving racial bloodlines. Drawing from…

  10. "Beauties", "Geeks" and "Men-John": The Possibilities and Costs of Girls' Performances of Gender in Antiguan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Mary Christina

    2013-01-01

    Whilst it is known that Caribbean girls academically outperform boys, much less is known about their experiences of school. This paper, based on qualitative research in Antiguan secondary schools, is concerned with who girls can "be" in their school contexts and the consequences of positioning oneself (or being positioned) within…

  11. After-school setting, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in 5th grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, S E; Dowda, M; Colabianchi, N; Saunders, R; Pate, R R

    2012-09-01

    After-school hours are considered critical for children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB); however, whether the after-school setting influences children's activity patterns is unknown. This study examined the influence of after-school setting (i.e., parent report of the child's usual after-school setting) on 5th grade children's PA and SB, and differences by race/ethnicity. Boys whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA than boys who usually went home after school. A significant interaction between race/ethnicity and after-school setting showed that minority girls whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA and engaged in less SB compared with those who usually went home, whereas the activity patterns of white girls did not differ by after-school setting. Children's usual after-school setting affects their activity patterns; after-school programs may potentially increase PA in boys and minority girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teachers Perceptions of Female Student Aggression at an All-Girls School

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Clare; McKenzie, Karen

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited research into how teachers view and respond to relational aggression in girls. The existing research is largely quantitative and questionnaire based and has indicated that gender stereotypes may influence teachers’ perceptions of female aggression. The present study adopted a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews to explore how seven teachers (six females and one male) working in a single sex (all girls) school, experienced and perceived female student ...

  13. Middle School Girls and the "Leaky Pipeline" to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mary; Grossman, Diane; Carter, Suzanne; Martin, Karyn; Deyton, Patricia; Hammer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Why do girls perform so well academically yet lose ground as professional women? This diminishing number of women up the leadership hierarchy is often referred to as the "leaky pipeline," and attributed to many factors: external ones such as work environments not conducive to work/life balance, and internal ones such as women's own…

  14. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary- school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    self-perception, which may influence eating attitudes. Design. ... attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. ... self-approval with regard to body image jn young adolescent girls has been ... The current study aimed to explore the relationship between .... 'others' to sisters, aunts/uncles and brothers.

  15. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport...

  16. Clandestine Readers: Boys and Girls Going "Undercover" in School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the diverse nature of students' interpretations of their reading experiences, this study moves beyond broad generalizations about boys and girls to consider complexities inherent in the social processes that influence students' engagement in reading. While the study aimed to develop understandings about the ways notions of masculinity…

  17. Girls and Computing: Female Participation in Computing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagami, Jason; Boden, Marie; Keane, Therese; Moreton, Bronwyn; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Computer education, with a focus on Computer Science, has become a core subject in the Australian Curriculum and the focus of national innovation initiatives. Equal participation by girls, however, remains unlikely based on their engagement with computing in recent decades. In seeking to understand why this may be the case, a Delphi consensus…

  18. Menarcheal age and nutritional status among school girls' in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is a significant indicator of maturity and puberty in adolescent girls. There has been a decline in menarcheal ago over the years with many factors including nutrition having an influence on it. The aim of this study is to determine the age at menarche and its relationship with anthropometric ...

  19. Ethical Liability: Are Girls Safe in Your Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Patricia F.; Curcio, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Cites two court cases regarding students' complains of sexual harassment by teachers. Contends that the educators in these cases violated both commonly accepted personal morality and the ethics of their profession. Reveals a widespread resistance to the study on the psychological development of girls. (MLF)

  20. Middle School Girls Sample "Hard Hat" Life at Construction Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aneeta

    2013-01-01

    On a Monday morning in July, a fan as tall as a refrigerator churned noisily in the cavernous classroom. As the outdoor temperature crept higher, teenage girls wearing hardhats and safety glasses wiped perspiration and sawdust from their faces. This was not a field trip. This was the second hour of camp at Ranken Technical College in St. Louis,…

  1. A school-based randomized controlled trial to improve physical activity among Iranian high school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofranipour Fazloalha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Due to cultural barriers, this problem might be exacerbated in female Iranian adolescents. However, little intervention research has been conducted to try to increase PA participation rates with this population. Because PA interventions in schools have the potential to reach many children and adolescents, this study reports on PA intervention research conducted in all-female Iranian high schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of two six-month tailored interventions on potential determinants of PA and PA behavior. Students (N = 161 were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: an intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion model (HP, an intervention based on an integration of the health promotion model and selected constructs from the Transtheoretical model (THP, and a control group (CON. Measures were administered prior to the intervention, at post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. Results Repeated measure ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between group and time for perceived benefits, self efficacy, interpersonal norms, social support, behavioral processes, and PA behavior, indicating that both intervention groups significantly improved across the 24-week intervention, whereas the control group did not. Participants in the THP group showed greater use of counter conditioning and stimulus control at post-intervention and at follow-up. While there were no significant differences in PA between the HP and CON groups at follow-up, a significant difference was still found between the THP and the CON group. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of a PA intervention based on Pender's HP model combined with selected aspects of the TTM on potential determinants to increase PA among

  2. Girls Getting to Secondary School Safely: Combating Gender-Based Violence in the Transportation Sector in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Laura

    2009-01-01

    While increasing girls' access to education is a global priority, there are numerous barriers that impede significant progress in achieving gender parity in schools. While enrollment of girl students is up in Tanzania, especially at the primary and secondary levels, AED has become concerned about the barriers girls face, including gender-based…

  3. The Longitudinal STEM Identity Trajectories of Middle School Girls who Participated in a Single-Sex Informal STEM Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of participation in an all-girls STEM summer camp on young women's interest in STEM fields and motivation to pursue these fields. The SciGirls camp has been in existence since 2006, with its goal of providing a safe space for young women to explore STEM careers and strengthen their interest in these careers. Over 166 middle school age girls have participated in the program since it began in 2006. Of those participants, 60 responded to at least one of the follow up surveys that are sent every three years - 2009 and 2012. The surveys attempt to determine participants' level of interest in STEM. The survey was qualitative in nature and asked open ended questions. Results indicated that the camp had a positive effect on participants' perceptions of scientists and their work. This study adds to the literature that looks at the longitudinal impacts of informal STEM educational programs that expose young women to female scientist role models and mentors. This study supports the research that claims that exposing young women at an early age to science role models can positively alter their perception of science careers which can eventually increase the number of women who pursue these careers. This increase is important at a time when men still outnumber women in many science and engineering fields. This study was funded in part by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research through DMR 0654118.

  4. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  5. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  6. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sekine

    Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  7. Reading Interest of North Ridgeville High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Shirley

    A study surveyed 449 seniors and sophomores at North Ridgeville (Ohio) High School to determine their reading interests. The survey of 18 questions revealed the following findings: (1) favorite type of novel was horror; (2) favorite author was Stephen King; (3) favorite magazines were "Seventeen" and "Sports Illustrated"; (4)…

  8. Earth Experiments in a Virtual World: Introducing Climate & Coding to High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. A.; Twedt, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    In our increasingly technologically-driven and information-saturated world, literacy in STEM fields can be crucial for career advancement. Nevertheless, both systemic and interpersonal barriers can prevent individuals, particularly members of under-represented groups, from engaging in these fields. Here, we present a high school-level workshop developed to foster basic understanding of climate science while exposing students to the Python programming language. For the past four years, the workshop has been a part of the annual Expanding Your Horizons conference for high school girls, whose mission is to spark interest in STEM fields. Moving through current events in the realm of global climate policy, the fundamentals of climate, and the mathematical representation of planetary energy balance, the workshop culminates in an under-the-hood exploration of a basic climate model coded in the Python programming language. Students interact directly with the underlying code to run `virtual world' experiments that explore the impact of solar insolation, planetary albedo, the greenhouse effect, and meridional energy transport on global temperatures. Engagement with Python is through the Jupyter Notebook interface, which permits direct interaction with the code but is more user-friendly for beginners than a command-line approach. We conclude with further ideas for providing online access to workshop materials for educators, and additional venues for presenting such workshops to under-represented groups in STEM.

  9. Adolescent sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among school girls in Transkei, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J

    1996-02-01

    Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives.

  10. Changes in Student Science Interest from Elementary to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Trudi E.

    This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for

  11. The Training Effectiveness of Prevention Disability Package in High School Girls; a Community Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training programs and providing essential information such as preborn educational programs for women, unmarried girls are essential as the most important prevention methods for control and prevention of health outcomes and disability. The current study conducted to assess the training effectiveness of Prevention Disability Package in high school girls in a community trail.Materials and Methods: A community trial executed among 1,339 high school girls in Qom, Iran. Subjects were the students that training in 10th and 11th years of education. All of students in each class from all majors were included in the study. According to sampling framework, 55 classes selected randomly assigned to lecture (1264 girls [94.4%], 4 (3% girls to CD-based group and 35 (2.6% girls to control group. Data collection was conducted by a standard and valid questionnaire. Analysis of variance test was used to compare the mean of knowledge score among three groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used to control the confounding variables.Results: There were significant differences among three groups according to the total score of awareness of disability. Therefore, the mean score of in handicap, musculoskeletal diseases, pregnancy dimensions, and total knowledge about disability causes was higher than in lecture group than CD-based and control groups (P

  12. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.

  13. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  14. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Gelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

  15. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  16. Organizing an App Inventor Summer Camp for Middle School Girls: What the Experts Don't Tell You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy L.; Soares, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our experience as rookies organizing, funding, and running a summer computing camp for middle school girls. The focus of the camp was building mobile applications using App Inventor. The three day/two night camp targeted girls in rural, high poverty school districts and was funded through an award from the National…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  18. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport: case studies exploring cultural and religious diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation of stakeholders' voices on the inclusion of Muslim girls and the analysis of PE discourses in these countries. Findings illustrate similarities and differences at the interface of cultural diversity, political rhetoric of inclusion and realities of sport experiences for Muslim girls in both countries. Complex influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport environments to enable participation and retention of their cultural identities. Highlighted throughout the paper are the ways in which school sport policy and practice, providers and gatekeepers, can include or exclude groups, in this case Muslim girls. Too often coaches and teachers are unaware of crucial facts about their learners, not only in terms of their physical development and capabilities but also in terms of their cultural needs. Mistakes in creating conducive learning environments leave young people to negotiate a way to participate or refrain from participation.

  19. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  20. Integrated Literacies in a Rural Kenyan Girls' Secondary School Journalism Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Maureen; Early, Margaret; Chemjor, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to foreground contextual issues in studies of situated writing practices. During a year-long case study in a rural Kenyan secondary school, we applied a number of ethnographic techniques to document how 32 girls (aged 14-18 years) used local cultural and digital resources (i.e., donated digital cameras, voice…

  1. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  2. Voices of Successful Science Teachers in an Urban Diverse Single Gender Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for…

  3. What Contributes to Gifted Adolescent Females' Talent Development at a High-Achieving, Secondary Girls' School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedale, Charlotte; Kronborg, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females' talent development at a high-achieving girls' school. Using Kronborg's (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants' talent…

  4. Girls' Groups as a Component of Anti-Sexist Practice--One Primary School's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to improve their achievement and confidence, girls at a London elementary school were segregated and taught subjects designed to counter traditional role limitations. Boys, meanwhile, felt their status was being undermined, and teachers were uncertain about the rightness of countering societal norms. (DM)

  5. Girls in Primary School Science Classrooms: Theorising beyond Dominant Discourses of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Cleti; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the ways girls appropriate gender through actions, gesture and talk to achieve things in primary school science classrooms. It draws on socio-cultural approaches to show that when everyday classroom practices are viewed from multiple planes of analysis, historical, institutional and in the micro dynamics of classroom…

  6. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE: GAPS IN THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual hygiene is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged. Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio - cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls lacking knowledge and remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes res ult into adverse health outcomes. Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections (RTI, is a vital aspect of health education. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs, which are otherwise preventable. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in the Indian society. Isolation of the menstrua ting girls and restrictions being imposed on them in the family, have reinforced a negative attitude towards this phenomenon. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent. This study was conducted to assess the knowled ge, attitudes and practices of adolescent school girls of a secondary school in an urban setting. It was found that there was lack of knowledge in specific areas. This study throws light on lack of basic amenities in school for girls which in turn leads to unhygienic practices during menstruation. These reinforce the fact that health education has to be more effective and also that the need of the hour is basic amenities in schools.

  7. Gender Discrimination and Education in West Africa: Strategies for Maintaining Girls in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuwor, Theresa; Sossou, Marie-Antoinette

    2008-01-01

    Girls' enrolment in primary schools has achieved significant increase and parity with male enrolment in many countries in Africa since the 1960s. Some of these countries include Botswana, Namibia and Tanzania. However, in most Sub-Saharan African countries, female enrolment still lags behind male enrolment. This paper examines some of the reasons…

  8. Student Leadership Development in Australian and New Zealand Secondary Girls' Schools: A Staff Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study regarding the phenomenon of student leadership development as reported by staff members in girls' schools located in Australia and New Zealand. Electronic survey was used as the method of data collection, facilitating both closed and open-ended responses. Using staff responses, the understanding and type…

  9. Definitions of Success: Girls at Miss Porter's School Share Their Hopes, Dreams, and Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Katherine Gladstone

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how girls currently enrolled and recently graduated from Miss Porter's School, Farmington, Connecticut, define success and the role gender plays in their definition(s). Data were collected from semi-structured student interviews, written responses by the students to a prompt designed to elicit personal conceptions of success,…

  10. Do Village Girls Gain Empowering Capabilities through Schooling and What Functionings Do They Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Vilma; Luo, Shujuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between girls' schooling and empowerment in western China in the first decade of the 21st century. This paper adopted a capability-empowerment framework based on Sen's capability approach into which were integrated concepts by Bourdieu, Appadurai, Nussbaum, Kabeer, and Unterhalter, to help to understand the…

  11. From the history of a private school for girls in Bălţi

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Chicaroş

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of archival documents the article reflects the history and activity of the girls' school of A.L. Chudnahovskaia - E.I. Genshke in Bălţi. In the development of the school there are three stages. According to archival sources of 1884, it was established instead of a second category school (four-year training system) headed by Zinaida Negruş. Due to financial difficulties the school was closed after ten years of operation. Parents of children enrolled in it appealed t...

  12. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  13. Trajectories of Math Achievement and Perceived Math Competence over High School and Postsecondary Education: Effects of an All-Girl Curriculum in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the benefits of all-girls' classroom instruction in math and/or science during Grades 9 and/or 10, within the context of a public co-educational high school. There were 118 participants in this longitudinal investigation: 26 girls in the all-girl classes, as well as 42 girls and 50 boys in the regular co-educational…

  14. Effectiveness of a girls' empowerment programme on early childbearing, marriage and school dropout among adolescent girls in rural Zambia: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick

    2016-12-09

    Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in

  15. Persuading girls to take elective physical science courses in high school: Who are the credible communicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Eighth-grade girls (N=257) randomly selected from nine different public junior high schools in central Texas were questioned in order to identify the communicators whom they perceive as highly credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school and the attributes associated with these communicators. Four persons were each identified by better than 10 percent of the sample as the best person to try to convince junior high school girls to take elective physical science courses in high school. In order of perceived credibility, these persons are father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student. Slight variations in the order of perceived credibility were found when the responses from girls of the different ethnic groups represented in the sample (Caucasian, Hispanic, Black, and Asian) were examined separately. Attributes listed by the respondents for father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student were examined and classified into the categories of prestige, trustworthiness, similarity, attractiveness, and power. Prestige and trustworthiness are the attributes associates most frequently with communicators identified as highly credible. Implications of the present study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. The Gender Factor in Computer Anxiety and Interest among Some Australian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1993-01-01

    Western Australia eleventh graders (142 boys, 139 girls) were compared on such variables as computers at home, computer classes, experience with computers, and socioeconomic status. Girls had higher anxiety levels, boys higher computer interest. Possible causes included social beliefs about computer use, teacher sex bias, and software (games) more…

  17. Disordered Eating Attitudes and Their Correlates among Iranian High School Girls

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    Mahdiyeh Hamed Behzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered eating attitudes are contributing factors to the development of eatingdisorders. Adolescent girls are at high risk for eating diseases. In Iran, there is few data onthe subject, especially in Azarian adolescent girls, so we did this study for assessing disorderedeating attitudes and their correlates among Iranian Azarbaijani high school girls.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1887 high school girls were selected. Eating AttitudeTest-26 (EAT-26 and socio economical questionnaires were used. The EAT-26 score of 20or higher defined as disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Programfor Social Sciences, by using from descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: Reliability and validity of the translated EAT-26 were 0.80, 0.76, respectively. Instudied subjects, mean (SD of EAT-26 was 11.71(8.48. Totally, 16.7% (C.I with 95%: 15.1-18.3% of students had disordered eating attitudes. About half of the participants were unhappywith their body weight and considered themselves as obese. Mean of EAT-26 washigher in this group. Groups, who intent to weight loss, were smoker, and who had age ofmenarche less than 11 years, also had higher EAT-26 scores. Parent’s literacy or job, birthorder, family size or income and house ownership had not any significant effect on EAT-26score.Conclusions: Persian version of EAT-26 has good reliability and validity for assessing disorderedeating attitudes in Azarian girl adolescents. Prevalence of disordered eating attitudesamong Azarian adolescent girls are in the range of some studies, but are less than Arabiancountries, and some European ones. In adolescent girls, body weight dissatisfaction, smokingand early menarche has important role in eating attitudes.

  18. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

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    Fatemeh Jamalikandazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of secondary school girls towards contraception in Limpopo Province

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    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.

  1. Evaluation of school-based reproductive health education program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of school support for orphan girls to prevent HIV infection in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted; Hallfors, Denise; Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Waehrer, Geetha

    2013-10-01

    This cost-effectiveness study analyzes the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in a randomized controlled trial that tested school support as a structural intervention to prevent HIV risk factors among Zimbabwe orphan girl adolescents. The intervention significantly reduced early marriage, increased years of schooling completed, and increased health-related quality of life. By reducing early marriage, the literature suggests the intervention reduced HIV infection. The intervention yielded an estimated US$1,472 in societal benefits and an estimated gain of 0.36 QALYs per orphan supported. It cost an estimated US$6/QALY gained, about 1 % of annual per capita income in Zimbabwe. That is well below the maximum price that the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health recommends paying for health gains in low and middle income countries. About half the girls in the intervention condition were boarded when they reached high school. For non-boarders, the intervention's financial benefits exceeded its costs, yielding an estimated net cost savings of $502 per pupil. Without boarding, the intervention would yield net savings even if it were 34 % less effective in replication. Boarding was not cost-effective. It cost an additional $1,234 per girl boarded (over the 3 years of the study, discounted to present value at a 3 % discount rate) but had no effect on any of the outcome measures relative to girls in the treatment group who did not board. For girls who did not board, the average cost of approximately 3 years of school support was US$973.

  3. A STUDY ON MENSTRUAL HEALTH IN SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENT GIRLS FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinitra Dayalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The major Problems occurring during the adolescent period is related to menstrual cycle. Data regarding the burden of menstrual disturbances in school going children of South India is lacking. Assessing the burden in such children may aid in revealing the current state of menstrual health and hence aiding the policy makes to take appropriate measures. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of menstrual disturbances in school going adolescent girls of South India. The primary aim of this study is to assess the burden of menstrual disorders in school going adolescent girls. The secondary objective were to assess individual menstrual disturbance in the study group and to assess the various factors influencing the menstrual health. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in two government girl’s higher secondary school in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. After receiving approval, a structured questionnaire in the regional language (Tamil was distributed to the school going children between the age of 10 and 19 years. Demographic data and details regarding menstrual health were collected. Frequency of medical assistance and school absenteeism were also analysed in patients with dysmenorrhea. Data were analysed using the SPSS 13.0.1. RESULTS Data of 340 girls who have attained menarche and who have completed the questionnaire was analysed. The median age of menarche in the study group was 13 years. (IQR; 12, 14 and 13.2% attained early menarche(before12 years. There was a higher prevalence of menstrual disturbances; (46.2% with polymenorrhea and (12% with oligomenorrhea. there was a significantly higher usage of sanitary pads in our study population in our study group (98%. In addition, (41.5% had premenstrual symptoms and (36.8% had dysmenorrhea. With a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea (n=125, 35 had school absenteeism. But, only 8/35 consulted a physician and took treatment. Five of these patients were told to have

  4. Striving to Make a Positive Difference: School Nurses' Experiences of Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margaretha; Björk, Maria; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students' health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school nurses…

  5. Juvenile Delinquent Girls Reflect Learning in Schools and Offer Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Stremlau, Aliza; Ritzman, Mitzi; Snow, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used to conduct interviews of 41 female juvenile delinquents residing in a correctional facility to understand how participants would have improved learning in their former school if they had been the teachers. A total of 27 of 41 participants provided 70 comments that resulted in 93 meaning units/codes that emerged into 4…

  6. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  7. Sexual violence and girls' performance in Rwandan schools: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user17

    and child marriage; and harmful traditional practices such as female genital .... that GBV could be committed at home (domestic violence), at workplace or within the ... economic empowerment of women appears to increase in the short term run ..... they constituted a threat to the girls‟ good school performance as the current.

  8. Bangladeshi Girls' Friendships in an English Primary School Locale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    Despite England's long history of research on children's friendships, little is known of what it is like to be or have friends or how developing conceptions of friendship become embedded in children's social lives in increasingly culturally diverse English primary schools. This study, following an extensive search of the literature, explored…

  9. Indoor radon concentration measurements in Tarqumia Girl Schools at Western Hebron Region, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabyneh, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, radon-222 in indoor air was surveyed in 62 rooms located in four governmental schools, for girls, in Tarqumia town that lies in the north western part of Hebron city in Palestine. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from the inhalation of radon and its daughters by 2318 pupils and 102 staff members occupying the surveyed rooms were also measured. TASTRAK, a solid state nuclear track detector, has been used to measure the indoor radon concentrations at those schools thus, 124 radon detectors were distributed in the four school buildings. The radon detectors stayed for 70 days between February 2006 and April 2006. The results showed that the radon concentration and the annual effective dose equivalent in these schools were varied from 12 to 232.5 Bq/m 3 with an average of 34.1 Bq/m 3 and 0.62 to 12.0 mSv/y with an average of 1.76 mSv/y, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in Tarqumia secondary girls school, Al-aqsa elementary girls school, Umsalama elementary girls school and Tarqumia elementary girls school were 35.8, 26.7, 25.9 and 47.8 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent for the above mentioned were 1.85, 1.38, 1.34 and 2.47 mSv/y, respectively. It has been found from these results that, most of the values were of nominal state values (that is less than the allowed global values) and in few places, the concentration was higher than the allowed global values, therefore, the annual effective dose higher than annual global level values (1.3 mSv/y) was resulted. Poor ventilation and old buildings were, most mobility, the main cause of these high radon concentrations. Improving ventilation of these places will increase air exchange rates with the out side, thereby resulting in reduced concentration. In general, the results showed that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for pupils and staff members occupying the rooms of the investigated schools

  10. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  11. Nutritional Behaviors Pattern of High School Girls in North of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Arshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Healthy eating in adolescent girls has a crucial role in normal growth and reducing the incidence of chronic disease related to nutrition in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine high school girl's eating behaviors in north of Tehran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 722 female students who were selected randomly from public high schools in four districts of Tehran participated. Demographic variables and nutritional status were evaluated using systematic interviews with them by health professionals. Anthropometric parameters were also assessed.Results: Most girls (42.4% had a normal BMI. The mean (SD of daily consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were 2 (1.1, 1.8 (1, 1.9 (1.07 servings, respectively. The mean (SD of weekly intake of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans were 3.08 (2, 3.15 (2.9, 0.95 (0.9, 2.6 (2.9 and 2.2 (1.2 times, respectively. The mean (SD frequency of eating breakfast was 4.9 (2.6 times per week. 16.9% of girls never consumed fast foods. Girls who do not consume salty snacks and fast foods per week, had significantly normal BMI (p<0.05. Low-fat milk consumption, daily consumption breakfast and non consumption of fruits were significantly associated with social status (p<0.05. Do not eating breakfast had significant association with BMI (p<0.05.Conclusion: The consumption of major food groups in this study was lower than the recommended amounts. Further research is needed to determine enabling and reinforcing factors to healthy eating behaviors. Also, improvement attitudes and empowerment of adolescent girls to adopt healthy eating behaviors can be effective

  12. Amount of newspaper coverage of high school athletics for boys and girls on sports page and newspaper circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul M; Whisenant, Warren A

    2002-02-01

    This study analyzed the amount of coverage for high school athletics in 43 newspapers with small circulation by devoting 40% of their interscholastic athletics coverage to girls in athletics, printed significantly more articles about girls' athletics than did the newspapers with medium (33%) or large (32%) circulation. Therefore, the smaller the newspaper circulation, the more equitable the coverage of athletics for girls and boys. This finding was consistent with some prior work but not all.

  13. Pedagogical Conditions for Coordination Development in Girls of Primary School Age through Rhythmic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Марченко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to experimentally verify the effectiveness of the use of rhythmic gymnastics means that have been systematized to develop coordination abilities in girls of primary school age. Research methods: method of theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources, method of control studies, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The coordination readiness level evaluation demonstrated that at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment the level of the majority of the second-grade girls was low (22.85%, below average (39.97%, and average (11.42%; that of the third-grade girls was below average (57.1%, average (34.26%; and that of the fourth-grade — below average (29.3%, and average (62.06%. After the pedagogical experiment the number of the second-, third- and fourth-grade girls with the low level decreased by 19%, 13.4%, 10.4% in the experimental groups and by 16.3%, 11.8%, 9.8% in the control groups respectively; the number of the girls with the below-average level decreased by 14.7%, 32.7%, 23.1% in the experimental groups and by 12.4%, 21%, 19.1% in the control groups. The positive changes in the level of coordination abilities occurred both in the control and the experimental groups, with the results improved in favor of the experimental groups.

  14. Boys, girls, and the school cultural environment: Teachers' judgment and students' values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelenei, Cristina; Darnon, Céline; Martinot, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Due to gender socialization, girls are more likely to endorse self-transcendence values (e.g., helping people) compared to boys, whereas boys are more likely to endorse self-enhancement values (e.g., wanting to be in charge) compared to girls. In two studies, we investigated teachers' judgment regarding the display of these values in school and students' endorsement of the self-transcendence and self-enhancement values in two contexts: home and school. In Study 1 (N = 240), teachers evaluated a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-transcendence values more positively compared to a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-enhancement values, regardless of the student's gender. In Study 2 (N = 151), boys endorsed the self-enhancement values more than the self-transcendence values at home, whereas the opposite occurred in the school context. Girls did not vary across contexts, endorsing the self-transcendence values more than the self-enhancement values in both contexts. Possible consequences on boys' school-related outcomes are discussed.

  15. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health perceptions and behaviors of school-age boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M V; Uphold, C R

    1992-01-01

    This study described and compared the health perceptions and behaviors of 83 school-age boys and girls. An age-appropriate interview schedule was designed to collect data related to demographic characteristics, health perceptions, safety, life-style practices, nutrition, dental health, and care of minor injuries. Findings indicated that most boys and girls viewed themselves as healthy and managed their own care fairly well in the areas of seat belt use, exercise, and dental health. Nutrition was identified as an area of concern, with 10% of the children skipping breakfast, and over half eating snacks with empty calories. Generally, children were found to be knowledgeable in the management of simple injuries and how to respond in the event of an emergency. Boys and girls were similar in all areas of health perceptions and behaviors except for dental health, with boys reporting more regular visits to the dentist than did girls. Further research is needed to learn more about the process by which school-age children acquire positive health behaviors to assist nurses to design and implement intervention programs that appropriately address the needs of this age group.

  17. From the history of a private school for girls in Bălţi

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    Tatiana Chicaroş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of archival documents the article reflects the history and activity of the girls' school of A.L. Chudnahovskaia - E.I. Genshke in Bălţi. In the development of the school there are three stages. According to archival sources of 1884, it was established instead of a second category school (four-year training system headed by Zinaida Negruş. Due to financial difficulties the school was closed after ten years of operation. Parents of children enrolled in it appealed to local authorities through an official I.A. Marandich to request the continuation of the school, as they are unable to send their children to schools located in other cities. After several consultations with teachers from local schools, I.A. Marandich asked Augustina Chudnahovskaia, the former teacher of French and German from the Negruş's school, to get permission from the Department of Public Education to open a new school similar to the previous one. Thanks to perseverance of the director of popular schools P.C. Borzakovekov, it was decided to open in Bălţi a similar four-year school. The new school began its work on 5 September 1894. The teaching staff was formed from the former school's teach- ers working more on enthusiasm than for money. The amount of money left of the school fees was equally shared among all the teachers. At the beginning of their activities they were paid 5-6 rubles a year for a teaching subject. Their work brought good results. For 10 years of its activity the school had 270 students, 77 of which attended the full course of study. On average, each year the school had an enrollment of up to 27 students. The greatest difficulties in the development of this institution emerged during its reorganization in a gymnasium. The first query on the matter was sent to the authorities in 1899, but was not satisfied. Subsequent attempts in 1901 also failed. Only in 1904, the school was reorganized in a progymnasium for girls providing four

  18. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

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    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school

  19. The Influence of Family Socialisation on the Success of Girls from Poor Urban Communities in Brazil at School

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    Carvalho, Marília

    2015-01-01

    The principle focus of this article is to understand the influence of socialisation in the family on the success of girls at school. Eight low-income families with children of both sexes in the city of São Paulo, Brazil were studied through interviews and observation methods. It was found that socialisation in the family favoured in girls, and not…

  20. Differences in Professional Interests Between School Librarians and School Directors of Audio-Visual Services.

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    Eshleman, Winston

    Since the state of Ohio has combined the certification requirements for the professions of school librarians and directors of audiovisual services, the professional interests of these two groups were compared to discover if they have identical interests. A questionnaire was devised with rating scales for areas of professional concern. The…

  1. The Growth of Single-Sex Schools: Federal Policy Meets Local Needs and Interests

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    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    Changes to Title IX allowing the growth of single-sex schools have garnered media attention promoting the benefits of separating boys and girls. Alternately, civil rights groups such as the ACLU continue to oppose any type of school segregation. Within this context, a private philanthropy, the Foundation for the Education of Young Women (FEYW) has…

  2. Factors Influencing Academic Performance Of Standard Eight Girls In National Examinations In Public Primary Schools A Case Of Matungu Division.

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    Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.

  3. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

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    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among high-school girls in Tabriz, Iran, in 2001.

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    Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Behzad, Mahdiyeh Hamed; Ghassabpour, Saeideh; Ayat, Arezoo

    2004-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are among the most prevalent nutritional problems in developed and developing countries. In this descriptive study, we attempted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescent girls attending high school in Tabriz. A sample of 1,650 (final study group, 1,518) high-school girls aged 14 to 20 years was selected by stepwise random sampling from five districts of Tabriz. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index (BMI) percentiles from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cutoffs. According to the NHANES I criteria, 14.6% of the study subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity was seen in 11. 1% and 3.6% of the students, respectively. By the IOTF cutoffs, 14% of the subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity were seen in 10.1% and 3.9% of the students, respectively. Of the study subjects, 8% had a BMI below the 15th percentile of NHANES I, an indicator of underweight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tabriz high-school girls is higher than in many, but not all, parts of Iran, but lower than in some neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia. In this age group, in addition to overweight and obesity, underweight (BMI < or = 15th percentile) is also present.

  6. Application of means of health-improving fitness for correction of weight of girls of the senior school age

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    Inna Pavlenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out the theoretical analysis of the problem of application of health-improving fitness for the correction of weight of girls of the senior school age. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature. Results: it is established that the problem of excess weight at girls of the senior school age is one of the most urgent in modern science. The reasons of obesity of teenagers are defined and the main directions of the solution of this problem are characterized. Conclusions: it is defined that application of means of health-improving fitness promotes the correction of weight at girls of the senior school age. It causes the necessity of development and deployment of innovative technology of correction of weight at girls of the senior school age on the basis of primary use of means of health-improving fitness.

  7. 'Sometimes it's fun to play with them first': girls and boys talking about sexual harassment in Caribbean schools.

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    Cobbett, Mary; Warrington, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in four government secondary schools in the Caribbean state of Antigua and Barbuda on students' experiences at school in relation to sexuality. Both girls and boys experienced a range of anxieties and confusions in relation to sexuality, whilst also seeing (hetero)sexual attraction as an exciting part of schooling. Sexual harassment of girls emerged as a widespread and serious (as well as 'normalised') occurrence in all the schools studied. However, the data also showed that girls were far from passive. Instead, girls demonstrated complex and contradictory responses to boys' behaviour due to their own investments in being desirable within discourses of hetero-femininity, as well as the pleasure they gained from their relationships. Both genders would clearly benefit from opportunities to discuss their needs, beliefs and desires regarding sexuality and relationships.

  8. "It's Just Because We're Girls": How Female Students Experience and Negotiate Masculinist School Sport

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    McSharry, Majella

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the inequalities experienced particularly by girls who attend co-educational secondary schools where specific male sports dominate school life. The research was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland in three schools known for the participation and success of boys' teams in Gaelic football, hurling and rugby. Through a…

  9. Can Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools Enhance the Learning Experiences of Girls and/or Boys? An Exploration of Pupils' Perceptions.

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    Jackson, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the value of introducing single-sex classes within co-educational schools. Draws upon perspectives of girls and boys involved in one such initiative. Concludes girls-only classes may have positive effects for girls, but curriculum-as-usual boys' classes do nothing to challenge problematic male cultures inherent in schools. (BT)

  10. Association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012

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    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demo...

  11. Predictors of Learned Helplessness among Average and Mildly Gifted Girls and Boys Attending Initial High School Physics Instruction in Germany

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    Ziegler, Albert; Finsterwald, Monika; Grassinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In mathematics, physics, and chemistry, women are still considered to be at a disadvantage. In the present study, the development of the symptoms of learned helplessness was of particular interest. A study involving average and mildly gifted 8th-grade boys and girls (top 60%) investigated whether girls, regardless of ability level, experience…

  12. Use of counselling services by school-attending adolescent girls in Nigeria.

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    Azfredrick, Ezinwanne Christiana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and barriers to the use of school counselling services by school attending adolescent girls in south-east Nigeria. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 3065 adolescent girls, using a self-report counselling utilisation scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. About 80% of the participants had school counsellors and nearly half of the participants utilised the service. Regression results showed that father's level of education, availability of a counselling laboratory/room, contentment with the counselling services rendered predicted the use of the counselling service. Some of the barriers for non-use of school counselling services were shyness, fear and lack of confidentiality. School authorities will encourage uptake of counselling services by adolescents when adequate counselling consulting rooms are provided. This will increase confidence in adolescent clients and reduce fear attached to use of these services. This will improve their mental health and their academic performance.

  13. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  14. Video incident analysis of head injuries in high school girls' lacrosse.

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    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with head injuries in girls' high school lacrosse is necessary to target prevention efforts. To use video analysis and injury data to provide an objective and comprehensive visual record to identify mechanisms of injury, game characteristics, and penalties associated with head injury in girls' high school lacrosse. Descriptive epidemiology study. In the 25 public high schools of 1 school system, 529 varsity and junior varsity girls' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of head injury incidents was examined to identify associated mechanisms and game characteristics using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. Of the 25 head injuries (21 concussions and 4 contusions) recorded as game-related incidents by athletic trainers during the 2 seasons, 20 head injuries were captured on video, and 14 incidents had sufficient image quality for analysis. All 14 incidents of head injury (11 concussions, 3 contusions) involved varsity-level athletes. Most head injuries resulted from stick-to-head contact (n = 8), followed by body-to-head contact (n = 4). The most frequent player activities were defending a shot (n = 4) and competing for a loose ball (n = 4). Ten of the 14 head injuries occurred inside the 12-m arc and in front of the goal, and no penalty was called in 12 injury incidents. All injuries involved 2 players, and most resulted from unintentional actions. Turf versus grass did not appear to influence number of head injuries. Comprehensive video analysis suggests that play near the goal at the varsity high school level is associated with head injuries. Absence of penalty calls on most of these plays suggests an area for exploration, such as the extent to which current rules are enforced and the effectiveness of existing rules for the prevention of head injury.

  15. Physical fitness and performance. Cardiorespiratory fitness in girls-change from middle to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Karin A; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K; Sirard, John R; Pate, Russell R

    2007-12-01

    To determine how factors are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) across time in middle school girls followed through high school. Adolescent girls (N = 274, 59% African American, baseline age = 13.6 +/- 0.6 yr) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170) in 8th, 9th, and 12th grades. Height, weight, sports participation, and physical activity were also measured. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were determined by the number of blocks reported on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Individual differences and developmental change in CRF were assessed simultaneously by calculating individual growth curves for each participant, using growth curve modeling. Both weight-relative and absolute CRF increased from 8th to 9th grade and decreased from 9th to 12th grade. On average, girls lost 0.16 kg.m.min.kg.yr in weight-relative PWC170 scores (P interactions between CRF, physical activity, race, BMI, and sports participation.

  16. Support for At-Risk Girls: A School-Based Mental Health Nursing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamshick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  18. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  19. Age at Menarche and its Related Factors among School Girls, in Zanjan, Iran

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    Parisa Khoshnevisasl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are differences in the age at menarche in different countries and it seems that in recent decades gradually the age of puberty is declining. The aim of the present study was to determine the age at menarche and its related factors in school girls in Zanjan city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,500 healthy school girls between 6-17 years old who were selected on the basis of a multistage probability sampling. Age at menarche, birth weight, family size, Body Mass Index (BMI, fast food consumption, and physical activity, were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.ResultsOut of 1,500 students, 273 girls (18.2% had experienced menarche with a mean age of 12.6±1.6 (95% confidence interval [C]: 12.4-12.8, and a median age of 13 years. The prevalence of early menarche, was 10.3%, (95% CI: 6.6%-14.1%. A significant association between menarche and BMI, frequency of fast food consumption and birth rank was observed; however, we didn’t find a significant association between physical activity (P>0.05 and birth weight (P>0.05 with menarche. ConclusionThe mean age of menarche in our study was 12.6±1.6 years old, similar to other studies in Iran, and it was significantly associated with higher BMI.

  20. Physical, Social, and Political Inequities Constraining Girls' Menstrual Management at Schools in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Candace; Ellis, Anna; Andes, Karen L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A

    2017-12-01

    Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured. Girls in private schools struggled to access pads because they were not provided. Sanitation facilities were physically available, but Muslim girls were unable to practice ablution due to the design of toilets in our study schools. Girls experienced fear and anxiety due to harassment from male peers and had incomplete information about menstruation from teachers. Findings suggest that practitioners and policy-makers should acknowledge the diversity of school populations and monitor programs to ensure efforts do not contribute to inequity.

  1. The Influence of the Breast on Sport and Exercise Participation in School Girls in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, Joanna; Brown, Nicola; Smith, Jenny; Brasher, Amanda; Risius, Debbie; Marczyk, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that breasts may be a barrier to physical activity for adult females. With only 12% of the UK 14-year-old girls achieving exercise guidelines, to understand deterrents to exercise in this population, we should consider whether breasts may also influence sport and exercise participation in school girls. This survey-based study investigated the influence of the breast on sport and exercise participation and breast-specific concerns in the UK school girls. A survey was developed to assess demographics, breast characteristics, breast-specific concerns in sports, breast knowledge, views on breast education, and sport participation. Chi-squared tests assessed associations between participation and breast size, sports bra use, and breast concerns. Two thousand eighty-nine school girls aged 11-18 years completed the survey, for 97 their breasts had begun developing and 96% reported wearing breast support. Forty-six percent of girls reported that their breasts had some effect on their participation in compulsory sports and exercise, which was more prevalent in girls aged 13-14 years (51%) and in larger-breasted girls (63%). More than 50% reported never wearing a sports bra during sports. Breast concerns were high with 73% reporting ≥1 breast-specific concern in sports; with breast bounce being most prevalent (38%). As most of the breast concerns raised in this survey could be addressed via education and 87% of girls wanted to know more about breasts, this study demonstrates a need for breast education for school girls, which may reduce the influence of the breast on sport and exercise participation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  3. Counselling teenage girls on problems related to the 'protection of family honour' from the perspective of school nurses and counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Venus; Törnkvist, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Approximately 1,500 young immigrant women living in Sweden sought help from various public organisations during 2004 due to problems related to Protection of Family Honour (PFH). Often they seek help from school nurses and counsellors. Information on how the school nurses and counsellors manage this complex PFH phenomenon is limited in Sweden. The aim was to generate a theoretical model that illuminates the experiences of school counsellors and school nurses counselling teenage girls, who worry about problems related to protection of family honour. Data were collected through individual interviews of the school welfare staff. The study subjects included welfare staff from six upper-secondary schools consisting of four nurses and six counsellors. Grounded theory methods were used to generate new knowledge as this is a new field of research. The staff's main goal was to provide the best support and help for the teenage girls. In addition, they wanted to be true to their professional ethics and values. However, this was difficult and created professional dilemmas because some teenage girls prevented them from doing what they thought was needed to support the teenage girls and protect them from violence. As a result, staff sometimes felt hampered, unable to help or able to help only in ways hidden from the teenage girls' families. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Tehran: A school-based study

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    Hasti Sanaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Eating attitude disorders may indicate an increased risk for eating disorders and their chronic health complications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of eating attitude disorders and to identify the factors associated with them among female students in Tehran.  Methods: A total of 14–18-year-old high school girls (N=619 completed a standardized self-report Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Mental health problems were investigated by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-2.  Results: Based on EAT-26 scores, 153 (24.7% students had eating attitude disorders. There was no relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and both individual and socioeconomic factors (P>0.05. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that eating attitude disorders were significantly associated with depression [OR=1.8 (1.2-2.8, P=0.007], anxiety [OR=1.6 (1.1-2.4, P=0.04], and perception of body shape as overweight [OR=2.7 (1.7-4.3, P<0.001].  Conclusion: A relatively high rate of eating attitude disorders was found among adolescent school girls in Tehran. Related factors were body image and psychological issues including depression and anxiety. Preventive and screening programs in schools could identify students at risk and prevent development and complications of eating disorders.

  5. Are Girls Game?: How School Libraries Can Provide Gender Equity in E-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Gaming has come to the library. School librarians are increasingly incorporating gaming into their program of resources and services. Besides addressing the natural interest that youth have in games, school librarians recognize the educational benefits of games, particularly in terms of information and digital literacies. While board games have…

  6. Afterschool School Triathlon Training for 11- to 14-Year Old Girls: Influences on Academic Motivation and Achievement

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    Gatz, Jennifer; Kelly, Angela M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of a Transformation through Triathlon after school programme in promoting health status, academic motivation and socioemotional development in at-risk girls aged 11-14 years attending middle school in the USA. Design: A phenomenological approach was employed with elements of grounded theory to analyse…

  7. Practitioners' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive School-Based Mental Health Services for Low-Income African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Erin; Kruger, Ann Cale; Hamilton, Chela; Meyers, Joel; Truscott, Stephen D.; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health practitioners are positioned to address low-income urban African American girls' mental health needs through culturally responsive services. Despite the importance of culturally reflective practice, it is understudied. We asked school-based mental health practitioners (N = 7) to reflect on barriers and facilitators to…

  8. Being "Nuff" and "Scudding Class": Exploring Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of Popularity, Gender and Achievement in Antiguan Secondary Schools

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    Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper will report on the findings from classroom observations and focus group discussions conducted on the topic of popularity and fitting in at school with girls and boys from four government secondary schools in Antigua. The findings show that whilst boys did experience difficulties negotiating academic success and acceptable masculinities,…

  9. Single-gender mathematics and science classes and the effects on urban middle school boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudler, Dawn M.

    This study compared the differences in the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics and science achievement scores of boys and girls in Grade 7 at two urban middle schools. The data allowed the researcher to determine to what degree boys and girls in Grade 7 differ in their mathematics and science achievements within a single-gender environment versus a coeducational learning environment. The study compared any differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a single-gender environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. The study also compared differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a coeducational environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. Two middle schools were used within the study. One middle school was identified as a single-gender school (Middle School A); the other was identified as a coeducational school (Middle School B). This quantitative study applied the use of a descriptive research design. In addition, CRCT scores for the subjects of mathematics and science were taken during the spring of 2008 from both middle schools. Data were measured using descriptive statistics and independent t test calculations. The frequency statistics proceeded to compare each sample performance levels. The data were described in means, standard deviations, standard error means, frequency, and percentages. This method provided an excellent description of a sample scored on the spring 2008 CRCT mathematics and science assessments.

  10. Mental Health and School Functioning for Girls in the Child Welfare System: the Mediating Role of Future Orientation and School Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, Jennifer M; Auslander, Wendy; Gerke, Donald; McGinnis, Hollee; Myers Tlapek, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the association between mental health problems and academic and behavioral school functioning for adolescent girls in the child welfare system and determined whether school engagement and future orientation meditated the relationship. Participants were 231 girls aged between 12 and 19 who had been involved with the child welfare system. Results indicated that 39% of girls reported depressive symptoms in the clinical range and 54% reported posttraumatic symptoms in the clinical range. The most common school functioning problems reported were failing a class (41%) and physical fights with other students (35%). Participants reported a mean number of 1.7 school functioning problems. Higher levels of depression and PTSD were significantly associated with more school functioning problems. School engagement fully mediated the relationship between depression and school functioning and between PTSD and school functioning, both models controlling for age, race, and placement stability. Future orientation was not significantly associated with school functioning problems at the bivariate level. Findings suggest that school engagement is a potentially modifiable target for interventions aiming to ameliorate the negative influence of mental health problems on school functioning for adolescent girls with histories of abuse or neglect.

  11. IRON-ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN KUPANG CITY, EAST TIMOR PROVINCE.

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    Yustina Anie Indriastuti Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the main micronutrient deficiency problem among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Anemia due to iron deficiency often coexists with zinc deficiency. Both iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency can increase the risk of obstetric complications among pregnant women i.e. bleeding during labor and post-partum hemorrhage. Iron-folate supplementation among pregnant women had been conducting since long time ago throughout this country; however, effort to improve the nutritional status particularly among adolescent girls prior to pregnancy is still lack behind. Iron and zinc have antagonistic interaction. Therefore it was challenging to alleviate anemia problem among adolescent girls with appropriate ratio of iron-zinc supplementation, and will give a benefit to improve their nutritional status. This study was aimed to investigate the different ratios of ironzinc supplementation on reducing the prevalence of anemia as improving the nutritional status of adolescent school girls.A female elementary school students age 10-12 years old (n= 137 were screened in rural area of Kupang City, East Timor Province. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups for daily iron-zinc supplementation for 12 weeks; Group 1 (iron; 60 mg/day, Group 2 (iron and zinc; 30 mg and 15 mg/day, Group 3 (iron and zinc; 60 mg and 15 mg/day. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method (Hemocue to determine the prevalence of anemia (Hb level < 120 g/L, while anthropometric assessment was conducted for measuring weight and height to determine the nutritional status. General characteristics was assessed through interview. At base line, 29.1% of subjects suffered from anemia and in general, the prevalence was reduced to around 13.1% after they took iron supplements with or without zinc. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased among all subjects euther suffered from anemia or not. The result of this study showed that subject who

  12. Gender differences in an elementary school learning environment: A study on how girls learn science in collaborative learning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Yvette Frank

    Girls are marked by low self-confidence manifested through gender discrimination during the early years of socialization and culturalization (AAUW, 1998). The nature of gender bias affects all girls in their studies of science and mathematics, particularly in minority groups, during their school years. It has been found that girls generally do not aspire in either mathematical or science-oriented careers because of such issues as overt and subtle stereotyping, inadequate confidence in ability, and discouragement in scientific competence. Grounded on constructivism, a theoretical framework, this inquiry employs fourth generation evaluation, a twelve-step evaluative process (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). The focus is to discover through qualitative research how fifth grade girls learn science in a co-sexual collaborative learning group, as they engage in hands-on, minds-on experiments. The emphasis is centered on one Hispanic girl in an effort to understand her beliefs, attitudes, and behavior as she becomes a stakeholder with other members of her six person collaborative learning group. The intent is to determine if cultural and social factors impact the learning of scientific concepts based on observations from videotapes, interviews, and student opinion questionnaires. QSR NUD*IST 4, a computer software program is utilized to help categorize and index data. Among the findings, there is evidence that clearly indicates girls' attitudes toward science are altered as they interact with other girls and boys in a collaborative learning group. Observations also indicate that cultural and social factors affect girls' performance as they explore and discover scientific concepts with other girls and boys. Based upon what I have uncovered utilizing qualitative research and confirmed according to current literature, there seems to be an appreciable impact on the way girls appear to learn science. Rooted in the data, the results mirror the conclusions of previous studies, which

  13. Students' Interest in Biology and Their Out-of-School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    Interest in biology and the out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school pupils (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed in the spring of 2003 using the international ROSE questionnaire. Likert-scaled items were categorised with an explorative factor analysis. The scores of eight interest-context factors and seven out-of-school experience…

  14. The Key Factors Affecting Students' Individual Interest in School Science Lessons

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    Cheung, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The…

  15. Influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system at girls of the younger school age

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    Оlena Potapova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system of girls of the younger school age in the groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old. Material & Methods: the problem of functional condition of external breath at girls of the younger school age (in the age groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old, who were divided into the control group (CG in number of 32persons (CS No. 58 and the experimental (EG in number of 29 persons (OTEC No. 109 of Zaporozhe, is considered. Results: it is defined that the studied girls of both groups at the beginning of the research had mainly below average and average levels of functional condition of the system of external breath. Conclusions: the effective impact of outdoor games on functional condition of the whole organism in general and on the system of external breath, in particular, at girls of the experimental group in comparison with the studied girls of the same age of the control group is proved experimentally. Application of the large number of various outdoor games allowed diversifying the program of training at physical education classes emotionally and physically, than promoted the activation of functions of the whole organism of girls of the younger school age.

  16. Locus of Control, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Some Deaf and Typical Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola

    2010-01-01

    This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…

  17. The Impact of Differing Maternal Expectations on the Academic Achievements of Primary School Children in Urban Bangalore, South: A Comparison between Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridarshan, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Education of girls in India lags behind that of boys and several communities in India fare worse than others. Because of their secondary status in the society, Indian girls tend to suffer from low self-esteem. Thus, it is necessary to study the reasons why girls are being discouraged from attending and completing school as well as what are the…

  18. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.

  19. Whose interests and under whose control?: Interest convergence in science-focused school-community collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deb

    2018-03-01

    In this dialogue with Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, I engage the critical race theory (CRT) tenet of interest convergence. I first expand Derrick Bell's (1980) initial statement of interest convergence with subsequent scholarly work in this area. I then explore ways CRT in general and interest convergence specifically have been applied in the field of education. Using this framing, I examine how interest convergence may be shed new insights into Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's study. For example, the tenet of interest convergence is used to frame why it was beneficial for the White artist, Jacob, and the Achievement Scholars to collaborate in the service-learning mural. Then the idea of interest divergence is brought into explore the ways in which Jacob benefitted from his participation in the service learning project while the Achievement Scholars were left with an unfinished project which they had to problem solve. To conclude, I provide future directions for the application of interest convergence and divergence to issues facing science education.

  20. The Importance of Pupils' Interests and Out-of-School Experiences in Planning Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…

  1. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  2. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

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    Kalniņa Līga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea. Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97 of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15 of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65% of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05 was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.

  3. Zanimanje in želje osnovnošolcev za učenje naravoslovja = Interests and Preferences of Primary School Pupils Regarding the Natural Science Education

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    Drago Skurjeni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze and investigate the interest of primary school pupils in natural science topics within primary school subject fields. Examining the existing curricula, it becomes evident that natural science topics are intertwined in different subject fields. Based on the methodology, developed within the rose project, a quantitative research was performed in order to investigate pupils’ wishes and interests regarding learning about natural science topics within different subject fields. The data was acquired by means of a questionnaire. The findings suggest that the level of Slovene pupils’ interest in natural science is low; nevertheless the girls are more interested in it than boys. The pupils would like to learn more about animals, non-scientific phenomena and information technology. However, they are not interested in physics.

  4. Interest-Driven Learning Among Middle School Youth in an Out-of-School STEM Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael A.; Lopez, Megan; Maddox, Donna; Drape, Tiffany; Duke, Rebekah

    2014-10-01

    The concept of connected learning proposes that youth leverage individual interest and social media to drive learning with an academic focus. To illustrate, we present in-depth case studies of Ryan and Sam, two middle-school-age youth, to document an out-of-school intervention intended to direct toward intentional learning in STEM that taps interest and motivation. The investigation focused on how Ryan and Sam interacted with the designed elements of Studio STEM and whether they became more engaged to gain deeper learning about science concepts related to energy sustainability. The investigation focused on the roles of the engineering design process, peer interaction, and social media to influence youth interest and motivation. Research questions were based on principles of connected learning (e.g., self-expression, lower barriers to expertise, socio-technical supports) with data analyzed within a framework suggested by discursive psychology. Analyzing videotaped excerpts of interactions in the studio, field notes, interview responses, and artifacts created during the program resulted in the following findings: problem solving, new media, and peer interaction as designed features of Studio STEM elicited evidence of stimulating interest in STEM for deeper learning. Further research could investigate individual interest-driven niches that are formed inside the larger educational setting, identifying areas of informal learning practice that could be adopted in formal settings. Moreover, aspects of youth's STEM literacy that could promote environmental sustainability through ideation, invention, and creativity should be pursued.

  5. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicted interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feon W; Monnat, Shannon M; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11- to 14-year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the fourth lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 fourth to eighth grade classrooms (47% sixth grade and 31% seventh grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). The relationship persisted net of covariates. Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Doing Business with Entrepreneurial America: Protecting School District Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Robert S.; Mattocks, T. C.; Kops, Gerald

    This paper attempts to identify benchmark considerations when entertaining the question of private management of public school facilities. Management possibilities include contracting for services and charter conversion. The paper also highlights elements of contract law pertinent to formal agreements made between school districts and private…

  7. Meeting the Needs and Interests of Today's High School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the physical educators at Tahoma High School, in a community in Washington state's Cascade Mountains, surveyed their students, reached out to the community, integrated physical education and academics, and established a school-wide focus on wellness. Tracy Krause writes that the three "Rs"--relationships,…

  8. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

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    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  9. Relationship of Middle School Student STEM Interest to Career Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding middle school students' perceptions regarding STEM dispositions, and the role attitudes play in establishing STEM career aspirations, is imperative to preparing the STEM workforce of the future. Data were gathered from more than 800 middle school students participating in a hands-on, real world application curriculum to examine the…

  10. Inquiry Learning in the Singaporean Context: Factors affecting student interest in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik Ling

    2014-10-01

    Recent research reveals that students' interest in school science begins to decline at an early age. As this lack of interest could result in fewer individuals qualified for scientific careers and a population unprepared to engage with scientific societal issues, it is imperative to investigate ways in which interest in school science can be increased. Studies have suggested that inquiry learning is one way to increase interest in science. Inquiry learning forms the core of the primary syllabus in Singapore; as such, we examine how inquiry practices may shape students' perceptions of science and school science. This study investigates how classroom inquiry activities relate to students' interest in school science. Data were collected from 425 grade 4 students who responded to a questionnaire and 27 students who participated in follow-up focus group interviews conducted in 14 classrooms in Singapore. Results indicate that students have a high interest in science class. Additionally, self-efficacy and leisure-time science activities, but not gender, were significantly associated with an increased interest in school science. Interestingly, while hands-on activities are viewed as fun and interesting, connecting learning to real-life and discussing ideas with their peers had a greater relation to student interest in school science. These findings suggest that inquiry learning can increase Singaporean students' interest in school science; however, simply engaging students in hands-on activities is insufficient. Instead, student interest may be increased by ensuring that classroom activities emphasize the everyday applications of science and allow for peer discussion.

  11. The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Michael B; Kerner, Charlotte; Taylor, Sarah L; Noonan, Robert J; Newson, Lisa; Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Curry, Whitney B; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2018-05-31

    Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST) of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13⁻15 years old) from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) project). The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33). Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36) and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43). The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls' MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.

  12. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  13. Familial Predisposition of Primary Dysmenorrhea among Senior High School Girl Students

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    Prema Sharlini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common female reproductive problem in women of active reproductive age which is characterized by menstrual pain or cramps in a women’s lower abdomen or back. Dysmenorrhea can be classified into primary and secondary. One of the associated risk factor of primary dysmenorrhoeais the family history, however the study on the family history of primary dysmenorrhea with recurrent menstrual pain is limited. This study was conducted to identify the correlation between family history and primary dysmenorrhea in high school girls. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at several senior high schools in Jatinangor from April−June 2013. One hundred and sixty two students were included in this study. The sample size was calculated based on the unpaired−dichotomous variable for the two−sided formula. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the senior high school girl students who were in their menarche age, menstrual cycle characteristics, presence or absence of dysmenorrhea, severity of pain and presence dysmenorrhea in mothers and in sisters were inquired. Data were analyzed using chi square test. Results: Overall, there were association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea among the students with (p<0.001. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 92.6% with 95% confidence interval which was 87.5−95.7%. The prevalence rate was 67.9% in mothers with 95% confidence interval which is 60.4−74.6% and 80.2% prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea in sisters with 95% confidence interval which is 73.4−85.6%. Conclusions: There is a significant association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea

  14. Process evaluation of a national school-based iron supplementation program for adolescent girls in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2014-09-16

    Iron deficiency anemia remains as one of the most common nutritional problems in Iran, especially in women and girls. A process evaluation study of the national iron supplementation program targeting girls attending high schools was conducted to examine degree of exposure and satisfaction of the targets with the intervention components, and to assess the delivery (quantity), fidelity (quality), and environmental mediators of the intervention. Three assessment tools were developed and used for the process evaluation. A total of 8 schools were selected using a simple randomization method. Data were collected from students (n = 658 of 661 participants), teachers (n = 80), and school principals (n = 7 of 8). For the qualitative measures semi-structured interviews were conducted with the three study groups. Mean continuous compliance was 62.3%. Intolerance to pills and no water supply in classrooms accounted for 47.72% and 36.21% of the refusals, respectively. The refusal rate was significantly correlated (p knowledge of iron deficiency issues (p < 0.05). The odds of refusal in the absence of a classroom water supply were 2.02 (95% CI 1 · 044 to 3 · 900) times greater than for those classrooms with a water supply. Student exposure to the program's goal was satisfactory; however, delivery and fidelity of educational materials and training sessions were inadequate. The findings suggest that the methods of delivery and the fidelity of the program components, education materials and training sessions were insufficient and need to be improved. Additionally, specific attention has to be given to contextual factors to ensure the success of the program.

  15. Gender-related differences in reasoning skills and learning interests of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Michal

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-related differences in the relationship between the development of formal reasoning skills and learning interests during the early adolescent stage. For this purpose, 249 students, from seventh to ninth grade, were assessed for their level of mastery of formal reasoning skills by a test based on videotaped simple experiments. Learning interests were assessed by a written response to an open question. Results showed that adolescent boys develop patterns of formal reasoning before their girl classmates. In addition, boys tend to prefer science and technology subjects, while girls tend to prefer language, social studies, and humanities. Analysis of interactions showed that boys' tendency toward science and technology is positively correlated to their age and development of formal reasoning, while girls' tendency to the above subjects is positively related to their development of formal reasoning capacity, but inversely related to their age. Possible explanations to the above-described findings and suggestions for instructional modes that may increase girls' interest in science and technology are discussed.

  16. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Early-Adolescent Immigrant Boys and Girls in Germany: Conditions in School, Family, and Ethnic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Noack, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Navigating between cultures in addition to developmental changes and challenges in early adolescence can be difficult. We investigated school, family, and ethnic group as conditions for acculturation and school adjustment among early-adolescent boys and girls. Analyses were based on 860 mostly second- and third-generation immigrant students from…

  17. Impacts of a Program to Improve Girls' Enrollment and Persistence in Liberia Elementary Schools: The Challenge of Using Gender Differences in Aggregate Outcome Trends to Identify Program Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Johannes M.; Sherman, Dan; Orgut, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    Under-enrollment of girls in primary and secondary is a longstanding and well-documented problem in developing countries. Limited parental and communal resources combine with cultural factors to create a disincentive for parents to send their girls to school and to keep them there throughout the school year and for the full primary and secondary…

  18. The Effect of School-Based Exercise Practices of 9-11 Year Old Girls Students on Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…

  19. Voices of successful science teachers in an urban diverse single gender girls' school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for female students of color in their classrooms. Ethic of Care, equity pedagogy and culturally responsive pedagogy, created the theoretical framework for interpretation of the powerful narratives and storytelling that influenced this group of successful teachers. Data were collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Constant comparative method and narrative analysis were used to code and categorize the data. Analysis was conducted after each interview to discover emergent themes. Teachers conducted member checks throughout the process. The findings from the study yielded the following: (1) teachers had a passion for science and incorporated ongoing scientific developments and real-life examples and applications in their teaching, (2) teachers adopted a caring, concerned, and student-centered approach to teaching, (3) teachers acknowledged certain benefits to a single-sex girls education which included fewer distractions, increased confidence and comfort level of students, (5) teachers built relationships with students that encouraged students to engage with rigorous course content and meet higher expectations for performance. Themes that emerged included: care, culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally relevant curriculum.

  20. Situational interest of high school students who visit an aquarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2011-01-01

    of a combined analytical tool that captures both social and psychological aspects. Qualitative methods were used to generate data: observation, video recording, and interviews. The findings showed that the aquarium visit triggered a lot of situational interest among the students and led to positive emotions...... visits. This study suggests that teachers can find ways to foster students’ involvement in specific content areas and increase levels of academic motivation regardless of prior interest....

  1. The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT Project

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    Michael B. Owen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity (PA is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13–15 years old from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT project. The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33. Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36 and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43. The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls’ MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.

  2. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

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    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  3. Governing in Whose Interests? Enacting School Leadership for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busher, Hugh; McKeown, Penny

    2005-01-01

    Leaders at all levels in schools try to implement particular policies and practices. These arise in response to pressures in the policy, social and economic contexts in which they work and from their own social and educational values. As part of the process of implementation, leaders try to modify existing organisational cultures to bind their…

  4. Interactive Online Physics Labs Increase High School Students' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczka, Patrick; Klementowicz, Edward; Sharrock, Chappel; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the incorporation of a web-based application focusing on circuits for the physics high school classroom as part of an outreach program. The program involves college mentors creating and implementing science lessons in collaboration with the classroom teacher. Focusing on the challenge of understanding circuit design, a technology…

  5. The Effect of Nutrition Education on Eating Disorders Attitude in Girls High School Students

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    Rahiminia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adolescence is one of the important period in growth and evolution process, Also, eating disorders in adolescences, especially girls is one of the major problems in communities. Therefore, an effective education is of special priority for prevention of eating disorders. The current study was performed with the goal of assessment of the effect of nutrition education on eating disorders attitude in girls high school students. Methods: This non-experimental study with a single group pre- and post-test design, was performed using purposive sampling method on 97 students of the first year of high school, in 2015. Data collection tool was EAT-26 standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the participants using self-report method before and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean score of abnormal eating attitude decreased from 1.7±0.04 (before education to 1.4±0.06 (after education. Also, there was a significant statistical difference between the results of before and after education (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that nutrition education has brought about desired changes in the attitude. However, the increase of nutrition awareness and attitude change can gradually lead to behavior change. Therefore, the current study can help the authorities to include a wider range of nutritional education in the curriculum of students in dorder to prevent eating disorder.

  6. The Role of Popular Girls in Bullying and Intimidating Boys and Other Popular Girls in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytham, Siobhan

    2018-01-01

    Despite a large amount of research focusing on bullying and exclusion in secondary schools, there is far less research focusing on cross-gender bullying and 'popular' students who experience bullying. This research provides an analysis of interactions between male and female students (aged 13-14) in a school in England. The data provides multiple…

  7. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  8. Knowledge of girl students about oxyuriasis in middle schools of Kashan, Central Iran

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    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to the high prevalence and worldwide distribution of Enterobius vermicularis and its readily transmission among children, parents' knowledge and health education have an important role in restriction and infection control. This study was performed to evaluate the girl students' knowledge about transmission, symptoms, and prevention of oxyuriasis in 2012–2013 in Kashan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 students in three levels of middle schools were studied. To evaluate the students' knowledge level of oxyuriasis, the standardized questionnaire was distributed and completed. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS. Results: Among three levels of students of middle schools, 67.6% of students had average awareness (information, 17.4% had weak information, and 15% had high information. In the assessment of the level of awareness in the first-level students, 23.41% of the students had weak information, 66.4% had average information, and 10.12% had high information. In the second-level students, 12.57% had weak information, 73.14% had average information, and 14.28% had high information. In the third-level middle-school students, 16.76% of students had weak knowledge, 62.87% had average knowledge, and 20.35% had high knowledge. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that knowledge of middle-school students about this infection is good but not sufficient, and it is necessary for teachers and health officers in schools to increase hygienic knowledge of the students and to train about this infection to decrease the damage of personal and social problems.

  9. Normative Cruelties and Gender Deviants: The Performative Effects of Bully Discourses for Girls and Boys in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s the educational community has witnessed a proliferation of "bullying" discourses, primarily within the field of educational developmental social psychology. Drawing on ethnographic and qualitative interview data of primary and secondary school girls and boys, this article argues that the discourse "bullying"…

  10. Correlates of Conduct Problems and Depression Comorbidity in Elementary School Boys and Girls Receiving Special Educational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Martine; Déry, Michèle; Toupin, Jean; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia

    2015-01-01

    There is limited empirical research on the correlates of conduct problems (CP) and depression comorbidity during childhood. This study investigated 479 elementary school children (48.2% girls). It compared children with comorbidity to children with CP only, depression only, and control children on individual, academic, social, and family…

  11. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  12. Comparison of Teacher Talk Directed to Boys and Girls and Its Relationship to Their Behaviour in Secondary and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Alex; Swinson, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of earlier investigations, using differing methodologies, into the extent to which teachers in the secondary school interact with boys and girls and the results have suggested an imbalance in the teachers' verbal behaviour towards the genders that is quite similar to the imbalance found in teachers' behaviour in the…

  13. Comparison of Classic vs. Role plays Teaching Methods on the Menstrual Hygiene Behavior of Secondary School Girls in Iran

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    R Ostovar

    2013-09-01

    Background & aim: Awareness about the different aspects of health during puberty plays an important role in the health of girls and finally on their health future pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to to compare the effect of role playing and classical training methods in the the improvement of puberty health among secondary school girls in Yasouj City, Iran. Methods: In this study, the educational need during puberty school girls in the interview was determined. The two schools girls were randomly selected (students any school-60. Next, a knowledge and attitude questionnaire and a behavior checklist related to the main puberty health problems were completed. Then one of the schools randomly was selected as educational interventions schools and other were studied as controls. After grouping the students into four groups of 15, intervention were conducted in four sessions including: role-play, question and answer, and lecture. In the control group, all number of school students received training on puberty health through a classical education (lectures. The results were subsequently compared. Data were analyzed by Student t-test paired t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior related to health matters during puberty showed significant improvement in the girls before and after implementation of educational intervention through role play (p<0.05.Thus, the mean score in group role play before intervention was 2.35±1.53 and after was 3.96±1.27 , The mean performance score before intervention 6.04±2.34 and after was, 8.61±1.55, respectively, while in classical group differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05 Conclusion: In comparison with the classical method of health education, teaching through role play significantly improved the level of knowledge, attitude and practice related to puberty health among adolescent girls. Key Words: Education, Adolescent Girls

  14. Variation by Gender in Abu Dhabi High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls…

  15. Measurements and Analyses of Science Interest in a School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Daniel Joseph

    Reported is a study to investigate the relationship of science interest with three instrument formats: scaled rating, block, and card sort. The scaled rating format was the same form as that used in Likert instruments. The block format was the graphic form used in the typical semantic differential where a single stem or concept is followed by…

  16. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe

    2011-06-01

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterised by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society.

  17. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  19. The key factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The present study aimed to address this gap, using a mixed methods design. Qualitative interview data were collected from 60 Hong Kong junior secondary school students, who were asked to describe the nature of their interest in science lessons and the factors to which they attribute this. Teacher interviews, parent interviews, and classroom observations were conducted to triangulate student interview data. Five factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons were identified: situational influences in science lessons, individual interest in science, science self-concept, grade level, and gender. Quantitative data were then collected from 591 students using a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to test a hypothesised model, which provided an acceptable fit to the student data. The strongest factor affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons was science self-concept, followed by individual interest in science and situational influences in science lessons. Grade level and gender were found to be nonsignificant factors. These findings suggest that teachers should pay special attention to the association between academic self-concept and interest if they want to motivate students to learn science at school.

  20. Pregnancy risk among black, white, and Hispanic teen girls in New York City public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S

    2010-05-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.

  1. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  2. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  3. How medical schools can encourage students' interest in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.

  4. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  5. Maximizing Opportunities to Enroll in Advanced High School Science Courses: Examining the Scientific Dispositions of Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jemimah L.; Ero-Tolliver, Isi; Young, Jamaal R.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2017-01-01

    Diversifying the STEM workforce is a national concern. To address this concern, researchers, policymakers, and educators are working to increase STEM career interest and achievement in a more diverse population of learners. Black girls and young women represent a unique population of STEM learners that remain relatively untapped and largely under…

  6. Assessment of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls in Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upashe, Shivaleela P; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Mekonnen, Jalane

    2015-10-14

    The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices to keep the menstrual hygiene. Unhygienic menstrual practices can affect the health of the girls and there is an increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases and other complications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls at Nekemte town, Oromia region, Western Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study design was employed in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select 828 female high school students. Data collection was carried out from May 04 to May 30, 2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered into a computer using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and then exported to SPSS for Windows version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done at 95 % confidence interval. In this study, 504 (60.9 %) and 330 (39.9 %) respondents had good knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene respectively. The findings of the study showed a significant positive association between good knowledge of menstruation and educational status of mothers (AOR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.02 - 2.22), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.42, 95 % CI: 1.64 - 3.56). Educational status of the mother (AOR = 2.03, 95 % CI = 1.38 - 2.97) and earning permanent pocket money from parents (AOR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.76 - 4.26) revealed significant positive association with good practice of menstrual hygiene. The findings showed that the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene is low. Awareness regarding the need for information about good menstrual practices is very important. So, health education program should be setup to create awareness and practice of good menstrual hygiene.

  7. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

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    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  8. Impact of a health education program for secondary school Saudi girls about menstruation at Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetohy, Ebtisam M

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.

  9. Educating girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, R; Raney, L; Subbarao, K

    1992-03-01

    20 years of research has established that the economic and social benefits of women's primary and secondary schooling are far reaching. The more educated a population's women are, the fewer children they have, and the ones they do have are healthier. However, social tradition and other economic considerations often force families to exclude young girls from education in favor of boys. The safety of young girls is one consideration as well as their value as household labor. There is also a false impression that the good of the community is served if boys are educated, but not so the same for girls. Evidence has been complied to show that in populations where women are more educated, the level of poverty is lower. Because society gains by educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have previously kept girls under educated? The government of Bangladesh and Guatemala have been very successful with scholarship programs at the primary and secondary level. In Bangladesh the enrollment of females in secondary school almost doubled. The program is also credited with increasing attendance of primary schools, increasing labor force participation, postponing the age of marriage and reducing fertility. Between 1972-80 there were 105 Bank assisted primary and secondary school programs. Of these 20% identified the presence of genderissues, but only 10% included significant actions to improve females enrollment. Between 1981-1991 about half of the Bank assisted programs identified the presence of gender issues, and a quarter included significant actions to improve female enrollment.

  10. Turtle Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  11. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  12. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  13. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  14. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-02-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.

  15. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Okely Anthony D; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Collins Clare E; Dewar Deborah; Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Batterham Marijka J; Finn Tara; Callister Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolesc...

  16. Disparities in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among girls and overweight and obese schoolchildren during school- and out-of-school time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie; Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter; Boulos, Rebecca; Chui, Kenneth; Mueller, Megan P; Smith, Katie; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2016-03-22

    Increasing physical activity (PA) during the school day and out-of-school time are critical strategies for preventing childhood obesity and improving overall health. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine schoolchildren's volume and type of PA during school-time and out-of-school, compared to national recommendations and differences by sex and weight status. This cross-sectional analysis included 517 3(rd)-5(th) grade schoolchildren from 13 New England elementary schools (October 2013-January 2014). Demographics were collected by parent questionnaire. Measured height and weight were used to categorize child weight status. Accelerometer data were collected over 7 days. PA was coded as total activity counts and minutes of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (SED, LPA, MVPA) during 1) school, 2) weekday out-of-school, 3) weekend, and 4) total daily time. Multivariable mixed models were used to examine associations between sex and weight status and total counts, SED, LPA, and MVPA, controlling for demographics, wear-time, and clustering within schools. 453 participants (60.5% girls; mean age 9.1 years; 30.5% overweight/obese) had valid accelerometer wear time (≥3 days, ≥ 10 h/day). Few children achieved 60 min total daily (15.0%) or school-time (8.0 %) MVPA recommendations. For all time-of-day categories, girls achieved fewer MVPA minutes than boys (p girls than boys during school-time only (p < .05). Disparities in MVPA by sex and weight status across school and out-of-school time highlight the need for programs with equitable reach.

  17. How does Socio-Economic Factors Influence Interest to Go to Vocational High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, N. F.; Wonggo, D.

    2018-02-01

    This study is aimed to reveal the interest of the students of junior high schools in Sangihe Islands, Indonesia, to go to vocational high schools and the affecting factors. This study used the quantitative method with the ex-post facto approach. The population consisted of 332 students, and the sample of 178 students was established using the proportional random sampling technique applying Isaac table’s 5% error standard. The results show that family’s socio-economic condition positively contributes 26% to interest to go to vocational high schools thus proving that family’s socio-economic condition is influential and contribute to junior high school students’ interest to go to vocational high schools.

  18. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Mixed Day Secondary School Headteachers in Promoting Girl-Child Education in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawo, Jane-Irene A.; Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kenya Government's commitment to enhancement of girl-child education, their participation rate at secondary school level is still notably low. Many studies on the girl-child education have concentrated in the rural populations with the assumption that the situation in the urban setting is nearly ideal. This was not the case as was…

  20. Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls' school in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O M; Omogbemi, K B

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is the involvement of a child younger than 18 years in behavior that violates the law. Its cost in terms of human potential, public safety and tax expenditures can be very high. Research that assesses how and why children become delinquent is a sound investment, because it can provide the foundation for effective intervention in its prevention and control. The study is to determine the factors associated with juvenile delinquency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among sixty (60) students of the approved sheltered girls' school, Idi-Araba, Lagos, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Findings revealed that the respondents were within the ages of 10-18 years with a mean age of 14.2 +/- 2.0 years, 70% had attained primary school education. Of the 53.3% that dropped out of school, 65.6% did so from financial problems, 6.3% as a result of poor performance and peer pressure accounted for 28.1%. A total of 71.7% of the students were brought to the school by the police; 52.5% on account of roaming while lack of parental control, stealing, robbery and fighting accounted for 16.9%, 11.9%, 10.2%, and 8.5% respectively. Majority (58.6%) of the students had both parents alive while 12.1% had both parents deceased. About 25 (41.7%) of the respondents admitted to committing a crime out of which 88% was stealing, 4% were involved in armed robbery and 8% in house breaking. Of all the socio-demographics characteristics of the respondents explored, only their educational level was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0197) with criminal behaviour. Mother's educational level (p = 0.0245), maternal alcohol consumption (p = 0.0173) and kind of treatment (0.0245) received from step mums were significantly associated with criminal behaviour. Poor parental supervision, poverty and peer pressure played key roles in delinquency among the juveniles. An effective prevention and control of juvenile delinquency will require collective

  1. Malaysian Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Interest in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the level of knowledge and interest in biotechnology education of Malaysian secondary school students. The research was based on a questionnaire adapted from the instruments developed by Prokop et al. and Kidman. Six schools in the Klang Valley were involved in the research and with participation by a total of 427 Grade 11…

  2. Interest, Not Preference: Dewey and Reframing the Conceptual Vocabulary of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2016-01-01

    School choice positions parents as consumers who select schools that maximize their preferences. This account has been shaped by rational choice theory. In this essay, Terri Wilson contrasts a rational choice framework of "preferences" with John Dewey's understanding of "interest." To illustrate this contrast, she draws on an…

  3. Pattern of teen menstruation among secondary school girls in south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ada R C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onukwuli, Vivian I; Manyike, Pius C

    2016-03-01

    Menstruation in the teenage age has assumed variable trends which is been influenced by several variables. This study is aimed at determining the pattern and trend of menstruation among teens attending secondary school in south east Nigeria and associated factors. Menstruation patterns were investigated using a stratified random sampling method of teens from junior secondary schools in Enugu, south east Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and data analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 897 female teenagers aged 9-18 years completed the questionnaire with a mean age of 13.9±1.9 years. The mean age (SD) at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years. Teenage girls with higher BMI achieved menarche earlier at age 8 and 9 when compared with their counterparts with lower BMI and this is statistically significant. F=7.60, df=8, p<0.001. Teens with a 14-day cycle had a higher BMI when compared with teens with longer cycle but this is not statistically significant. F=1.05, df=4, p=0.381. There is a statistical significance difference between teens duration of menstrual flow and BMI. Those with higher BMI had longer duration(4-5 days) compared with those with lower BMI. F=3.329, df=4, p=0.01 CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the mean age at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years showing a continuing decreasing trend. Teens with higher BMI attain menarche earlier and had longer days of periods when compared with their counterpart with lower BMI.

  4. The Effect of E-Learning on Learning and Interest in School Attendance among Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedehsahar Shafieiosgouei; Nava Nourdad; Robab Hassantofighi; Seyyedreza Shafieioskouei

    2018-01-01

    The technological advances of the 21st century have impacted all spheres of life, including education. The world of books and pens is being replaced by computers at young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of technology on Iranian elementary school students’ learning and interest in school attendance. The participants were 47 sixth grade students selected from two schools with and without technological support. The results of the study revealed a higher level of interes...

  5. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  6. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in High-School Girl Students of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noori Shadkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. The main risk factors for IDA include: inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or acute or chronic blood loss, parasite infections such as hookworms, acute and chronic infections, including malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins A and B12, folate, riboflavin, and copper deficiency. Methods: This work as a cross-sectional study was done in 2007-2008 in Yazd. Two hundred girls who participated in the study were selected randomly from eight girl high schools. Five ml venous blood was collected for determination of serum ferritin and cell blood count (CBC. Serum ferritin was determined by using ECLIA method and CBC by cell counter SYSMEX KX21N. Iron deficiency was defined as having serum ferritin values below 12 μ/l. Anemia was defined as having Hemoglobin levels below12 g/dl. Iron-deficiency anemia was considered to be the combination of both. Results: The3 mean ageyears and body mass index (kg/m2 were 15.19±0.7years and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Distribution in the 14, 15 and 16 years and more age groups were 13, 58.5 and 28.5 percent, respectively. Mean of Hemoglobin(g/dl, Hematocrit(%, MCV (fl, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dl and ferritin(μ/l were 12.8±0.9, 38.9±3.0, 80.7±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. Of the total, 13.5% were anemic, 68% of which had Iron Deficiency Anemia (9.3% of the total. Iron deficiency was present in 34.7% of the population under study. Conclusion: According to world health organization criteria, anemia is a mild public health problem in this region, but iron deficiency is a significant problem and suitable measures for

  7. Biomedical learning experiences for middle school girls sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Lucinda; Griffith, Connor; Young, Ethan; Sullivan, Adriann; Schuler, Jeff; Arnold-Christian, Susan; Warren, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Learning experiences for middle school girls are an effective means to steer young women toward secondary engineering curricula that they might not have otherwise considered. Sponsorship of such experiences by a collegiate student group is worthwhile, as it gives the group common purpose and places college students in a position to mentor these young women. This paper addresses learning experiences in different areas of bio-medical engineering offered to middle school girls in November 2008 via a day-long workshop entitled "Engineering The Body." The Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) worked with the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP) to design and sponsor these experiences, which addressed the areas of joint mechanics, electrocardiograms, membrane transport, computer mouse design, and audio filters for cochlear implants. Fifty five middle-school girls participated in this event, affirming the notion that biomedical engineering appeals to young women and that early education and recruitment efforts have the potential to expand the biomedical engineering talent pool.

  8. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  9. Language Development in School-Age Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A.; Abbeduto, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Girls with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have a wide range of cognitive and language abilities. The range of language outcomes experienced by girls with FXS, however, has been relatively unexplored. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine receptive and expressive language, with a focus on vocabulary and syntax, in a group of…

  10. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  11. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Environments on the Self-Efficacy of Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Sharon E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of class type, coeducational or same-sex, on the self-efficacy of middle school girls in a unit of volleyball. Four intact certified physical education specialists from two Middle Schools were used in the study. All of the teachers were female. In two of the classes, students were split out according to gender with males being taught by one instructor and the females being taught by the other instructor. For the coeducational class...

  12. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pgender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  13. RELATED VOCATIONAL INTEREST TO LEARNING AND ENTREPRENEURIAL LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT WITH ENTREPRENEURSHIP INTEREST ON THE STUDENS AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING ISLAMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL YOGYAKARTA ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Choiruddin Nurcholis Suwondo; Subagyo Subagyo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study (1) to determine whether there is a positive relationship between vocational interest to learning with entrepreneurship interest on the studens Automotive Engineering Islamic Vocational School Yogyakarta Academic Year 2013/2014; (2) to determine whether there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurial learning achivement with entrepreneurship interest on the studens Automotive Engineering Islamic Vocational School Yogyakarta Academic Year 2013/2014; (3) to det...

  14. More than half of high school students report disordered eating: a cross sectional study among Norwegian boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Klungland Torstveit

    Full Text Available Disordered eating and eating disorders are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks. Even if adolescence has been identified as the most vulnerable time for developing disordered eating, few studies have used a broad spectrum of criteria to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating among high school students of both genders, in different programs of study, nor assessed correlates of disordered eating among this important target group. The purposes of this study were therefore to investigate the prevalence and correlates of disordered eating among both male and female high school students in sport-, general and vocational programs. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by 2,451 students (98.7%, aged 15-17 years. The total prevalence of disordered eating was 54.9%, with 64.3% among girls and 45.0% among boys (p<0.001. The highest prevalence of disordered eating was found among vocational students (60.7%, followed by students in general programs (49.8% and sport students (38.3% (p<0.001. Female gender, school program (vocational and general, overweight/obesity and weight regulation were positively associated with disordered eating. The high prevalence indicates the importance of tailored prevention efforts directed at high school students, particularly in vocational programs. Furthermore, a smaller girls-boys ratio than expected indicates that the efforts to identify and manage disordered eating among high school students should include both genders.

  15. NASA Astrophysics EPO Resources For Engaging Girls in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Mendoza, D.; Smith, D.; Hasan, H.

    2011-09-01

    A new collaboration among the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO community is to engage girls in science who do not self-select as being interested in science, through the library setting. The collaboration seeks to (i) improve how girls view themselves as someone who knows about, uses, and sometimes contributes to science, and (ii) increase the capacity of EPO practitioners and librarians (both school and public) to engage girls in science. As part of this collaboration, we are collating the research on audience needs and best practices, and SMD EPO resources, activities and projects that focus on or can be recast toward engaging girls in science. This ASP article highlights several available resources and individual projects, such as: (i) Afterschool Universe, an out-of-school hands-on astronomy curriculum targeted at middle school students and an approved Great Science for Girls curriculum; (ii) Big Explosions and Strong Gravity, a Girl Scout patch-earning event for middle school aged girls to learn astronomy through hands-on activities and interaction with actual astronomers; and (iii) the JWST-NIRCAM Train the Trainer workshops and activities for Girl Scouts of USA leaders; etc. The NASA Astrophysics EPO community welcomes the broader EPO community to discuss with us how best to engage non-science-attentive girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and to explore further collaborations on this theme.

  16. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  17. Socializing influences and the value of sex: the experience of adolescent school girls in rural Masaka, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J; Nyanzi, S; Pool, R

    2000-01-01

    To explore the socializing influences which have shaped rural adolescent schoolgirls' views and values about sex in a high HIV prevalence area of Uganda, detailed qualitative data were obtained over a 1-year period from 15 schoolgirls aged 14-17 years. The girls were chosen for their willingness to participate actively in a series of role plays, focus group discussions, and one-to-one interviews. Results indicated that the girls have been subjected to a wide range of influences, including parents, social functions, other young children, nature, their paternal aunt, peers, school, and various media, such as pornography. Moreover, there was disagreement about the relative values of sex and virginity. Some were determined to retain their virginity but the majority felt that sex benefits them socially and personally. Notably, peer pressure was a major factor influencing the opinions of many girls, while traditional influences are in decline. Given the small sample size of the study, care should be taken in generalizing from the results. However, the data suggest that sex has a high value for at least a substantial minority of adolescent girls in rural Misaka, Uganda. Policy makers and health educators should therefore consider how best to devise safe messages about sex that are relevant and applicable to this vulnerable segment of the population.

  18. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  19. Menstrual hygiene practices in context of schooling: A community study among rural adolescent girls in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that is, 2, 3 4,5, and5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling . Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative. It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78% had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4% were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55% played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6% as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%. Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for

  20. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the provision of comprehensive family life

  1. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  2. The impact of teacher's gender in the process of educating primary school boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Jeraj, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to find out the significance of teacher’s gender and how it affects learning and education of both boys and girls. Theoretical part of the paper exposes some Slovenian and foreign research based findings about the differences between men and women regarding education and teaching methods. It also highlights differences in learning achievements between boys and girls, which are statistically equally important in Slovenia and abroad. An overview of difference...

  3. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Davey, Calum; Javalkar, Prakash; Nair, Sapna; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Sudhakar, Gautam; Collumbien, Martine; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2015-03-25

    Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is an innovative

  4. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students’ Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R; Tsai, Sherry M

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for males (58% in engineering, 39% in science). After controlling for student and school demographic characteristics, females were as consistent as male...

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW) METHODE IN DETERMINING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT’S INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Prind Triajeng Pungkasanti

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia has set a regulation about curriculum applied in education field named Kurikulum 2013. One of the subsections in the Kurikulum 2013 regulates all requirements of majoring in high school. High school students determine their major based on Kurrikulum 2013 as they are on the 10th grade. The purpose of the majoring in education is to allow children development based on their skills and interests, because before, ...

  6. A qualitative study to assess school nurses' views on vaccinating 12-13 year old school girls against human papillomavirus without parental consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch, Rebecca; McCann, Rosemary; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; Brabin, Loretta

    2009-07-21

    In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12-13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix). The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Health providers have a duty of care to girls for whom no parental consent for HPV vaccination has been given

  7. A qualitative study to assess school nurses' views on vaccinating 12–13 year old school girls against human papillomavirus without parental consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxter David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12–13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. Methods HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix™. The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. Results School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Conclusion Health providers have a duty of care to

  8. FORMATION OF COGNITIVE INTEREST AT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS, TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotova, E.G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of didactic and technological methods and techniques that shape and develop cognitive interest of primary school students in modern methodology of teaching foreign languages. The use of various forms of gaming interaction, problem assignments, information and communication technologies in the teaching of primary school students allows diversifying the teaching of a foreign language, contributes to the development of their creative and cognitive activity. The use of health-saving technologies ensures the creation of a psychologically and emotionally supportive atmosphere at the lesson, which is an essential condition for acquiring new knowledge and maintaining stable cognitive interest among students while learning a foreign language.

  9. The Greening of Girls' Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kathleen M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the current nationwide drive to eliminate sexism in school sports. Discusses expenditures for boys' and girls' athletic programs, coaching salaries, facilities, and programs offered. A physician discusses the potentials for girls in competitive sports, and a girl who joined a high school all-male team is interviewed. (DN)

  10. School transitions, peer influence, and educational expectation formation: Girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117.

  12. Experiences of high school Hispanic girls in pursuit of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related coursework and careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijil, Veronica G.

    2011-12-01

    An overall increased awareness of the importance of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has prompted attention toward the continued underrepresentation of Hispanic women in this field. The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the support systems, perceived barriers, and prior experiences influencing high school Hispanic girls' decisions to pursue advanced coursework and related careers through a career pathway in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas. Specifically, participants were interviewed regarding their mathematics and science experiences in elementary and middle schools, as well as perceived supports and barriers to their choices to pursue STEM careers and advanced coursework. Results indicated that the participants linked their elementary and middle school experiences with their teachers rather than specific activities. Accolades such as certificates and good grades for academic achievement contributed to the girls' strong self-efficacy at an early age. The participants possessed self-discipline and self-confidence, using intrinsic motivation to pursue their goals. Support systems included families and a few teachers. Barriers were revealed in different forms including derogatory comments by boys in class, difficult curricula with limited tutors available for higher level courses, and receipt of financial assistance to attend a university of their choice.

  13. Effectiveness of a peer-delivered dissonance-based program in reducing eating disorder risk factors in high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D; Brown, Krista E; Ebneter, Daria S; Becker, Carolyn B

    2015-09-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a peer-led dissonance-based eating disorders (ED) prevention/risk factor reduction program with high school girls. Ninth grade girls (n = 50) received the peer-led program within the school curriculum. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess changes in ED risk factors preintervention and postintervention compared with waitlist control. Participants were followed through 3-month follow-up. Peer-leader adherence to an intervention manual tailored for this age group was high. The intervention was rated as highly acceptable, with a large proportion of participants reporting that they enjoyed the program and learned and applied new information. Intervention participants exhibited significantly greater pre-post reductions in a majority of risk-factor outcomes compared to waitlist controls. When groups were combined to assess program effects over time there were significant pre-post reductions in a majority of outcomes that were sustained through 3-month follow-up. This pilot study provides tentative support for the effectiveness of using peer leaders to implement an empirically supported ED risk factor reduction program in a high school setting. Additional research is needed to replicate results in larger, better-controlled trials with longer follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High School Girl's Adherence to 5-a-Day Serving's Fruits and Vegetables: An Application Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basics of healthy eating is five times consumption of fruits and vegetable a day. Given the importance of recognizing effective factors of consuming fruit and vegetable in this group, the present study aimed to investigate high school girl's adherence to five-time serving fruits and vegetables per day in Hamadan based on the theory of planned behavior application. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 girl students from high schools of Hamadan recruited with a multistage cluster sampling method. Participants filled out questionnaires including demographic variables, the theory of planned behavior constructs and a fruit and vegetable consumption measure one week later. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-18 by Chi-square, Pearson correlation and Logistic regression. Results: Fruit and vegetable consumption by female students is 3.4 times daily. Among the demographic variables, family size, mother's education, father's occupation, household income, body mass index and type of school had significant associations with fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0.05. Behavioral intention predicted 35% of the variation in daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and attitude were able to predict 32% of behavioral intention. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable consumption in female students is inadequate. The theory of planned behavior may be a useful framework to design a 5-A-Day intervention for female students.

  15. Empowering Muslim Girls? Post-Feminism, Multiculturalism and the Production of the 'Model' Muslim Female Student in British Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Heidi Safia; Meetoo, Veena

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on an analysis of the narratives of teachers, policy-makers and young Muslim working-class women to explore how schools worked towards producing the model neoliberal middle-class female student. In two urban case-study schools, teaching staff encouraged the girls to actively challenge their culture through discourses grounded in…

  16. Angered: Black and Non-Black Girls of Color at the Intersections of Violence and School Discipline in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wun, Connie

    2018-01-01

    While most research examining school discipline policies have focused on the experiences of boys of color, this article explores the relationship between violence and school discipline as they shape the lives of girls of color and their disciplinary records. Using in-depth interviews, this article re-narrates the experiences of Black and non-Black…

  17. Influence of Self Esteem, Self Efficacy and Interest in Schooling on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a correlational design, this study investigated the influence of interest in schooling, academic self efficacy and self esteem on reading comprehension among 300 selected students in Oyo State. Four standardized and valid scales were used to retrieved data from participants. Three research hypotheses were raised ...

  18. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  19. Improving the Interest of High-School Students toward Chemistry by Crime Scene Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Chiorri, C.; Bracco, F.; Carnasciali, M. M.; Alloisio, M.; Grotti, M.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the interest of high-school students towards chemistry (and science in general) is one of the goals of the Italian Ministry of Education. To this aim, we designed a context-based activity that actively involved students in six different laboratory experiences interconnected by a case study of the murder of Miss Scarlet, from the famous…

  20. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto eTakagishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  1. [Educational Facilities for Pregnant School-Age Girls in Districts 3, 4, 12, 13, and 18. Project No. 1369. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.

    This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…

  2. School Board Chairmen and School Superintendents: An Analysis of Perceptions Concerning Special Interest Groups and Educational Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe; Opfer, V. Darleen

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed all Virginia school board chairmen and superintendents on local governance issues. Discusses both groups' perceptions of board members' orientation to their role as elected representatives, their personal attitude toward the electoral process, their assessment of interest-group involvement in district decision making, their feelings…

  3. THE POSITION OF INTEREST IN SPORTS AND RECREATION OF 7th GRADE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Milošević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal interests carry a great potential and are usually a drive to act. Therefore they usually point towards the activity of an individual in his interest area. An insight into the position of the interest in sports and recreation among other interests can be obtained by inspecting the interests of 7th grade elementary school students from Sremska Mitrovica and Jagodina. The sample consisted of 736 7th grade elementary school students of both genders. A non-experimental study of the students’ interests was done using a questionnaire that consisted of 5 interest indicators: job preference, self-estimation of affinity, use of free time, direct self-estimation of interests and reaction to key words-stimuli. Each indicator had 30 items that asses 30 interests. A t test was used to inspect the level of interest in sports and recreation. Also, factor analysis was done for each indicator separately. The reason for this approach is that there is no real confirmation that these 5 indicators are well suited for assessing the interests of young persons in the time we live in. Students’ interest in sports and recreation is about 4 on the scale of 1 to 5, on each of the indicators. The data shows that the interest of 7th grade elementary school students in sports and recreation is closely linked to interest in military, these two interests belong to the same factor regardless of the way the interests are assessed, that is, they belong to the same factor on each of the 5 indicators. The interest in adventure belongs to the same factor as the interest in sports and recreation on 4 out of 5 indicators, and interest in humor, interest in travel and hedonistic interest on 3 out of 5 indicators. These results might indicate that the motives for engaging in sports and recreation are unstable, because this composition of relatedness of the interests can be interpreted as the factor of fun. If that is so, these findings alert to the importance of building a

  4. Pupil interest in physics: A survey in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Lavonen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors interrelating with interest in physics learning are gender, perceived relevance, contents and contexts of physics, and teaching methods. Finnish ninth grade secondary school pupil interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international ROSE project. The sample consisted of 3626 pupils (median age 15 in 61 schools. Means of all items that belong to school physics context for both girls and boys were under the middle of the scale. The most interesting things (especially for girls were connected with human being and the less interesting (especially for girls were connected in artefacts and technological processes. Astronomical context was rather interesting for both genders. The main message of the study is that interesting new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed by combining technological and human or astronomical contexts.

  5. Peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence, associated factors and pathways among 1752 sixth grade boys and girls in schools in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Mcfarlane, Judith; Somani, Rozina; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed; Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Yasmeen; Chirwa, Esnat D; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. 1752 children were recruited into a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted on 40 fairly homogeneous public schools (20 for girls and 20 for boys), in Hyderabad, Pakistan. This was ranging from 20-65 children per school. All children were interviewed with questionnaires at baseline. Few children had no experience of peer violence in the previous 4 weeks (21.7% of girls vs.7% of boys). Some were victims (28.6%, of girls vs. 17.9% of boys), some only perpetrated (3.3% of girls vs. 2.5%) but mostly they perpetrated and were victims (46.4%.of girls vs 72.6%. of boys). The girls' multivariable models showed that missing the last school day due to work, witnessing her father fight a man in the last month and having more patriarchal gender attitudes were associated with both experiencing violence and perpetration, while, hunger was associated with perpetration only. For boys, missing two or more days of school in the last month, poorer school performance and more patriarchal attitudes were associated with both victimization and perpetration. Witnessing father fight, was associated with peer violence perpetration for boys. These findings are additionally confirmed with structural models. Peer violence in Pakistan is rooted in poverty and socialization of children, especially at home. A critical question is whether a school-based intervention can empower children to reduce their violence engagement in the context of poverty and social norms supportive of violence. In the political context of Pakistan, reducing all violence is essential and understanding the potential of schools as a platform for intervention is key.

  6. Middle School Engagement with Mathematics Software and Later Interest and Self-Efficacy for STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle school behavioral and affective engagement. Measures of vocational self-efficacy and interest are drawn from STEM-related scales in CAPAExplore, while measures of middle school performance and engagement in mathematics are drawn from several previously validated automated indicators extracted from logs of student interaction with ASSISTments, an online learning platform. Results indicate that vocational self-efficacy correlates negatively with confusion, but positively with engaged concentration and carelessness. Interest, which also correlates negatively with confusion, correlates positively with correctness and carelessness. Other disengaged behaviors, such as gaming the system, were not correlated with vocational self-efficacy or interest, despite previous studies indicating that they are associated with future college attendance. We discuss implications for these findings, which have the potential to assist educators or counselors in developing strategies to sustain students' interest in STEM-related careers.

  7. Education and vulnerability: the role of schools in protecting young women and girls from HIV in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Matthew; Simmons, Stephanie; Bundy, Donald

    2008-12-01

    Education has a potentially important role to play in tackling the spread of HIV, but is there evidence that this potential is realized? This analysis combines the results of previous literature reviews and updates them with the findings of recent randomized controlled trials and a discussion of possible mechanisms for the effect of schooling on vulnerability to HIV infection. There is a growing body of evidence that keeping girls in school reduces their risk of contracting HIV. The relationship between educational attainment and HIV has changed over time, with educational attainment now more likely to be associated with a lower risk of HIV infection than earlier in the epidemic. Educational attainment cannot, however, be isolated from other socioeconomic factors as the cause of HIV risk reduction. The findings of this analysis suggest that the equitable expansion of primary and secondary schooling for girls in southern Africa will help reduce their vulnerability to HIV. Evidence of ineffective HIV prevention education in schools underlines the need for careful evidence-based programme design. Despite the challenges, recent provisional evidence suggests that highly targeted programmes promoting realistic options for young adults may lead to safer sexual behaviour. Targeted education programmes have also been successful in changing students' attitudes to people living with HIV and AIDS, which is associated with testing and treatment decisions. This reduction in stigma may be crucial in encouraging the uptake of voluntary counselling and testing, a central strategy in the control of the epidemic. Expansions of carefully designed and evaluated school-based HIV prevention programmes can help to reduce stigma and have the potential to promote safe sexual behaviour.

  8. Reliability and construct validity of Yo-Yo tests in untrained and soccer-trained school-girls aged 9-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José Manuel da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted-intensity Yo-Yo tests were evaluated in untrained (n=67) vs. soccer-trained (n=65) 9-16-year-old school-girls. Methods: Tests were performed 7 days apart for reliability (9-11-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children...... during test and retest. Conclusion: The Yo-Yo tests are reliable for determining intermittent-exercise capacity and %HRpeak for soccer players and untrained 9-16-year-old girls. They also possess construct validity with better performances for soccer players compared to untrained age-matched girls...

  9. Effect of Comprehensive Health Promotion Program on Quality of Life, Weight, and Physical Activity among Iranian Overweight School-age Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedeh Jafarzadeh; Sima Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi; Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2017-01-01

    Background Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and its trend in recent years has taken a worrying figure. Overweight in childhood is the most important cause of adulthood obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect ofcomprehensive health program on quality of life, weight and physical activity in Iranian overweight school-age girls. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 overweight girls participated in a comprehensive health program ...

  10. Effects of a School-Based Intervention on the Basis of Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Improve Physical Activity among High School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Teymouri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.

  11. Effects of Room Color on Mirror-Tracing by Junior High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Cindy; Jackson, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Girls in Grades 7, 8, and 9 practiced mirror-tracing in a neutral colored room to a criterion before being tested in their preferred or nonpreferred colored rooms. The errors decreased significantly in the preferred room, while the time to complete changed minimally. (Author)

  12. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  13. Understanding Korean Transnational Girls in High School Science Classes: Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    This study examines six Korean transnational girls enrolled in two advanced placement (AP) biology classes to understand their experiences in science classrooms at the intersection of race, language, and gender. Confronting the model minority stereotype for Asian students, which is particularly salient in science, technology, engineering, and…

  14. The Psychosocial Experience of High School Girls Highly Susceptible to Stereotype Threat: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The author used phenomenology to explore the subjective experience of ninth-grade girls susceptible to mathematics-related stereotype threat in their authentic learning environments. The sample constituted students categorized as either having low or high susceptibility to stereotype threat (SST) enrolled in Honors mathematics classes at an urban…

  15. Age of Menarche among Basic Level School Girls in Medina, Accra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Richmond Aryeetey*1, Anthony Ashinyo2 and Martin Adjuik3. 1University of ... with teen and adolescent sexual behavior, ... parents/guardians of the study participants. ... respondent siblings (p<0.01), birth weight ..... determine the relative independent contribution of ... Kaplowitz P: Pubertal development in girls: secular.

  16. "Not Girly, Not Sexy, Not Glamorous": Primary School Girls' and Parents' Constructions of Science Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the physical sciences), especially among girls/women. This paper draws on data from a five-year, longitudinal study of 10-14-year-old children's science aspirations and career choice to explore the reasons why, even from a young age,…

  17. Determinants of Schooling for Boys and Girls in Nigeria under a Policy of Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This paper adds a measure of school costs to the model of determinants of schooling. Costs are estimated with controls for selection into school and the possibility of receiving free primary education (FPE). Controlling for costs, household wealth has a large, positive effect on primary school attendance with greater income elasticity for girls…

  18. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The place and importance of physical education in educational system is well known. Many researches have been done with the goal to determine influence of physical education on students. However, keep in mind that many of those researches had shown that women are generally not so interested in sports and that they are less included in physical activities (especially some forms of it, we have focused our work at possibilities of improvement of motoric abilities of girls inside chosen subject – sport for athletes, which is being conveyed in 8th grade with two classes per week, and chosen sport was basketball. Our sample consisted of 67 girls (37 in experimental and 30 in control group. Level of motoric abilities has been tracked by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group improved levels of abilities in each test at final measuring. However, keep in mind that girls in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the following tests: horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, horizontal aiming and standing on one leg with eyes closed, we have compared by ANOVA measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are statistically significant differences between groups in left hand basketball dribbling test, pull-through and jump-over tests, horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, standing on one leg with eyes closed, vertical jump – Sargent test, basketball throwing from chest from sitting position. Therefore, we can finally conclude that conveyed basketball programme had completely positive impact at motoric abilities of girls, as we expected

  19. Current Status of Women in Physics in Korea—and the New Physics Camp Initiative for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Song, Sanghoon; Park, Hyunjeong; Park, Jiseon; An, Jihye; Park, Joyoung; Yim, Haein; Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Park, Youngah

    2009-04-01

    The Korean Physical Society (KPS) Women Committee has organized a series of the physics camps for high school girl students to give them an opportunity to work together and interact with professional physicists. Although the KPS Women Committee has successfully set the KPS's face toward women's issues, it still needs more systematic support for helping and promoting the activities of women physicists. We describe the physics camp initiative and present the current status of women in physics in Korea, comparing female ratios in undergraduate and graduate school and faculty for the last ten years (1998-2007). The employment rate for females is compared with that for males according to education level. The total number of female students in physics in Korea has increased; however, it is still a very small portion of females who stay in physics with professional positions.

  20. Aromatherapy Massage on the Abdomen for Alleviating Menstrual Pain in High School Girls: A Preliminary Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Myeong Soo; Seong, Ka-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: the aromatherapy massage (treatment) group (n = 32) and the acetaminophen (control) group (n = 23). Aromatherapy massage was performed on subjects in the treatment group. The abdomen was massaged once using clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil. The level of menstrual pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at baseline and twenty-four hours afterward. The reduction of menstrual pain was significantly higher in the aromatherapy group than in the acetaminophen group. Using multiple regression, aromatherapy massage was found to be more highly associated with reduction in the level of menstrual pain than acetaminophen. These finding suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment for menstrual pain in high school girls. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects derived from the aromatherapy, the massage, or both. Further rigorous studies should be conducted using more objective measures. PMID:21949670

  1. Association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential. PMID:24403944

  2. Association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2013-09-01

    Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential.

  3. An Investigation on the Correlation between DMFT and OHI- S Indices on 12- Year- Old School Girls in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Afshar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: DMFT and OHI- S indices are two of the most important quantitative factors, measuring tooth health and oral hygiene, respectively.Propose: The aim of this study was to study of correlation between these indices in 12-year old school girls of Kashan.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study on the correlation between these indices were carried out on 242, twelve year- old school girls in Kashan and the results, have been presented in this paper.Results: The findings were as follows:Average and standard deviation of decayed, missed and filled teeth were (1.12, 1.5, (0.05,0.25 and (0.28, 0.92, respectively. Average and standard deviation of DMFT was 1.45 and 1.73, respectively, with 45.5 percent of the cases being caries free (DMFT= O. OHI- S index, on the other hand, showed an average of 1.46 with a standard deviation of 0.42.Conclusion: The result of the c2.test, carried out on the measured data, showed no correlation between the DMFT and OHI-S indices.

  4. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako

    2014-07-03

    To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science

  6. An Exploration of One Girl's Experiences in Elective Physical Education: Why Does She Continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruno, Jennifer; Gibbons, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Participation in high school Physical Education (PE) contributes to the overall health of adolescents. However, many girls discontinue enrollment in PE as soon as the mandatory credits are met. Tailored PE courses designed to meet the needs and interests of girls may motivate them to continue participating in PE. This case study explored one…

  7. Too Few, Too Weak: Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. Methods A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. Results COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). Discussion This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate. PMID:23861928

  8. A qualitative examination of factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in adolescent girls during the transition from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa; Fawkner, Samantha

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative research has suggested that the decline in physical activity levels for adolescent girls is most marked during the transition from primary school to secondary school yet understanding the contributing factors for this decline may be advanced through qualitative research methods to gain an individual perspective of the girls' school transition experience. This study explored factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in 14 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.6 ± 0.3 years) during the transition between primary and secondary school through the use of narrative interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings suggested that a change in the environment was central to understanding the decline in physical activity levels since primary school. During secondary school, a positive environment can be created by ensuring a choice of activities in Physical Education lessons; allowing a girls-only environment, to reduce the focus on competence and competition, and recognizing the importance of social support. These could enhance self-perceptions, reduce self-presentational concerns, increase enjoyment, and subsequently reduce the decrease in physical activity behavior during this key transitional period.

  9. Group Counseling with South Asian Immigrant High School Girls: Reflections and Commentary of a Group Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore-Dunlap, Ulash; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the U.S. school population speaks to a need to provide support for youth from various backgrounds. As a school-based mental health counselor, the first author observed that the South Asian immigrant students at her school did not utilize any of the counseling services provided. Because South Asians are typically collectivistic,…

  10. "Girls Hit!" Constructing and Negotiating Violent African Femininities in a Working-Class Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2008-01-01

    Whenever gender violence and schooling have been the topic of South African research, the investigations focus on African boys in secondary schools. In contrast, this paper focuses on the ways in which violence is mobilized by African schoolgirls in a working-class primary school context. By drawing on selected elements of an ethnographic study of…

  11. Addressing the Sexualization of Girls through Comprehensive Programs, Advocacy, and Systemic Change: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura; Curry, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    While today's girls are learning that they can achieve at the highest educational and professional levels, they also receive strong cultural messages that portray girls and women according to limiting sexual stereotypes. The trend toward the sexualization of girls is increasing in contemporary culture and can negatively impact girls' academic,…

  12. Problem of Generating Interest in and Motivation for Physical Training Lessons in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Щирба

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to study the factors that effect pupils’ interest in physical education and sports. Research methods: questionnaires and surveys, analysis of literary sources. The experiment took place at boarding school-lyceé No. 23 “Kadetskyi Korpus”. The participants were 100 high school students.  Research results. The students’ low motivation for activity is conditioned by certain factors whose effect can vary in proportions depending on the youth’s living conditions, environment, and family upbringing. The analysis of reasons behind the high school students’ dissatisfaction with the forms of physical education allows to determine the incentives that help increase the students’ activity. Their answers reveal the need for physical load, active games, and presence of their favorite types of exercises at the lesson, background music, contests, etc.

  13. School and family effects on the ontogeny of children's interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J S

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we have presented two perspectives on the link between social context and the following motivational constructs: self-concept of ability and sense of personal efficacy in specific activity domains; perceptions of the value of skills in various domains; interest in various activities; activity choice; persistence; performance; and general self-esteem. In the first section, we discussed how social-contextual variables in both the family and the home could produce individual differences in the motivational constructs of interest. We presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our recent empirical work. In the second section, we discussed how systematic changes in the social environments that confront children as they develop could explain age-related changes in the motivational constructs of interest. Again we presented a general framework for thinking about this issue and summarized our empirical work testing the hypotheses generated from this framework. Throughout this section we have argued that optimal development takes place when there is good stage-environment fit between the needs of developing individuals and the opportunities afforded in their social environments. Furthermore, we suggested that the negative changes in motivational variables often associated with early adolescent development result from regressive changes in school and home environments. For example, the transition to junior high school, in particular, often confronts early adolescents with regressive environmental changes such as a decrease in the opportunity to participate in classroom decision making, a decrease in teacher support and teacher efficacy, and an increase in teaching styles and reporting practices likely to induce a focus on relative ability and comparative performance as well as excessive social comparison. Not surprisingly, there is also a decrease in intrinsic motivation and an increase in school misbehavior associated with this

  14. Middle School Girls' Science Motivation and Performance: Cognitive Effects of an Out-of-School Time Program with Nutrition and Fitness Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Middle school is a critical period in the cognitive and academic development of young women, and a time when their performance and interest in science may decline. After school programs play a key role in engaging youth in learning by providing opportunities to increase health and wellness, set goals, and strategize problem solving. Skills…

  15. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  16. Multivariate Assessment of Middle School Students' Interest in STEM Career: a Profile from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunlu Ünlü, Zeynep; Dökme, İlbilge

    2018-05-01

    According to a report by the Turkish Industry and Business Association, Turkey will need approximately 1 million individuals to be employed in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) fields by 2023, and 31% of this requirement will not be met. For continuous economic development, there is a need to integrate STEM into education in Turkey, which brings the need for research in this area. This study, based on a survey model, aimed to determine the level of interest of a sample of Turkish middle school students in STEM careers on the basis of gender, where they lived, grade levels, their end-of-semester grades, and their parents' educational status and levels of income. The research data was collected using the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS) and Personal Information Form, which were applied to 851 middle school students (fifth and eighth graders). The collected data was analyzed with SPSS using Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H tests. It was found that middle school students' interest in STEM careers differed according to sex, where they lived, and grade levels but it did not differ in relation to their parents' educational status and the levels of income of the family. It is believed that the results obtained in this study reflecting the profile in Turkey will guide educational policy makers, curriculum developers, teachers, pre-service teachers, and researchers about STEM education.

  17. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students' Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.

  18. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students’ Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692

  19. Young science journalism: writing popular scientific articles may contribute to an increase of high-school students' interest in the natural sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies

    2016-03-01

    Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz University has set up the program Young Science Journalism. This new workshop-based interdisciplinary concept was tested in an exploratory study with grade 10 students of one Austrian high school, engaging both the biology and the German teacher of the class. It was our aim to raise students' interest in the NaSc by encouraging them to write popular scientific articles about self-chosen topics, and to help them improve their writing competence. In this paper we focus on interest development through writing. Results from this pilot study were promising. Using a mixed-method approach (comparing pre- and post-test questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from different time points analyzed qualitatively), we found that almost all students valued the project-related work highly. Most of them showed higher interest in the NaSc at project end with girls, in average, seeming to profit more from project participation. We thus recommend integrating such writing tasks into school curricula to increase students' interest in NaSc or to even create new interest. Additionally, we introduce a network presentation of questionnaire data as a powerful tool to visualize the effect of an intervention on individual students and student profile groups. This paper is part of a series accompanying the Austrian Young Science Journalism program. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher's web-site.

  20. Middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, performance on, and conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Simeon

    The purpose of this study was threefold: Examine middle school teachers' familiarity with, interest in, conceptual knowledge of and performance on light; Examine their ability to identify misconceptions on light and their suggested pedagogical ideas to address the identified misconceptions; and Establish the relationship between the middle school teachers' interest, familiarity, conceptual understanding, performance, misconception identification, and pedagogical ideas for light. Sixty six (66) middle school science teachers enrolled in three math and science teacher professional development projects at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. This study used mixed-methods approach to collect and analyze data. The participants responded in writing to four different instruments: Familiarity and Interest Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge Test, Two-tier Performance Test, and Misconceptions Identification Questionnaire. Data was analyzed quantitatively by conducting non-parametric (Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (paired samples, independent samples, and One-Way ANOVA) tests. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis and open coding to identify emerging themes and categories. The results showed that the teachers reported high levels of familiarity with and interest in learning more about light concepts. However, they had low conceptual knowledge and performance on light concepts. As such, middle school teachers' perceived knowledge of light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of light. To some extent, the teachers identified students' misconceptions expressed in some scenarios on light and also suggested pedagogical ideas for addressing such misconceptions in middle school science classrooms. However, most teachers did not provide details on their pedagogical ideas for light. Correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual understanding, and performance

  1. An Exploratory Study of a Robotics Educational Platform on STEM Career Interests in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Tracy Barger

    With the large expected growth in STEM-related careers in American industries, there are not enough graduates to fill these positions (United States Department of Labor, 2015). Increased efforts are being made to reform STEM education from early childhood to college level studies, mainly through increased efforts to incorporate new technologies and project-based learning activities (Hegedorn & Purnamasari, 2012). At the middle school level, a robotics educational platform can be a worthwhile activity that provides hands-on learning as students learn basic programming and engineering skills (Grubbs, 2013). Based on the popularity of LEGO toys, LEGO Education developed an engaging and effective way to learn about computer programming and basic engineering concepts (Welch & Huffman, 2011). LEGO MINDSTORMS offers a project-based learning environment that engages students in real-life, problem-solving challenges. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the instructional use of a robotics educational curriculum on middle school students' attitudes toward and interests in STEM and their experiences with LEGO Robotics activities. Participants included 23 seventh grade students who were enrolled in a Career Cluster Technologies I class in a suburban middle school. Data for the study were collected from three focus group interviews, open-ended surveys, classroom observations, and the Career Cruising program. Findings revealed that the robotics activities led to an increased interest and higher self-efficacy in STEM tasks. If students continue to nurture and develop their STEM interests, it is possible that many of them may develop higher confidence and eventually set personal goals related to STEM classes and careers. While other studies have been conducted on similar topics, this qualitative research is unique because it contributed to the gap in research that investigates the impact of an in-class robotics curriculum on middle school students' attitudes

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW METHODE IN DETERMINING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT’S INTEREST

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    Prind Triajeng Pungkasanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia has set a regulation about curriculum applied in education field named Kurikulum 2013. One of the subsections in the Kurikulum 2013 regulates all requirements of majoring in high school. High school students determine their major based on Kurrikulum 2013 as they are on the 10th grade. The purpose of the majoring in education is to allow children development based on their skills and interests, because before, majoring have been done based on scores obtained. The main problem is the majoring requirements considered are admission test score and Junior High School National Test score. Both scores are not sufficient enough to determine the students major therefore academic aptitude test score is required. In term of weighting, the school has not been imposed the weighting system so the scores obtained is the average of admission test score and national test score. Based on the issue above, a solution required to solve the issue using a method. Method used in this research is Simple Additive Weighting (SAW, wherein this methode is looking for the weighted sum of performance rate on every alternative of atributes. This research provides the information about which potential students is suitable to enter the science major and social major so this results can be used as consideration of school decisions.

  3. Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest.

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    Andresen, Nicholas S; Olson, Tyler S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-07-11

    Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center. The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers. Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.

  4. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

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    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  5. Study to Evaluate Two Dosage Regimens of Vitamin D Through an Academic Year in Middle School Girls: A Randomized Trial

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    Ahmad Shajari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential hormone for growth and development of bones in children. There is a lot of evidence for deficiency of this vitamin in Middle East females. This study conduct to find a way to combat deficiency in girls during rapid growth phase of puberty in academic year. One hundred and two Middle School girls who had not consumed any vitamins supplement have been participated in this randomized clinical trial. They allocated randomly in two case groups who received 50,000 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 in October and three months later in January or in control group who received vitamin E. At the end of winter blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D were checked. The mean of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 5.5±1.5 ng/ml, 15.2±6 ng/ml, 23.0±6.8 ng/ml in control, 50,000 and 100,000 IU vitamin D groups respectively (P0.05. Urine calcium/creatinin ratio was equal in case and control groups (P>0.05. 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 every three months (equal to 800IU/day can raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 12 ng/ml in all cases but for area with high prevalence of sever deficiency, dosage more than 100,000 IU every three months or shorter interval recommended to achieve optimal level.

  6. Quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometrics characteristics of boys and girls from fourth grade of primary school

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    Buišić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometric characteristics by gender, we were testing 123 students of the primary school (fourth grade, 10,5 years old. Testing was applied technique of research. Two basic anthropometric measures and 14 motor tests were selected for measuring instruments. Using canonical discriminant analysis leads to results which indicate the presence of statistically significant quantitative differences in motor abilities of boys and girls but not in the anthropometric chararacteristics. Boys were in almost all motor variables statistically significantly better, except in variables for evaluation of flexibility which is more expressed by girls, but in the anthropometric characteristics there is no statistically significant differences relating to gender. Based on research results it is deduced that we need to differentiate primary students of the fourth grade by gender, because of the different levels of motor skills. Fourth grade students do not only need different approach to the work, they also need more frequent physical activity which is indispensable for development and growth.

  7. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools

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    Hills, Libby

    2017-01-01

    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  8. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress as Measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) among Secondary School Girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.

  9. The lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz Adamshick, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.

  10. Acute urinary retention in a pre-school girl with constipation

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    Guillermo A. Ariza Traslaviña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of a preschool girl who developed acute urinary retention associated with constipation. Case description: A girl aged six years old presented a 24 h history of inability to urinate. She was went twice to the emergency room during this period. In the first admission, 12 h after the onset of the symptoms, she presented abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. After the drainage by urinary catheterization of 300 mL of clear urine, she presented relief of the symptoms and, as urinalysis had no change, the patient was discharged home. Twelve hours after the first visit, she returned to the emergency room complaining about the same symptoms. At physical examination, there was only a palpable and distended bladder up to the umbilicus with no other abnormalities. Again, a urinary catheterization was performed, which drained 450 mL of clear urine, with immediate relief of the symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture had no abnormalities. During the anamnesis, the diagnosis of constipation was considered and a plain abdominal radiography was performed, which identified large amount of feces throughout the colon (fecal retention. An enema with a 12% glycerin solution was prescribed for three days. During follow-up, the child used laxatives and dietary modifications, this contributed to the resolution of the constipation. There were no other episodes of urinary retention after 6 months of follow-up. Comments: Acute urinary retention in children is a rare phenomenon and constipation should be considered as a cause.

  11. Evaluating the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls

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    Azam Fathi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Nowadays, due to changes in eating patterns, the worthless junk foods are replaced useful food among children. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls Methods: Cross-sectional study Descriptive-analytic type of multi-stage sampling (208 samples was carried out in 2016. The survey instrument was a questionnaire valid and reliable based on the Health Belief Model (70 items. Data was analyzed by SPSS software according to statistical tests of significance level of 0.05. Results: Results showed that students of sensitivity (49% and relatively high efficacy (53/8%, perceived benefits (73/1% and better social protection (68/3% had. The results showed that among all the health belief model structures with yield (junk food intake significantly correlated. Also significant differences in parental education and sensitivity, perceived severity, self-efficacy, social support and yield (p<0/05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that students from relatively favorable sensitivity and self-efficacy, perceived benefits and social protection in the field of unhealthy snacks were good. Also a significant relationship between structural and non-use study results showed unhealthy snacks but because of the importance of unhealthy snacks and unhealthy snack consumption among school children and the complications of the health belief model in predicting nutritional behaviors suggest that this model used as a framework for school feeding programs. Paper Type: Research Article.

  12. Acute ethanol poisoning in a 6-year-old girl following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer at school.

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    Joseph, Madeline Matar; Zeretzke, Cristina; Reader, Sara; Sollee, Dawn R

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) have been widely used in homes, workplaces and schools to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. We report a young child unintentionally ingested ABHS at a school, resulting in intoxication. The child was a 6-year-old girl who had been brought to the emergency department (ED) for hypothermia, altered mental status (AMS), periods of hypoventilation, hypothermia and vomiting. Computed tomography of her head revealed nothing abnormal in intracranial pathology. Urine drug screening was negative. Alcohol level was 205 mg/dL on admission. Other abnormal values included potassium of 2.8 mEq/L, osmolality of 340 mOsm/kg and no hypoglycemia. Further investigation revealed that the patient had gone frequently to the class restroom for ingestion of unknown quantities of ABHSs during the day. The patient was admitted for one day for intravenous fluid hydration and close observation of her mental status. The patient was discharged from the hospital the next day without any complications. Despite the large safety margin of ABHSs, emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential risk of ingestion of a large amount of such products in children and consider it in the assessment and management of school-age children with acute AMS.

  13. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Secondary Schooling on Girls' Achievement.

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    Daly, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The effect of coeducational and single-sex secondary schooling on female students' academic achievement was examined. Reexamination of earlier survey data from Northern Ireland studied six outcomes related to student performance on public examinations. Results indicated a small achievement advantage for single-sex schooling (not significant…

  14. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

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    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  15. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

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    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  16. Complicating Hetero-Femininities: Young Women, Sexualities and "Girl Power" at School

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    Charles, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with expanding knowledge of how femininity/sexuality intersections are constituted in secondary schools. Existing studies have drawn upon Judith Butler's notion of a "heterosexual matrix" in order to understand how intersections of femininity/sexuality are produced in schools through normative discourses of…

  17. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls

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    Ana R. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  18. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

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    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  19. Assessment of an Integrated Nutrition Communication Approach to Educate the School-Going Adolescent Girls Living in Urban Slums of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India

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    Rao, D. Raghunatha; Vijayapushpam, T.; Rao, N. Amulya; Dube, Anilkumar; Venkaiah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Consumption of right diet during the adolescent phase is a critical issue among the adolescent population as their eating behavior is significantly influenced by the peers. Therefore, a study was carried out to educate the school-going adolescent girls living in urban slums of Hyderabad, Telangana, India on right nutrition. Methods: The…

  20. War, Terror, Girls and God: The Construction of the Religious Zionist Female Citizen in a State Religious Junior High School in Israel, 1999-2002

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    Sztokman, Elana Maryles

    2008-01-01

    State religious schooling in Israel constitutes a fascinating setting for examining forces of conformity and resistance. This study, which examines the identity formation of adolescent girls and their teachers in this complex cultural-educational setting during the Al-Aksa Intifada (1999-2002), highlights the complexities of agency within a…

  1. Age dynamic of physical condition changes in pre-school age girls, schoolgirls and students, living in conditions of Eastern Siberia

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    V.Y. Lebedinskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of physical condition, considering sex (females and age of the tested, living in region with unfavorable ecology. Material: we studied pre school age girls (n=1580, age 4-7 years. In the research we did not include children with chronic diseases, who were under observation. We tested schoolgirls (n=3211, age 7-17 years and girl students (n=5827, age 17-21 years, 1-4 years of study. Girl students were divided into five age groups: from 17 to 21 years. All participants lived in conditions of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk. This region is characterized by unfavorable ecology and climate geographic characteristics. Results: in dynamic of physical condition of pre-school girls, schoolgirls and students we marked out three substantial periods of it characteristics' changes. Age 7-8 years is critical (transition from 1st to 2nd stage. The least values of these characteristics are found in older (after 17-18 years ages. In students we observed relative stabilization of these indicators. Conclusions: the received results shall be considered in building physical education training process in pre-school educational establishments, secondary comprehensive schools and higher educational establishments.

  2. Comparison between the Understanding Levels of Boys and Girls on the Concepts of Environmental Degradation, Meteorology and Climate Change in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

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    Kira, Ernest S.; Komba, Sotco C.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether there was any significant difference in understanding levels between secondary school boys and girls on the concepts of environmental degradation, meteorology and climate change. Both structured survey and focus group discussions were used to collect information from 480 students, sampled randomly from 12…

  3. Benefits beyond Achievement? A Comparison of Academic Attitudes and School Satisfaction for Adolescent Girls in Single-Gender and Coeducational Classrooms

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    Hart, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Overall, the research on the effectiveness of single-gender education is inconclusive. However, research also indicates that some benefits beyond academic achievement may be possible. These findings may be significant for middle school girls, who often struggle with social interactions related to adolescence that create barriers in successfully…

  4. Effects of Selected Cultural, Financial, and School-Based Factors on Girl-Child's Educational Access and Socioeconomic Development in Sarkish Flower Farm, Nakuru County, Kenya

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    Ronoh, T. K.; Sang, A. K.; Sisungo, Z. W.; Mumiukha, C. K.; Ayub, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper sought to establish the effects of selected cultural, financial, and school-based factors on the girl-child's access to educational and socioeconomic development in Kenya. It is arguably observed that various local and international conventions, treaties, commissions, and state actors have strived to promote the development of…

  5. "I Love These Girls--I Was These Girls": Women Leading for Social Justice in a Single-Sex Public School

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    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share the findings from a 2-year ethnography that examined female practitioners' experiences in the field. The article describes the intentions, discourses, actions, and repercussions of female administrators and teachers working to accomplish social justice for racial/ethnic minority girls from challenging…

  6. Girls Talk Math - Engaging Girls Through Math Media

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    Bernardi, Francesca; Morgan, Katrina

    2017-11-01

    ``Girls Talk Math: Engaging Girls through Math Media'' is a free two-week long summer day camp for high-school girls in the Triangle area of NC. This past June the camp had its second run thanks to renewed funding from the Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant. The camp involved 35 local high-school students who identify as female. Campers complete challenging problem sets and research the life of a female scientist who worked on similar problems. They report their work in a blog post and record a podcast about the scientist they researched. The curriculum has been developed by Mathematics graduate students at UNC from an inquiry based learning perspective; problem sets topics include some theoretical mathematics, but also more applied physics-based material. Campers worked on fluid dynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics problem sets which included experiments. The camp has received positive feedback from the local community and the second run saw a large increase in the number of participants. The program is evaluated using pre and post surveys, which measure campers' confidence and interest in pursuing higher level courses in STEM. The results from the past two summers have been encouraging. Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant.

  7. Functional impairment associated with symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool and early school boys and girls from the general population

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    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether the symptoms and diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, as defined in the DSM-IV, are equally impairing for girls and boys from the general population in the early school years. Method: A sample of 852 three to seven-year-old schoolchildren were screened out for a double-phase design. A total of 251 families were assessed with a diagnostic interview and with measures of functional impairment. Results: ODD symptoms and diagnosis were equally prevalent in boys and girls, but three to five-year-old girls had a higher prevalence of subthreshold ODD. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the impact on use of services, treatment received and family burden associated with ODD symptoms and diagnosis. Although diagnosis of ODD was not associated with higher functional impairment by sex, individual symptoms and subthreshold diagnosis were more impairing for boys than for girls. Conclusion: Oppositionality may be measuring different things for boys and girls, and this possibility must be taken into account with a view to the correct identification of this problem in each sex.

  8. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that

  9. Sero-Surveillance to assess immunity to rubella and assessment of immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of rubella vaccine in school girls

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    Sharma Hitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubella vaccination is not yet included in National Immunization Schedule in India. Serosurvey is frequently used to assess epidemiologic pattern of Rubella in a community. Serosurveys in different parts of India have found that 6-47% of women are susceptible for Rubella infection. The present serosurveillance was conducted in Jammu, India, in two public schools. Objective: To determine serological status of Rubella antibodies of school girls and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Rubella immunization in seronegative girls. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted to determine Rubella serostatus in peripubertal schoolgirls aged 11-18 years and also to assess immunogenicity and safety of Rubella vaccine (R-Vac of Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, in seronegative girls. For screening, pre-vaccination serum Rubella IgG antibodies were determined and to assess immunogenicity of the vaccine, post-vaccination IgG antibodies were compared with pre-vaccination levels. Safety assessment was done for a period of 8 weeks, post-vaccination. Results: A total of 90 (32.7% seronegative girls were vaccinated. All girls (100% became seropositive, post-vaccination. Clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in anti-Rubella IgG titres was observed. The adverse events were mild and self-limiting. Conclusions: R-Vac vaccine used in the study demonstrated an excellent safety and immunogenicity profile.

  10. Attracting school children on interesting places through 2D side-scrolling mobile game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintim, Allysharone; Othman, Muhammad Fakri; Senan, Norhalina; Suparjoh, Suriawati

    2017-10-01

    Sabah is popular with its beautiful vacation gateway. However there is no game application that related to the interesting places in Sabah as a way for to attract school children about interesting places in Sabah. Therefore, Ally's Adventure in Sabah which is a 2D mobile game application has been developed to solve this problem. Ally's Adventure application consist a total 4 levels that developed based on 4 different popular places in Sabah and it have been implemented in Android platform. Game Development Life Cycle (GDLC) has been used as the methodology in the application development process. The beta version of Ally's Adventure had been tested by its target user; 10 to 15 years old in order to achieved the objectives of its development purposes. It received a good amount of positive feedback and few improvements had been done to the beta version of Ally's Adventure in Sabah.

  11. Financial conflicts of interest and the ethical obligations of medical school faculty and the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Kirsten; Brendel, David H; Brendel, Rebecca W

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential benefits, relationships linking medical school faculty and the pharmaceutical and device industries may also challenge the professional value of primacy of patient welfare, a point highlighted in a recent Institute of Medicine report. Academic medical centers and professors have the added professional obligation to ensure the unbiased, evidence-based education of future doctors. This essay argues that faculty financial conflicts of interest may threaten this obligation by propagating the bias introduced by these relationships to students. This could occur directly through the process of curriculum determination and delivery, and also indirectly through the "hidden curriculum," which deserves particular attention, as its lessons may conflict with those professed in the formal curriculum. The essay concludes with guiding principles to consider when developing a conflict of interest policy at academic medical centers.

  12. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

  13. The influence of rural clinical school experiences on medical students' levels of interest in rural careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Watts, Lisa; Forster, Lesley; McLachlan, Craig S

    2014-08-28

    Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) programmes have been designed to create experiences that positively influence graduates to choose rural medical careers. Rural career intent is a categorical evaluation measure and has been used to assess the Australian RCS model. Predictors for rural medical career intent have been associated with extrinsic values such as students with a rural background. Intrinsic values such as personal interest have not been assessed with respect to rural career intent. In psychology, a predictor of the motivation or emotion for a specific career or career location is the level of interest. Our primary aims are to model over one year of Australian RCS training, change in self-reported interest for future rural career intent. Secondary aims are to model student factors associated with rural career intent while attending an RCS. The study participants were medical students enrolled in a RCS in the year 2013 at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and who completed the newly developed self-administered UNSW Undergraduate Destinations Study (UDS) questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline and after one year of RCS training on preferred location for internship, work and intended specialty. Interest for graduate practice location (career intent) was assessed on a five-variable Likert scale at both baseline and at follow-up. A total of 165 students completed the UDS at baseline and 150 students after 1 year of follow-up. Factors associated with intent to practise in a rural location were rural background (χ2 = 28.4, P influence practice intent (toward rural practice) and interest levels (toward greater interest in rural practice).

  14. The Effect of Social Skills Training Program on the Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Adolescent Girls in a High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alavi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nSchool-based interventions (such as life skills training have become the mainstay for prevention of some behavioral problems. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a social skills training program on a group of students who were in the first grade of high school in an urban area of Tehran, Iran "n  "n  "nMethod: "nIn a before-after study, a kind of social skill education program named Right Choices" was used for high school female students. The entire students of a class in a high school participated in the study. The students' age  ranged from 14-16 years. All of the participants lived in an urban area. Demographic characteristics were recorded in a designed questionnaire and included the name, age, educational level of the students and their parents, and prior history of psychiatric and medical condition. The total problem score and each of the subscale scores of the students before and after the study were calculated and compared. "n  "n  "nResults: "nThe mean age of the 33 participants in the study whose SDQ answer sheets were completed was equal to 15.15±6.2 years (14 to 17 years. The mean total problem score of the participants in the beginning of the program was equal to 14.3±5. After the program, the students' total problem score and all of the subscale scores improved, however, the differences between pre- and post intervention scores were not statistically significant. "n  "n  "nConclusion: "nSocial skills training program may impact the problem behaviors of the adolescent girls.

  15. Update to a protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Kadir, Bryar; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence, and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. In addition, this paper describes an update that has been made to the protocol for the PLAN-A feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer supporters. Approximately 15% of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be

  16. Why do girls persist in science? A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Holly Mcdonnell

    2002-09-01

    Girls are often found to drop out of science in greater numbers and sooner than boys. Because previous research has focused on gender differences, rather than examining differences and similarities among girls, little is known about why some girls choose to pursue science, particularly the physical sciences, rather than drop it. Specifically, little is known about how and why girls make their decisions to persist or not in specific science careers and the courses leading up to them. Through the use of semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative, interviews conducted over the span of a year, this thesis explored the choice of classes and career decisions of twelve elementary through high school girls who participated in an engineering camp. The purpose was to gain an understanding of why these girls chose to persist or not in a science and engineering career over time. Age-related differences were found in the reasons the girls gave for wanting to take future classes. The elementary school girls believed that interest would be their only reason while the high school girls gave multiple reasons, including interest, utility, perceptions of ability, and who would be teaching the class. The implications of these findings for Eccles' model of academic choice are discussed. Overall, the girls in this study liked their science classes because they involved hands-on activities. By high school they showed a preference for and a greater knowledge of biology rather than physics. All of the girls were unsure about what kinds of science information they would need to know for future jobs. Half of the girls were considering biology-based careers, such as doctors and veterinarians, because they wanted to help and take care of people and animals. Only one girl was considering engineering, a physics-based career, and only because her parents required it. Despite believing that they were doing well in school in general, at least half of the girls believed they were doing poorly in math

  17. Cross-gender Social Normative Effects for Violence in Middle School: Do Girls Carry a Social Multiplier Effect for At-risk Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Brown, H. Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2014-01-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have “spillover effects” on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003–2005) from Project Northland Chicago (PNC) were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4233 at Grade 6, N = 3771 at Grade 7, and N = 3793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys’ levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school

  18. Cross-gender social normative effects for violence in middle school: do girls carry a social multiplier effect for at-risk boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Lisa M; Pasch, Keryn E; Brown, H Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2014-09-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have "spillover effects" on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003-2005) from Project Northland Chicago were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4,233 at Grade 6, N = 3,771 at Grade 7, and N = 3,793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys' levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school environmental

  19. Attitudes, Interests, and Perceived Self-efficacy toward Science of Middle School Minority Female Students: Considerations for their Low Achievement and Participation in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Ana Lucrecia

    The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.

  20. Archbishop Porter Girls' Senior High School Students' Perception of Difficult Concepts in Senior High School Further Mathematics Curriculum in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Senyefia Bosson-Amedenu

    2017-01-01

    Further Mathematics is frequently perceived as a subject set aside for some exceptional individuals. It often induces feelings of worry; nervousness and panic among students. This study employed the survey research design aimed at investigating difficult concepts in senior secondary school further mathematics curriculum as perceived by students in Archbishop Porter Girls’ Senior High School in Ghana. The study was guided by two research questions and the sample for the study was 100, all of w...

  1. The Effectiveness of a Body Image Group Counselling Program on Adolescent Girls in High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Keven-Akliman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a body image group counselling program on adolescent girls in the context of Positive Psychology and Positive Psychotherapy. The sample set consisted of 22 female students, 11 in the experimental group and the other 11 in the control group, and they are all in the 9th grade and have negative body images. Research was conducted based on a pattern of a pre-test, post-test and follow-up test with control and experimental groups. A Body Image Scale, Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory and Program Evaluation Form were used as data collection tools. The positive body image group counselling program was conducted on the experimental group for ten sessions. The Wilcoxon sign rank test, Mann-Whitney U test and repeated-measure of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for data analysis. According to the results, the program was statistically significant. Additionally, the results revealed statistically significant increases in positive body images and coping strategies in the intervention group when compared with the control group. The program may be used to increase positive body image.

  2. Overview of Game Effect on Dynamics of Speed Development in Girls of Primary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Марченко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reserch objective is to analyze the effect of game means on the dynamics of speed abilities development in girls of the second-fourth grade. Materials and Methods. The participants in the experiment were 104 female pupils of the second grade (n=32, third grade (n=32, and fourth grade (n=40.  Research Methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, method of control testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The study proves the necessity to use game exercises that are rationally balanced in terms of orientation, power and scope with regard to the individual constitutional peculiarities of children in order to achieve the best pedagogical effect in the development of speed abilities. The games performed with the highest swiftness contribute to the development of speed. These exercises require the best efforts, which is why their duration must not exceed 5—10 seconds, the rest intervals must be relatively large — from 40 to 60 seconds. The rest time and load time must not be constant. Conclusions. Selective and directed development of motor abilities requires taking into account the duration and pace (intensity of the performance of the physical exercises.

  3. Parents' and teachers' views on sexual health education and screening for sexually transmitted infections among in-school adolescent girls in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanje, George; Masese, Linnet; Avuvika, Ethel; Baghazal, Anisa; Omoni, Grace; Scott McClelland, R

    2017-08-14

    To successfully develop and implement school-based sexual health interventions for adolescent girls, such as screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to understand parents' and teachers' attitudes towards sexual health education and acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions. In this qualitative study, we approached parents and teachers from three high schools to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Parents and teachers were asked about their general knowledge of STIs and sexual health education. In addition, they were asked whether they would support utilizing outreach to schools to facilitate provision of sexual health education and screening for STIs in adolescent girls. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. An initial coding matrix was developed and refined throughout the coding process. Transcripts were coded by two researchers and analyzed using the content analysis approach. We conducted 10 IDIs (5 parents and 5 teachers) and 4 FGDs (2 with parents, 2 with teachers, total of 26 participants). Most parents reported few or no discussions regarding STIs with their adolescent girls. Parents were more comfortable discussing consequences of sexual activity including loss of virginity and the potential for pregnancy. Parents tended to place responsibility for sexual health education with teachers. The teachers, in turn, provided basic sexual and reproductive health education including puberty, abstinence, and overview of STIs. Both parents and teachers found the idea of screening for STIs in adolescent girls to be acceptable, and were comfortable with research staff contacting girls through informational meetings at schools. Parents felt that adolescents' STI screening results should be shared with their parents. In this African setting, parents and teachers provide limited sexual health education

  4. Preschool children's interests in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, R. I.

    1991-12-01

    Studies of children's attitudes towards science indicate that a tendency for girls and boys to have different patterns of interest in science is established by upper primary school level. It is not know when these interest patterns develop. This paper presents the results of part of a project designed to investigate preschool children's interests in science. Individual 4 5 year-old children were asked to say what they would prefer to do from each of a series of paired drawings showing either a science and a non-science activity, or activities from two different areas of science. Girls and boys were very similar in their overall patterns of choice for science and non-science items. Within science, the average number of physical science items chosen by boys was significantly greater than the average number chosen by girls (p=.026). Girls tended to choose more biology items than did boys, but this difference was not quite significant at the .05 level (p=.054). The temporal stability of these choices was explored.

  5. Abnormal eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To document the existence of eating attitudes that may reflect current, pre- or subclinical eating disorders. To establish preliminary prevalence figures for abnormal eating attitudes. Design. Cross-sectional survey of eating attitudes. Setting. Non-clinical, community-based. Subjects. Female high-school pupils.

  6. Building Leadership Skills in Middle School Girls through Interscholastic Athletics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly

    For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…

  7. Correlates of High School Freshman Girls' Reported Reasons for Engaging in Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly; Menn, Mindy; Pulczinski, Jairus C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrapersonal and external factors, including social pressures and the desire for acceptance from peers, influence sexual activity among adolescents. This study examined how personal characteristics, risky behaviors, normative beliefs, household factors, and engagement in extracurricular activities were related to high school freshman…

  8. Against Captivity: Black Girls and School Discipline Policies in the Afterlife of Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wun, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Multilayered disciplinary policies including sophisticated surveillance mechanisms and harsh punitive practices increasingly characterize schools in the United States. Researchers contend that these modalities funnel students into prisons and produce "prison-like" conditions and/or militarized spaces. Most studies have examined the…

  9. Innovations. Separated by Sex. A Troubled New Jersey Middle School Segregates Girls from Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    The principal of one urban New Jersey middle school chose to deal with a long history of student behavior and discipline problems by making every class single sex. The change helped curb classroom distractions, reduced discipline problems, and restored a sense of order. (SM)

  10. Abnormal eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    report questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), which measures eating attitudes. ... schoolgirls, while Le Grange et al.5 used both the EAT-40 ... school. An information letter was sent to all parents who, ... and media influences. (These findings are ..... Corrmer JF. DeSIre to be thlnn&f and weight contrOl among children.

  11. "Some of Those Girls Can Be Real Drama Queens": Issues of Gender, Sexual Harassment and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s many feminists working for gender justice in education have highlighted the predominance and seriousness of sexual harassment in schools and condemned the enduring trivialization of such behaviours. This paper develops this body of work by focusing on how issues of sexual harassment are located within prevailing contemporary…

  12. "Science World", High School Girls, and the Prospect of Scientific Careers, 1957-1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2006-01-01

    A host of scholars have illuminated the ways in which schools and other institutions have created and then sustained a vast gender gap in the scientific professions. Many of these studies have focused on overt discrimination: deliberate efforts by men to prevent the entry of women into scientific pursuits. Others have identified subtle and…

  13. Evaluation of a Career Counselling Program Focused on Greek Elementary School Children's Career Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Antonellou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although childhood is the most significant period in one's career development process, little research attention has been paid to the evaluation of career counselling intervention programs in elementary-aged children. An intervention study was carried out in order to evaluate a career counselling program implemented in one Greek elementary school which focused on the enrichment of the children's career interests. The research methodology used was the quasi experimental research design. Children (N = 84 aged 8-11 years were distributed in experimental and control groups. Τhe impact of the intervention focused on the enrichment of their career interests, which was assessed via semi-structured interviews and use of drawings. The results showed a statistical significant difference between groups concerning children's career interests after intervention, while the analysis of drawings revealed more differences in self-confidence, self- esteem and extraversion in favour of the children that participated in the experimental group. Gender and age differences were also explored and revealed. The results are discussed in relation to various aspects of children's career development, as well as to the significance of career counselling intervention programs.

  14. Interest in Rhinoplasty and Awareness about its Postoperative Complications Among Female high School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Arabi Mianroodi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoplasty is a popular cosmetic surgical procedure. Informal statistics show that Iran has one of the highest rates of rhinoplasty in the world. However, rhinoplasty like any other surgery can have complications.  Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 320 female students were selected by multistage cluster-stratified sampling from high schools in Kerman, Iran and each completed a questionnaire.  Results: More than half of the students said they would like to undergo rhinoplasty. The main reasons for wanting rhinoplasty were beauty and because it is fashionable. However, more than half of the interested students did not know about the possible postoperative complications of rhinoplasty. There was no relation between interest in having rhinoplasty and parents’ education, city of birth or economic status.  Conclusion: Many teenagers are interested in having rhinoplasty in Iran. As the number of teenagers and young adults who choose to have cosmetic surgery increases, surgeons should consider their expectations, motivations and awareness of postoperative complications before surgery.

  15. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  16. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of Government School of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent girls belong to vital age group, not only because they are the entrant population to motherhood but also because they are threshold between childhood and motherhood. The girls should be educated about significance of menstruation and development of secondary sexual characteristics, selection of sanitary menstrual absorbent and its proper disposal. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the existing knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls and to determine the co-relation of knowledge and practice score among the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The study conducted was a descriptive cross sectional study done on 100 adolescent girls from class 9th to 12th of Govt. Girls School in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh (Convenience sampling. Prior to the commencement of the study, they were explained the purpose and nature of the study. Information on demographic variables which include age, class, type of family, education of mother, family income, age of menarche were collected from the participants. Results: The data on knowledge scores revealed that 29% had adequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene, 71% had inadequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene. The data revealed on practice scores revealed that 19%, 69%, 12% samples had poor, fair and good score of practices regarding menstrual hygiene respectively. Knowledge and practice scores of participants shows positive correlation between the two scores (*P < 0.001. Conclusion: Lack of information about menstrual hygiene can be attributed to various factors which need to be studied separately. The above findings reinforce the need to encourage safe and hygienic practices among the adolescent girls and bring them out of traditional beliefs, misconceptions and restrictions regarding menstruation. The investigators improved the general awareness about cause of menstruation and the organs involved. Use of sanitary

  17. Motivating Programming: Using Storytelling to Make Computer Programming Attractive to Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    classrooms at more than 100 universities and 100 high schools across the United States. Prentice-Hall believes that number will continue to grow ...New Methods One of the challenges in learning to program is in learning how to structure programs so that as they grow in length the programmer can...horse, a Pegasus, and a unicorn . Our testers struggled in creating stories with this Story Kit, probably in large part due to its incompleteness

  18. Correct gender socializing in school avoids the fabrication of divisions among girls and boys

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Topçiu

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm of gender based role socializing is supported by the postulate: men and women learn gender based attitudes and behaviours of the environment which surrounds them. Gender based socializing serves to teach individuals the difference between sexes, as well as, the hierarchy between them. Education is an extremely important instrument whereby social change can be achieved. School should take the indispensable responsibility to clearly demonstrate that both genders possess equal value...

  19. Engaging High School Girls in Native American Culturally Responsive STEAM Enrichment Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Joanita M.; Burckhard, Suzette R.; Meyers, Richard T.

    2018-01-01

    Providing science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM) culturally responsive enrichment activities is one way of promoting more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) studies and careers among indigenous students. The purpose of the study was to explore the impact, if any, of STEAM culturally…

  20. Development of the Astronomy-Themed Interdisciplinary Curriculum At Taipei First Girls' High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-C.; Jin, R.; Lai, S.-P.; Kong, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Wu, P.-H.

    2014-07-01

    With the advent of satellite-based telescopes and abundant data open to the public, senior high school students can now be allowed access to the latest observational data collected by those cutting-edge telescopes. Following the official guidelines for high school curricula in Taiwan, we designed a 24-hour, four-module curriculum, the themes of which are: properties of light and spectra, multi-wavelength observations, evolution of stars, and introduction to cosmology. The curriculum makes use of free online astronomical databases, software for data analysis, and teaching platforms. Many of the courses are inquiry-oriented, focusing on hands-on experiments and discussions. They can be taught separately in their own fields or combined to form research project courses as well. The curriculum development was funded by the National Science Council of Taiwan (High Scope Project) and supported by three institutes in universities. More than 700 students are participating in the pilot program. We are now promoting the curriculum to other schools, with a hope to encourage students to carry out projects on topics in astronomy.

  1. In the "Best Interest" of the Student: Perceptions and Implications for Leadership Practices in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwan, Julius Ouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the contrasting views of what constitutes the "best interests" of students and the implications of such perceptions for leadership practices in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted to establish the students', teachers' and principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership--in line…

  2. Reaching Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  3. Activity profile of 10-12-year-old Danish school girls participating in “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Madsen, Mads; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    sessions were delivered during school time by trained teachers over 11-week-period, 2x45 min per week. Methods: A total of 34 girls were monitored. The activity profile was monitored using the ZXY tracking system (ChyronHego, Norway), during 4 of the 22 “FIFA 11 for Health” in Europe sessions for a total......Introduction: To evaluate activity profile of the girls in the health education programme, “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe and to examine potential differences between girls involved in leisure-time sports club activities, i.e. football and other sports, and non-sport-club active girls. The 22...... of 34 girls of which 8 were football club active, 15 were involved in other leisure-time sports and 11 were non-sport-club active. Distance covered in various speed zones (Walking (0-4 km/h), jogging (4.1-8.0 km/h), running (8.1-12.0 km/h), high intensity running (12.1-16.0 km/h) and sprinting (>16 km...

  4. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Morean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8 attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1 intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race, smoking history, and trait impulsivity and/or (2 aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency. Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8% reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  5. Predictors of middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Schepis, Ty S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6-8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  6. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  7. Dreams about the future: How boys and girls perceive gender roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on original research in two Belgrade elementary schools the subjects were boys and girls from senior grades. These boys and girls were asked to answer a few questions about their future professions; that is, how do they imagine their lives in the future. More than half of the questioned girls expressed the desire to become models, actresses, singers or to be involved in some similar occupations from the world of entertainment. Their dreams about their future life totally exclude professions that require hard studying and serious academic preparation. The girls showed no interest in so-called "serious" occupations or, as a matter of fact, in traditional female jobs and roles. Boys, on the other hand, have various and diverse plans and dreams concerning their future occupations. In brief, the girls put emphasis on professions where the body and its appearance count, while the boys emphasize everything else. This paper is an attempt to answer the question of why it is that the majority of girls on the doorstep of adolescence see the fulfillment of their dreams in such a stereotyped, narrow frame of glamour and physical attractiveness. The paper points out to the existence of pop-culture patterns that so greatly influence the daily lives of these young girls, through media, school and public life in general. In such pop-culture that broadcasts a "Cover Girl" image, images that could encourage girls' other ambitions and interests almost do not exist.

  8. Girls and Computer Technology: Barrier or Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the disparity in numbers of girls and boys taking math, science, and computer classes in elementary and secondary schools, and examines steps being taken to better prepare girls, especially minority girls, for an increasingly technical society. A program in Michigan is described that involved a school and business partnership. (LRW)

  9. Interest of Grade Ten Students toward Physics among Other Science Subjects, Case of Wolaita Soddo Town Governmental Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelo, Shewangzaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper has proposed to investigate the interest in students towards physics among other science subjects. The investigation was carried out with 490 samples of grade ten students in Wolaita Soddo town governmental schools. Thus, overall result indicates that the interest in students towards physics is low and students hate to learn physics in…

  10. Electrifying Engagement in Middle School Science Class: Improving Student Interest Through E-textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Fields, Deborah; Searle, Kristin; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Feldon, David; Gu, Grace; Sun, Chongning

    2017-08-01

    Most interventions with "maker" technologies take place outside of school or out of core area classrooms. However, intervening in schools holds potential for reaching much larger numbers of students and the opportunity to shift instructional dynamics in classrooms. This paper shares one such intervention where electronic textiles (sewable circuits) were introduced into eighth grade science classes with the intent of exploring possible gains in student learning and motivation, particularly for underrepresented minorities. Using a quasi-experimental design, four classes engaged in a traditional circuitry unit while the other four classes undertook a new e-textile unit. Overall, students in both groups demonstrated significant learning gains on standard test items without significant differences between conditions. Significant differences appeared between groups' attitudes toward science after the units in ways that show increasing interest in science by students in the e-textile unit. In particular, they reported positive identity shifts pertaining to their perceptions of the beliefs of their friends, family, and teacher. Findings and prior research suggest that student-created e-textile designs provide opportunities for connections outside of the classroom with friends and family and may shift students' perceptions of their teacher's beliefs about them more positively.

  11. Programming experience promotes higher STEM motivation among first-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Moscatelli, Adriana; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-08-01

    The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes. First-grade children held stereotypes that boys were better than girls at robotics and programming but did not hold these stereotypes about math and science. Girls with stronger stereotypes about robotics and programming reported lower interest and self-efficacy in these domains. We experimentally tested whether positive experience with programming robots would lead to greater interest and self-efficacy among girls despite these stereotypes. Children were randomly assigned either to a treatment group that was given experience in programming a robot using a smartphone or to control groups (no activity or other activity). Girls given programming experience reported higher technology interest and self-efficacy compared with girls without this experience and did not exhibit a significant gender gap relative to boys' interest and self-efficacy. These findings show that children's views mirror current American cultural messages about who excels at computer science and engineering and show the benefit of providing young girls with chances to experience technological activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  13. Psychosocial correlates to high school girls' leisure-time physical activity: a test of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Matthew S; Kurrant, Anthony B

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to test the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior in predicting intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity and leisure-time physical activity behavior of high school girls. Rating scales were used for assessing attitude to leisure-time physical activity, subjective norm, perceived control, and intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity among 129 ninth through twelfth graders. Leisure-time physical activity was obtained from 3-wk. diaries. The first hierarchical multiple regression indicated that perceived control added (R2 change = .033) to the contributions of attitude to leisure-time physical activity and subjective norm in accounting for 50.7% of the total variance of intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity. The second regression analysis indicated that almost 10% of the variance of leisure-time physical activity was explicated by intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity and perceived control, with perceived control contributing 6.4%. From both academic and theoretical standpoints, our findings support the theory of planned behavior, although quantitatively the variance of leisure-time physical activity was not well-accounted for. In addition, considering the small percentage increase in variance explained by the addition of perceived control explaining variance of intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity, the pragmatism of implementing the measure of perceived control is questionable for this population.

  14. [The effect of self-foot reflexology on the relief of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea in high school girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Soon; Kim, Min-Za; Jeong, Ihn-Sook

    2004-08-01

    This study was aimed to identify the effect of self-foot reflexology on the relief of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea in high school girls. Study subjects was 236 women residing in the community, teachers and nurses who were older than 45 were recruited. Data was collected with self administered questionnaires from July 1st to August 31st, 2003 and analysed using SPSS/WIN 10.0 with Xtest, t-test, and stepwise multiple logistic regression at a significant level of =.05. The breast cancer screening rate was 57.2%, and repeat screening rate was 15.3%. With the multiple logistic regression analysis, factors associated with mammography screening were age and perceived barriers of action, and factors related to the repeat mammography screening were education level and other cancer screening experience. Based on the results, we recommend the development of an intervention program to decrease the perceived barrier of action, to regard mammography as an essential test in regular check-up, and to give active advertisement and education to the public to improve the rates of breast cancer screening and repeat screening.

  15. Pilot study of a mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Byrne, Michelle L; Ivens, Clare; Waloszek, Joanna; Woods, Michael J; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2013-05-01

    Existing literature links poor sleep and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. This pilot study aimed to develop a practical method through which a program to improve sleep could reach adolescents in need and to examine the feasibility of a mindfulness-based, multi-component group sleep intervention using sleep and anxiety as outcome measures. Sixty-two grade 9 students (aged 13-15) at a girls' school were screened with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Ten participants with self-reported poor sleep were enrolled into a six-session program based on Bootzin & Stevens, with added stress/anxiety-specific components. Sessions covered key aspects of basic mindfulness concepts and practice, sleep hygiene, sleep scheduling, evening/daytime habits, stimulus control, skills for bedtime worries and healthy attitudes to sleep. Treatment changes were measured by pre-post scores on the PSQI, SCAS and 7-day actigraphy-measured sleep. The program demonstrated high acceptability, with a completion rate of 90%. Based on effect-size analysis, participants showed significant improvement on objective sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency and total sleep time; actigraphy data also showed significantly earlier bedtime, rise time and smaller day-to-day bedtime variation. Post-intervention global PSQI scores were significantly lower than that of pre-intervention, with significant improvement in subjective SOL, sleep quality and sleep-related daytime dysfunction. There were small improvements on some subscales of the SCAS, but change on its total score was minimal. A mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention following brief screening is feasible, and has the potential to improve sleep. Its impact on anxiety needs further investigation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  17. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes one-sixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low self-esteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross-sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self-reported scholastic performance, and relationship with parents and peers were found.

  18. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes oneHsixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low selfHesteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self Hreported scholastic performance, relationship with parents and peers were found.

  19. Does the Good Schools Toolkit Reduce Physical, Sexual and Emotional Violence, and Injuries, in Girls and Boys equally? A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Parkes, Jenny; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Naker, Dipak

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the Good School Toolkit reduced emotional violence, severe physical violence, sexual violence and injuries from school staff to students, as well as emotional, physical and sexual violence between peers, in Ugandan primary schools. We performed a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Forty-two schools in one district were allocated to intervention (n = 21) or wait-list control (n = 21) arms in 2012. We did cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys in 2012 and 2014, and the Good School Toolkit intervention was implemented for 18 months between surveys. Analyses were by intention to treat and are adjusted for clustering within schools and for baseline school-level proportions of outcomes. The Toolkit was associated with an overall reduction in any form of violence from staff and/or peers in the past week towards both male (aOR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.22-0.53) and female students (aOR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.36-0.84). Injuries as a result of violence from school staff were also lower in male (aOR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.20-0.65) and female students (aOR = 0.51, 95%CI 0.29-0.90). Although the Toolkit seems to be effective at reducing violence in both sexes, there is some suggestion that the Toolkit may have stronger effects in boys than girls. The Toolkit is a promising intervention to reduce a wide range of different forms of violence from school staff and between peers in schools, and should be urgently considered for scale-up. Further research is needed to investigate how the intervention could engage more successfully with girls.

  20. Out-of-School Experience Categories Influencing Interest in Biology of Secondary School Students by Gender: Exploration on an Abu Dhabi Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Yang, Guang; Al Mazroui, Karima; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Rashedi, Asma; Al Housani, Najwa

    2017-01-01

    This study employed the international Relevance of Science Education questionnaire to survey the interest in biology and the out-of-school experiences of Abu Dhabi secondary school students (median age 17, mean age 17.53 and mode age of 16) in the third semester of 2014. It included 3100 participants. An exploratory factor analysis was used to…

  1. Sex Discrimination in High School Sports. A Report and Recommendations from Public Hearings on Interscholastic Athletics for Girls in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Commission for Women, Harrisburg.

    The Pennsylvania Commission for Women held hearings on equal opportunity for girls in athletics in November 1978. Participants included coaches, parents, students, organization and state officials. Testimony was presented on inequities between girls' and boys' athletic programs, coaching and officiating salaries, and attitudes toward female and…

  2. Bodily Knowledge: Learning about Equity and Justice with Adolescent Girls. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Vol. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.

    This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…

  3. Fast-food outlets and walkability in school neighbourhoods predict fatness in boys and height in girls: a Taiwanese population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying

    2011-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that the school food environment contributes to childhood obesity and health in various locations. We investigated the influence of fast-food stores and convenience food stores (FS and CS, respectively) on growth and body composition in a range of residential densities for North-east Asian food culture. Anthropometrics and birth weight of schoolchildren were obtained. Geocoded mapping of schools and food outlets was conducted. Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for father's ethnicity and education, as well as for household income, pocket money, birth weight, physical activity, television watching, food quality and region, were used to predict body composition from school food environments. Elementary schools and school neighbourhoods in 359 townships/districts of Taiwan. A total of 2283 schoolchildren aged 6-13 years from the Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan conducted in 2001-2002. Remote and socially disadvantaged locations had the highest prevalence of lower weight, BMI, waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness. Food store densities, FS and CS, were highest in urban Taiwan and lowest in remote Taiwan. In the fully adjusted models, FS densities predicted weight and BMI in boys; there was a similar association for waist circumference, except when adjusted for region. FS densities also predicted height for girls. Except for weight and BMI in boys, CS did not have effects evident with FS for either boys or girls. A high FS density, more than CS density, in Taiwan increased the risk of general (BMI) and abdominal (waist circumference) obesity in boys and stature in girls. These findings have long-term implications for chronic disease in adulthood.

  4. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in primary school boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to determine the distribution of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in middle childhood, as well as to evaluate the screening instrument, Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q). A total of 1,444 8- to 13-year-old children were screened in regular schools (3rd to 6th grade) in Switzerland using the self-report measure EDY-Q, consisting of 12 items based on the DSM-5 criteria for ARFID. 46 children (3.2%) reported features of ARFID in the self-rating. Group differences were found for body mass index, with underweight children reporting features of ARFID more often than normal and overweight children. The EDY-Q revealed good psychometric properties, including adequate discriminant and convergent validity. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances are commonly reported in middle childhood. Because of possible negative short- and long-term impact, early detection is essential. Further studies with structured interviews and parent reports are needed to confirm this study's findings.

  5. Charge It! Translating Electric Vehicle Research Results to Engage 7th and 8th Grade Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbue, Ona; Long, Suzanna; Ng, Ean-Harn

    2015-01-01

    Despite attempts to generate interest in science and technology careers, US students continue to show reduced interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors at the collegiate level. If girls are not engaged in STEM learning by the middle school level, studies show that they are even less likely to choose a science- or…

  6. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  7. Girls and science education in Mauritius: a study of science class practices and their effects on girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugah, Jayantee; Watts, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Background: The population of Mauritius consists of 52% females and scientific literacy is seen to be of vital importance for all young people if they are to be sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of a fast changing world. Previous research shows, however, that science is not popular among girls. This paper explores one of many reasons why few girls opt for science subjects after compulsory schooling. Purpose: This study investigated the approaches to teaching in four science classrooms in Mauritius, with particular emphases on the preferences of girls as they learn science. Sample: A total of 20 student interviews and 16 teacher interviews were conducted in four schools in Mauritius. The four mixed-faith schools comprised two all-girl schools (one state, one fee-paying), and two mixed-sex schools (one state, one fee-paying), within urban, suburban and rural situations. Design and method: 80 non-participant lessons were observed, of which 60 were science lessons while the remaining 20 non-science lessons were in economics, accounts and commerce. Group interviews with five pupils in each of the four schools were conducted and 16 individual interviews with teachers in the four schools gave an insight into the pedagogic approaches used for the teaching and learning of science. Results: Transmissive approaches to teaching, giving little opportunity for collaborative or activity-based learning, were found to be the most important factors in alienating the girls from science. Conclusions: There need to be radical changes in approaches to teaching to retain young girls' interest in the sciences.

  8. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  9. Leveraging biology interest to broaden participation in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, S.; Conner, L.; Oxtoby, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has been well documented that female participation in the geoscience workforce is low. By contrast, the biology workforce has largely reached gender parity. These trends are rooted in patterns of interest among youth. Specifically, girls tend to like biology and value social and societal connections to science (Brotman & Moore 2008). Our NSF-funded project, "BRIGHT Girls," offers two-week summer academies to high school-aged girls, in which the connections between the geosciences and biology are made explicit. We are conducting qualitative research to trace the girls' identity work during this intervention. Using team-based video interaction analysis, we are finding that the fabric of the academy allows girls to "try on" new possible selves in science. Our results imply that real-world, interdisciplinary programs that include opportunities for agency and authentic science practice may be a fruitful approach for broadening participation in the geosciences.

  10. The Perceptions of STEM from Eighth-Grade African-American Girls in a High-Minority Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, LaChanda N.

    Even with the existence of STEM curriculum and STEM programs that target women and minorities, African-American females still lag behind other ethnic groups in STEM fields. Reasons for the underrepresentation of females in STEM fields can be traced back to the early years of schooling. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact African-American females' perspectives of STEM subjects and STEM careers. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was used for data collection with a survey, focus group, and interview. Forty male (N=12) and female (N=28) students from different ethnic groups were surveyed. The focus group and interview sessions consisted of 21 African-American females from two distinct groups: those enrolled in the school's STEM program (STEM) and those who were not enrolled in the STEM program (Non-STEM). The self-efficacy theory and social cognitive career theory served as the theoretical constructs guiding the data analysis. Multiple regression results showed that outcome expectation and personal disposition had the greatest influence on the females' interest in STEM content and STEM careers. Results from the qualitative portion of the study revealed that the learning environment and STEM self-efficacy had a significant impact on African-American females' interest in STEM.

  11. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  12. Relationships among Middle-School Adolescents' Vocational Skills, Motivational Approaches, and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia; Starkey, Michael T.; Landgraf, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in relationships among vocational skills, motivational approaches, and same-gender and cross-gender interests for urban adolescents. Results showed gender differences in interests, with males having greater Realistic interests and females having greater Artistic and Social interests, based on Holland's (1997)…

  13. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  14. "Girls need to behave like girls you know": the complexities of applying a gender justice goal within sexuality education in South African schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2016-11-01

    Sexuality education, as a component within the Life Orientation (LO) programme in South African schools, is intended to provide young people with knowledge and skills to make informed choices about their sexuality, their own health and that of others. Key to the programme are outcomes relating to power, power relations and gender. In this paper, we apply a critical gender lens to explore the ways in which the teaching of sexuality education engages with larger goals of gender justice. The paper draws from a number of ethnographic studies conducted at 12 South African schools. We focus here on the data collected from focus group discussions with learners, and semi-structured interviews with individual learners, principals and Life Orientation (LO) teachers. The paper highlights the complexities of having gender justice as a central goal of LO sexuality education. Teaching sexuality education is reported to contradict dominant community values and norms. Although some principals and school authorities support gender equity and problematize hegemonic masculinities, learners experience sexuality education as upholding normative gender roles and male power, rather than challenging it. Teachers rely heavily on cautionary messages that put more responsibility for reproductive health on female learners, and use didactic, authoritative pedagogical techniques, which do not acknowledge young people's experience nor facilitate their sexual agency. These complexities need to be foregrounded and worked with systematically if the goal of gender justice within LO is to be realised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Rural Girls in Science Project: from Pipelines to Affirming Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman

    The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.

  16. Using a Co-Creational Approach to Develop, Implement and Evaluate an Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls from Vocational and Technical Schools: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Verloigne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: As physical inactivity is particularly prevalent amongst lower-educated adolescent girls, interventions are needed. Using a co-creational approach increases their engagement and might be effective. This study aimed to: (1 describe the co-creation process, (2 evaluate how girls experienced co-creation, and (3 evaluate the effect of the co-creational interventions on physical activity, individual, sociocultural and school-based factors. Methods: Three intervention schools (n = 91 and three control schools (n = 105 across Flanders participated. A questionnaire was completed pre (September–October 2014 and post (April–May 2015. In between, sessions with a co-creation group were organised to develop and implement the intervention in each intervention school. Focus groups were conducted to evaluate the co-creational process. Results: School 1 organised sport sessions for girls, school 2 organised a fitness activity and set up a Facebook page, school 3 organised a lunch walk. Girls were positive about having a voice in developing an intervention. No significant effects were found, except for small effects on extracurricular sports participation and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Using a co-creational approach amongst adolescent girls might be a feasible approach. However, as interventions were minimal, effects were limited or undetectable. Future co-creation projects could consider the most optimal co-creation process, evaluation design and intensively test this approach.

  17. Using a Co-Creational Approach to Develop, Implement and Evaluate an Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls from Vocational and Technical Schools: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy; Chastin, Sebastien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-08-01

    Background: As physical inactivity is particularly prevalent amongst lower-educated adolescent girls, interventions are needed. Using a co-creational approach increases their engagement and might be effective. This study aimed to: (1) describe the co-creation process, (2) evaluate how girls experienced co-creation, and (3) evaluate the effect of the co-creational interventions on physical activity, individual, sociocultural and school-based factors. Methods: Three intervention schools (n = 91) and three control schools (n = 105) across Flanders participated. A questionnaire was completed pre (September-October 2014) and post (April-May 2015). In between, sessions with a co-creation group were organised to develop and implement the intervention in each intervention school. Focus groups were conducted to evaluate the co-creational process. Results: School 1 organised sport sessions for girls, school 2 organised a fitness activity and set up a Facebook page, school 3 organised a lunch walk. Girls were positive about having a voice in developing an intervention. No significant effects were found, except for small effects on extracurricular sports participation and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Using a co-creational approach amongst adolescent girls might be a feasible approach. However, as interventions were minimal, effects were limited or undetectable. Future co-creation projects could consider the most optimal co-creation process, evaluation design and intensively test this approach.

  18. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Zare, Mehdi; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza

    2017-07-24

    Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation after one, two, and three weeks. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 67.3%. There was significant association between head lice infestation and school grade, family size, parents' literacy, bathing facilities, frequency of hair washing, and use of shared articles (p shampoo for head lice treatment was 29.2, 68.9, and 90.3% after the first, second, and third weeks, respectively. The head lice infestation is a health problem in primary school girls of Bashagard County. Improvement of socioeconomic status and providing appropriate educational programs about head lice risk factors and prevention can be effective for reduction of infestation in this area. This trial has been registered and approved by Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences ethical committee (Trial No.764). Trial registration date: March 17 2014.

  19. Active versus passive transportation to school-differences in screen time, socio-economic position and perceived environmental characteristics in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Gomes, Helena; Almeida, Mariana; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Maria Paula

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relationships between transport to and from school (active vs. passive), sedentary behaviours, measures of socio-economic position and perceived environmental variables, and (2) to determine which, if any, variables were predictors of active transportation. The sample comprised 705 girls with mean age of 14.7 (SD = 1.6) years old. Questionnaires were used to describe travel mode to school and to estimate weekly television and computer use (screen time). Girls were assigned to active transportation (AT) or passive transportation (PT) groups depending on whether they walked or bicycled (AT) to and from school or travelled by car or bus (PT). Screen time was determined by the number of hours they reported watching television and using computers in the week preceding the examination, including weekends. Socio-economic position was established by parental occupation and educational level. A questionnaire assessed Perceived Neighbourhood Environments. No statistically significant differences were seen for screen time between travel groups. Occupational status of both mother (r = -0.17) and father (r = -0.15) and father's educational level (r = -0.10) were significantly and negatively associated with AT, while street connectivity (r = 0.10) was positively and significantly associated with AT. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of active commuting decreased by around 50% with increasing father's occupation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51; p active (OR = 1.63; p active commuting to school and that street connectivity is a predictor of active transportation in adolescent girls.

  20. Impact of health education on knowledge and practices about menstruation among adolescent school girls of rural part of district Ambala, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education on knowledge regarding menstruation, misconceptions related to it as the prevalence of RTI is still very high in India.  Aims: To study the existing level of status of hygiene, knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls and to assess the change in their knowledge level and practices after health education. Materials A community-based pre and post interventional study was conducted among 200 adolescents’ girls of class IX and X of rural part of district Ambala. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw the representative sample. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and later health education regarding menstruation and healthy menstrual practices was imparted to the girls. Post-test was done after 3 months to assess the impact of health education. Pre- and post-intervention, data were compared using the paired t test, z test for proportions, chi-squared test for paired proportions. Difference between Proportions of the pre-post data and its 95% confidence interval has been calculated of the findings. SPSS for Windows software version 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA have been used for data analysis. The level of significance has been considered at p value 0.05 while in the post-test preceding health education, significant improvements were observed in their practices. Conclusion: Overall significant improvement was found in knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls.