WorldWideScience

Sample records for school food environment

  1. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  2. School food environments and policies in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Daniel M; Hill, Elaine L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.

  3. Mobile food vending and the after-school food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, June M; Yen, Irene H; Laraia, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and minority children have higher rates of obesity and overweight. Greater understanding of their food access is important. Because of higher rates of walking to school in these populations, these children likely have greater exposure to the food environment immediately around their schools. Mobile food vendors are an understudied aspect of the food environment in U.S. urban areas. This study aims to observe the after-school food environment in an urban area where mobile vending is known to occur in order to study the range of vendors encountered near schools and the items sold in the after-school period. In the spring of 2008, the presence of mobile food vendors after school within (1/4) mile of nine public schools was assessed in a predominantly Latino district of Oakland CA. At six schools with regular presence of vendors, observations were made at mobile vendors documenting characteristics of transactions, consumers, and items. During 37 observation-hours across 23 days, there were 1355 items sold to 1195 individuals. Fifty-six percent of the transactions involved children with no adults present. There was a wide range in foods sold, and although there were vendors selling low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, there were also vendors selling whole and processed (precut and bagged) fresh fruits and vegetables. Roughly 40% of these whole fruits and processed fruits and vegetables were consumed by children. On average, children each consumed $1.54 of foods per transaction. Mobile food vendors in urban areas contribute to after-school snacking among children, and should be considered as a component of the school food environment. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  5. Food environment and policies in private schools in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    School food policies and services have the potential to influence the food practices and eating behaviours of adolescents which in turn may affect their lifestyles and health in adulthood. The aim of this qualitative investigation was to describe the opinions of adolescents, their parents, nutrition educators and school principals about the prevailing food environment and canteen policies in Indian schools. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private schools in Kolkata, India participated in semi-structured interviews. The interview questions were primarily based on the existing literature related to school food environments and policies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and assessed thematically. Throughout the 52 interviews, a number of inadequacies of the school food environment and policies were revealed. These included the absence of written food policies, the widespread supply of unhealthy foods, inadequate provision of healthy foods, misleading messages about food communicated by school authorities, lack of cleanliness in the school canteen and the high cost of canteen food. Current school food environments do not appear to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Therefore, it is important to upgrade the quality of food services in Indian schools through adoption of healthy eating policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products.

  8. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Story Mary; Hannan Peter J; French Simone A; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne; Fulkerson Jayne A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained resear...

  9. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  10. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy...

  11. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  12. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd

    2004-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed.

  13. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: associations with school food environment and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2005-10-06

    This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p off during lunch time, students purchased soft drinks from vending machines 1.4 +/- 1.6 days/week as compared to 1.9 +/- 1.8 days/week in schools in which soft drink machines were turned on during lunch (p = .040). School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  14. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  15. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  16. Food and nutrition education in school environment: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Tecchio Borsoi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Nutrition Education is a strategy to promote health and healthy eating habits. The school environment rises as a suitable place to develop these actions. Through Integrative Literature Review, we could identify the characteristics of scientific production on the Food and Nutrition Education at school from 2002 to 2013. The sample of this review consisted of 17 articles. It was observed that it has been giving more emphasis to this issue from 2009. Nine of the selected studies opted for intervention methodologies, and eight of them have proposed to consolidate the practice of educators, administrators and school cafeteria owners, the understanding of Food and Nutrition Education. The actions accomplished were characterized as slightly critical and participatory strategies based on the transmission of information. It concludes the need for approaches to treating eating disorders broadly at school, through problem-solving methodologies that go beyond the mere transmission of information.

  17. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.

  18. School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (Pchildren (Pchildren. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (Pchildren (Pchildren's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack

  19. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights From a Critical Stakeholder Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-11-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  1. The school food environment and adolescent obesity: qualitative insights from high school principals and food service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Befort, Christie A; Snow, Patricia; Daley, Christine Makosky; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2007-05-18

    To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8) and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7) at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban) participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Principal themes included: 1) Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2) Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment), 3) Attempts at change should start before high school, 4) Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5) Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1) Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2) Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3) A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4) Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the issues of most concern to schools (e.g., academic

  2. Is the school food environment conducive to healthy eating in poorly resourced South African schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laurie, Sunette; Maduna, Mamokhele; Magudulela, Thokozile; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    To assess the school food environment in terms of breakfast consumption, school meals, learners' lunch box, school vending and classroom activities related to nutrition. Cross-sectional survey. Ninety purposively selected poorly resourced schools in South Africa. Questionnaires were completed by school principals (n 85), school feeding coordinators (n 77), food handlers (n 84), educators (n 687), randomly selected grade 5 to 7 learners (n 2547) and a convenience sample of parents (n 731). The school menu (n 75), meal served on the survey day, and foods at tuck shops and food vendors (n 74) were recorded. Twenty-two per cent of learners had not eaten breakfast; 24 % brought a lunch box, mostly with bread. Vegetables (61 %) were more often on the school menu than fruit (28 %) and were served in 41 % of schools on the survey day compared with 4 % serving fruit. Fifty-seven per cent of learners brought money to school. Parents advised learners to buy fruit (37 %) and healthy foods (23 %). Tuck shops and vendors sold mostly unhealthy foods. Lack of money/poverty (74 %) and high food prices (68 %) were major challenges for healthy eating. Most (83 %) educators showed interest in nutrition, but only 15 % had received training in nutrition. Eighty-one per cent of educators taught nutrition as part of school subjects. The school food environment has large scope for improvement towards promoting healthy eating. This includes increasing access to vegetables and fruit, encouraging learners to carry a healthy lunch box, and regulating foods sold through tuck shops and food vendors.

  3. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-01-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption...

  4. Impact of Maine’s Statewide Nutrition Policy on High School Food Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E.; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. Methods We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre–Chapter 51 and post–Chapter 51 of soda, ot...

  5. The Healthy School Canteen Programme: A Promising Intervention to Make the School Food Environment Healthier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fréderike Mensink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals. Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.

  6. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.

  7. The school food environment and adolescent obesity: qualitative insights from high school principals and food service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellerbeck Edward F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8 and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7 at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Results Principal themes included: 1 Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2 Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment, 3 Attempts at change should start before high school, 4 Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5 Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1 Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2 Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3 A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4 Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Conclusion Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the

  8. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  9. Clustering of Fast-Food Restaurants Around Schools: A Novel Application of Spatial Statistics to the Study of Food Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Melly, Steven J.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Patel, Aarti; Buka, Stephen; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. Methods. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. Results. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Conclusions. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods. PMID:16118369

  10. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P schools. The Finnish schools were most likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P school policy according to WHO principles (P canteen (P schools were most likely to involve the food and nutrition policy in pedagogical activities (P = 0·004), to serve nutritional school meals (P schools were less likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P canteen (P = 0·017) than the organic schools. The study suggests that there is a gap in the effects of public organic food procurement policy on building a healthier school food environment.

  11. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments With Federal Standards for Competitive Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school marketing environments with federal school nutrition standards. The purpose of this study was to determine how to improve school marketing environments so that they align with new federal competitive food nutrition standards. We assessed food marketing environments in 3 Portland, Maine schools using the Food and Beverage Marketing Survey (FBMS) and provided technical assistance to bring their marketing environments into conformity with the federal competitive food regulations, tracking resources and strategies for marketing removal. Noncompliant marketing was significantly reduced pre- to postintervention. Intervention strategies were facilitated by the School Health Coordinator and school-based wellness teams. Low monetary resources were required to remove marketing not compliant with federal nutrition standards for foods sold in schools. Several key challenges remain to sustain efforts. This study provides timely information for policymakers to support crafting policies that address the realities of school nutrition environments and universal enforcement challenges. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  12. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: associations with school food environment and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2005-01-01

    .... Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p < .001...

  13. The Toxic Food Environment Around Elementary Schools and Childhood Obesity in Mexican Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Lucia Hernandez; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Barquera, Simon; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic is a global concern. There is limited evidence in Mexico linking the local food environment to obesity. The purpose of this study is to describe the links between the local food environment around elementary schools and schoolchildren's BMI in two Mexican cities. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 60 elementary schools in two Mexican cities (i.e., Cuernavaca and Guadalajara) in 2012-2013. Anthropometric measurements on schoolchildren were collected, as well as environmental direct audits and observations in a 100-m buffer around schools. Children's BMI was evaluated according to WHO-recommended procedures. In BMI models, the explanatory variable was the number of retail food sources. These models were adjusted for child's characteristics, schools' socioeconomic background, compliance with federal guidelines concerning unhealthy foods within schools' facilities, and corresponding city. Analysis was conducted in 2014. The number of mobile food vendors was higher around public schools than outside private schools (pschools. Schoolchildren from the highest tertile of mobile food vendors showed 6.8% higher BMI units than those from the lowest tertile. Children attending schools within the highest tertile of food stores also had 4.7% higher BMI units than children from schools in the lowest tertile. Health policy in Mexico should target the obesogenic environment surrounding elementary schools, where children may be more exposed to unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Slow progress in changing the school food environment: nationally representative results from public and private elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pfood environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights from a Critical Stakeholder Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G.; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Chriqui, Jamie F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain…

  16. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  17. Disparities in the food environments of New York City public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Bader, Michael D M; Richards, Catherine A; Purciel, Marnie; Quinn, James W; Thomas, Juli Simon; Warbelow, Caitlin; Weiss, Christopher C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Studies of the food environment near schools have focused on fast food. Research is needed that describes patterns of exposure to a broader range of food outlet types and that examines the influence of neighborhood built environments. Using data for New York City, this paper describes the prevalence of five different food outlet types near schools, examines disparities by economic status and race/ethnicity in access to these food outlets, and evaluates the extent to which these disparities are explained by the built environment surrounding the school. National chain and local fast-food restaurants, pizzerias, small grocery stores ("bodegas"), and convenience stores within 400 m of public schools in New York City were identified by matching 2005 Dun & Bradstreet data to 2006-2007 school locations. Associations of student poverty and race/ethnicity with food outlet density, adjusted for school level, population density, commercial zoning, and public transit access, were evaluated in 2009 using negative binomial regression. New York City's public school students have high levels of access to unhealthy food near their schools: 92.9% of students had a bodega within 400 m, and pizzerias (70.6%); convenience stores (48.9%); national chain restaurants (43.2%); and local fast-food restaurants (33.9%) were also prevalent within 400 m. Racial/ethnic minority and low-income students were more likely to attend schools with unhealthy food outlets nearby. Bodegas were the most common source of unhealthy food, with an average of nearly ten bodegas within 400 m, and were more prevalent near schools attended by low-income and racial/ethnic minority students; this was the only association that remained significant after adjustment for school and built-environment characteristics. Nearly all New York City public school students have access to inexpensive, energy-dense foods within a 5-minute walk of school. Low-income and Hispanic students had the highest level of exposure to the food

  18. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  19. Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet-Fitzgerald, Judith Evelyn; Watts, Allison W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-26

    Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students' dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N=174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N=11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student's intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student's age and sex. School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.02-1.30) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.12-2.01 and OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06). The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents' dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity.

  20. School and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among California youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Sturm, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Various hypotheses link neighborhood food environments and diet. Greater exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores is thought to encourage overconsumption; supermarkets and large grocery stores are claimed to encourage healthier diets. For youth, empirical evidence for any particular hypothesis remains limited. This study examines the relationship between school and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among youth in California. Data from 8226 children (aged 5-11 years) and 5236 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) from the 2005 and 2007 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed in 2011. The dependent variables are daily servings of fruits, vegetables, juice, milk, soda, high-sugar foods, and fast food, which were regressed on measures of food environments. Food environments were measured by counts and density of businesses, distinguishing fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and large supermarkets within a specific distance (varying from 0.1 to 1.5 miles) from a respondent's home or school. No robust relationship between food environment and consumption is found. A few significant results are sensitive to small modeling changes and more likely to reflect chance than true relationships. This correlational study has measurement and design limitations. Longitudinal studies that can assess links between environmental, dependent, and intervening food purchase and consumption variables are needed. Reporting a full range of studies, methods, and results is important as a premature focus on correlations may lead policy astray. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Maine's statewide nutrition policy on high school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E; O'Rourke, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51 of soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and junk food. Frequency data were tabulated pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51, and Fisher exact test was used to assess significance in changes. We conducted food and beverage inventories at 11 high schools. The survey return rate was 61% (N = 54). Availability of soda in student vending significantly decreased pre-Chapter 51 versus post-Chapter 51 (P = .04). No significant changes were found for other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food. Exceptions to Chapter 51 were permitted to staff (67%), to the public (86%), and in career and technical education programs (31%). Inventories in a subset of schools found no availability of soda for students, whereas other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food were widely available in à la carte, vending machines, and school stores. Candy, considered a FMNV, was freely available. Soda advertisement on school grounds was common. Student vending choices improved after the implementation of Chapter 51; however, use of FMNV as the policy standard may be limiting, as availability of other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food was pervasive. School environments were not necessarily supportive of the policy, as advertisement of soda was common and some FMNV were available. Furthermore, local exceptions to Chapter 51 likely reduced the overall effect of the policy.

  2. Do schools in Quebec foster healthy eating? An overview of associations between school food environment and socio-economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Robitaille, Éric; Lebel, Alexandre; Bisset, Sherri

    2015-06-01

    A school environment that encourages students to opt for food with sound nutritional value is both essential and formative in ensuring that young people adopt healthy eating habits. The present study explored the associations between the socio-economic characteristics of the school environment and the school food environment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2008-2009. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed on data from public primary and secondary schools. Quebec, Canada. The school food offering was observed directly and systematically by trained research assistants. Interviews were conducted to fully describe food offerings in the schools and schools' child-care services. A two-stage stratified sampling was used to build a representative sample of 143 French-speaking public schools. The response rate was 66.2%. The primary and secondary schools in low-density areas were more likely to be located near diners (primary: P=0.018; secondary: P=0.007). The secondary schools in deprived areas were less likely to have a regular food committee (P=0.004), to seek student input on menu choices (P=0.001) or to have a long lunch period (P=0.010). The primary schools in deprived areas were less likely to have a food service (P=0.025) and their meal periods were shorter (P=0.033). The schools in areas with lower socio-economic status provided an environment less favourable for a healthy diet. From a public health perspective, the results of this analysis could assist policy makers and managers to identify actions to support the creation of favourable school environments.

  3. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  4. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Missbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  5. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Associations between food environment around schools and professionally measured weight status for middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuyang; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Abbott, Joshua K; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (pschools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (pschools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students.

  7. Association between district and state policies and US public elementary school competitive food and beverage environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Turner, Lindsey; Taber, Daniel R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high in fats, sugars, and/or sodium. Multivariate, pooled, cross-sectional analysis of data gathered annually during elementary school years 2008-2009 through 2010-2011 in the United States. Survey respondents at 1814 elementary schools (1485 unique) in 957 districts in 45 states (food analysis) and 1830 elementary schools (1497 unique) in 962 districts and 45 states (beverage analysis). EXPOSURES Competitive food and beverage policy restrictions at the state and/or district levels. Competitive food and beverage availability. RESULTS Sweets were 11.2 percentage points less likely to be available (32.3% vs 43.5%) when both the district and state limited sugar content, respectively. Regular-fat baked goods were less available when the state law, alone and in combination with district policy, limited fat content. Regular-fat ice cream was less available when any policy (district, state law, or both) limited competitive food fat content. Sugar-sweetened beverages were 9.5 percentage points less likely to be available when prohibited by district policy (3.6% vs 13.1%). Higher-fat milks (2% or whole milk) were less available when prohibited by district policy or state law, with either jurisdiction's policy or law associated with an approximately 15 percentage point reduction in availability. Both district and state policies and/or laws have the potential to reduce in-school availability of high-sugar, high-fat foods and beverages. Given the need to reduce empty calories in children's diets, governmental policies at all levels may be an effective tool.

  8. Disparities in the food environment surrounding US middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland

    2008-07-01

    Disparities in the type and density of food retail outlets have been hypothesized as a possible cause of differential obesity rates across racial/ethnic and income groups. Several local studies have documented differences in business environments by sociodemographic neighbourhood characteristics, but no data specific for youth have been published. This study analyses the food environment surrounding all public middle and high schools in the USA. Buffers were calculated with a radius of 400 and 800 m from the main entrance of public secondary schools in the USA (n=31,622), and business establishments within those buffers were identified using InfoUSA proprietary business listings. Indicators of any convenience store, limited-service restaurant, snack store or off-licences/liquor store and counts of businesses were regressed on the proportion of students eligible for free school meals, Title I eligibility of the school, racial/ethnic composition, location and student/teacher ratio. Hispanic youth are particularly likely to attend schools that are surrounded by convenience stores, restaurants, snack stores or off-licences. This effect is independent and in addition to poverty (i.e. students eligible for free school meals or schools that are Title I eligible) or location (urban core, suburban, town, rural). The association between other racial groups and nearby businesses is weaker, with the exception of off-licences, where a higher proportion of minority groups increases the probability of off-licences in close proximity to the school. Middle schools have fewer surrounding businesses than high schools, and larger schools have fewer surrounding businesses than smaller schools. Easy availability of snacks, sodas and fast food in the immediate vicinity of a school could easily negate school food policies, especially among students who can leave campus. Surrounding food outlets could also lower the effectiveness of health education in the classroom by setting a highly

  9. Improving the school food environment: results from a pilot study in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen W; Hartstein, Jill; Reynolds, Kim D; Vu, Maihan; Resnicow, Ken; Greene, Natasha; White, Mamie A

    2007-03-01

    Our objective for this study was to examine the feasibility of instituting environmental changes during a 6-week pilot in school foodservice programs, with long-term goals of improving dietary quality and preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Participants included students and staff from six middle schools in three states. Formative assessment with students and school staff was conducted in the spring of 2003 to inform the development of school foodservice policy changes. Thirteen potential policy goals were delineated. These formed the basis for the environmental change pilot intervention implemented during the winter/spring of 2004. Questionnaires were used to assess the extent to which the 13 foodservice goals were achieved. Success was defined as achieving 75% of goals not met at baseline. Daily data were collected on goal achievement using the schools' daily food production and sales records. Qualitative data were also collected after the pilot study to obtain feedback from students and staff. Formative research with staff and students identified potential environmental changes. Most schools made substantial changes in the National School Lunch Program meal and snack bar/a la carte offerings. Vending goals were least likely to be achieved. Only one school did not meet the 75% goal achievement objective. Based on the objective data as well as qualitative feedback from student focus groups and interviews with students and school staff, healthful school foodservice changes in the cafeteria and snack bar can be implemented and were acceptable to the staff and students. Implementing longer-term and more ambitious changes and assessing cost issues and the potential enduring impact of these changes on student dietary change and disease risk reduction merits investigation.

  10. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is an Iranian Health Promoting School status associated with improving school food environment and snacking behaviors in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-08-29

    The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A systematic review of the influence of the retail food environment around schools on obesity-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Does organic school food service provide more healthy eating environments than their non organic counterparts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    Organic food strategies are increasingly developing within European school food services at the same time as these services are being involved in measures aiming at promoting healthy eating at school and counter acting obesity. Schools have an important role to play in teaching children fundamental...... life skills, including good food habits according to a number of authoritative policy papers from Council of Europe, the WHO and the EU platform. Although there are great national differences, European school food culture seems to be in a transitional state in which both healthy eating as well...... as sustainable consumption strategies are contributing to shaping the future school food culture. It is therefore imperative to study how these changes in agendas influences each other and to study the associations between healthy eating and organic supply strategies at school....

  14. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments with Federal Standards for Competitive Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M.; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school…

  15. Postpartum Teens' Perception of the Food Environments at Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Clarke, Megan A.; Schwarz, Cynthia D.; Haire-Joshu, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An environment that supports healthy eating is one factor to prevent obesity. However, little is known about postpartum teen's perceptions of their home and school environments and how this relates to dietary behaviors. Purpose: This study explores the relationship between home and school environments and dietary behaviors for…

  16. 'I'm not trusted in the kitchen': food environments and food behaviours of young people attending school and college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, R L; Townshend, T G; Adamson, A J; Lake, A A

    2016-06-01

    Food behaviours are important in the context of health and obesity. The aim was to explore the environments and food behaviours of a sample of young people in the North East of England to further understanding of the relationship between eating behaviours and environmental context. Focus groups were conducted with four groups of young people aged 16-20 years (n = 40; 28 male, 12 female) between November 2006 and June 2007. Analysis was informed by grounded theory methods and was an iterative process of identifying themes across the transcripts. Topics explored included: their main environment, home food responsibility and cooking, food outside of the home, where food was purchased/obtained and where food was eaten and with whom. Emergent themes included: the value for money in food purchases, time convenience, the car as a means of accessing food and health perceptions. The complexities of the food environment were illustrated. This work has highlighted the importance of the home food environment and parents, and indicated the importance of factors such as time and cost in this age group's food choices. The behavioural norms around food behaviours merit further exploration for this population in transition between adolescence and adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Policy instruments used by States seeking to improve school food environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shroff, Monal R; Jones, Sonya J; Frongillo, Edward A; Howlett, Michael

    2012-01-01

    US legislatures and program administrators have sought to control the sale of foods offered outside of federally funded meal programs in schools, but little is known about which policies, if any, will...

  18. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  19. Racial and ethnic differences in the home food environment explain disparities in dietary practices of middle school children in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Evans, Alexandra E; Springer, Andrew E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steve H

    2015-01-01

    To examine racial and ethnic differences among middle school children in the home food environment (HFE) and the extent to which associations of healthy and unhealthy eating with the HFE differ by race and ethnicity. Cross-sectional secondary analyses of baseline data from Coordinated Approach to Child Health Middle School, a school-based intervention targeting obesity and obesogenic behaviors among middle school children in Austin, TX. A total of 2,502 children (mean age, 13.9 years; 58% Hispanic, 28% white, and 14% black). Availability and accessibility of healthy foods, and parental support of healthy eating, and family meals. Consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods was examined. Differences across racial and ethnic groups in aspects of HFE were estimated using linear regression. Models also examined racial and ethnic differences in consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. If adjusting for HFE, such differences were accounted for. White children had significantly better HFEs than Hispanic and black children with greater availability and accessibility of healthy foods (P foods but not in consumption of unhealthy foods. Improved HFE may increase healthy eating among ethnic minorities but is unlikely to reduce unhealthy eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of implementation of a healthy food and drink supply strategy throughout the whole school environment in Queensland state schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.

  1. Is the Balanced School Day Truly Balanced? A Review of the Impacts on Children, Families, and School Food Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Theresa F.; Macaskill, Lesley A.; Salvadori, Marina I.; Dworatzek, Paula D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Balanced School Day (BSD) is a scheduling policy that has the potential to impact children's food behaviors because students are provided with two 20-minute eating opportunities versus the traditional 20-minute lunch. Methods: We aim to raise awareness of this grassroots academic policy and its potential consequences to inform…

  2. Differential associations between the food environment near schools and childhood overweight across race/ethnicity, gender, and grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy

    2012-06-15

    Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children's overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as "Fitnessgram"), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student's race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities.

  3. Fitness and food environments around junior high schools in Taiwan and their association with body composition: Gender differences for recreational, reading, food and beverage exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsou, Hui-Chen

    2017-01-01

    School environments may contribute to adolescent behavior, reproductive physiology and body composition (BC). The Nutritional and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010) for 1458 junior high school students was geo-mapped for 30 school environs. Facilities for physical activity (fitness centers, gymnasia and sports stadiums, activity centers and parks), sedentary activities (reading material rental shops (RMRS), internet cafes) and food and beverage outlets (FBOs) were calculated as weighted numbers within 1000m of schools. Multiple linear regressions were used to predict BC variable z-scores. For boys, higher fitness center densities and, for girls, gymnasia and sports stadiums were associated with less abdominal fatness. For girls, body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were greater when RMRS density was higher as was TSF with internet café density. Where there were no FBOs, boys’ WC and TSF were less with more parks, but girls were shorter and WC more adverse. With greater RMRS density and no FBOs, girls still had increased WC/Hip ratio, and less mid-arm muscle circumference. Boys’ findings were more evident after considering puberty. Physical activity facilities (differently by gender), food and beverage outlets absence for boys and low reading material rental shop density for girls increase the likelihood of healthier body composition. PMID:28771561

  4. Fitness and food environments around junior high schools in Taiwan and their association with body composition: Gender differences for recreational, reading, food and beverage exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsou, Hui-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    School environments may contribute to adolescent behavior, reproductive physiology and body composition (BC). The Nutritional and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010) for 1458 junior high school students was geo-mapped for 30 school environs. Facilities for physical activity (fitness centers, gymnasia and sports stadiums, activity centers and parks), sedentary activities (reading material rental shops (RMRS), internet cafes) and food and beverage outlets (FBOs) were calculated as weighted numbers within 1000m of schools. Multiple linear regressions were used to predict BC variable z-scores. For boys, higher fitness center densities and, for girls, gymnasia and sports stadiums were associated with less abdominal fatness. For girls, body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were greater when RMRS density was higher as was TSF with internet café density. Where there were no FBOs, boys' WC and TSF were less with more parks, but girls were shorter and WC more adverse. With greater RMRS density and no FBOs, girls still had increased WC/Hip ratio, and less mid-arm muscle circumference. Boys' findings were more evident after considering puberty. Physical activity facilities (differently by gender), food and beverage outlets absence for boys and low reading material rental shop density for girls increase the likelihood of healthier body composition.

  5. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  6. Creating a Learning Environment to Promote Food Sustainability Issues in Primary Schools? Staff Perceptions of Implementing the Food for Life Partnership Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Weitkamp, E.; JONES, M.; Salmon, D; Kimberlee, R.; Orme, J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD), and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition. With regard to such food sustainability issues, this paper analyses the role of the Food for Life Partnership national programme in supporting garden and farm-based learning activities in 55 primary schools ...

  7. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; McDonald, Jordan; Ford, Hannah; Connelly, Paige; Gillespie, Rachel; Liu, Emily; Bush, Heather; Brancato, Candace; Babatande, Toyin; Mullins, Janet

    2017-10-21

    Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica) and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.99, 3.82)]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44)] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [-0.001 (95% CI -0.001, 0.0001)] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results informed the

  8. Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

    2014-12-01

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. © 2014 World Obesity.

  9. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  10. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  11. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Unlike previous studies, we address the endogeneity of the school food environment by controlling for children’s BMI at school entry and estimating instrumental variables regressions that leverage vari...

  12. Creating a Learning Environment to Promote Food Sustainability Issues in Primary Schools? Staff Perceptions of Implementing the Food for Life Partnership Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Orme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD, and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition. With regard to such food sustainability issues, this paper analyses the role of the Food for Life Partnership national programme in supporting garden and farm-based learning activities in 55 primary schools in England, UK. Using a mixed methods approach, the study examined the programme’s implementation through staff perceptions and a range of school change indicators. The study found that the programme delivery was associated with widespread institutional reforms. According to staff, implementation of the programme provided a range of opportunities for pupils to learn about food production and sustainability, but addressing these issues was challenging for teachers and raised a number of questions concerned with effective, equitable and on-going implementation. At a pedagogical level, teachers also reflected on conceptually challenging aspects of food sustainability as a topic for primary school education. The study identified ways that ESD programmes could support schools to think about and implement learning opportunities as well as identifying significant barriers related to resourcing such programmes.

  13. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gustafson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina. Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.99, 3.82]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [−0.001 (95% CI −0.001, 0.0001] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results

  14. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  15. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  16. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  17. Nutritional environment at secondary schools in Bloemfontein, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to be introduced to improve the nutritional environment at schools as the available food for ...

  18. Greater access to healthy food outlets in the home and school environment is associated with better dietary quality in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Millie; Crozier, Sarah; Lewis, Daniel; Godfrey, Keith; Robinson, Sian; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel; Baird, Janis; Vogel, Christina

    2017-12-01

    To explore associations between dietary quality and access to different types of food outlets around both home and school in primary school-aged children. Cross-sectional observational study. Hampshire, UK. Children (n 1173) in the Southampton Women's Survey underwent dietary assessment at age 6 years by FFQ and a standardised diet quality score was calculated. An activity space around each child's home and school was created using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid to derive four food environment measures: counts of supermarkets, healthy specialty stores (e.g. greengrocers), fast-food outlets and total number of outlets, and a relative measure representing healthy outlets (supermarkets and specialty stores) as a proportion of total retail and fast-food outlets. In univariate multilevel linear regression analyses, better diet score was associated with exposure to greater number of healthy specialty stores (β=0·025 sd/store: 95 % CI 0·007, 0·044) and greater exposure to healthy outlets relative to all outlets in children's activity spaces (β=0·068 sd/10 % increase in healthy outlets as a proportion of total outlets, 95 % CI 0·018, 0·117). After adjustment for mothers' educational qualification and level of home neighbourhood deprivation, the relationship between diet and healthy specialty stores remained robust (P=0·002) while the relationship with the relative measure weakened (P=0·095). Greater exposure to supermarkets and fast-food outlets was associated with better diet only in the adjusted models (P=0·017 and P=0·014, respectively). The results strengthen the argument for local authorities to increase the number of healthy food outlets to which young children are exposed.

  19. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  20. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  1. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  2. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption...

  3. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  4. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  5. School food in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Michelle; Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Cabrera, Georgina A; Mata, Irma I; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Villa, Antonio R; James, W Philip T

    2008-09-01

    To establish the school eating habits of Mexican children, who are prone to obesity and later to high rates of adult chronic diseases. Questionnaires for students and parents with staff questionnaires and interviews. Randomly sampled schools in a socio-economically representative district of Mexico City. Subjects were 1504 adolescents aged 10-19 years attending schools in Mexico City, 27 teachers and seven headmasters, sampled from both public and private schools and from the full range of socio-economic groups. Foods brought from home were of a higher nutritional quality than those purchased at school, where purchases were dominated by crisps, soft drinks and other items with high energy density. Girls were more inclined to purchase inappropriately; those from poorer homes purchased less. Private-school students irrespective of socio-economic grade brought more food from home and purchased more expensive food at school. School policies allowed food and drink vendors to market any products within the schools, which benefited financially from these activities. Current school food policies are conducive to amplifying the current epidemic of obesity and related adult chronic diseases, and need to change.

  6. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Food Outlet Type and Quality around Schools in Differing Built Environment and Demographic Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Lawrence; Glanz, Karen; McCarron, Margaret; Sallis, James; Sealens, Brian; Chapman, James

    2006-01-01

    Safe and convenient access to healthy foods for all populations is a fundamental transportation and environmental justice concern. Emerging evidence suggests that residents of lower income communities have less access to healthy food choices than those in higher income areas. Most studies to date rely on an as- sumed level of food quality generalized across different types of food outlets (e.g., grocery versus convenience stores) mapped in space. The current study includes a detailed audit of...

  8. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-11-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent). Evidence was inconclusive for food and menu labeling (for consumer or industry behavior) and changes in local built environment (e.g., availability or accessibility of supermarkets, fast food outlets). We found little empiric evidence evaluating marketing restrictions, although broad principles and large resources spent on marketing suggest utility. Widespread implementation and evaluation of evidence-based policy strategies, with further research on other strategies with mixed/limited evidence, are essential "population medicine" to reduce health and economic burdens and inequities of diet-related illness worldwide.

  9. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn; Greaney, Mary L; Wang, Monica L; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500 m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. © 2013.

  10. Nutritional environment at secondary schools in Bloemfontein, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-19

    Jun 19, 2014 ... chocolates were sold at eight schools, and sweets, crisps and fast food at all of the schools. Conclusion: The nutrition environment at Bloemfontein secondary schools does not support healthy eating habits. Nutrition policies need to ... are more effective in changing learners' food choices. Young people.

  11. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; Paul Hess; Kristian Larsen; Jason Gilliland; Patricia Tucker; Meizi He

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighbor...

  12. School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Liesel; Williams, Patricia L; Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S; Lordly, Daphne; Callaghan, Edith

    2016-09-01

    A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  13. Food, energy, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term.

  14. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  15. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that learners who had positive perceptions regarding their school environments were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours. The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status.

  16. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and ?10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy fo...

  17. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  18. A food environments feedback system (FoodBack) for empowering citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Williams, Rachel; Tawfiq, Essa; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-11-14

    This study developed a systems-based approach (called FoodBack) to empower citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places. Formative evaluations were held with citizens and change agents in six diverse New Zealand communities, supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 85 change agents in Auckland and Hamilton in 2015-2016. The emerging system was additionally reviewed by public health experts from diverse organizations. A food environments feedback system was constructed to crowdsource key indicators of the healthiness of diverse community food places (i.e. schools, hospitals, supermarkets, fast food outlets, sport centers) and outdoor spaces (i.e. around schools), comments/pictures about barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and exemplar stories on improving the healthiness of food environments. All the information collected is centrally processed and translated into 'short' (immediate) and 'long' (after analyses) feedback loops to stimulate actions to create healthier food places. FoodBack, as a comprehensive food environment feedback system (with evidence databases and feedback and recognition processes), has the potential to increase food sovereignty, and generate a sustainable, fine-grained database of food environments for real-time food policy research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pesticides, environment, and food safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2017-01-01

    Agrochemicals have enabled to more than duplicate food production during the last century, and the current need to increase food production to feed a rapid growing human population maintains pressure...

  20. Urban food environments and residents' shopping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Tappe, Karyn; Hillier, Amy; Buttenheim, Alison; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2013-11-01

    Food environments may promote or undermine healthy behaviors, but questions remain regarding how individuals interact with their local food environments. This study incorporated an urban food environment audit as well as an examination of residents' food shopping behaviors within that context. In 2010, the research team audited the variety and healthfulness of foods available in 373 Philadelphia stores, using the validated Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S); higher scores indicate more diverse and healthful food inventories. The team also surveyed urban residents (n=514) regarding their food shopping. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (conducted in 2012) assessed variation in retail food environments and in shoppers' store choices. Corner and convenience stores were common (78.6% of food retail outlets) and had the lowest mean NEMS-S scores of any store type. Most participants (94.5%) did their primary food shopping at higher-scoring chain supermarkets, and the majority of participants did not shop at the supermarket closest to home. Supermarket offerings varied, with significantly fewer healthful foods at supermarkets closest to the homes of disadvantaged residents. In multivariate analyses, participants were significantly more likely to shop at supermarkets closest to home if those supermarkets had higher NEMS-S scores. These data suggest that, when possible, shoppers chose supermarkets that offered more variety and more healthful foods. Findings from this study also reinforce concern regarding unhealthy immediate food environments for disadvantaged residents, who disproportionately relied on nearby stores with more limited food items. Interventions to improve nutrition and health should address not only food store proximity but also diversity of healthful foods available. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  1. [Food consumption in and around the school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear-Galindo, M Guadalupe; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria T; Morán-Álvarez, Cristina; Solís-Días, M Guadalupe; Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Acuña-Sánchez, M Eugenia; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    elementary school students usually stay in school 4.5 hours a day in Mexico. The main food consumption is outside school. The objective was to explore behaviors on food consumption beyond the school environment. descriptive trial that included 173 children, both sexes, from public elementary school in Mexico City. Eating habits were obtained through questionnaire and anthropometric characteristics from physical measurement. participants reported to consume soft drinks and canned juices at high frequency and quantity (80 %) and low consumption of animal foods. They also eat industrialized dairy products with high caloric content and low in protein. Moreover, 30 % of children eat 4 or 5 times a day, whereas 10 % eat one or two times a day. These results were associated with the somatometric characteristics of the children, 37.6 % of whom presented as overweight or obese while 12 % were underweight. it is necessary that health education involves teachers, parents and children in programs for obesity prevention with the objective of increasing healthy behaviors.

  2. Food culture in the home environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. F. De Wit, John; Stok, Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors......BACKGROUND: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current...... study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. METHODS: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13...

  3. Editorial: Schools as enabling environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 4, November 2014. 1. Editorial, 6 pages, http://www.sajournalofeducation.co.za. Editorial: Schools as enabling environments. Guest Editors: Mahlapahlapana Themane and David Osher. Children and youth need safe and supportive schools if they are to succeed in ...

  4. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Bhawra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non-Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. Methods: We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900 from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Results: Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Conclusion: Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  5. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  6. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  7. Automated Information System for School Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Panna; Galligan, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Controlling warehousing operations and food inventory, administering school cafeteria activity, and measuring the profitability of food service operations are identified as food service administrative problems. A comprehensive school food services information system developed to address these problems is described. (Author/MLF)

  8. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  9. Safe and healthy school environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frumkin, Howard

    2006-01-01

    ...-being, their education, their transportation from place to place, their food and shelter, and their health care. These adults need to be advocates for children. This book is the first to address the school setting utilizing the principles of environmental health. Written by leading experts in topics from noise to crowding, from indoor air quality to saf...

  10. Food Environments and Obesity: Household Diet Expenditure Versus Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Jaenicke, Edward C; Volpe, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    To examine the associations between obesity and multiple aspects of the food environments, at home and in the neighborhood. Our study included 38,650 individuals nested in 18,381 households located in 2104 US counties. Our novel home food environment measure, USDAScore, evaluated the adherence of a household's monthly expenditure shares of 24 aggregated food categories to the recommended values based on US Department of Agriculture food plans. The US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns (2008), the detailed food purchase information in the IRi Consumer Panel scanner data (2008-2012), and its associated MedProfiler data set (2012) constituted the main sources for neighborhood-, household-, and individual-level data, respectively. After we controlled for a number of confounders at the individual, household, and neighborhood levels, USDAScore was negatively linked with obesity status, and a census tract-level indicator of food desert status was positively associated with obesity status. Neighborhood food environment factors, such as food desert status, were associated with obesity status even after we controlled for home food environment factors.

  11. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  12. Back to Local Food in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turiničová Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Post is focused on problems of activities aimed at local food in urban environment. The theme is studied in the view of cultural changes in nutrition in Slovakia after 1989, affecting of global phenomena, incoming of giant international companies and importing foreign food. On the other side, there is also globalizations and glolocation view as an impulse for return to local food. Post is focused on different organizations, civic associations, activities and shops, through wich people in urban environment can gain local food.

  13. Food for Thought : Introducing Organic Food in Norwegian Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, Elin Kaia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how organic food can be introduced in Norwegian schools. The qualitative study took place in four lower secondary schools in different regions of Norway. The pupils’ perceptions about organic food are looked at in the context of previous consumer studies on the topic of organic food. Environmental education and nutrition education theories are used in examining and discussing education about organic food and farming. The study found that, like with environmental educat...

  14. School food standards in the UK: implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley; Spence, Suzanne; Reed, Lowri; Conway, Ruth; Palmer, Alison; Stewart, Eve; McBratney, Jennifer; Carter, Lynne; Beattie, Shirley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To outline the evolution of school food standards and their implementation and evaluation in each of the four countries of the UK since 2000. Review of relevant policies, surveys and evaluations, including country-specific surveys and regional evaluations. UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary schools and schoolchildren. By September 2013 standards will have been introduced in all primary and secondary schools in the UK. Evaluations have varied in their scope and timing, relating to government forward planning, appropriate baselines and funding. Where standards have been implemented, the quality and nutritional value of food provided have improved. Emerging evidence shows improved overall diet and nutrient intake by school-aged children as a result. The re-introduction of school food standards in the UK has not been centrally coordinated, but by September 2013 will be compulsory across all four countries in the UK, except in England where academies are now exempt. Provision of improved school food has had a demonstrable impact on diet and nutrition beyond the school dining room and the school gate, benefiting children from all socio-economic groups. Improved school food and dining environments are associated with higher levels of school lunch take up. Implementation of school food standards requires investment. It is critical to policy development that the value of this investment is measured and protected using planned, appropriate, robust and timely evaluations. Where appropriate, evaluations should be carried out across government departments and between countries.

  15. Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Glanz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Food and eating environments likely contribute to the increasing epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, skills, and motivation. Environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in eating. This review describes an ecological framework for conceptualizing the many food environments and conditions that influence food choices, with an emphasis on current knowledge regarding the home, child care, school, work site, retail store, and restaurant settings. Important issues of disparities in food access for low-income and minority groups and macrolevel issues are also reviewed. The status of measurement and evaluation of nutrition environments and the need for action to improve health are highlighted.

  16. Indian adolescents' perceptions of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2018-01-22

    The home food environment has the potential to influence the eating behaviour of adolescents. This investigation aimed to understand Indian adolescents' perspectives of their home food environments. Adolescents aged 14-16 years (n = 1026, 65.3% girls) attending private secondary schools in Kolkata completed a paper-based questionnaire during school time which included questions about family food rules, availability and accessibility of foods at home, and domestic cooking responsibility. Boys' and girls' opinions and experiences were compared through cross-tabulation analyses. Almost all the adolescents reported that fruits (91.6%) and vegetables (95.7%) were always available in their homes. Approximately two-fifths reported that sugar-sweetened beverages (36.2%) and salty snack foods (38.0%) were readily available. In 56.1% households, adolescents were expected to follow certain food rules during mealtimes (e.g. not talking with my mouth full). The majority of the respondents (80.4%) identified mothers as the primary meal providers, only a minority reported that fathers (5.1%) were responsible for preparation of family meals. This understanding of the family-environmental determinants of adolescent dietary habits provides useful directions for nutrition promotion interventions. Health and educational professionals associated with adolescents could communicate about the development of healthy home food environments to provide positive health benefits for adolescents and their families.

  17. What is needed to improve food sales in schools?Food vendors’ opinion from El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean are at the forefront of the double burden of malnourishment, with rocketing rates of overweight, obesity and stagnant prevalence of stunting in many countries. School children are at a crucial age for setting eating habits, physical activity, nutritional status and long term outcomes both in their health as well as their education and economic productivity. Save the Children International implements a school health and nutrition program in 45 rural schools in El Salvador, Central America. The program aims at increasing the consumption of protein and micronutrients while reducing intake of sugar and fats in school children. In addition, there is great emphasis on food hygiene and safe handling, through training of the food vendors. We developed a conceptual framework for school nutrition programs that is phrased around five different moments: school snacks, school stores, nutrition learning, bringing food to school and eating at home. Monitoring and control lies in the hands of student brigades, which fosters child participation. We present findings of a qualitative evaluation on sale regulation in school food stores, documenting additional interventions that were needed to foster compliance. We explore how vendors are making money on healthy food if head teachers and parents are involved in regulating food stores and children are motivated to cherish fruits and vegetables. Based on these findings, we discuss a model of an enabling environment for healthy food at school.

  18. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ann C. Wilkie; Ryan E. Graunke; Camilo Cornejo

    2015-01-01

    School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard), and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils). Metal and glass comprised the s...

  19. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  20. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nutrition Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/13/2015.

  1. The Relationship between Home Environment and Children's Dietary Behaviors, Lifestyle Factors, and Health: Super Food Education School Project by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahori, Nobue; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The numbers of nuclear families and working women have been increasing. Such changes in the home environment may affect children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health. This study aims to clarify the associations between the home environment and children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health.Methods In July 2014, we questioned the students and parents of five elementary schools that joined the Super Food Education School Project in Takaoka City, Toyama Prefecture. Of 2057 subjects, 1936 (94.1%) answered and 1719 of these subjects were analyzed. In this study, the phrase "home environment" describes such terms as "mother's employment status", "family structure", "subjective economic state", "communication between parents and children", "having breakfast or supper with family", "household chores by children", "parents' awareness of food education", "regard for balanced nutrition", and "teaching table manners". We performed logistic-regression analyses using children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health as dependent variables; the items relating to home environment were independent variables.Results Children with parents who are employed, those who do not have breakfast or supper with family, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were more likely to eat fewer vegetables, to have likes and dislikes of foods, to skip breakfast, and to have snacks. Children who have little communication with their parents, who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to exercise, sleep well, spend less time with television, and spend less time on playing videogames. Children with less affluence, those who have little communication with their parents, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to have high

  2. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  3. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...

  4. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (<170 m) to schools compared to those farther away. In conclusion, the food industry is flooding the market, taking advantage of the lack of strict regulation in Guatemala. Child-oriented advertisements are available in almost all stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment.

  5. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  6. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: Room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A.J. Schuit (Jantine); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the

  7. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its

  8. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However...... foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region...

  9. Food Processing Contracts: Savings for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Food processing contracts between schools and food manufacturers can result in huge cost savings. Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of 30 "letter of credit" sites in a three-year study of alternatives. After one year it appears that schools can purchase more for the dollar in their local areas. (MD)

  10. The environment within production and distribution of school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Assunta Busato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Food Guide reiterates that food should be safe from harvesting, transportation and even storage, preparation and distribution in the school environment. From this perspective, this study aimed to identify aspects of the environment, physical spaces and the surrounding area where school meals are produced and distributed, as well as food handling conditions and environmental education. Ten public schools in a city in Western Santa Catarina were analyzed. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to a representative from each school and to those responsible for the handling and distribution of school meals. It is an adapted instrument, based on the Collegiate Board Resolution of the National Health Surveillance Agency No. 216/2004 and No 275/2002. It was observed that there are environmental education actions in all schools; 90% (n=9 presented selective system of garbage collection and 20% (n=2 designed organic waste for composting. In 90% (n=9 of the schools, water comes from the public system and in 10% (n=1 from artesian water wells. None of the schools fully complies with the standards on the condition and adequacy of physical facilities in the areas of production and distribution of school meals. In all of them, partial adjustments were observed about legislation on physical spaces and environment besides the lack of guidance to handlers. This demonstrates that corrective and preventive actions are necessary to address the inadequacies found in schools.

  11. Identifying retail food stores to evaluate the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Dharssi, Aliza

    2010-07-01

    The availability of food stores is the most frequently used measure of the food environment, but identifying them poses a technical challenge. This study evaluated eight administrative lists of retailers for identifying food stores in an urban community. Lists of inspected food stores (IFS), cigarette retailers, liquor licenses, lottery retailers, gasoline retailers, farmers' markets, and authorized WIC (Program for Women, Infants, and Children) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailers for Albany NY were obtained from government agencies. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were assessed, using ground-truthing as the validation measure. Stores were also grouped by the number of lists they were documented on, and the proportion of food stores in each group was obtained. Data were collected and analyzed in 2009. A total of 166 stores, including four from ground-truthing, were identified. Forty-three stores were disqualified, as a result of having no targeted foods (n=17); being in the access-restricted area of a building (n=15); and being out of business (n=11). Sensitivity was highest in IFS (87.0%), followed by the cigarette retailers' list (76.4%). PPV was highest in WIC and farmers' markets lists (100%), followed by SNAP (97.8%). None of the lists had both sensitivity and PPV greater than 90%. All stores that were listed by four or more lists were food stores. The proportion of food stores was lowest (33.3%) for stores listed by only one list. Individual lists had limited utility for identifying food stores, but when they were combined, the likelihood of a retail store being a food store could be predicted by the number of lists the store was documented on. This information can be used to increase the efficiency of ground-truthing. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Schools and obesity prevention: creating school environments and policies to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Nanney, Marilyn S; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2009-03-01

    Research consistently shows that the majority of American children do not consume diets that meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, nor do they achieve adequate levels of daily physical activity. As a result, more children are overweight today than at any other time in U.S. history. Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully and engage regularly in physical activity. This article discusses the role of schools in obesity prevention efforts. Current issues in schools' food and physical activity environments are examined, as well as federal, state, and local policies related to food and physical activity standards in schools. The article is organized around four key areas: (1) school food environments and policies, (2) school physical activity environments and policies, (3) school body mass index measurements, and (4) school wellness policies. Recommendations for accelerating change also are addressed. The article found that (1) competitive foods (foods sold outside of federally reimbursed school meals) are widely available in schools, especially secondary schools. Studies have related the availability of snacks and drinks sold in schools to students' high intake of total calories, soft drinks, total fat and saturated fat, and lower intake of fruits and vegetables; (2) physical activity can be added to the school curriculum without academic consequences and also can offer physical, emotional, and social benefits. Policy leadership has come predominantly from the districts, then the states, and, to a much lesser extent, the federal government; (3) few studies have examined the effectiveness or impact of school-based BMI measurement programs; and (4) early comparative analyses of local school wellness policies suggest that the strongest policies are found in larger school districts and districts with a greater number of students eligible for a free or

  13. The food environment of students on a financial assistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Food environment is defined as the social, policy, and spatial factors that influence access to food and the types of food accessible to people.1 Evidence on the relationship between the dietary habits of students and the campus food environment has been reported. The effect of the campus food environment on.

  14. Organic and healthy food strategies in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    The project is a part of the iPOPY research project funded through the European Research Area program Core Organic I. The poster presents a study of the following hypothesis: Organic food service praxis/policy (POP) is associated with praxis/policies for healthier eating in Danish school food...... service. In other words, we wanted to test if organic procurement policies and the resulting praxis in schools can help to establish healthier eating habits among pupils as compared to schools without organic policies/praxis. A former study in Danish primary schools has shown that there is an association...... between organic school food policies and indicators (proxies) for healthy eating among children when (school food coordinators') statements on indicators (proxies) for healthy eating are used as variable. This project continues to search for the above signs of associations but involving also a “bottom...

  15. Investigating food environments in selected areas of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A food environment is a combination of physical, biological, social and psychological factors that affect the eating habits and patterns of people. The food environment is determined by the availability, affordability and access to the food required...

  16. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health. Deadline: September 7, 2016. Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research ...

  17. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Salome; Middelbeek, Lideke; Rutz, Suzanne I; Buijs, Goof; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2010-01-28

    Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years). Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (co)responsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  18. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  19. Evaluation of the school environment of public and private schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the school environment of public and private schools in Enugu to ensure child health promotion. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between ...

  20. Assessment of the School Nutrition Environment: A Study in Australian Primary School Canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Nathan, Nicole K; Wyse, Rebecca J; Preece, Sarah J; Williams, Christopher M; Sutherland, Rachel L; Wiggers, John H; Delaney, Tessa M; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-08-01

    Schools represent a valuable setting for interventions to improve children's diets, as they offer structured opportunities for ongoing intervention. Modifications to the school food environment can increase purchasing of healthier foods and improve children's diets. This study examines the availability of healthy food and drinks, implementation of pricing and promotion strategies in Australian primary school canteens, and whether these varied by school characteristics. In 2012 and 2013, canteen managers of primary schools in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales reported via telephone interview the pricing and promotion strategies implemented in their canteens to encourage healthier food and drink purchases. A standardized audit of canteen menus was performed to assess the availability of healthy options. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, 203 (79%) canteen managers completed the telephone interview and 170 provided menus. Twenty-nine percent of schools had menus that primarily consisted of healthier food and drinks, and 11% did not sell unhealthy foods. Less than half reported including only healthy foods in meal deals (25%), labeling menus (43%), and having a comprehensive canteen policy (22%). A significantly larger proportion of schools in high socioeconomic areas (OR=3.0) and large schools (OR=4.4) had primarily healthy options on their menus. School size and being a Government school were significantly associated with implementation of some pricing and promotion strategies. There is a need to monitor canteen environments to inform policy development and research. Future implementation research to improve the food environments of disadvantaged schools in particular is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  2. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  3. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  4. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  5. Competitive foods in schools: availability and purchasing in predominately rural small and large high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Befort, Christie; Davis, Ann McGrath; Snow, Tricia; Mahnken, Jonathan; Hou, Qingjiang; Story, Mary; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-05-01

    Schools have an important role to play in obesity prevention, but little is known about the food environment in small, predominately rural schools. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the availability and student purchasing of foods sold outside of the reimbursable meals program through à la carte or vending (ie, competitive foods) in small (n=7) and large (n=6) Kansas high schools. A cross-sectional observational study design was used to capture the number of à la carte and vending items available and purchased, and the fat and energy content of all available and purchased items on a single school day between January and May 2005. Small schools had significantly fewer vending machines than large schools (median 3.0 [range 2.0 to 5.0] vs 6.5 [range 4.0 to 8.0], Pschools contained a median of 2.3 fewer fat grams per item (Pschools. Significantly less fat (median -15.4 g/student) and less energy (median -306.8 kcal/student) were purchased per student from all competitive food sources and from à la carte (median -12.9 g fat and -323.3 kcal/student) by students in small schools compared to students in large schools (Pfoods at small compared to large schools, have implications for understanding how small schools support their foodservice programs with limited dependence on competitive foods and the influence that food and nutrition professionals can have on school environments by providing more oversight into the nutritional quality of foods available.

  6. Making Schools the Model for Healthier Environments Toolkit: General School Nutrition Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…

  7. Taste education reduces food neophobia and increases willingness to try novel foods in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Cho, Mi-Sook

    2016-04-01

    This study measured the effects of a taste education program developed in Korea on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods in school children. One-hundred and twenty school children (aged 7-9 years) residing in Seoul participated in 12 sessions of a taste education program for 3 months. The Korean taste education program was adapted from "Les classes du goût" by J. Puisais and modified to suit a Korean education environment. The study subjected school children to pre- and post-programs on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods (WTNF), in addition to children's food neophobia in their parents. A total of 101 survey data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Regarding the effects of taste education, scores of food neophobia significantly decreased (P Food neophobia scale (FNS), an index that measures personal food preference [12], showed a very weak correlation with behavioral willingness to taste novel foods (WTNF). Therefore, it is expected that the two scales measure different things. However, considering that the traits of food neophobia are not easily changed, the taste education program was administered in a remarkably effective manner.

  8. Best practices in school food and nutrition units of public schools of Bayeux, PB, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition.

  9. School food, politics and child health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how...

  10. Is the objective food environment associated with perceptions of the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined whether objective measures of the food environment are associated with perceptions of the food environment and whether this relationship varies by socio-economic disadvantage. The study is a cross-sectional analysis of self-report surveys and objective environment data. Women reported their perceptions on the nutrition environment. Participants' homes and food stores were geocoded to measure the objective community nutrition environment. Data on the average price and variety of fruit and vegetables were used to measure the objective consumer nutrition environment. The study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2003-2004. Data presented are from a sample of 1393 women aged 18-65 years. Overall the match between the perceived and objective environment was poor, underscoring the limitations in using perceptions of the environment as a proxy for the objective environment. Socio-economic disadvantage had limited impact on the relationship between perceived and objective nutrition environment. Further research is needed to understand the determinants of perceptions of the nutrition environment to enhance our understanding of the role of perceptions in nutrition choices and drivers of socio-economic inequalities in nutrition.

  11. Childhood obesity and community food environments in Alabama's Black Belt region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Robinson, L E; Carter, W M; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising rapidly in the USA. The rate is higher among those at a lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority groups. In Alabama, nearly half of the children from rural African American families are overweight or obese. Studies suggest that children's eating behaviours and weight could be influenced by surrounding food environments. The purpose of this paper is to assess the community food environment and examine the associations with childhood obesity in Alabama's Black Belt region. This research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. Weight status of 613 African American students in four elementary schools in a rural county of Alabama was assessed. We examined community food environments around children's home through GIS (Geographic Information System) and statistical methods. The interrelations between children's weight and community food environments are explored with multi-level models. Approximately 42.1% of surveyed children were overweight or obese, much higher than the national average, 30.6%. In Model 1, convenience stores (3.44; P school effects cause significant changes of the relationships between children's weight and four types of food outlets. The percentage of African American population (90.23, P school (6.68, P school context. Findings suggest that policymakers and planners need to improve community food environments of low-income minority communities. Parents and schools should pay more attention to reduce the negative impacts of food environments on children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. School Food and the Pedagogies of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jo; Leahy, Deana

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade the issue of food and in particular, food consumed within schools has come to encapsulate a broad range of concerns regarding children and young people's health and wellbeing. In Australia, the UK and more recently the USA, attempts to ameliorate a range of public health concerns have provided the impetus for an unprecedented…

  13. School Food Gardens: Fertile Ground for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Moira; Adatia, Rachel; Segantin, Orsola; Skaer, Chantal-Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to respond to food insecurity and environmental sustainability through school food gardens in Johannesburg, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Permaculture is a method of organic agriculture where the garden design maintains a stable and productive ecosystem, mimicking natural processes and thereby…

  14. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  15. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-04-12

    Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its implementation and its support by parents, teachers and principals. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to improve the school food policy and/or implementation at Dutch primary schools. Therefore, this study explores the school food policy and investigates schools' (teachers and principals) and parents' opinion on the school food policy. Data on the schools' perspective of the food policy was collected from principals and teachers by means of semi-structured interviews. In total 74 principals and 72 teachers from 83 Dutch primary schools were interviewed. Data on parental perceptions about the school food policy were based on a cross-sectional survey among 1,429 parents from the same schools. Most principals (87.1%) reported that their school had a written food policy; however in most cases the rules were not clearly defined. Most of the principals (87.8%) believed that their school paid sufficient attention to nutrition and health. Teachers and principals felt that parents were primarily responsible to encourage healthy eating habits among children, while 49.8% of the parents believed that it is also a responsibility of the school to foster healthy eating habits among children. Most parents reported that they appreciated the school food policy and comply with the food rules. Parents' opinion on the enforcement of the school food policy varied: 28.1% believed that the school should enforce the policy more strongly, 32.1% was satisfied, and 39.8% had no opinion on this topic. Dutch primary schools could play a more important role in fostering healthy eating habits among children. The school food policy could be improved by clearly formulating food rules, simplifying

  17. Family Food Security and Children’s Environment: A Comprehensive Analysis with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2017-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...

  18. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  19. Nutritional environment at secondary schools in Bloemfontein, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-19

    Jun 19, 2014 ... lead to the development of obesity in children and adolescents need to be understood. Limited data exist on the availability of nutrition policies and the quality of food sold in and around secondary schools in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the nutrition environment at selected secondary ...

  20. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. [Food allergy from school age to adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer-Weber, B

    2012-04-01

    In young children food allergy is mainly acquired over the gastrointestinal tract and directed to egg and milk. Patients at school age or adult patients, however, often acquire a food allergy over a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens, in Switzerland primarily over birch pollen. This type of food allergy is directed to plant foods. Apple and hazelnut are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. A birch pollen related food allergy is often accompanied by mild allergic symptoms such as the oral contact urticaria. The relevant allergens are labile to heat and are often tolerated in heat processed form. Severe up to anaphylactic symptoms, however, have been reported in birch pollen related soy allergy. Physical exercise, intake of alcohol, NSAIDs, betablocking agents or eventually antacids may aggravate the severity of a food allergic reaction.

  2. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample ...

  3. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-23

    The percentage of overweight youths aged 12-19 years in the United States more than tripled from 5% during 1976-1980 to 16% during 1999-2002. Overweight youths are at increased risk for cardiovascular consequences and other serious physical and psychosocial health problems. Because most youths are enrolled in school, the school nutrition environment is integral to any strategy to improve dietary behavior and reduce overweight among youths. In most schools, the nutrition environment has two components: the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meals program and the sale of competitive foods. USDA defines competitive foods as those foods and beverages, regardless of nutritional value, sold at a school separate from the USDA school meals program. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from school vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 27 states and 11 large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2004, the majority of secondary schools (median across states: 89.5%; median across large urban school districts: 81.5%) allowed students to purchase snack foods or beverages from vending machines or at the school store, canteen, or snack bar. In addition, the percentage of schools offering certain types of snack foods and beverages varied across states and large urban school districts. Although the majority of schools offered some nutritious foods and beverages in these settings, the majority of schools also offered less nutritious choices. Educators, families, and school and public health officials should work together to provide school nutrition environments that will help improve dietary behavior and reduce overweight among youths.

  4. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  5. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the

  6. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-10-30

    Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z

  7. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  8. The School Environment as Learner Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James

    1969-01-01

    Schools are too relevant in that they resemble and reflect the patterns of values of society. New school environments are needed which should make the school less relevant to society; use cool" rather than hot" media, in the McLuhan sense; and re-examine the use of the time and space as communication media. (DE)

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Wilkinson, Anna V; Lytle, Leslie M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saxton, Debra; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-07-27

    It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009-2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, phome food environment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food.

  10. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Child Nutrition Database, USDA Foods nutrition fact sheets, and information directly from the... Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...

  11. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  12. Investigating High School Teachers' Perceptions of School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shwu-yong L.

    This study examined public high school teachers' perceptions of school environment, focusing on satisfaction, collegiality, teacher-student relationships, discipline, principal leadership, equity, and teacher influence. It also investigated differences in attitudes by gender. Participating teachers from 8 schools in the Southern United States…

  13. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, therefore health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment (particularly unrealistic scholastic expectations from teachers and parents) on health behaviours of school-aged children. Die hoofdoelwit van die studie ";Health Behaviour among School-aged Children"; ...

  14. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Christoph; B?rnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of...

  15. Building High Participation in School Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rednak, Jon

    1987-01-01

    A Pennsylvania school district served meals to nearly 80 percent of the students this past year. Student participation was achieved by asking students' opinions, monitoring food quality, redesigning menus, increasing staff morale, providing a pleasant cafeteria atmosphere, and sponsoring nutrition programs. (MLF)

  16. School and workplace as learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    In vocational education and training the school and the workplace are two different learning environments. But how should we conceive of a learning environment, and what characterizes the school and the workplace respectively as learning environments? And how can the two environ-ments be linked...... the linking of the two learning environments in a learning perspective.......? These questions are treated in this paper. School and workplace are assessed us-ing the same analytical approach. Thereby it is pointed out how different forms of learning are en-couraged in each of them and how different forms of knowledge are valued. On this basis sugges-tions are made about how to understand...

  17. School food and nutrition policy, monitoring and evaluation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Jay; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2013-06-01

    To provide an overview of school food and nutrition monitoring from 1980 to the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and data on school food availability in the USA. A review of the history of school food and nutrition policy, monitoring and evaluation efforts in the USA over the past three decades. USA. School food service, school districts and schools nationwide. The school food environment in the USA is governed by a patchwork of federal, state and local laws and policies. The federal government has primary authority over the school meal programmes and has recently issued updated regulations governing the food and nutrient requirements for meals sold or served through the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. Competitive foods (i.e. foods and beverages sold/served outside the meal programmes) are governed primarily by state and district laws and policies, although new federal regulations are expected to set minimum standards in this area. The USA has a long history of data monitoring and evaluation funded by government and private foundations which has enabled decision makers to monitor progress and opportunities to improve the foods and beverages made available to students in school. School food-related monitoring and evaluation research has been highly influential in influencing legislation and policy, leading to improvements in the foods and beverages available to children at school as part of planned meals and individual items sold outside the meal programmes. The lessons learned from the US experience provide insights that may be valuable for implementation, monitoring and evaluation of school food programmes in other countries.

  18. The food environment of students on a financial assistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of foods sold were mostly sugar-containing products. The availability of healthy food choices should be promoted in an environment where food assistance programs are offered to students. Objectives: Enrolment at institutions of higher learning is associated not only with poor eating habits, but also food insecurity ...

  19. Investigating the food environment in Hatfield and Hillcrest, Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lubisi, Sibusiso X

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available food. A food desert is an area (a food environment) where sufficiently healthy and varied food are not readily available to the residents of the area, typically because supermarkets and greengrocers are too few and too far away. Other barriers...

  20. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various f...

  1. Obesogenic environments: current evidence of the built and food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Tim; Lake, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most significant global health and social problems, with rates rising dramatically over the past few decades. While the basic drivers of obesity are obvious (more energy consumed than expended), the causes are multifactorial and complex. A decade ago, it was suggested that exploring the ways in which the built environment influenced physical activity and dietary behaviours might provide fertile ground for investigation. This article overviews current evidence and, in particular, emergent themes that are of significance for the United Kingdom. This article is based on literature extracted from keyword searching of electronic databases. A timeframe of 2006-2016 was used. In the past decade, the research base has grown significantly; while frustratingly some results are still inconclusive or contradictory, it might be argued enough evidence exists to act upon. Themes such as the importance of the journey to school for young people and the multiple environments in which people spend their time are examples of where real progress has been made in the evidence base. Progress towards real change in policy and practice may seem slow; however, the opportunities afforded for health and planning professionals to work together provide a step towards the whole systems approaches to tackle obesity that are desperately needed.

  2. School food, politics and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.

  3. Teachers and Healthy Indoor School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers can be powerful advocates for creating healthy indoor environments, including improving school indoor air quality (IAQ). As they are on the front lines, teachers can perceive when IAQ changes affect students and themselves.

  4. [Organic food and educational actions in schools: diagnosis for health and nutrition education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Elisângela; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa

    2010-01-01

    This research involved a diagnosis of the educational actions and organic food of the Taste and Awareness Project (Projeto Sabor e Saber, PSS) in a state school in Florianopolis, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, a semi-structured interview, documentation analysis and focal groups were used for data collection. The participants were managers of School Meals; a school head and a group of students and teachers representing the school. The results indicated that the PSS has advanced in its objectives, combining the introduction of organic foods with educational actions involving food, health, nutrition and the environment but with no evaluations of this process; organic food is present in school meals, although there is no record of educational actions; food is a subject on the Science course; the themes of food, health and nutrition in the school environment come up without planning; the evaluation of students regarding the food is positive, but no reference was made to organic foods. It was concluded that the use of organic food, is still not an element of the pedagogical project. However, the research contributed to the teachers, on the need to develop educational actions in health, organic foods and nutrition, within the school community.

  5. Association between food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors of alternative high school students, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Davey, Cynthia; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Availability of competitive foods in schools has been linked to unhealthful dietary behaviors of students. Little is known about the food environment of alternative high schools, schools that enroll students at risk of academic failure. We examined correlations between food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors of students attending alternative high schools. Baseline data were collected in fall 2006 as part of the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life) pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention trial. Students (n = 145) attending 6 alternative high schools in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, completed a survey on food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors. We used mixed-model multivariate cross-sectional analysis and adjusted for demographic characteristics to examine associations of interest. Food opportunities during the school day were positively associated with overall consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use. Having many food opportunities during the school day at alternative high schools was linked to the consumption of foods and beverages high in sugar and fat and low in nutrients. School-based interventions should focus on changing the food environment in alternative high schools to decrease less healthful eating opportunities and to increase the availability of healthful foods and beverages.

  6. The Unique School Environment of Rural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodendorf, Diane M.

    Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…

  7. Food-related practices and beliefs of rural US elementary and middle school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Shannon, Jackilen; Nguyen, Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects rural populations; therefore, promoting healthy eating among rural children is essential. Teachers are important role models for children and can influence children's eating behaviors through their own behaviors and beliefs about food. This study examined the food-related practices and beliefs of rural elementary and middle school teachers. Data were used from the SNACZ study, a school- and community-based trial conducted in rural Oregon. Kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers (n=87), teaching students usually aged 5-14 years, from eight rural school districts completed a baseline survey in November 2012 concerning their classroom food practices, eating behaviors at school, beliefs about the school food environment, and nutrition knowledge. Frequencies of responses to each item were calculated. Nearly all teachers (97.6%) agreed that a healthy school food environment is important, but fewer agreed that teachers' behaviors and the foods available at school influence students' eating behaviors (71.0% and 67.0%, respectively). Nearly 86% of teachers used candy as a reward for students, while 78.2% consumed unhealthy snacks and 42.5% consumed sweetened beverages in the classroom. The results suggest that most rural teachers recognize that having a healthy school food environment is important, but are less aware of factors within the school that influence students' eating behaviors - including their own eating behaviors and classroom food practices - and, perhaps for this reason, many rural teachers engage in classroom practices and behaviors that do not promote healthy eating. Teacher training and expanded school policies that focus on teacher behavior may be needed to ensure a healthier rural school food environment.

  8. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment...

  9. Childhood Obesity and Physical Activity-Friendly School Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Louie, Lobo Hung-Tak; Chung, Thomas Wai-Hung; Cheung, Yiu-Fai; Lee, So-Lun; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Ho, Walter King-Yan; Ho, Daniel Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Jiang, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Childhood obesity may be related to school environment, but previous studies often focused on food environment only. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school physical activity environment and childhood obesity. This is a cross-sectional study with multilevel data collected on school physical activity environment using teacher questionnaires, students' growth, and obesity status from electronic health records, and neighborhood socioeconomic status from census data. This study included 208 280 students (6-18 years of age) from 438 schools (45% of Hong Kong). Prevalence of obesity was 5.0%. After controlling for socioeconomic status and intraschool correlation, robust Poisson regression revealed a reduced obesity risk associated with higher teachers' perceived physical activity benefits (risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = .02), physical activity teaching experience (0.93, 0.91-0.96, P obesity (0.68, 0.62-0.75, P obesity. School physical activity environment should be considered in future epidemiologic and intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retooling food service for early elementary school students in Somerville, Massachusetts: the Shape Up Somerville experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jeanne P; Collins, Jessica J; Folta, Sara C; McLarney, Mary Jo; Kozower, Claire; Kuder, Julia; Clark, Valerie; Economos, Christina D

    2009-07-01

    Changes in the school food environment are a logical target to prevent childhood overweight. We describe the food service component of a 2-year research intervention to prevent excess weight gain in children. The goals of the food service component were to improve the presentation and nutrient quality of school meals and to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into students' diets. The project engaged food service staff, students, parents, teachers, and school leaders to improve school nutrition. Modifications addressed needs and barriers identified though dialogue with the food service director, focus groups, key informant interviews, and surveys of school employees, students, and parents and guardians. Attitudes and behavior changes were measured through surveys, direct observation, and sales data. More fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products were available during the intervention years; menus and à la carte choices were brought into closer compliance with recommended guidelines for children; attitudes of students, parents and guardians, school faculty, and food service staff improved; and policies related to food service were adopted. Strategic modification to improve nutrition and increase acceptability of the food served in schools is feasible and sustainable. These results demonstrate that changes to food service can lead to improved nutrient profiles and more favorable attitudes toward food served at school meals. Such changes can help prevent childhood obesity.

  11. School Zone: Learning Environments for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne P.; Vlastos, George

    Architectural solutions to some educational problems are explored and a systematic method is presented for designing schools as learning environments for children. Classroom environments and outdoor play areas are considered as functional art forms and seen as three-dimensional textbooks. The book demonstrates a way of using curriculum as a design…

  12. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  13. Does organic food intervention in the Danish schools lead to change dietary patterns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2010-01-01

    obese and overweight. The school at the same time is the focus of public organic food supply strategies as well as the focus of innovation strategies that can increase the availability of healthier food options. These strategies in some cases go hand in hand. The purpose of this research was to examine...... the comparisons between the food strategies of “organic” school to that of “non organic” schools in Denmark. Provision of meals in Danish schools in not compulsory and function as an “value adding service” that schools and municipalities can decide on locally. Therefore the study was undertaken u among school...... provision. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies that increase the healthiness of school eating environments. This eventually might play a positive role in the efforts done to counteract the development of obesity and overweight issues among the children...

  14. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent’s education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Results Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest

  15. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-05-24

    The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent's education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young

  16. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schools had either a vending machine or a school store, canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods ... sugars from a vending machine or in a school store, canteen, or snack bar during lunch periods. 1 • 12. ...

  17. Association between junk food consumption and fast-food outlet access near school among Quebec secondary-school children: findings from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Traoré, Issouf; Paquette, Marie-Claude; Cazale, Linda; Camirand, Hélène; Lalonde, Benoit; Robitaille, Eric

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the association between junk food consumption at lunchtime (JCL) and fast-food outlet access near school among secondary-school children in Quebec. A geographic information system database was used to characterize the food environment around a sub-sample of 374 public schools in which 26 655 students were enrolled. The outcome variable was JCL during the previous week, dichotomized into low JCL (none or once) v. high JCL (twice or more). Access to fast-food outlets near school was assessed using an existing database of fast-food outlets in Quebec. Covariates included student (age, sex and self-rated perceived health), family (familial status and parental education) and school (urban/rural status and deprivation) variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were employed for analyses using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS version 9.3. Province of Quebec, Canada. We used data from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11, a survey of secondary-school Quebec students. Exposure to two or more fast-food outlets within a radius of 750 m around schools was associated with a higher likelihood of excess JCL (OR=1·50; 95 % CI 1·28, 1·75), controlling for the characteristics of the students, their families and their schools. The food environment surrounding schools can constitute a target for interventions to improve food choices among secondary-school children living in the province of Quebec. Transforming environments around schools to promote healthy eating includes modifying zoning regulations that restrict access to fast-food outlets around schools.

  18. State but not district nutrition policies are associated with less junk food in vending machines and school stores in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Wall, Melanie; Shen, Lijuan; Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. A nationally representative sample (n=563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food in school vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than

  19. State but not District Nutrition Policies Are Associated with Less Junk Food in Vending Machines and School Stores in US Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBIK, MARTHA Y.; WALL, MELANIE; SHEN, LIJUAN; NANNEY, MARILYN S.; NELSON, TOBEN F.; LASKA, MELISSA N.; STORY, MARY

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. Objective To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. Subjects/setting A nationally representative sample (n = 563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Statistical analysis Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. Results School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food

  20. What is the status of food literacy in Australian high schools? Perceptions of home economics teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools. Thematic data analysis was used to identify five key themes from the interview transcripts: (1) the standing of food-related life skills; (2) food literacy in the Australian school curriculum; (3) emphasis on resources; (4) learning through school canteens; and (5) building a school to home and community nexus. Overall, HETs reported that home economics was regarded by parents and other school staff to be less important than Maths or English for adolescents to learn in Australian high schools. Some teachers indicated that their schools offered one year compulsory teaching of food related studies which is typically delivered in the leaning areas of Technologies or Health and Physical Education (HPE). However, HETs stated that the time was insufficient to develop sustainable food-related life skills and introduce broader concepts of food literacy such as environmental sustainability. The lack of financial resources and non-supportive school food environments, including school canteens, were reportedly major factors that prevented food literacy education and healthy dietary behaviours of adolescents. Increasing the status of food literacy education in schools would support adolescents to develop food-related life skills and mobilise them as agents of dietary behaviour change in the home setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  3. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  4. [Obesogenic food environment explains most of the obesity epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajoki, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    The food environment has undergone a considerable chance over the past 30 to 40 years. Availability, variation and low costs increase the consumption of foods. Other changes in the food environment include: increase of the high-energy density foods, increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, large portion sizes, large packages, increased variety, increased visibility of foods, and marketing food to children, all known to augment eating and energy intake. Societies should especially protect children from the obesogenic environment by legislation and other regulations. The main targets should be decreasing the consumption of high-energy density foods and sugar-sweetened beverages and returning the sizes of portions and packages to normal.

  5. [Food hypersensitivity in the population of school children in Opole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlińska-Chmara, Romana; Teul, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy among children is high and constantly increasing, especially in urban environments. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of food hypersensitivity among children living in Opole. The study included 450 children (224 girls and 216 boys), aged 7-10 years from elementary schools in Opole. A survey was conducted on the basis of the EuroPrevall international programme questionnaire and a self-designed questionnaire for collecting information. Data were analyzed with the Statistica 8 software package. The level of significance for all analyses was p chocolate (4.87%), and cocoa (4.87%). The study revealed a high reporting of food hypersensitivity among children in Opole.

  6. Availability of processed foods in the perimeter of public schools in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de; Cremm, Elena Carvalho; Abreu, Débora Silva Costa de; Maron, Luana Rieffe; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2012-07-01

    To assess the availability of food in relation to their degree of industrial processing and the types of food stores in the perimeters of elementary schools. This is a cross-sectional study. 82 food stores located within a 500 m radius buffer of three public schools located in three distinct regions with different socioeconomic levels in the municipality of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, were assessed. All streets within a 500-meter radius of the schools were covered, geographic coordinates were recorded and information about the stores and food items available were collected by direct observation and interview with store managers. Available food items were classified in relation to their degree of industrial processing as ultra-processed foods and minimally processed foods. Kernel's density maps were used to assess the degree of agglomeration of stores near the schools. The stores that offered mostly ultra-processed foods were significantly closer to schools than those who offered mostly minimally processed foods. There was a significant difference between the availability of processed food in different types of stores and between the three regions assessed. The data found by this work evidence that children who attend the three public schools assessed are exposed to an environment that encourages the consumption of ultra-processed foods through easier access of these products in the studied stores.

  7. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 210 RIN 0584-AE11 National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of... rule entitled ``National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related...

  8. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  9. Food store owners' and managers' perspectives on the food environment: an exploratory mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Boston, P Qasimah; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Schultz, Alan F; Betterley, Connie

    2014-10-03

    Neighborhood characteristics such as poverty and racial composition are associated with inequalities in access to food stores and in the risk of obesity, but the pathways between food environments and health are not well understood. This article extends research on consumer food environments by examining the perspectives of food-store owners and managers. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with managers and owners of 20 food stores in low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). The interviews were designed to elicit store managers' and owners' views about healthy foods, the local food environment, and the challenges and opportunities they face in creating access to healthy foods. We elicited perceptions of what constitutes "healthy foods" using two free-list questions. The study was designed and implemented in accord with principles of community-based participatory research. Store owners' and managers' conceptions of "healthy foods" overlapped with public health messages, but (a) agreement about which foods are healthy was not widespread and (b) some retailers perceived processed foods such as snack bars and sugar-sweetened juice drinks as healthy. In semistructured interviews, store owners and managers linked the consumer food environment to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including: business practices such as the priority of making sales and the delocalization of decision-making, macroeconomic factors such as poverty and the cost of healthier foods, individual and family-level factors related to parenting and time constraints, and community-level factors such as crime and decline of social cohesion. Our results link food stores to multilevel, ecological models of the food environment. Efforts to reshape the consumer food environment require attention to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including local conceptions of "healthy foods", the business priority of making sales, and

  10. Indoor Allergens in School and Daycare Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Päivi M.; Sever, Michelle L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies that have examined exposure to indoor allergens have focused on home environments. However, allergen exposures can be encountered in environments other than the home. For example, many children spend a large part of their time in schools and daycare facilities. Over the past two decades, a large number of studies have been conducted in school and daycare environments. However, the role of indoor exposures in allergy and asthma development or morbidity in these settings is not well characterized. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the importance of indoor allergen exposures in school and daycare settings. We summarize the key findings from recent scientific literature, describe exposure characteristics, discuss the role of these exposures in relation to asthma and allergy symptoms, and provide information on the effectiveness of published interventions. PMID:19577284

  11. Modifying the food environment for childhood obesity prevention: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Shearer, Cindy; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara F L

    2014-05-01

    The prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. However, a range of complex social and environmental influences is implicated in the development of obesity and chronic disease that goes beyond the notion of individual choice. A population-level approach recognises the importance of access to and availability of healthy foods outside the home. These external food environments, in restaurants, supermarkets, and in school, or recreation and sports settings, are often characterised by energy dense, nutrient-poor food items that do not reflect the current nutritional guidelines for health. In addition, our understanding of these broader influences on nutritional intake is still limited. Particularly, lacking is a clear understanding of what constitutes the food environment, as well as robust measures of components of the food environment across different contexts. Therefore, this review summarises the literature on food environments of relevance to childhood obesity prevention, with a focus on places where children live, learn and play. Specifically, the paper highlights the approaches and challenges related to defining and measuring the food environment, discusses the aspects of the food environment unique to children and reports on environmental characteristics that are being modified within community, school and recreational settings. Results of the review show the need for a continued focus on understanding the intersection between individual behaviour and external factors; improved instrument development, especially regarding validity and reliability; clearer reported methodology including protocols for instrument use and data management; and considering novel study design approaches that are targeted at measuring the relationship between the individual and their food environment.

  12. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-08-06

    Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants' neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices.

  13. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. Methods We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. Results We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants’ neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Conclusion Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices. PMID:26247426

  14. A temporal analysis of the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1966 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie R; Pearson, Amber L

    2015-01-01

    To explore changes in urban food environments near schools, as potential contributors to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Addresses of food premises and schools in 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 were geo-coded. For each year, the number and proportion of outlets by category (supermarket/grocery; convenience; fast-food outlet) within 800 m of schools were calculated. The degree of spatial clustering of outlets was assessed using a bivariate K-function analysis. Food outlet categories, school level and school social deprivation quintiles were compared. Christchurch, New Zealand. All schools and food outlets at 10-year snapshots from 1966 to 2006. Between 1966 and 2006, the median number of supermarkets/grocery stores within 800 m of schools decreased from 5 to 1, convenience stores decreased from 2 to 1, and fast-food outlets increased from 1 to 4. The ratio of fast-food outlets to total outlets increased from 0·10 to 0·67. The clustering of fast-food outlets was greatest within 800 m of schools and around the most socially deprived schools. Over the 40-year study period, school food environments in Christchurch can be characterized by increased densities of fast-food outlets within walking distance of schools, especially around the most deprived schools. Since the 1960s, there have been substantial changes to the food environments around schools which may increasingly facilitate away-from-home food consumption for children and provide easily accessible, cheap energy-dense foods, a recognized contributor to the rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people.

  15. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-02-01

    We examined associations between fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet exposure. Information from the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children Study was linked to fast-food outlets in seventy-five school neighbourhoods. We used multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine associations between at least weekly fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet measures. Data represent 4642 adolescents (aged 11-15 years) in Denmark. Boys reporting two or more fast-food outlets had 34% higher odds consuming fast food at least weekly. We detected higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake among 15-year-old 9th graders (ORall=1.74; 95% CI 1.40, 2.18; ORboys=2.20; 95% CI 1.66, 2.91; ORgirls=1.41; 95% CI 1.03, 1.92), Danish speakers (ORall=2.32; 95% CI 1.68, 3.19; ORboys=2.58; 95% CI 1.69, 3.93; ORgirls=2.37; 95% CI 1.46, 3.84) and those travelling 15 min or less to school (ORall=1.21; 95% CI 1.00, 1.46; ORgirls=1.44; 95% CI 1.08, 1.93) compared with 11-year-old 5th graders, non-Danish speakers and those with longer travel times. Boys from middle- (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.65) and girls from low-income families (OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.05, 2.04) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake compared with those from high-income backgrounds. Girls attending schools with canteens (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.00, 2.15) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake than girls at schools without canteens. The present study demonstrates that perceived food outlets may impact fast-food intake in boys while proximity impacts intake in girls. Public health planning could target food environments that emphasize a better understanding of how adolescents use local resources.

  16. Characterizing the food environment: pitfalls and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam; Duncan, Glen E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E; Scharnhorst, Eric

    2013-07-01

    To assess a county population’s exposure to different types of food sources reported to affect both diet quality and obesity rates. Food permit records obtained from the local health department served to establish the full census of food stores and restaurants. Employing prior categorization schemes which classified the relative healthfulness of food sources based on establishment type (i.e. supermarkets v. convenience stores, or full-service v. fast-food restaurants), food establishments were assigned to the healthy, unhealthy or undetermined groups. King County, WA, USA. Full census of food sources. According to all categorization schemes, most food establishments in King County fell into the unhealthy and undetermined groups. Use of the food permit data showed that large stores, which included supermarkets as healthy food establishments, contained a sizeable number of bakery/delis, fish/meat, ethnic and standard quick-service restaurants and coffee shops, all food sources that, when housed in a separate venue or owned by a different business establishment, were classified as either unhealthy or of undetermined value to health. To fully assess the potential health effects of exposure to the extant food environment, future research would need to establish the health value of foods in many such common establishments as individually owned grocery stores and ethnic food stores and restaurants. Within-venue exposure to foods should also be investigated.

  17. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  18. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  19. Nutritional status and food consumption patterns of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is regarded as food secure; however, food insecurity and malnutrition are still affecting school-aged children residing mostly in rural areas. This paper reports the nutritional status and consumption patterns of school children from two purposively selected schools located in Orange Farm informal settlement.

  20. The School Administrator and the Food Service Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, John N.

    The aim of this publication is to offer information that will assist the elementary school principal in the establishment or improvement of a school lunch program. The material focuses on the necessary ingredients of an effective school food service, the necessity of nutrition education as a part of a food service program, and the importance of…

  1. Assessing the validity of commercial and municipal food environment data sets in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine Ig; Black, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    The present study assessed systematic bias and the effects of data set error on the validity of food environment measures in two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and concordance were calculated by comparing two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets with ground-truthed data collected within 800 m buffers surrounding twenty-six schools. Logistic regression examined associations of sensitivity and PPV with commercial density and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation. Kendall's τ estimated correlations between density and proximity of food outlets near schools constructed with secondary data sets v. ground-truthed data. Vancouver, Canada. Food retailers located within 800 m of twenty-six schools RESULTS: All data sets scored relatively poorly across validity measures, although, overall, municipal data sets had higher levels of validity than did commercial data sets. Food outlets were more likely to be missing from municipal health inspections lists and commercial data sets in neighbourhoods with higher commercial density. Still, both proximity and density measures constructed from all secondary data sets were highly correlated (Kendall's τ>0·70) with measures constructed from ground-truthed data. Despite relatively low levels of validity in all secondary data sets examined, food environment measures constructed from secondary data sets remained highly correlated with ground-truthed data. Findings suggest that secondary data sets can be used to measure the food environment, although estimates should be treated with caution in areas with high commercial density.

  2. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  3. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  4. Correlates of parental influence, school environment, learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents\\' influence, self–efficacy, and school environment were also found to be statistically significant. Results are discussed in terms of counseling implications. Keywords: parental influence, academic performance, police children, Nigeria African Journal of Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol. 8(1) 2005: 42-57 ...

  5. Food insecurity is linked to a food environment promoting obesity in households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackers, Lisa M; Appelhans, Bradley M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the extent to which the presence and accessibility of healthful and less healthful foods in children's homes vary with level of food security. A total of 41 parents or primary caregivers who had at least 1 child ages 2-13 and resided in a low-income area with limited food access completed a home food inventory and a validated measure assessing household food security. Compared with food-secure participants, marginal or low/very low food-secure caregivers reported significantly more obesity-promoting foods in the home, more microwavable or quick-cook frozen foods, and greater access to less healthful foods in the kitchen (all Ps environment may improve diet quality and health status in children of low-income, food insecure households. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  7. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; Pfood outlets. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school's support for healthy eating was classified as either "initiation," "action" or "maintenance" along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as "high/increased," "moderate" or "low/decreased" within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the "action" category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy eating in Ontario school food environments.

  9. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  10. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The commercial food landscape: outdoor food advertising around primary schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Cretikos, Michelle; Rogers, Kris; King, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Food marketing is linked to childhood obesity through its influence on children's food preferences, purchase requests and food consumption. We aimed to describe the volume and nature of outdoor food advertisements and factors associated with outdoor food advertising in the area surrounding Australian primary schools. Forty primary schools in Sydney and Wollongong were selected using random sampling within population density and socio-economic strata. The area within a 500 m radius of each school was scanned and advertisements coded according to pre-defined criteria, including: food or non-food product advertisement, distance from the school, size and location. Food advertisements were further categorised as core foods, non-core foods and miscellaneous drinks (tea and coffee). The number of advertisements identified was 9,151, of which 2,286 (25%) were for food. The number of non-core food advertisements was 1,834, this accounted for 80% of food advertisements. Soft drinks and alcoholic beverages were the food products most commonly advertised around primary schools (24% and 22% of food advertisements, respectively). Non-core food products were twice as likely to be advertised close to a primary school (95 non-core food advertisements per km(2) within 250 m vs. 46 advertisements per km(2) within 250-500 m). The density of non-core food advertisements within 500 m of primary schools, and the potential for repeated exposure of children to soft drink and alcoholic beverage advertisements in particular, highlights the need for outdoor food marketing policy intervention. Outdoor advertising is an important food marketing tool that should be considered in future debates on regulation of food marketing to children.

  12. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; Lloyd, S; Madelin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed bac...

  13. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen M Chodur

    Full Text Available To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California.Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24.After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food.Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  14. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  15. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  16. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global

  17. Geospatial analysis of food environment demonstrates associations with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Suter, Melissa A; Ballas, Jerasimos; Ramin, Susan M; Monga, Manju; Lee, Wesley; Hu, Min; Shope, Cindy D; Chesnokova, Arina; Krannich, Laura; Griffin, Emily N; Mastrobattista, Joan; Dildy, Gary A; Strehlow, Stacy L; Ramphul, Ryan; Hamilton, Winifred J; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of most common complications of pregnancy, with incidence rates varying by maternal age, race/ethnicity, obesity, parity, and family history. Given its increasing prevalence in recent decades, covariant environmental and sociodemographic factors may be additional determinants of GDM occurrence. We hypothesized that environmental risk factors, in particular measures of the food environment, may be a diabetes contributor. We employed geospatial modeling in a populous US county to characterize the association of the relative availability of fast food restaurants and supermarkets to GDM. Utilizing a perinatal database with >4900 encoded antenatal and outcome variables inclusive of ZIP code data, 8912 consecutive pregnancies were analyzed for correlations between GDM and food environment based on countywide food permit registration data. Linkage between pregnancies and food environment was achieved on the basis of validated 5-digit ZIP code data. The prevalence of supermarkets and fast food restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants for each ZIP code were gathered from publicly available food permit sources. To independently authenticate our findings with objective data, we measured hemoglobin A1c levels as a function of geospatial distribution of food environment in a matched subset (n = 80). Residence in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of fast food restaurants (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing GDM (relative to first quartile: adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19). In multivariate analysis, this association held true after controlling for potential confounders (P = .002). Measurement of hemoglobin A1c levels in a matched subset were significantly increased in association with residence in a ZIP code with a higher fast food/supermarket ratio (n = 80, r = 0.251 P food environment and risk for gestational diabetes was identified. Copyright © 2016

  18. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  19. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology Autumn Newsletter 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2016-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Autumn Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Autumn period of 2016.

  20. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology Winter Newsletter 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2016-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2016.

  1. Body perception of teenagers in school environments

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gavídia Catalan; Nathalia Parente De Sousa; Ana Paula de Vasconcellos Abdon; Cristina de Santiago Viana Falcão; Ana Maria Fontenelle Catrib

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire f...

  2. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Orava

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150. Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13 and Time II (2014. Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES, which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20 across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support. Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy

  3. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taryn, Orava; Steve, Manske; Rhona, Hanning

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy

  4. Measuring and Benchmarking Food Environments and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will monitor and benchmark food policies and environments in Mexico and Chile to address the problem. Specifically, it aims to enhance government and private sector accountability to increase healthy foods, and reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. Demographic changes in Latin America, combined with ...

  5. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 13 Number 2 May 2014 pp ... effective alignment of all on-going food security projects with the scheme, while prioritizing the scheme for targeted budgetary ... Nigeria's agro ecology also sustains the cultivation of a wide variety of crops, ...

  6. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...

  7. Information security of educational environments of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyatkovskaya Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The information as an important ecological factor, which defines the security, development and health of children is considered. The article raises the problem of distortion of the information environment of childhood in the post-industrial era. The aim is to ensure information security educational environment for all participants in the educational process. It is proved that the hygienic approach to solving problems is insufficient. Adaptive-developing strategy for information security of the educational environments for children was theoretically justified and proved by the practical results of medical, physiological and neuropsychological research. It provides the school work on the compensation of violations of the information environment of childhood; development resources of students’ resistance to information stress; expanding the sphere of their adaptation to the information load (adaptive norm; the principles and structure of management of educational process on the basis of system-wide control of complex, self-regulating systems.

  8. Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brennan; Carpenter, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    We examined the relationship between fast-food restaurants near schools and obesity among middle and high school students in California. We used geocoded data (obtained from the 2002-2005 California Healthy Kids Survey) on over 500,000 youths and multivariate regression models to estimate associations between adolescent obesity and proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools. We found that students with fast-food restaurants near (within one half mile of) their schools (1) consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables, (2) consumed more servings of soda, and (3) were more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.10) or obese (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.12) than were youths whose schools were not near fast-food restaurants, after we controlled for student- and school-level characteristics. The result was unique to eating at fast-food restaurants (compared with other nearby establishments) and was not observed for another risky behavior (smoking). Exposure to poor-quality food environments has important effects on adolescent eating patterns and overweight. Policy interventions limiting the proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools could help reduce adolescent obesity.

  9. Contrasting approaches to food education and school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Baarts, Charlotte; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    This study builds on a fieldwork in a Danish school class, where pupils were observed while preparing and eating school meals. It shows that the children encounter conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context. While eating, an authoritarian approach to food education dominates......, but also a conflict between food educational ideals and actual school meal practices. To illustrate this an analytic model is introduced, the Integrated Food Pedagogy Model, and the ways in which this model could help promote better food education among schoolchildren are discussed....... and food is ascribed instrumental value. While preparing the school meal, a democratic approach dominates and food is ascribed intrinsic value. The aim is to show how these conflicting approaches reflect not only different social and cultural expectations to eating and preparing meals, respectively...

  10. CONSTRUCTIVE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT SCHOOL-UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Petrovna Shatalova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study the key components of the development of constructive thinking of students on the basis of model building constructive educational environment school-University. It was conducted from a position of constructive approach in education, as a process of systemic-structural methodology of cognitive and creative activity of the student, promotes development and formation of various constructive qualities of the individual. The functions of constructive educational environment school-University aimed at developing constructive thinking of students, defined by its structural components and connections, shows the consistency of self-development of constructive thinking and job satisfaction the development of constructive skills. The findings reveal innovative possibilities of cooperation of schools and universities in the design and functioning model of constructive educatio-nal space that contributes to the development of constructive thinking of all its stakeholders.Purpose: measuring the effectiveness of the model constructive educational environment school-University aimed at the development of students.Methodology: the Programme of research included: (1 diagnosis of the development level of constructive thinking on the questionnaire developed in the context of the constructive theory of education, (2 augmented and revised by the author the diagnosis of satisfaction and importance model of constructive educational environment school-University by the method of G.A. Gagarin, as well as theoretical modeling, method of involved observation, formal teaching method.Results. The article introduces the concept of «constructive learning environments», which are considered in relation to the organization and conduct of joint activities of teachers, teachers and students. The authors give a theoretical comparative analysis of scientific works of colleagues in the context of the problem. Offer a brief

  11. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  12. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  13. Sampling the food processing environment: taking up the cudgel for preventive quality management in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing. The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health.

  14. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  15. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  16. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  17. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  18. The national school lunch and competitive food offerings and purchasing behaviors of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Korba, Casey; Burkey, Alyvia

    2007-12-01

    Across the nation, schools have become actively involved in developing obesity prevention strategies both in classrooms and in cafeterias. We sought to determine the type of foods being offered during lunch in the cafeteria of 3 public high schools in 1 county and if this reflects the purchasing patterns of students. By labeling foods based on nutrient density using a stoplight approach of green, yellow, and red colors, we were able to categorize all foods including the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and competitive foods available in the cafeteria. Over a 4-week cycle, daily food purchases were gathered and the proportions of green, yellow, and red foods offered and purchased was compared. Findings from this study suggest that students in these 3 high schools purchased foods in relative proportion to what was available in the school cafeteria for the NSLP. Green and yellow foods included in the NSLP comprised 77% of the offerings and 73% of the purchases. In contrast, 61% of the competitive foods were classified as red foods, and the purchasing of red foods made up 83% of competitive food sales. These results indicate that students purchase foods of minimal nutritional value at greater proportions in the school cafeteria. These results suggest that the nutritional policy for the NSLP promotes the offerings of a wide array of foods. Schools should consider a nutrition policy that regulates the sale of competitive foods.

  19. Description, measurement and evaluation of tertiary-education food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R; Hebden, L; Kelly, B; De Gois, T; Ferrone, E M; Samrout, M; Vermont, S; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their 'healthiness'. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe's testing, χ 2 tests, Kruskal-Wallis H test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed.

  20. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-03-30

    Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67-2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25-4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. The inequalities among the country's regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. Avaliar os ambientes escolares aos quais estão expostos estudantes do nono ano no Brasil e nas cinco regiões do país segundo diretrizes de promoção da saúde. Estudo transversal, de 2012, com amostra representativa do Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Escolares do nono ano e gestores de escolas públicas e privadas foram entrevistados. Foi proposto o Escore de Promoção de Saúde no Ambiente Escolar (EPSAE) e foi estimada a distribuição dos escolares segundo esse escore e segundo odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, por regressão ordinal, para exposição dos escolares a escolas com escores mais elevados, segundo as variáveis independentes. Um escolar tem mais probabilidade de frequentar escola com EPSAE elevado na região Sul (OR = 2,80; IC95% 2,67-2,93) se a escola for privada privada (OR = 4,52; IC95% 4,25-4,81) e estiver localizada em capital de estado e se o

  1. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  2. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  3. Food and Nutrition Education in Private Indian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current Indian secondary school curriculum has been criticised for its failure to deliver relevant skills-based food and nutrition education for adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of adolescents, their parents, teachers and school principals on the present food and nutrition curriculum and the role of…

  4. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  6. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  7. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J. [NEST - Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation, Mechanical Engineering Institute, Universidade Federal de Itajuba (Brazil); Yanez, Edgar E. [CENIPALMA, Oil Palm Research Center - Cenipalma, Calle 21 42-C-47, Bogota (Colombia); Castillo, Edgar F. [CENICANA - Sugarcane Research Center of Colombia, Calle 58 N, 3BN-110, A.A., 9138 - Cali (Colombia); Almazan, Oscar [ICIDCA - Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar, Via Blanca y Carretera Central 804, San Miguel del Padron, A.P. 4036, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-08-15

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  8. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Commercialism in US elementary and secondary school nutrition environments: trends from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Turner, Lindsey; Sandoval, Anna; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Schools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor. To examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012. Annual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators. School-based commercialism, including exclusive beverage contracts and associated incentives, profits, and advertising; corporate food vending and associated incentives and profits; posters/advertisements for soft drinks, fast food, or candy; use of food coupons as incentives; event sponsorships; and fast food available to students. Changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. Although some commercialism measures-especially those related to beverage vending-have shown significant decreases over time, most students at all academic levels continued to attend schools with one or more types of school-based commercialism in 2012. Overall, exposure to school-based commercialism increased significantly with grade level. For 63.7% of elementary school students, the most frequent type of commercialism was food coupons used as incentives. For secondary students, the type of commercialism most prevalent in schools was exclusive beverage contracts, which were in place in schools attended by 49.5% of middle school students and 69.8% of high school students. Exposure to elementary school coupons, as well as middle and high school exclusive beverage contracts, was significantly more likely for students attending schools with mid or low (vs high) student body socioeconomic status. Most US elementary, middle, and high school students attend schools where they are exposed to commercial efforts aimed at obtaining food or beverage sales or developing brand recognition

  10. Bacteriophages for detection and control of bacterial pathogens in food and food-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents recent advances in bacteriophage research and their application in the area of food safety. Section 1 describes general facts on phage biology that are relevant to their application for control and detection of bacterial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Section 2 summarizes the recently acquired data on application of bacteriophages to control growth of bacterial pathogens and spoilage organisms in food and food-processing environment. Section 3 deals with application of bacteriophages for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Advantages of bacteriophage-based methods are presented and their shortcomings are discussed. The chapter is intended for food scientist and food product developers, and people in food inspection and health agencies with the ultimate goal to attract their attention to the new developing technology that has a tremendous potential in providing means for producing wholesome and safe food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ridge AI reservation (Fall 2005 to Spring 2008). Kindergarten and first grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (p=0.0005) and fast food rewards (p=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (p=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fund-raising (p=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students’ food choices in school (p=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers’ classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving AI children on reservations. PMID:23885704

  13. Body perception of teenagers in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gavídia Catalan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire for change. Results: For the students, the idea of good posture would be a person who had good education and to be straightwhen walking and sitting. We perceived dissatisfaction and important misunderstanding in relation to their body and posture, and there was unanimity concerning the desire of achieving changes. Conclusion: There are mixed feelings related to the body, by teenage students, when you inquire about their image and desire to change. If, on one hand, they refer to perceive themselves with proper and correct posture, on the other hand, they are eager for change, easily identified with present standard body reported in the media and worshiped as “ideal body”. It is urgent and necessary to consolidate the culture of health promotion in schools as well as build healthy educational environment.

  14. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Maartje P; de Vet, Emely; Velema, Elizabeth; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home observations were determined. A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study. Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands. Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3.0 (SD 1.3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45.7 (SD 9.2) years, 34.9% were overweight and 65.1% were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20.9% had a low level of education and 42.7% had a high level of education. In 70% of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54% of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78% of households close to non-food items. In 33% of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15% of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14% (plates), 57% (glasses), 78% (dessert bowls), 67% (soup bowls) and 58% (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers. Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.

  15. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  16. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  17. Food Preparation. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This training manual on food preparation consists of 23 detailed lessons, ranging from an orientation to quality food production and the use and advantages of standardized recipes for bakery ingredients to the making of various desserts. Detailed definitions of words related to food preparation and innumerable handouts with titles like…

  18. Fast-food exposure around schools in urban Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Neil T; Kennedy, Hannah P; Niyonsenga, Theo

    2016-12-01

    To assess whether exposure to fast-food outlets around schools differed depending on socio-economic status (SES). Binary logistic regression was used to investigate the presence and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for the count (due to the excess of zeroes) of fast food within 1000 m and 15000 m road network buffers around schools. The low and middle SES tertiles were combined due to a lack of significant variation as the 'disadvantaged' group and compared with the high SES tertile as the 'advantaged' group. School SES was expressed using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics, socio-economic indices for areas, index of relative socio-economic disadvantage. Fast-food data included independent takeaway food outlets and major fast-food chains. Metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 459 schools were geocoded to the street address and 1000 m and 1500 m road network distance buffers calculated. There was a 1·6 times greater risk of exposure to fast food within 1000 m (OR=1·634; 95 % 1·017, 2·625) and a 9·5 times greater risk of exposure to a fast food within 1500 m (OR=9·524; 95 % CI 3·497, 25·641) around disadvantaged schools compared with advantaged schools. Disadvantaged schools were exposed to more fast food, with more than twice the number of disadvantaged schools exposed to fast food. The higher exposure to fast food near more disadvantaged schools may reflect lower commercial land cost in low-SES areas, potentially creating more financially desirable investments for fast-food developers.

  19. Children's school-related food and physical activity behaviors are associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C

    2014-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a critical public health issue, with prevalence rates reaching nearly one in five children. Schools may be a promising public policy intervention point. The foods schools sell and the physical activity environments they foster can influence dietary behaviors and overall physical activity. Using secondary data from a nationally representative sample of children from the kindergarten class of 1998-1999 and nonexperimental methods, this study examines the associations between the food and physical activity environments in school and body mass index (BMI) for low-income boys and girls in the 8th grade during 2007. Results reveal that participating in school sports is associated with a 0.55 lower BMI score for boys. For low-income girls, eating the school breakfast is associated with a 0.70 higher BMI score and eating the school lunch is associated with a 0.65 higher BMI score. Each hour spent on homework is associated with a 0.02 higher BMI score for low-income girls. These findings suggest that schools may influence adolescent BMI and that there is room for improvement in school food and physical activity environments to promote healthier weights for low-income boys and girls. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Why Education Researchers Should Take School Food Seriously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2011-01-01

    Food and eating in schools have most often been thought of as utilitarian parts of the day, as distractions, and, for education researchers, as lacking incentives to study or even as objects of derision rather than serious concern. Yet there are good reasons why scholars of education should consider food and food practices. These include the…

  1. Nutrition Education. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Inservice training should motivate school food workers to participate in children's nutrition education. The training lesson includes a series of service manager/director guidelines, information sheets, and an audiovisual aids list. Food staff nutrition lessons for classroom presentation to grades 4 to 6 cover the daily food guide, snacks,…

  2. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  3. The social dynamics of healthy food shopping and store choice in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Hillier, Amy; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2014-12-01

    To respond to the high prevalence of obesity and its associated health consequences, recent food research and policy have focused on neighborhood food environments, especially the links between health and retail mix, proximity of food outlets, and types of foods available. In addition, the social environment exerts important influences on food-related behaviors, through mechanisms like role-modeling, social support, and social norms. This study examined the social dynamics of residents' health-related food-shopping behaviors in 2010-11 in urban Philadelphia, where we conducted 25 semi-structured resident interviews-the foundation for this paper-in addition to 514 structured interviews and a food environment audit. In interviews, participants demonstrated adaptability and resourcefulness in their food shopping; they chose to shop at stores that met a range of social needs. Those needs ranged from practical financial considerations, to fundamental issues of safety, to mundane concerns about convenience, and juggling multiple work and family responsibilities. The majority of participants were highly motivated to adapt their shopping patterns to accommodate personal financial constraints. In addition, they selectively shopped at stores frequented by people who shared their race/ethnicity, income and education, and they sought stores where they had positive interactions with personnel and proprietors. In deciding where to shop in this urban context, participants adapted their routines to avoid unsafe places and the threat of violence. Participants also discussed the importance of convenient stores that allowed for easy parking, accommodation of physical disabilities or special needs, and integration of food shopping into other daily activities like meeting children at school. Food research and policies should explicitly attend to the social dynamics that influence food-shopping behavior. In our social relationships, interactions, and responsibilities, there are

  4. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A

    2004-02-01

    To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (Pschool. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (Pschool environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.

  5. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  6. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... sent to Julie Brewer, Chief, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and..., Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park... Standards for Food Sold in Schools in Competition With School Meals Federal child nutrition programs play a...

  7. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  8. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  9. Development of a School Nutrition-Environment State Policy Classification System (SNESPCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; Frosh, Marcy M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Yaroch, Amy L; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Blanck, Heidi M; Atienza, Audie A; McKenna, Mary L; Igoe, James F

    2007-10-01

    As policy strategies are rapidly being developed to address childhood overweight, a system was developed to systematically and reliably classify state policies related to the school nutrition environment. This study describes the development process, the inter-rater reliability to code state policies enacted as of December 2003, and the variability in state policies related to the school nutrition environment. The development of the School Nutrition Environment State Policy Classification System (SNESPCS) included a comprehensive review of published literature, reports from government and nongovernmental sources, input from an expert panel, and select experts. Baseline statutes and regulations for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were retrieved from Westlaw (data retrieved in 2005-2006 and analyzed in 2006) and pilot testing of the system was conducted. SNESPCS included 11 policy areas that relate to a range of environmental and surveillance domains. At baseline, states had no (advertising/promotion and preferential pricing) or modest (school meal environment, reimbursable school meals, coordinating or advisory councils, body mass index screening) activities in many of the policy areas. As of 2003, 60% of the states had policies related to the sale of foods in school that compete with the school meal program. Evaluation of policies that affect the school-nutrition environment is in its earliest stage. SNESPCS provides a mechanism for assessing variation in state policies that can be incorporated in an evaluation framework aimed at elucidating the impact of state policies on the school environment, social norms, and children's dietary behaviors in schools.

  10. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  11. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n = 42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

  13. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  14. Measuring family food environments in diverse families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S

    2010-06-01

    This study reports the development and validation of the 20 item Family Food Behavior Survey, a measure designed to assess broad components of the family food environment that may contribute to child overweight. In a diverse sample of 38 parents, factor analyses verified 4 domains: (1) maternal control of child eating behavior; (2) maternal presence during eating; (3) child choice, and (4) organization of eating environment. All domains achieved acceptable internal reliability (alphas= .73, -.83), and test-retest reliability. Mothers of overweight children scored significantly lower on maternal presence and somewhat higher on maternal control than mothers of normal weight children. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; Knai, Cecile; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    of obesity across Europe’ (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying......Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project ‘Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention...

  16. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P < .001). These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Environment and Weight Change: Does Residential Mobility Matter?: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A; Downing, Janelle M; Zhang, Y Tara; Dow, William H; Kelly, Maggi; Blanchard, Samuel D; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Moffet, Howard; Warton, E Margaret; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Associations between neighborhood food environment and adult body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) derived using cross-sectional or longitudinal random-effects models may be biased due to unmeasured confounding and measurement and methodological limitations. In this study, we assessed the within-individual association between change in food environment from 2006 to 2011 and change in BMI among adults with type 2 diabetes using clinical data from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry collected from 2007 to 2011. Healthy food environment was measured using the kernel density of healthful food venues. Fixed-effects models with a 1-year-lagged BMI were estimated. Separate models were fitted for persons who moved and those who did not. Sensitivity analysis using different lag times and kernel density bandwidths were tested to establish the consistency of findings. On average, patients lost 1 pound (0.45 kg) for each standard-deviation improvement in their food environment. This relationship held for persons who remained in the same location throughout the 5-year study period but not among persons who moved. Proximity to food venues that promote nutritious foods alone may not translate into clinically meaningful diet-related health changes. Community-level policies for improving the food environment need multifaceted strategies to invoke clinically meaningful change in BMI among adult patients with diabetes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. School Lunch Waste among Middle School Students: Implications for Nutrients Consumed and Food Waste Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326

  19. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  20. Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Competitive Beverage and Food Guidelines: Do Elementary School Administrators Know about Them and Do They Report Implementing Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The availability of competitive foods in schools is a modifiable factor in efforts to prevent childhood obesity. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation launched the Healthy Schools Program in 2006 to encourage schools to create healthier food environments, including the adoption of nutritional guidelines for competitive beverages and…

  1. How Some School Boards Are Fighting (and Why More Are Tolerating) Junk Foods in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburdene, Patricia

    1977-01-01

    While some school boards refuse to ban junk foods because of the loss of revenue that would result, other boards and administrators are successfully banning junk foods and finding alternatives to them. (IRT)

  2. Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low calorie and a high calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Zuraikat, Faris M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2)=0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2)=0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Building Supportive School Environments for Alternative Education Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar-Smith, Susan; Palmer, Ruth Baugher

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of an alternative educational program for at-risk secondary students, comparing student perceptions of their public school environment, measured upon intake in the alternative school, with their perceptions of the alternative school environment after four and eight months of attendance in the program.…

  5. Work Environment and Productivity among Primary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    too good environment. The poor work environment is the types we have in most school today were teachers' offices are either non-existent or very poorly equipped. Many schools lack chairs for teachers and students. Some school is in such dilapidated condition that teachers feel ashamed of being associated with them.

  6. Promoting Safety Environment for School Sports | Aluko | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety environment under which school sports programme is organized in Nigeria schools. The paper noted that poor environment under which PES is administered militated against smooth attainment of physical education and sports in schools. In this regard the paper explored ...

  7. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  8. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 Number 2 May 2013 pp. 20 – 27. ISSN 1119-7455. EFFECTS OF NEEM SEED CAKE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA. (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) MOENCH) IN ILORIN, NORTH CENTRAL. NIGERIA. Eifediyi, E.

  9. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 13 ... 1Department of Agricultural Science Education Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan-Waya. .... Figure 1: Path diagram and coefficients of the proximate properties of maize accessions / varieties and their effects on the.

  10. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Nigeria. Journal of Agric, Food,. Environment and Extension 4(1): 66-69. Olayinka B. (2002). Effect of N.P.K. fertilizer level on yield of Okra-sweet corn intercrop and post harvest quality of Okra fruit. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. Department of Agronomy, University of. Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Rajablarijani, H.R., Hassankhan, F., ...

  11. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 14 Number 2 May 2015 pp. 18 - 23 .... environmental condition, Good soil management practices are essential to maintain sustainable .... likely means the respondents have adequate family labour for farm operations especially to ...

  12. Measuring and Benchmarking Food Environments and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Demographic changes in Latin America, combined with shifting nutritional habits, have led to increases in obesity and diabetes rates. Globally, researchers have found that unhealthy food environments drive unhealthy diets. However, there is a lack of rigorous and comparable data from Latin American countries.

  13. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 13 Number 3 September 2014 pp. 30 - 36 ... backyard systems to exotic industrialized production. The conservation of indigenous and ..... Technical Handbook Featuring Thermo. Scientific GelCode Staining Kits. Pp 15-. Toro, M. A. ...

  14. Food availability, modeling and restriction: How are these different aspects of the family eating environment related to adolescent dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    To examine individual associations between aspects of the family eating environment (home food availability, parental modeling, and food restriction) and adolescent dietary intake and explore the combined relationship (i.e., environment profiles) between these aspects of the family eating environment and adolescent dietary intake. Adolescents [14.4 years old (SD = 2.0)] and their parents (N = 2383 parent-adolescent pairs] participated in 2 coordinated, population-based studies. Adolescent surveys were completed at school and parent surveys were conducted via mail or phone. Healthy home food availability was positively associated with fruit/vegetable intake and negatively associated with soda and snack food intake in adolescents. Healthy parental modeling was negatively associated with adolescent soda consumption. Food restriction was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and snack food intake. Examination of family eating environment profiles revealed that it was the home food availability component of the profiles that was associated with observed differences in fruits/vegetable consumption, whereas the parental modeling and food restriction components contributed to differences in soda and snack foods consumption. Findings indicate that among the three aspects of the family eating environment explored, making healthy food available at home was most consistently associated with healthy dietary intake in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  16. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV.

  17. Food deserts or food swamps?: A mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle-Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-06-18

    Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 - 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  19. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  20. EPA Recognizes Charleston County School District for Reducing Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Charleston County School District for the District's achievements in reducing food waste. The District cultivated one of the state's first student-driven commercial compostin

  1. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) General. Reimbursement payments to finance nonprofit school food service operations shall be made only to... to verification findings, transfers, reported changes in income or household size, etc.; and (B) Make...

  2. Modification of the School Cafeteria Environment Can Impact Childhood Nutrition: Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: 1) foods selected by the children and 2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216

  3. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity and food security in Yazd primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam soltani Z

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is defined as access, for all people at all times, to enough food for an active and healthy life. Food security includes: 1 the ready availability of nutritionally-adequate and safe food, and 2 an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. The increase in childhood as well as adulthood obesity and food insecurity has caused many recent investigations on obesity, food insecurity and some associated factors. However, there appears to be a lack of published information regarding some factors affecting obesity and food insecurity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence obesity and food insecurity and some associated factors among Yazd province primary school students in Iran.Methods: Using two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 3245 students (1587 boys and 1658 girls, aged 9-11 years, were randomly selected from primary school pupils in Yazd, Iran. From these, 187 students having BMIs ≥95th percentile, as defined by Hosseini et al. (1999, were identified as obese and 187 pupils of the same age and gender having BMIs between the 15th and 85th percentiles were selected as controls. Data were collected using 24-hour food-recall and USDA food insecurity questionnaires.Results: We found that the prevalence of obesity among students aged 9-11 years was 13.3%, and the prevalence of food insecurity was 30.5%. Daily energy intakes, compared to those recommended by the RDA, carbohydrate intake and energy percentages from proteins and carbohydrates were higher in obese children, and all macronutrient intakes per kilogram of body weight were significantly higher. An association between obesity and food insecurity was observed with adjusted fat intake.Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity and food insecurity is high among Yazd primary school students, and high-level intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate are associated with obesity. Furthermore, variation in the rate of fat intake

  5. School food research: building the evidence base for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael; Breda, João

    2013-06-01

    Following an international workshop on developing the evidence base for policy relating to school food held in London, UK, in January 2012, the objectives of the present paper were (i) to outline a rationale for school food research, monitoring and evaluation in relation to policy and (ii) to identify ways forward for future working. The authors analysed presentations, summaries of evidence, and notes from discussions held at the international workshop in London in 2012 to distil common themes and make recommendations for the development of coherent research programmes relating to food and nutrition in schools. International, with an emphasis on middle- and high-income countries. Overviews of existing school food and nutrition programmes from the UK, Hungary, Sweden, the USA, Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico and other countries were presented, along with information on monitoring, evaluation and other research to demonstrate the impact of school feeding on health, attainment, food sourcing, procurement and finances, in the context of interactions between the evidence base and policy decisions. This provided the material which, together with summaries and notes of discussions, was used to develop recommendations for the development and dissemination of robust approaches to sustainable and effective school food and nutrition programmes in middle- and high-income countries, including policy guidelines, standards, cost-effectiveness measures and the terms of political engagement. School food and nutrition can provide a cohesive core for health, education and agricultural improvement provided: (i) policy is appropriately framed and includes robust monitoring and evaluation; and (ii) all stakeholders are adequately engaged in the process. International exchange of information will be used to develop a comprehensive guide to the assessment of the impact of school food and nutrition policy and supporting infrastructure.

  6. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Li, Yan; Wang, May C

    2014-03-06

    Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world's developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight. The prevalence of

  7. To what extent do school leaders in Slovenia understand physical school environments as a learning factor?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    .... It is generally believed that the staff model their behavior on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff...

  8. An Action Research on Food and Farming Education Curriculum Development in a Rural Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural agricultural demographics and farming structure has shown fierce changes in the modernizing society over the past years. The young generation in rural areas has distanced from the land and their families’ farmer identity. Countries worldwide has revamped their “food & farming curriculum” to include cooking lessons and school gardens at the elementary school stage to strengthen children’s connection with food, environment and the community. This study developed a framework of “food & farming curriculum” through action research to establish farm-to-table experience for elementary students. The framework includes “farming experience activities”, “cooking lessons” and “knowledge of food and farming lessons.” The curriculum was carried out for fifth and sixth grade students for three semesters in a rural elementary school in Miaoli County, from 2011 to 2012. The study found that this curriculum brings positive changes to pupils and helps in regaining their passion to learning. The curriculum is suitable to be applied especially in rural schools because of the accessibility of land, agricultural knowledges and community support. The study proposed five suggestions to teachers who are interested in food and farming education, including hands-on and flexibility teaching; using the local human resources; applications of unused space in the school; looking for like-minded teachers to form a teaching team; and combining environmental education with school-based curriculum.

  9. 'Food for thought': New MBA with focus on the food sector at Aarhus School of Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Brunsø, Karen; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    During the autumn of 2002, Aarhus School of Business decided to launch a new international MBA - with focus on the food sector. Prior to this decision lay thorough groundwork in the shape of a positive demand study among the largest food companies in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The concl......During the autumn of 2002, Aarhus School of Business decided to launch a new international MBA - with focus on the food sector. Prior to this decision lay thorough groundwork in the shape of a positive demand study among the largest food companies in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland...

  10. Stakeholder perceptions of a school food policy ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Sauzier, Megan; Ferguson, Amanda

    2018-01-24

    To assess (i) the extent to which stakeholders have accepted and implemented a Healthy Food and Drink Policy for schools a decade after its introduction and (ii) any resulting implications for canteen profitability. Online survey distributed via electronic newsletter to school principals. Western Australian public schools. Principals, teachers, canteen managers, and parents and citizens committee presidents (n 307). Large majorities of respondents reported that the policy has made the foods and drinks provided in schools healthier (85 %) and that the policy constitutes a good opportunity to teach children about healthy eating (90 %). Only small proportions of respondents felt it had been difficult to implement the policy in their schools (13 %) or that the policy fails to accommodate parents' rights to choose the foods consumed by their children (16 %). Most of the policy outcomes assessed in both the initial post-implementation evaluation (2008) and the 10-year follow-up evaluation (2016) demonstrated significant improvement over time. The study results indicate that comprehensive school food policies can favourably influence the foods and drinks provided on school premises and can be highly acceptable to key stakeholders, without adversely affecting profitability. The results are encouraging for policy makers in other jurisdictions considering the implementation of similar policies.

  11. School Food Purchasing Guide. A Special Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Thelma

    This document serves as a guide for school food service purchasing agents. It provides an overview of regulations influencing the market, as well as the factors to be considered in the purchase of meat, vegetables, produce, dairy products, and frozen foods. Sample bids and specifications for such purchases are also provided. A purchasing…

  12. Report card on school snack food policies among the United States' largest school districts in 2004–2005: Room for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivara Frederick P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Federal nutritional guidelines apply to school foods provided through the national school lunch and breakfast programs, but few federal regulations apply to other foods and drinks sold in schools (labeled "competitive foods", which are often high in calories, fat and sugar. Competitive food policies among school districts are increasingly viewed as an important modifiable factor in the school nutrition environment, particularly to address rising rates of childhood overweight. Congress passed legislation in 2004 requiring all school districts to develop a Wellness Policy that includes nutrition guidelines for competitive foods starting in 2006–2007. In addition, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recently published recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Methods Representatives of school districts with the largest student enrollment in each state and D.C. (N = 51 were interviewed in October-November 2004 about each school district's nutrition policies on "competitive foods." District policies were examined and compared to the Institute of Medicine's recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Information about state competitive food policies was accessed via the Internet, and through state and district contacts. Results The 51 districts accounted for 5.9 million students, representing 11% of US students. Nineteen of the 51 districts (39% had competitive food policies beyond state or federal requirements. The majority of these district policies (79% were adopted since 2002. School district policies varied in scope and requirements. Ten districts (53% set different standards by grade level. Most district policies had criteria for food and beverage content (74% and prohibited the sale of soda in all schools (63%; fewer policies restricted portion size of foods (53% or beverages (47%. Restrictions more often applied to vending machines (95%, cafeteria à la carte (79%, and student stores (79% than

  13. Predictors of positive outcomes of a school food provision policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Donovan, Robert J; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pescud, Melanie

    2014-06-01

    This study identified predictors of parents' and school principals' perceptions of the impact of a Western Australian school food policy. An initial qualitative phase involving focus groups with parents and interviews with school principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizens Committee members provided general feedback on the policy and identified various factors that appeared to be related to its successful implementation. In the following quantitative phase of the study, 1200 parents responded to a telephone questionnaire and 310 principals responded to an internet-based questionnaire. The primary outcome variables were, respectively, the extent to which parents reported that their children's diets were healthier as a result of the policy, and the extent to which principals reported that their schools complied with the policy. Logistic regression models were generated for the parent and principal samples. Those parents reporting that their children's diets were healthier were more likely to agree that the policy reflected their beliefs and their children's dietary needs and preferences, that their child talked about the traffic light food classification system and that this system influenced their food choices in the supermarket. Those principals reporting full compliance with the policy were more likely to agree that implementing the policy was not overly difficult. Specific factors facilitating school compliance were canteen manager training and conducive kitchen setup. Provision of appropriate information and training prior to implementation may assist schools in implementing new food policies, thereby enhancing their impact beyond the school environment.

  14. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  15. Culture, food, and language: Perspectives from immigrant mothers in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Contento, Isobel

    2007-04-01

    The article explores the role of immigrant parents in middle school science as both teachers and learners as part of an urban middle school curriculum, the Linking in Food and the Environment (LiFE) program. The curriculum engaged parents as partners with science teachers to teach science through food. Over a 2-year period, parents attended a series of bilingual workshops, collaborated with classroom teachers, managed activities, guided student inquiry, and assisted in classroom management. The following study analyzes the role of culture, language, and identity as four mothers navigated their position as `insiders' in a science classroom.

  16. Food choices among students using the school food service in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Schaaf, David; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Scragg, Robert

    2007-01-26

    The aim of the current study is to describe the demographic characteristics and food choices of school canteen/tuckshop users. Data for the current study were collected as part of the 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey. 3275 students aged 5 to 14 completed a food frequency questionnaire and food habits interview. More than half of all students (58%) bought some or most of their food and drink from the school canteen. Among younger students, canteen users were more likely to be Maori or Pacific people and from more economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Most of the older students (74%) bought most or some of their food consumed at school from the school canteen and few demographic differences were statistically significant. Canteen use was associated with frequent consumption of some high-sugar/high-fat foods in a dose response manner, even after controlling for how much or how little food students brought from home or bought at dairies/takeaway shops. Among younger students, canteen users were significantly more likely to drink soft drinks (i.e. carbonated drinks such as cola) 5+ times a week, eat meat pies/ sausage rolls 3+ times a week, and have chocolate/sweets/lollies (candy) 4+ times a week. Older students using the school canteen were significantly less likely to eat the recommended 2 servings of fruit and 3 servings of vegetables daily and more likely to be frequent consumers of pies and sausage rolls and chocolate/sweets/lollies. As canteen use was associated with frequent consumption of some high-sugar/high-fat foods, school canteens should be encouraged to offer more healthy food options, make healthier foods cheaper and more desirable for students, and limit the availability of less healthy foods.

  17. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  18. Asthma and food allergy management in Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Rivkina, Victoria; DeSantiago-Cardenas, Lilliana; Smith, Bridget; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize asthma and food allergy reporting and management in Chicago Public Schools. Demographic and health data for students who have asthma and food allergy were extracted from the Chicago Public Schools database. Demographic and geographic variability and the existence of school health management plans were analyzed, and multiple logistic regression models were computed. Home addresses were geocoded to create maps of case counts per community area. Approximately 18,000 asthmatic and 4000 food allergic students were identified. Of asthmatic students, 9.3% had a food allergy; of food allergic students, 40.1% had asthma. Asthma odds were significantly higher among black and Hispanic students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3 and 1.3, respectively), whereas food allergy odds were significantly higher among black students (OR = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.3) and significantly lower among Hispanic students (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9). Only 24.3% of students who had asthma and 50.9% of students who had food allergy had a school health management plan on file. Odds of having a school health management plan were significantly higher among students with both conditions, but the likelihood of having a plan on file was significantly lower among racial/ethnic minority and low-income students, regardless of medical condition. Only 1 in 4 students who have asthma and half of food allergic students have health management plans in schools, with lower numbers among minority and low-income students. Improving chronic disease reporting and access to school health management plans is critical. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  20. Food Waste in School Catering: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falasconi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food losses and waste are currently at the heart of academic debates, civil society initiatives, and political agendas. This paper investigates food waste in school catering services focusing on six schools located in the municipality of Verona (Italy. It aims to quantify food waste, as a measure of food catering inefficiency, to identify the main causes, and to suggest a set of prevention and reduction interventions. For these purposes food waste is defined as all the products discarded from the food chain while still preserving their nutritional value and complying with safety standards. The work shows a significant level of inefficiency in the school catering services, measured by the amount of food processed and still perfectly edible, but not served during the meals. On average more than 15% of the overall processed food is wasted. Among the causes identified in this study, four of them were more relevant than others because of their implications and impact on prevention: the lack of attention to dietary habits, the rigid food procurement specifications, the menu composition, and the meal presentation.

  1. School menus in Santa Catarina: Evaluation with respect to the National School Food Program regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Marreira Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess compliance of school menu planning with the National School Food Program's regulations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 133 menus for 542 schools in 49 municipalities of the state of Santa Catarina. The menus were assessed according to the National School Food Program's regulations, the "Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population" and the "Qualitative Evaluation of Menu Components for Schools". The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Nearly all (98.5% municipalities met the requirement of technical responsibility for menu development and 81.0% acquired foods from family farms. The menus contained fruits (87.2% and non-starchy vegetables (94.0%, but the frequencies of fruits and non-starchy vegetables were smaller than two to three times a week. The most common high-sodium and high-fat foods were commercially processed meats (53.0%, but their frequency was smaller than once a week. Likewise, the frequencies of beverages (natural fruit juice, coffee, and tea were smaller than once a week. Most menus (85.1% repeated foods during the week, and only 3.0% of the menus listed organic foods. CONCLUSION: Some school menus from Santa Catarina need to be revised with respect to the frequency of fruits and non-starchy vegetables, high-sugar foods, high-sodium foods, and high-fat foods, and need to increase food diversity and variety.

  2. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Summer Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Summer Newsletter captured rfgw many events, research, awards, significant contributions ans special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the summer period of 2017. These activities could not be completed without the on-going and active support of the schools 'INSPIRED' friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  3. Fostering Food citizenship through Farm-School Cooperation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    investigated various farm-school cooperation models and the motivation, learning goals and values among farmers and teachers working together to promote children's understanding of food, nature, agriculture and sustainability. The study is based on four case studies and a review of Danish educational materials......Farm visits and closer collaboration between farmers and teachers through the school can enable children to get a direct understanding and potential interest in how their food is produced, the nature of agriculture and a relationship with a farmer as an authentic teacher and expert. In my study, I...... related to food, agriculture and sustainability as well as international research in this field...

  4. Food insecurity, school absenteeism and educational attainment of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Abebe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0% food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P Conclusions Adolescent and household food insecurity are positively associated with school absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.

  5. Residential summer camp intervention improves camp food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Orr, Lynne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects on fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of a camp-based intervention to improve the food environment. The intervention was evaluated in a variant of the recurrent institutional cycle design in a sample of 311 youth aged 7 to 13 years. FV intake and targeted environmental variables were assessed among youth who received the intervention relative to those who attended the camp before the program was implemented. Improvements occurred in the frequency and variety of FVs served, counselor informational and instrumental support for FV consumption, and in older youth who received nutrition education lessons, perceived peer attitudes towards eating FVs and FV intake. Improving the camp food environment can improve FV intake among youth in this setting.

  6. Food Storage Guide for Schools and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Div. of Child Nutrition.

    This booklet has been prepared as a guide to show good methods of handling and storing USDA-donated and locally purchased foods. The information was drawn from many resources and includes latest research data available on types of storage facilities and equipment needed for handling and storing foods. The material is organized in five parts: (1)…

  7. School Food Practices of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa; Glanville, Theresa; Taylor, Jennifer; Blum, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schoolteachers can affect students' eating habits in several ways: through nutrition knowledge, positive role modeling, and avoidance of unhealthy classroom food practices. In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors of prospective teachers as determinants of intended classroom food practices and the school…

  8. Nutrition. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…

  9. [Local food production for school feeding programmes in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martínez-Mián, Maria Asunción; Caballero, Pablo; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    To identify and characterize initiatives that promote the purchase of locally-sourced foods to supply schools and the school centres carrying out the initiatives. Exploratory, descriptive study based on secondary data and key informant reports. A search of governmental and non-governmental initiatives was carried out at the autonomous community level. Government initiatives were located through school feeding programmes in the different autonomous communities, their nutritional guides and representatives of the councils for education and agriculture. Non-governmental initiatives were found through their own websites and the snowball technique. Initiatives were analysed by their geographic distribution, organizational area (government vs. non-government), number of school centres carrying out the initiatives, management style and organic food purchase. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out. 12 initiatives carried out by 318 schools (2.16% of all the schools with food service in Spain) were identified. Among these, 6 are governmental initiatives with a scope of 274 schools (1.86%), and 6 are non-governmental initiatives with a scope of 44 schools (0.30%). Most of these schools have a public management system in place (n=284). All the initiatives provide for the purchase of organic food. Local food purchase initiatives in Spain have a limited reach. However, the existence of a state directive could support and strengthen the development of such initiatives, given that school commitment is greater when initiatives are driven by the public sector. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire measuring perceptions of neighborhood food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Barnes, Timothy L.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of validated and reliable instruments on perception of the food environment, in particular for rural environments. We estimated the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire assessing perceptions of the food environment. A total of 101 primary food shoppers in South Carolina were interviewed by phone to assess their perceptions of the food environment and presence of different food outlet types in their neighborhood. The survey was repeated approximately one month after the i...

  11. Food Defense Best Practices Reported by Public School Food Authorities in Seven Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study reported food defense planning, training and best practices implemented in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Methods: An internet-administered survey was sent to 1,501 school food authorities or food service directors (FSDs) in public schools. Survey items…

  12. To What Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Majda

    2017-01-01

    School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff) will also do so. To…

  13. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Boucher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs: Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. Methods: The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1 potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2 indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3 selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4 final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5 indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Results: Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Conclusion: Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  14. Variations in prevalence and conduct of school food gardens in tropical and subtropical regions of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Shawn; Bossard, Antoine

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and usage of food gardens in primary schools in three distinct climatic regions of north-eastern Australia. Cross-sectional surveys combining quantitative and qualitative data collection. Two separate telephone questionnaires were developed and implemented, according to the presence or absence of a food garden within the school. Main outcome measures were answers to scaled response and open-ended questions related to factors supporting and inhibiting the establishment and sustainability of school food gardens. All state primary schools in three disparate regions of the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland were asked to participate in the study. A total of 71% (n 128) of schools agreed to participate. Of these, thirty-seven primary schools had functioning food gardens. The variations in prevalence between regions combined with respondent views indicated climate as a major factor affecting the success of food gardens. Gardens were often used as a tool by schools to teach science, environment or social skills. Gardening activities were generally linked to curriculum studies on plants, fruit and vegetable intake, and healthy eating. The main issues for schools and teachers in establishing food gardens were the time required and the lack of personnel to coordinate garden activities. Of the schools with food gardens, 92% believed their garden had been a success. The study revealed strong grass-roots support for school-based food gardens. Although climate and location were important factors associated with the presence of a functioning food garden, respondents nominated teacher involvement and sustained motivation as essential factors for successful school food gardens.

  15. [Food habits in the school population from rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Blanco, G; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, M N; Villanueva Tamayo, E; Ruiz Jaldo, J V; Vázquez Hermoso, M A

    1996-11-15

    To find the nutritional habits, qualitatively speaking, of school-children in our area in order to analyse their possible nutritional deficiencies and establish corrective measures. A crossover study with a randomised sample, stratified by school years. A school in a rural area. A sample of students from this school: 101 out of 247 (41%). Using a closed survey without prior notice to the pupils, the food taken the day before at different meals was recorded and placed in each of the 7 groups of the nutritional circle. In addition two food groups considered of high energy content and low nutritional value were included (group 8, cakes and group 9, sweets). 17.82% of pupils had correct nutrition. 99% had milk for breakfast. 37.62% had only milk for breakfast. 46% did not consume vegetables all day. 34% did not consume fruit all day. 34% did not consume pulses all day. 72.28% consumed cakes and/or sweets at some time during the day. It can be concluded that these school-children eat low-quality food and that this is independent of school cycles or gender. The food of 82% of school-children is incorrect, with insufficient vegetables, fruit and/or pulses. They eat little for breakfast. We propose introducing, jointly with the teachers, measures to correct the problems found.

  16. A Place for Food in Australian Schools: A Socio-Historical Review of Food Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Angela; Wilks, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The historical development of food education in secondary schools in New South Wales Australia is a compelling yet under-researched area of interest. This review starts by exploring how food curricula have evolved since the 1700s to the present day juxtaposed on socio-economic and political factors. This review is interested in the role secondary…

  17. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  18. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3-11-year-olds: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2013-12-01

    To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children's food consumption. Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46 % had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging.

  19. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  20. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagla Chaves Trindade, Samara; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Carvalho Pereira, Keyla; de Souza Costa Sobrinho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP) in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP) for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Nine (81.8%) establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2%) as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%), 1 (1.5%) and 22 (32.4%) of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%), 2 (3.3%) and 13 (22.0%) of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm2 of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%), 1 (2.2%) and 36 (80%) food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm2/week. The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  1. Food insecurity, school absenteeism and educational attainment of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2011-04-10

    Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P food insecurity [OR 1.77 (1.34-2.33)], severe household food insecurity [OR 1.62 (1.27-2.06)], illness during the past one month before the survey [OR 2.26 (1.68-3.06)], the highest grade aspired to be completed by the adolescent [OR 0.92 (0.88-0.96)], and the number of days that the adolescent had to work per week [OR 1.16 (1.07-1.26)] were independent predictors of school absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P food insecurity(P food insecurity are positively associated with school absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.

  2. Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among LA County Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-31

    This podcast features Nelly Mejia, winner of the journal’s 2015 Student Research Paper Contest and PhD Candidate at the Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California. Nelly discusses her winning paper, which examined the relationship between neighborhood food outlet locations and the diet and body mass index of adults living in Los Angeles County, California.  Created: 8/31/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/31/2015.

  3. Going to School with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reactions (they may say food tastes spicy, their tongue feels hot, their tongue or mouth feels itchy or funny, or their ... to Cope Egg Allergy Allergy Testing Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  4. School environment and school type as correlates of secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the stratified random sampling technique, ten secondary schools including 5 government (public) owned secondary schools, 2 communities owned and 3 private secondary schools were selected for the study. Two hundred (200) respondents were further selected as respondents. Students from schools with adequate ...

  5. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…

  6. The Experience of Assessing Out-of-School Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktas, Halit; Eslek, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate out-of-school learning environments within the borders of the province of Izmir in terms of various parameters. With this purpose, the researchers developed the "Out-Of-School Learning Environments Assessment Survey." The study used the screening model, which is a descriptive research method. In the scope…

  7. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  8. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  9. [Individualized Reception Project at school and for school food services for children with a food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Morin, A

    2001-03-01

    The circulars of 1992, 1993 and more recently of 10th November 1999, illustrate the significant progress of schools in the reception of sick children and the help in execution of the medical regulations. The National Education physician is a privileged interlocutor of families, the treating physician and the education authority to make the link between the caregivers and the school. Application of the 1999 circular, which has the objective of taking into account the food allergies in the 1993 plan of action, raises difficulties of three types: Difficulties of a medical type raised by the frequent confusion between the Protocol for urgent intervention and the individualised reception plan. The Protocol for urgent intervention, of which the National Education physician is the recipient, must be accompanied by a letter from the allergy physician that takes into consideration simple immunological sensitization and true allergy and to appreciate the risks that concern food disparities that are not always the same. The almost systematic prescription of adrenaline in protocols for urgent intervention, without argument and in the absence of commercialisation of an auto-injectable pen at the time of distribution of the circular, was a source of resistance by education authorities to catering services. Difficulties of a human type concerning the creation of fear in families, in the education authorities, in the catering services and the time-lag between some families and their careful vigilance with regard to the dietary observance and the conduct to be taken in the case of acute symptoms. Difficulties of administrative or legal types knowing that the scholars catering is a service which does not have the obligatory character of the teaching plan, and which accepts the sole competence of the authorities for 1st degree education. In total the teaching plan and pupil catering for children with a food allergy needs making the parents aware of the responsibility between the

  10. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, May C; Gonzalez, Alma A; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2006-07-17

    With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE) database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979-1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p stores studied (chain supermarkets, small grocery stores, and chain convenience markets). We conclude that, depending on the specific aims of the study, caution and considerable effort must be exercised in using and applying historical data on retail food stores.

  11. Urban versus suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between adolescent perception of time to walk to neighborhood food retail outlets and purchasing of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), fast and convenience food items and test for differences by urban versus suburban environment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Subjects Adolescents from two studies completed survey-based measures on perceptions of time to walk to food retail outlets from home, purchasing patterns of SSB and fast and convenience store items, perceptions of personal safety and pedestrian infrastructure and demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis, Spearman correlations and multivariate linear regression, accounting for clustering, were conducted using SAS. Results There were 634 adolescents, approximately half male, predominately white, with a middle-class background. Greater perceived time to food outlets were associated with less frequent purchasing of SSB, convenience store foods and fast food items. Multivariate models showed that a perceived shorter walking time (i.e. 1–5 versus 31+ minutes) was significantly associated with more SSB purchasing. SSB purchases were also significantly associated with the number of food outlets within a 10–minute walk (B=0.05, p=0.02). Conclusions A reduction in consumption of SSB and other energy dense snacks is an important obesity prevention approach. An approach offering alternatives or reducing exposure in addition to education to alter purchasing habits may contribute to improving dietary habits and reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:21859510

  12. Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighbourhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-02-01

    To assess the relationship between adolescent perception of time to walk to neighbourhood food retail outlets and purchasing of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast and convenience food items, and to test for differences by urban v. suburban environment. Cross-sectional observational study. Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, USA. Adolescents from two studies completed survey-based measures on perceptions of time to walk to food retail outlets from home, purchasing patterns of SSB and fast and convenience store items, perceptions of personal safety and pedestrian infrastructure, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis, Spearman correlations and multivariate linear regression, accounting for clustering, were conducted. There were 634 adolescents, approximately half male, predominantly white, with a middle-class background. Greater perceived time to food outlets was associated with less frequent purchasing of SSB, convenience store foods and fast-food items. Multivariate models showed that a perceived shorter walking time (i.e. 1-5 v. 31+ min) was significantly associated with more SSB purchasing. SSB purchases were also significantly associated with the number of food outlets within a 10 min walk (B = 0·05, P = 0·02). A reduction in consumption of SSB and other energy-dense snacks is an important obesity prevention approach. An approach offering alternatives or reducing exposure in addition to education to alter purchasing habits may contribute to improving dietary habits and reducing the obesity epidemic.

  13. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  14. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  15. [Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.

  16. Pilot test of the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) to increase government actions for creating healthy food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-09

    Effective government policies are essential to increase the healthiness of food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has developed a monitoring tool (the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI)) and process to rate government policies to create healthy food environments against international best practice. The aims of this study were to pilot test the Food-EPI, and revise the tool and process for international implementation. New Zealand. Thirty-nine informed, independent public health experts and non-governmental organisation (NGO) representatives. Evidence on the extent of government implementation of different policies on food environments and infrastructure support was collected in New Zealand and validated with government officials. Two whole-day workshops were convened of public health experts and NGO representatives who rated performance of their government for seven policy and seven infrastructure support domains against international best practice. In addition, the raters evaluated the level of difficulty of rating, and appropriateness and completeness of the evidence presented for each indicator. Inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88; Gwet's AC2) using quadratic weights, and increased to 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92) after deletion of the problematic indicators. Based on raters' assessments and comments, major changes to the Food-EPI tool include strengthening the leadership domain, removing the workforce development domain, a stronger focus on equity, and adding community-based programmes and government funding for research on obesity and diet-related NCD prevention, as good practice indicators. The resulting tool and process will be promoted and offered to countries of varying size and income globally. International benchmarking of the extent of government policy implementation on food environments has the potential to

  17. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  18. At the crossroads: new paradigms of food security, public health nutrition and school food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Leah M; Sonnino, Roberta

    2013-06-01

    Public health nutrition sits at the nexus of a global crisis in food, environmental and health systems that has generated - along with numerous other problems - an urgent and changing problem of food insecurity. The 'new' food insecurity, however, is different from the old: it is bimodal, encompassing issues of both under- and over-consumption, hunger and obesity, quantity and quality; it has assumed a decidedly urban dimension; and it implicates rich and poor countries alike. The complexity of the expressions of this challenge requires new approaches to public health nutrition and food policy that privilege systemic, structural and environmental factors over individual and mechanistic ones. In this context, the current paper argues that school food systems rise with buoyant potential as promising intervention sites: they are poised to address both modes of the food security crisis; integrate systemic, structural and environmental with behavioural approaches; and comprise far-reaching, system-wide efforts that influence the wider functioning of the food system. Based on a discussion of Bogotá and other pioneering policies that explicitly aim to create a broader food system with long-term foundations for good public health and food security, the paper suggests a new research and action agenda that gives special attention to school food in urban contexts.

  19. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the associ......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess...... the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school...

  20. Food insecurity: could school food supplementation help break cycles of intergenerational transmission of social inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, Christelle; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Grillo, Francesca; Martin, Judith; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the moderating effect of school food programs in schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods on the association between household food insecurity and scholastic difficulties among adolescents. We analyzed data from the Social and Health Survey of Children and Adolescents in Quebec, Canada, which was conducted in 1999 and included 2346 adolescent students 13 and 16 years of age (and 1983 of their parents). Sample-weighted regression analyses were performed to determine the association between household food insecurity and school difficulties and to explore the moderating role of food supplementation programs with respect to this association. Household food insecurity, which was linked to the indicators of family socioeconomic status, was strongly associated with the indicators of scholastic difficulties. This association disappeared for adolescents who benefited from food supplementation programs in schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The risk of school activity limitation decreased from OR = 2.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-5.41) to OR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35-3.40), the risk of below-average grades in the language of instruction decreased from OR = 2.19 (95% CI: 1.28-3.74) to OR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.21-1.63), the risk of repeating a year decreased from OR = 2.14 (95% CI: 1.35-3.40) to OR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.42-1.81), and the risk of self-rated poor academic performance decreased from OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.08-2.81) to OR = 0.81(95% CI: 0.37-1.78). School food supplementation is a moderating factor in the association between household food insecurity and scholastic difficulties for adolescents.

  1. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  2. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  3. [Food preferences and nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio

    Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. The Food Environment, Preference, and Experience Modulate the Effects of Exendin-4 on Food Intake and Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Ricardo; Schmidt, Camila B; Romagnoli, Pierre-Paul; Teske, Jennifer A; Perez-Leighton, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The obesogenic food environment facilitates access to multiple palatable foods. Exendin-4 (EX4) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonist that inhibits food intake and has been proposed as an obesity therapy. This study tested whether the composition of the food environment and experience with palatable foods modulate the effects of EX4 on food intake and reward. Mice fed a cafeteria (CAF) or control diet were tested for the anorectic effects of EX4 when simultaneously offered foods of varying individual preference and in a conditioned place preference (CPP) test for chocolate. Plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and hypothalamic GLP1R mRNA were analyzed post mortem. Mice fed a CAF diet developed individual food preference patterns. Offering mice either novel or highly preferred foods decreased the potency of EX4 to inhibit food intake compared to low preference foods or chow. Compared to the control diet, CAF diet intake blocked the decrease in chocolate CPP caused by EX4 and decreased the expression of hypothalamic GLP1R mRNA without altering the plasma GLP1 concentration. The composition of the food environment, food preference, and experience modulate the ability of EX4 to inhibit food intake and reward. These data highlight the significance of modeling the complexity of the human food environment in preclinical obesity studies. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Izumi, Betty T.; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A.; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item....

  6. Change in school nutrition-related laws from 2003 to 2008: evidence from the school nutrition-environment state policy classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2013-09-01

    We examined state laws affecting the school food environment and changes in these laws between 2003 to 2008. We used the Westlaw legal database to identify state-codified laws, with scoring derived from the updated School Nutrition-Environment State Policy Classification System, obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated With School Students Web site. States significantly changed their school nutrition laws from 2003 to 2008, and many increased the stringency of the laws targeting competitive foods (snacks and entrées sold in competition with the school meal) and beverages sold in school and for in-school fundraising. Many states enacted laws that mandated the establishment of a coordinating or advisory wellness team or council. Stronger laws were enacted for elementary grades. We found tremendous variability in the strength of the laws and plenty of room for improvement. State law governing school nutrition policies significantly changed from 2003 to 2008, primarily affecting the competitive food environment in schools. The extent to which changes in school nutrition laws will lead to desired health outcomes is an area for additional research.

  7. Change in School Nutrition–Related Laws From 2003 to 2008: Evidence From the School Nutrition–Environment State Policy Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined state laws affecting the school food environment and changes in these laws between 2003 to 2008. Methods. We used the Westlaw legal database to identify state-codified laws, with scoring derived from the updated School Nutrition–Environment State Policy Classification System, obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated With School Students Web site. Results. States significantly changed their school nutrition laws from 2003 to 2008, and many increased the stringency of the laws targeting competitive foods (snacks and entrées sold in competition with the school meal) and beverages sold in school and for in-school fundraising. Many states enacted laws that mandated the establishment of a coordinating or advisory wellness team or council. Stronger laws were enacted for elementary grades. We found tremendous variability in the strength of the laws and plenty of room for improvement. Conclusions. State law governing school nutrition policies significantly changed from 2003 to 2008, primarily affecting the competitive food environment in schools. The extent to which changes in school nutrition laws will lead to desired health outcomes is an area for additional research. PMID:23327259

  8. Ecology of antimicrobial resistance: humans, animals, food and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Escudero, José A

    2012-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment.

  9. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Alma A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979–1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p

  10. Food Melt in Consumer Food Environments in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Pike, Stephanie N; Borawski, Elaine; Flocke, Susan A; Freedman, Darcy A; Walsh, Colleen C; Schneider, Christine; Yoder, Laura

    2017-11-01

    We systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in lowincome, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We collected data for 2 sequential months during the first and fourth weeks of each month. Two coders evaluated stores, collecting measures of availability, price, and quality for 50 items. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among lowincome consumers.

  11. The influence of the WIC food package changes on the retail food environment in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; O'Malley, Keelia; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Bodor, J Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package changes on availability of healthy foods in small stores. Pre-post comparison group design with repeat in-store observations. New Orleans. Small stores (n = 102; 77% of total) were visited in 2009. Of these, 91% were observed again in 2010, including both WIC (n = 27) and non-WIC (n = 66) stores. The 2009 WIC food package changes to include healthier foods. Change in store availability of fruits, vegetables, lower-fat milks, whole wheat bread, and brown rice. Change in number of varieties and shelf length of fruits and vegetables. Difference-in-differences analysis using logit models for change in availability and regression models for change in number of varieties or shelf length. The WIC stores were more likely to improve availability of lower-fat milks than non-WIC stores (adjusted odds ratio, 5.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-21.0). An even greater relative improvement was seen with whole grains. The WIC stores showed a relative increase in number of varieties of fresh fruits (0.9 ± 0.3; P foods in small stores in New Orleans. Similar changes throughout the country could have a significant impact on neighborhood food environments. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the School Environment of Public and Private Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... materials. Nuisance/health hazard. There was an industrial population (mechanic and welding workshop) adjacent to a private school. Six schools (two private and four public) had animals within the compound, six public schools usually meet feces in the classrooms. There were neither open drainages nor.

  13. Food and Nutrients Intake in the School Lunch Program among School Children in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenru Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016 and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013. The provision of livestock and poultry meat in menus was almost 5–8 times the recommended amount. The amount of seafood was less than the recommended amount, and mostly came from half-processed food. The average percentage of energy from fat was more than 30% in students of all grades. The greatest amount of food wasted was vegetables with 53%, 42%, and 31%, respectively, among primary, middle and high school students. Intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin B2, calcium, and iron was about 50% of the recommended proportion. Only 24.0% students were satisfied with the taste of school lunches. Higher proportions of livestock and poultry meat and low intake of vegetables have become integral problems in school lunch programs. Additionally, more attention needs to be paid to the serving size in primary schools with five age groups.

  14. Food and Nutrients Intake in the School Lunch Program among School Children in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenru; Gao, Runying; Bawuerjiang, Nadila; Zhang, Yali; Huang, Xiaoxu; Cai, Meiqin

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016) and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013). The provision of livestock and poultry meat in menus was almost 5-8 times the recommended amount. The amount of seafood was less than the recommended amount, and mostly came from half-processed food. The average percentage of energy from fat was more than 30% in students of all grades. The greatest amount of food wasted was vegetables with 53%, 42%, and 31%, respectively, among primary, middle and high school students. Intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin B₂, calcium, and iron was about 50% of the recommended proportion. Only 24.0% students were satisfied with the taste of school lunches. Higher proportions of livestock and poultry meat and low intake of vegetables have become integral problems in school lunch programs. Additionally, more attention needs to be paid to the serving size in primary schools with five age groups.

  15. Identifying Sources of Children’s Consumption of Junk Food in Boston After-School Programs, April–May 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S. Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Kirsten K. Davison; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children’s dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received progra...

  16. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...... on the gram-negative bacteria and, in general, less is known abourt the gram poritives. At present much conflicting evidence has been presented perhaps because so many internal and external factors influence the ability to adhere. Some of the present knowledge of biofilm or aggregation forming properties...

  17. Examine Middle School Students' Constructivist Environment Perceptions in Turkey: School Location and Class Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat; Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Cinemre, Yasin; Balcin, Bilal

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the middle school students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment in the science course in Turkey in terms of school location and class size. In the study the Assessing of Constructivist Learning Environment (ACLE) questionnaire was utilized to map students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment.…

  18. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Spring Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Spring Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Spring period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  19. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  20. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulfrost Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1 fast food restaurants, 2 convenience stores, and 3 supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. Methods We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. Results The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36. Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Conclusions Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also

  1. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip H; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Fulfrost, Brian

    2011-01-31

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1) fast food restaurants, 2) convenience stores, and 3) supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36). Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also be important sources of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods for

  2. Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Mark

    This guide focuses on the architecture of the primary and pre-school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture, along with an…

  3. School and workplace meals promote healthy food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulio, Susanna; Roos, Eva; Prättälä, Ritva

    2010-06-01

    The present study is to describe, on the basis of recent Finnish population surveys, (i) the frequencies of school and worksite canteen use, (ii) the determinants of having a hot lunch during school or working hours and (iii) the associations of lunch eating patterns with food habits. The study summarises mainly basic reports and studies concerning catering services conducted in Finland based on nationally representative population surveys.Design and subjectsCross-sectional study. The most important surveys cited in this paper are the School Health Promotion Study, the Work and the Working Conditions survey, the National FINDIET 2002 Study, and the Health Behavior and Health among Finnish Adult Population survey. School lunch is eaten by on average 70-90 % of children aged 9-18 years. Of all employees, 30 % eat at a worksite canteen daily, whereas 30 % of men and 45 % of women eat packed lunches. Nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys show that the use of catering services is associated with more healthy food habits; schoolchildren eating school meals and employees eating lunch at a worksite canteen tend to make food choices closer to nutritional recommendations as compared to those not using catering services to the same degree. Some evidence exists that catering services in schools and worksites contribute to healthy eating habits in the population. In order to verify the positive role of catering services more scientific research with prospective and intervention design studies will be needed.

  4. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.

  6. Food hygiene practices of food vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, O I; Akande, T M

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine food safety practices among food Vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin. Pre-tested questionnaire and observational checklist were administered to 185 respondents recruited using inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred and eighty-two (98.4%) of the subjects were females and only 6(3%) were teenagers. One hundred and two (56.8%) had no formal education while 72(39% had received training on food hygiene. Pre-employment medical examination practice was high 141(76%) but periodic medical examination was low 30(16%). Sixty-one (33%) and seventy-two(39%) respondents prepared food well in advance and reheat food before sale respectively. Vendors who prepared food well in advance (over 4 hours) were found to practise food re-heating more than those who prepared food within 4 hours before sale, and this is statistically significant. The major unhygienic practices observed among the food vendors were poor care of used utensils 100(54%), use of previously used water for washing and cleaning, lack of covering apron among the vendors 128(69%) and lack of wash hand basin for immediate cleaning 61(33%). Only 85(46%) of the respondents used soap and water to clean their utensils while the rest 100(54%) used unhygienic methods to clean their utensils. It was observed that respondents who used soap and water for cleaning, vended food at locations that were relatively closer to water source, compared to other vendors who used other methods to clean their utensils. This is also statistically significant. Unkempt fingernails, skin lesions and poor food protection from flies were some of the food contaminating risk factors observed in the study. The need exists for food vendors and other food handlers to be trained on basic principles of safe food handling.

  7. To what Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Cenčič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff will also do so. To discover how school leaders assess the school environment as a factor of learning, 150 school leaders in primary education in Slovenia were invited to complete an online questionnaire. They were asked about their views regarding to what extent their school as physical environment encouraged certain factors. Fourteen listed factors were assessed on five-point numeric scales. The results show that in their school environment, school leaders assessed ecology, movement, and respect the highest, and feelings, imagination, and space the lowest. Their estimates of the assessed factors differ depending on the type of school building (new, old, renovated only on the factors of movement, creativity, and logic and mathematics in favour of old schools. The results provide interesting information especially for school policy and everyone involved in the planning, building, or renewal of school premises.

  8. Food sales outlets, food availability, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Martin, Carla; Ostry, Aleck S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number and types of different food sales outlets, the types of foods offered for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia. We also directly measured the number and types of snack foods available for sale in each vending machine at each school. Based on a thorough literature review and guided by an expert panel of nutritionists, we developed an instrument to measure the quantity and types of foods offered for sale in vending machines, the types of food for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy development. The survey response rate was approximately 70%. Approximately 60% of surveyed schools had a permanent food sales outlet. Snack and beverage vending machines were most common in secondary schools, while tuck shops and food-based fundraisers were more common in elementary schools. While few snack vending machines were present in elementary schools, tuck shops stocked items commonly found in snack machines. Approximately 25% of schools had a formal group responsible for nutrition. These schools were more likely to have nutrition policies in place. "Junk" foods were widely available in elementary, middle, and secondary schools through a variety of outlets. Although snack machines are virtually absent in elementary schools, tuck shops and school fundraisers sell foods usually found in snack machines, largely cancelling the positive effect of the absence of snack machines in these schools. Schools with a group responsible for nutrition appear to have a positive impact on nutrition policy implementation.

  9. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  10. Interacting with the Environment--Eddyville School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeff; Owen, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the aspects of the environmental education program at a K-12 school located in the Coast Range of Oregon. Discusses activities relating to wildlife biology, forestry, beekeeping, pesticides, and land use. (TW)

  11. Curriculum in Food Handling and Distribution; a Guide for Experimentation in High School and Post High School Vocational Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Philip G.; And Others

    The project developed an experimental curriculum guide for training persons at the high school and post-high school levels in food handling and distribution. Data were gathered through interviews with over 200 food industries in Connecticut. Courses and curriculums were obtained from six secondary schools and seven post-secondary schools. Some of…

  12. Traffic Light Food Labelling in Schools and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated stakeholders' reactions to the introduction of a traffic light food classification system in primary and secondary school canteens. Design: Interviews and focus groups were conducted with stakeholders approximately 18 months after the introduction of the traffic light system, followed by telephone and…

  13. Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria

    Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document is designed as a reference manual on energy and provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans. The manual offers energy conservation…

  14. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  15. Nutrition knowledge and food practices of high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P D; Douglas, J G

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the food practices and nutrition knowledge of high school athletes currently participating in interscholastic sports and to evaluate differences in terms of selected sports variables. The data for the study were obtained by a questionnaire administered to a sample of 943 athletes from randomly selected high schools in Connecticut. The stated hypotheses were tested statistically using analysis of variance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients where appropriate. The results of the study indicated that the female athletes had better knowledge of nutrition but poorer food practices than the male athletes. There were also significant relationships between sport forms, seasons, and nutrition knowledge and food practices. High school athletes perceived their best source of nutrition knowledge to be their parents. Results on the nutrition knowledge component of the instrument showed that out of 48 possible answers, the mean correct was 26.4, while out of a possible score of 5, the mean score for food practices was 2.2. Because a positive relationship existed between the number of sport seasons and nutrition knowledge and food practice scores, sport participation may be a catalyst for learning about nutrition.

  16. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  17. Oral Health-Promoting School Environments and Dental Caries in Québec Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edasseri, Anu; Barnett, Tracie A; Kâ, Khady; Henderson, Mélanie; Nicolau, Belinda

    2017-11-01

    Dental caries are highly prevalent among children and have negative health consequences. Their occurrence may depend in part on school-based environmental or policy-related factors, but few researchers have explored this subject. This study aimed to identify oral health promoting school environment types and estimate their relation with 2-year dental caries incidence among Québec children aged 8-10 years. This study used data from two visits (completed in 2008 and 2011) of the QUALITY (Québec Adipose Lifestyle Investigation in Youth) cohort, which recruited white children at risk of obesity and their families from Greater Montreal schools. Measures included school and neighborhood characteristics, and Decayed, Missing, Filled-Surfaces index scores. Principal component and cluster analyses, and generalized estimating equations were conducted. Data were available for 330 children attending 200 schools. Based on a series of statistical analyses conducted in 2016, the authors identified three distinct school environment types. Type 1 and 2 schools had strong healthy eating programs, whereas Type 3 had weak programs. Type 1 schools had favorable neighborhood food environments, whereas Type 2 and 3 had unfavorable ones. Adjusting for potential confounders, children attending Type 1 and 2 schools had 21% (incidence rate ratio=0.79, 95% CI=0.68, 0.90) and 6% (incidence rate ratio=0.94, 95% CI=0.83, 1.07) lower 2-year incidence of dental caries, respectively, compared with Type 3 schools. School-based oral health promotion programs combined with a favorable neighborhood can lower dental caries incidence in school children. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using GPS and activity tracking to reveal the influence of adolescents' food environment exposure on junk food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Clark, Andrew F; Wilk, Piotr; O'Connor, Colleen; Gilliland, Jason A

    2016-06-09

    This study examines the influence of adolescents' exposure to unhealthy food outlets on junk food purchasing during trips between home and school, with particular attention to how exposure and purchasing differ according to child's biological sex, mode of transportation, and direction to or from school. Between 2010 and 2013, students (n = 654) aged 9-13 years from 25 schools in London and Middlesex County, ON, completed a socio-demographic survey and an activity diary (to identify food purchases), and were observed via a global positioning system for 2 weeks (to track routes for trips to/from school). Spatial data on routes and purchase data were integrated with a validated food outlet database in a geographic information system, and exposure was measured as the minutes a child spent within 50 m of an unhealthy food outlet (i.e., fast food restaurants, variety stores). For trips involving junk food exposure (n = 4588), multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between exposure and purchasing. Multilevel analyses indicated that adolescents' duration of exposure to unhealthy food outlets between home and school had a significant effect on the likelihood of junk food purchasing. This relationship remained significant when the data were stratified by sex (female/male), trip direction (to/from school) and travel mode (active/car), with the exception of adolescents who travelled by bus. Policies and programs that mitigate the concentration of unhealthy food outlets close to schools are critical for encouraging healthy eating behaviours among children and reducing diet-related health issues such as obesity.

  19. DOES ORGANIC FOOD INTERVENTION IN SCHOOL LEAD TO CHANGED DIETARY PATTERNS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    will be continuously influenced into their adulthood even following generations in the future. Since school increasingly is taking a role in both food provision and in health, environment and nutrition education of young people by implementing healthy and environmental friendly policies, it is relevant to investigate...... the relation between the different components of such interventions. In other words it is relevant to ask the question: does organic food supply police go hand in hand with healthy eating policies. This study that has been made possible through the iPOPY project looks at the relationship in Danish...

  20. The adaptive response of bacterial food-borne pathogens in the environment, host and food: Implications for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Broussolle, Véronique; Colin, Pierre; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Prieto, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Bacteria are constantly faced to stress situations in their ecological niches, the food and the host gastrointestinal tract. The capacity to detect and respond to surrounding changes is crucial for bacterial pathogens to survive or grow in changing environments. To this purpose, cells have evolved various sophisticated networks designed to protect against stressors or repair damage caused by them. Challenges can occur during production of foods when subjected to processing, and after food ingestion when confronted with host defensive barriers. Some pathogenic bacteria have shown the capacity to develop stable resistance against extreme conditions within a defined genomic context and a limited number of generations. On the other hand, bacteria can also respond to adverse conditions in a transient manner, through the so-called stress tolerance responses. Bacterial stress tolerance responses include both structural and physiological modifications in the cell and are mediated by complex genetic regulatory machinery. Major aspects in the adaptive response are the sensing mechanisms, the characterization of cell defensive systems, such as the operation of regulatory proteins (e.g. RpoS), the induction of homeostatic and repair systems, the synthesis of shock response proteins, and the modifications of cell membranes, particularly in their fatty acid composition and physical properties. This article reviews certain strategies used by food-borne bacteria to respond to particular stresses (acid, cold stress, extreme pressure) in a permanent or transient manner and discusses the implications that such adaptive responses pose for food safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Healthy food purchasing among African American youth: associations with child gender, adult caregiver characteristics and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Christiansen, Karina; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Suratkar, Sonali; Mead, Erin; Sharma, Sangita; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2011-04-01

    To examine how factors related to the home food environment and individual characteristics are associated with healthy food purchasing among low-income African American (AA) youth. A total of 206 AA youth (ninety-one boys and 115 girls), aged 10-14 years, and their primary adult caregivers. Fourteen Baltimore recreation centres in low-income neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional study. We collected information about food purchasing, the home food environment, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors drawn from social cognitive theory. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with the frequency and proportion of healthy food purchases in all youth and stratified by gender. Low-fat or low-sugar foods were defined as healthy. Youth purchased an average of 1.5 healthy foods (range=0-15) in the week before the interview, comprising an average of 11.6% (range=0-80%) of total food purchases. The most commonly purchased healthy foods included water and sunflower seeds/nuts. Healthier food-related behavioural intentions were associated with a higher frequency of healthy foods purchased (OR=1.4, Ppurchasing/preparation was associated with increased frequency of healthy purchasing among girls (OR=1.3, Ppurchasing a higher proportion of healthy foods. No significant associations were observed for boys. Interventions focused on AA girls should emphasize increasing food-related behavioural intentions. For girls, associations between caregiver self-efficacy and home food preparation suggest the importance of the caregiver in healthy food purchasing.

  2. Influence of environment on secondary school students' reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that students' primary school experiences and peer group exert negative influence on their reading effectiveness. There was ... among other things that attention be given to public primary schools in the state and nation to provide students with rich and enabling environment for their future academic growth.

  3. Information Environment of Tutors in Public Secondary Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment of Tutors in public secondary schools (TPSS) in the case of this study are limited to their information needs, sources, seeking ... interest, occupation, and geographical location. Information needs and ... particular reference to public secondary schools in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Understanding information ...

  4. Associations between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Elsury; Roncarolo, Federico; Potvin, Louise

    2017-04-20

    To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food. We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate the association between household food insecurity and the local food environment. In all the models, we coded food security status in three categories: food security, moderate food insecurity and severe food insecurity. The last group was used as a reference group. Our data suggest that compared to households with severe food insecurity, those with moderate food insecurity (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28-0.62) and those with food security (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.26) were less likely to report difficulties in accessing food due to food affordability. Food-secure households also had lower odds of reporting difficulties in accessing food due to transportation constraints (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.55) compared with severe food-insecure households. Living a distance of between 1 and 2 km from the organization used was significantly correlated with moderate food insecurity (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.12-2.88). The local food environment is associated with severity of household food insecurity among new families using community food security

  5. Venturing into schools: Locating mental health initiatives in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Askell-Williams

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools provide viable settings for mental health promotion initiatives, such as programs to develop students' social and emotional capabilities (SEC. Complexity in the school environments into which initiatives are introduced, such as diverse student capabilities, school structures, and teachers' knowledge and confidence, will play an integral role in the success of those initiatives. This paper investigates the environments of schools about to receive the KidsMatter mental heath promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative in Australia, using information sourced from questionnaires about 2598 students and their teachers in 50 Australian primary schools. The focus of the report is on the status of the schools' work in one of the key focus areas for the intervention, namely students' SEC. Analysis showed relatively high levels of students' SEC across the whole sample. Teachers' attitudes towards SEC learning were highly positive. Teachers' self-rated knowledge and approaches in dealing with SEC were moderate, and point to requirements for additional pre-service and professional development. The extent of regular and sustained delivery of SEC programs and mental health initiatives in general showed variability, suggesting the need to attend to school systems and structural supports. Implications of these areas of diversity in school environments on the selection and methods of delivery of mental health promotion programs in schools are discussed.

  6. Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnworth, C.R.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Thomas, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that

  7. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  8. Foods offered in Quebec school cafeterias: do they promote healthy eating habits? Results of a provincial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Mongeau, Lyne

    2012-06-05

    A school environment that encourages students to opt for food with sound nutritional value is both essential and formative in ensuring that young people adopt healthy eating habits. The aim of this paper is to describe the food offered for lunch in the cafeteria service lines in Quebec schools on regular school days. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2008 and June 2009 with a representative sample of 207 French-speaking schools in the province of Quebec. The response rate was 71%. The cafeteria food available from the service line was observed directly and systematically by research assistants trained in observational procedures. Bivariate and descriptive analyses were performed. While most schools offered a vegetable side dish, only 71% of primary schools, 71% of public secondary schools, and 54% of private secondary schools did not offer cold-cut dishes, stuffed pastry, or a fried food on their daily menus. The sandwiches available were rarely made with whole-grain bread. Public secondary schools had more cookies, biscuits, muffins, and chewing gum than private primary and secondary schools. Milk was available in 85% of the primary schools. Most of the schools had eliminated sodas but were still offering fruit cocktails instead of 100% fruit juice. The school eating environment changed significantly from 2002 to 2009, presumably as a result of the government action plan and the Framework Policy. Improvements must be made with respect to reducing added sugar in beverages and desserts and promoting baked rather than fried snacks. Vigilance is required since many new products are making their way into the market.

  9. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  10. Predicting Students' Homework Environment Management at the Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined empirical models of variables posited to predict students' homework environment management at the secondary school level. The participants were 866 8th graders from 61 classes and 745 11th graders from 46 classes. Most of the variance in homework environment management occurred at the student level, with classmates'…

  11. Science Laboratory Classroom Environments in Korean High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Lee, Sunny S. U.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the learning environment of senior high school science laboratory classrooms in Korea, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was translated into Korean and administered to 439 students (99 science-independent stream students, 195 science-oriented stream students and 145 humanities stream students). Data…

  12. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  13. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  14. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  15. Food insecurity and malnutrition in Chinese elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiuhua; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Wenjing; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei

    2015-09-28

    It has been shown that food insecurity is associated with poor diet quality and unfavourable health outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effects of food insecurity on the overall malnutrition status among children. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among 1583 elementary school students, aged 6-14 years, living in Chinese rural areas and examined its association with four malnutrition signs, including rickets sequelae, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Information on food security was collected via questionnaires. Rickets sequelae were assessed by an experienced paediatrician during the interview. Anaemia was determined by the WHO Hb thresholds adjusted by the local altitude. Weight and height were measured during the interview. Stunting and wasting were then evaluated according to WHO child growth standards (2007). We examined the association between food insecurity and the number of malnutrition signs (total number = 4), and the likelihood of having severe malnutrition (presence of 3+ signs), after adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, social-economic status and dietary intakes. During the previous 12 months, the overall prevalence of food insecurity was 6.1% in the entire studied population and 16.3% in participants with severe malnutrition. Participants with food insecurity had a slightly higher number of malnutrition signs (1.14 v. 0.96; P=0.043) relative to those who were food secure, after adjusting for potential confounders. Food insecurity was also associated with increased likelihood of having severe malnutrition (adjusted OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.47, 6.46; P=0.003). In conclusion, food insecurity is significantly associated with malnutrition among Chinese children in this community.

  16. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  17. The Association Between the Physical Environment of Primary Schools and Active School Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,

  18. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P advertising by food or beverage companies (31.7% in 2005, 42.6% in 2008; P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P foods and beverages offered in the cafeteria, in classrooms, and at school events, as well as in fund-raising and physical activity practices. A significant number of school districts have modified physical education requirements for elementary schools and developed policies prohibiting the use of physical activity as a punishment. We conclude that Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act.

  19. School and workplace as learning environments in VET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    The aim of this paper is to present an analytical model to study school and workplace as different learning environments and discuss some findings from the application of the model on a case study. First the paper tries to answer the question: what is a learning environment? In most other studies...... schools and workplaces are not only considered to be different learning environment, but are also analysed using different approaches. In this paper I will propose a common model to analyse and compare the two learning environments, drawing on sociology of work (Kern & Schumann 1984; Braverman 1976......) and theories of workplace learning (Lave & Wenger 1991; Engeström 2001; Billett 2001; Evans, Hodkinson & Unwin 2002). A basic distinction is made between the technical-organisational and the socio-cultural learning environment. The first, the technical-organisa¬tional learning environment, consists...

  20. Transitions between food insecurity and food security predict children's social skill development during elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Larry L

    2011-06-28

    Recent findings indicate that household food insecurity affects children's social skill development in the early years of elementary school. It is important to assess the persistency of developmental consequences and investigate whether all categories of social skills are equally affected by food insecurity experiences. The present paper estimates population-averaged and subject-specific models for children's social skill scores reported by school teachers using longitudinal data on 2310 boys and 2400 girls in the USA enrolled in the 1st (aged 6-9 years), 3rd (aged 8-11 years) and 5th (aged 10-13 years) grades (1999-2003) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten. The main findings are, first, significantly (P skill scores are evident. Estimates based on sex-stratified samples indicate that the contemporaneous association is strongest among girls, while the association of an early transition from food insecurity in the 1st grade to food security in the 3rd grade is strongest among boys. Second, food insecurity experiences predict children's social skill scores emphasising self-control, attentiveness and task persistence, rather than interpersonal relationships or externalising behaviour. Overall, the findings underscore the multifaceted effect that household food insecurity has on children's social skills and provide the strongest empirical evidence to date that the experiences are linked with non-nutritional developmental consequences for children over a time horizon spanning several years.

  1. Assessing the readiness of a school system to adopt food allergy management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Christina; Patterson, Leslie; White, Brenda; Schellhase, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of potentially fatal food allergies in school-aged children is rising. It is important for schools to have a food allergy management policy and an emergency action plan for each affected student. To examine the current status of food allergy guideline and/or policy implementation and adoption in a large school system in southeastern Wisconsin. A 24-item anonymous electronic survey was developed and completed by school principals and administrators in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee School System (approximately 125 schools) in southeastern Wisconsin. One in 4 responding schools reported no guidelines or policy. Schools that reported having students with special needs due to food allergy were more likely to have a local food allergy policy compared to schools that did not report having students with food allergy special needs (OR 6.3, 1.5-26, P = 0.01). Schools with food allergy guidelines/policies were 3.5 times more likely to require student individual action plans than schools with no guidelines or policies (OR 3.5, 1.00-12.2, P = 0.05). Gaps in evidence-based food allergy policy implementation were found in this school system. Schools with food-allergic children with special needs were more likely to have guidelines/policy, however, they were not more likely to require emergency action plans. The majority of schools (66, 90%) reported interest in receiving further information or training on food allergy management.

  2. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  4. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  5. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms street food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  7. The Feud over Food: The Truth about the School Lunch Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Serving meals and snacks at school is fraught with politics and pitfalls. While the battle rages in school cafeterias over menu choices, beverage sales, vending foods, and outright bans on what students can buy or even bring to school, there is some good news. More school districts are reducing the number of fried foods, increasing the levels of…

  8. Strategies to Improve Marketing and Promotion of Foods and Beverages at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…

  9. Younger Elementary School Students Waste More School Lunch Foods than Older Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Shahrbanou F; Moore, Carolyn E; Chen, Tzu-An; Weber Cullen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Children may not receive nutritional benefits from school lunch meals if they do not eat the foods served. This study investigated whether there were differences in school lunch foods consumed and wasted by grade level of elementary school students. In this cross-sectional study, anonymous meal observations were conducted after students selected their reimbursable school lunch meals in the cafeteria lunch line. The amounts of foods selected and consumed were recorded using the quarter waste method and food waste was calculated using the information recorded. During the spring of 2013, eight elementary schools (50% low income) enrolling children in kindergarten through grade 5 in one school district in the Houston, TX, area were selected by the Child Nutrition Director. The amount of calories and foods consumed and the percentage wasted were assessed. Analysis of covariance and post hoc analysis were used to examine food consumption and plate waste by grade level (kindergarten and grade 1 [K-Gr1], grades 2 and 3 [Gr2-3], and grades 4 and 5 [Gr4-5]), controlling for student sex and school-level free/reduced priced meal eligibility. There were 568 nonrandom lunch meal observations of students included in the analyses. Approximately 48% of the observations were from boys; 50% were from low-income schools, and were evenly divided by grade. In general, students in K-Gr1 consumed fewer calories than both Gr2-3 and Gr4-5, and Gr2-3 students consumed significantly fewer calories than Gr4-5. K-Gr1 students also consumed less and wasted more total and red-orange vegetables, total/whole/refined grains, and total protein foods than the older students. Gr2-3 students wasted more calories and total grains than Gr4-5 students. K-Gr1 students wasted more fruit than Gr2-3 students. Overall, younger students in elementary schools (K-Gr-1) consumed less of the foods they selected for their lunch meals, and wasted more than older elementary school students. Future studies should

  10. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  11. What influences urban Indian secondary school students' food consumption? - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Indian adolescents' over reliance on foods such as nutrient-poor snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and take-away foods puts them at significant risk of obesity and several diet-related chronic diseases. Therefore, the factors that influence their dietary behaviours need to be better understood in order to develop effective nutrition promotion strategies. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to investigate adolescents', parents', teachers', and school principals' perceptions of the main influences on adolescent eating behaviours. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private English-speaking schools in Kolkata, India, participated in semi-structured interviews. The digitally-recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The 52 interviews revealed a number of factors that may influence adolescents' eating habits including parent and peer influences, home and school food environments, and the mass media. Emerging evidence suggests that future health and nutrition promotion interventions need to target the different influences on Indian teenagers' food consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  13. Food allergies in school: design and evaluation of a teacher-oriented training action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarotto, Licia; Mascarello, Giulia; Pinto, Anna; Schiavo, Maria Rita; Bagni, Marina; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-12-04

    Food allergies are perceived as a significant problem in school environments; as a result, a teacher's ability to recognise and deal with allergic reactions is of fundamental importance to protect children's health. This paper includes the results of a study conducted for the purposes of designing, implementing and monitoring a specific set of teacher-oriented communication actions. The study involved designing, implementing and assessing five workshops. These workshops were designed on the basis of the analysis of perceptions and information needs investigated by three focus groups (25 teachers). The level of the teachers' knowledge and appreciation of the workshops was evaluated by using two structured questionnaires (n = 158). The teachers feel that they are insufficiently informed about food allergies; this knowledge gap is confirmed by an analysis of their knowledge before participating in the workshops. According to the teachers, the information which would be most useful to them has to do with the practical management of allergies in school. They feel that there is a lack of a professional contact person for precise and reliable information on health issues. The workshops seem to be appreciated as an information method. In addition, there appears to be a need to involve all children in awareness raising activities and education projects on this subject. There is an urgent need for training actions on food allergies in Italian schools, in particular the communication of practical information regarding the management of allergies and emergencies. More communication between the medical and school staff is, in particular, advisable.

  14. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P Hawkes

    Full Text Available A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings.School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as "Lower Fat and less added Sugar" (LFS and "Higher Fat and more added Sugar" (HFS based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings.In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001. The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant.This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program.

  15. Interrater Reliability of the ENERGY Photo-Rating Instrument for School Environments Related to Physical Activity and Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Teatske; Te Velde, Saskia; Chiu, Kai-Jan; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vik, Frøydis N; Lien, Nanna; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai

    2016-04-01

    The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the interrater reliability for rating characteristics of primary school environments related to physical activity and eating. Photos taken at 172 primary schools in 7 European countries were rated according to a standardized protocol. Briefly, after categorizing all photos in subsections of physical activity or eating opportunities, 2 researchers independently rated aspects of safety, functionality, aesthetics, type of food/drinks advertised, type/variety of foods provided. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. Six subsections of the photo-rating instrument showed excellent (ICC or Cohen's kappa ≥0.81) or good (ICC or Cohen's kappa 0.61 to 0.80) interrater reliability. Outdoor physical activity facilities (ICC = 0.54) showed moderate, and school canteens (Cohen's kappa = 0.05) and vending machines showed poor (Cohen's kappa = 0.16) interrater reliability. Interrater reliability of the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) photo-rating instrument was good-to-excellent for 6 out of 9 characteristics of primary school environment components related to physical activity and eating.

  16. Local food environment interventions to improve healthy food choice in adults: a systematic review and realist synthesis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Maguire, Eva R; Kuhn, Isla; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-03

    Local food environments have been linked with dietary intake and obesity in adults. However, overall evidence remains mixed with calls for increased theoretical and conceptual clarity related to how availability of neighbourhood food outlets, and within-outlet food options, influence food purchasing and consumption. The purpose of this work is to develop a programme theory of food availability, supported by empirical evidence from a range of local food environment interventions. A systematic search of the literature will be followed by duplicate screening and quality assessment (using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool). Realist synthesis will then be conducted according to the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) publication standards, including transparent appraisal, synthesis and drawing conclusions via consensus. The final synthesis will propose an evidence-based programme theory of food availability, including evidence mapping to demonstrate contextual factors, pathways of influence and potential mechanisms. With the paucity of empirically supported programme theories used in current local food environment interventions to improve food availability, this synthesis may be used to understand how and why interventions work, and thus inform the development of theory-driven, evidence-based interventions to improve healthy food choice and future empirical work. PROSPERO CRD42014009808. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Governing Food Choices: A Critical Analysis of School Food Pedagogies and Young People's Responses in Contemporary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Deana; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Recently a proliferation and intensification of school programmes that are directed towards teaching children and young people about food has been witnessed. Whilst there is much to learn about food, anxieties concerning the obesity epidemic have dramatically shaped how schools address the topic. This article draws on governmentality to consider…

  18. Perceptions about interpersonal relationships and school environment among middle school students with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hyekyun; McQuillan, Brenda; Chen, Ding-Geng; Atis, Shannska

    2017-11-01

    To examine interpersonal relationships involving peers and teachers and perceptions about school environment among middle school students with asthma in comparison to their healthy counterparts. The study also assesses asthma prevalence in a large sample of middle school students representing different geographic locations. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1059 middle school students in grades 6-8 enrolled in schools in a northeastern region of the United States. Students reported their chronic health conditions including asthma and completed questionnaires measuring perceptions about their relationships with peers and teachers as well as school environment. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to compare students with asthma and their healthy counterparts in the study variables. Asthma was reported by 16.5% of the sample (n = 169). The rate was higher among minority students (23%) than their white counterparts (15%). Greater proportion of urban students (28%) reported asthma than rural (18%) and suburban (14%) students. Students with asthma reported significantly poorer relationships with peers (B = -1.74, p environment (B = -1.30, p =.009) were also lower than their healthy counterparts. Race showed no significant effects on school factors. Overall asthma prevalence was substantially higher than the national average of adolescent asthma, particularly those residing in the urban area. Poor perceptions of interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers among students with asthma may indicate compromised quality of life. Suboptimal interpersonal relationships and school environment need to be identified and adequately addressed, given their implications for asthma management at the school setting among middle school students.

  19. Influence of food-environment interactions on health in the twenty-first century.

    OpenAIRE

    Fennema, O

    1990-01-01

    The quality and safety of foods are affected by the environment, and the quality and safety of the environment are, in turn, affected by foods and food processing. To explore these interrelationships, as they might exist in the twenty-first century, one must speculate regarding future changes in foods and food processing. Several trends in food processing seem likely to predominate into the twenty-first century, and they will be, for the most part, evolutionary in nature and of low consumer v...

  20. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  1. Fast-food outlets and grocery stores near school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Hanne; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Kouvonen, Anne; Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors may affect adolescents' eating habits and thereby body weight. However, the contribution of school neighbourhood environment is poorly understood. This study examined the association between proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store to school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight. Participants were 23 182 adolescents (mean age 15 years) who responded to a classroom survey in 181 lower secondary schools in Finland (2008-09). School location was linked to data on distance from school to the nearest fast-food outlet or grocery store (≤100 m, 101-500 m, >500 m) using global positioning system-coordinate databases. Outcomes were irregular eating habits (skipping breakfast, skipping free school lunch, skipping free school-provided snacks and not having family dinners), the accumulation of these habits and overweight, including obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Thirteen percentage of the participants were overweight. Having a fast-food outlet or grocery store near school was associated with skipping often breakfast and free school lunch, and the accumulation of irregular eating habits. The proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.52) risk of overweight among adolescent with a low socioeconomic status but not among those with higher socioeconomic status. This association was partly (12%) explained by the accumulation of irregular eating habits. Among adolescents from low socioeconomic background, the presence of fast-food retailers near schools is associated with accumulation of irregular eating habits and greater overweight. These findings suggest that obesogenic school neighbourhoods may contribute to social inequalities in overweight. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring affordances in digital school environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    The paper presents a media ecological understanding of media education and reports from an empirical study on the use of digital media at Ørestad Gymnasium in Copenhagen. An ecological model for e-learning is formed which serves as a guide for understanding how digital media elicit a new...... educational environment. The model highlights four environmental aspects influenced by media: teachers, students, didactical methods and curriculum. Media ecology also implies studying media as species that are competing for our attention and usage. The paper uses this perspective to ask how the students...... choose between and combine different media in their learning activities. These questions are the focus of the empirical study....