WorldWideScience

Sample records for school finance reforms

  1. Two Roads to School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Joel S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on legislative and electoral consideration of school finance reforms identifies three important elements; the art of compromise, the fiscal context, and political leadership. Adoption of new school finance formulas is far more likely through the legislative process than through a referendum. (Author/AM)

  2. School Finance Reform. At Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Californians are very concerned about funding for their K-12 public schools. They consistently say that K-12 education should be protected from spending cuts over and above any other area of the state budget. California's system of school finance is in trouble. Many studies have found it to be inequitable, with wide variation in per-pupil funding.…

  3. The Political Context of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)

  4. School Finance Reform: Acceptable Remedies for Serrano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1974-01-01

    Article examined the remedies available to states in the wake of Serrano and its progeny. As well, it analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of "district power equalizing" and "full state assumption" as alternative methods of financing schools. (Editor/RK)

  5. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…

  6. School Finance Reform: Do Equalized Expenditures Imply Equalized Teacher Salaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams, Meg; Butler, J. S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2011-01-01

    Kentucky is a poor, relatively rural state that contrasts greatly with the relatively urban and wealthy states typically the subject of education studies employing large-scale administrative data. For this reason, Kentucky's experience of major school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics.…

  7. School Finance and Courts: Does Reform Matter, and How Can We Tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Welner, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: School finance litigation has often prompted funding reforms, but what happens as a result is the subject of considerable dispute. Purpose: This article explores design problems encountered in studies examining the nature and effects of those reforms. Analysis: After describing the development and current status of school…

  8. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  9. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  10. Rodriquez V. San Antonio Independent School District: Gathering the Ayes of Texas--The Politics of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudof, Mark G.; Morgan, Daniel C.

    1974-01-01

    An historical account is given of movements toward educational finance reform in Texas, culminating in the Rodriquez v. San Antonio Independent School District case and its aftermath. The role of political pressures applied by various interest groups is traced and the prospects for future reform assessed. (EH)

  11. The Impact of School Finance Litigation on Resource Distribution: A Comparison of Court-Mandated Equity and Adequacy Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Matthew G.; Liu, Keke; Guthrie, James W.

    2009-01-01

    While there is a wealth of research on school finance equity and adequacy, and school finance theory clearly documents differences between the two concepts, no study has examined whether the reforms engendered by each approach actually differ in terms of resource distribution. The present study examines the issues using district-level data on…

  12. Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Reform-minded leaders of Qatar, who have embarked on a sweeping reform of their nation's education system, asked RAND to evaluate the education finance system that has been adopted and to offer suggestions for improvements. The authors analyze the system's evolution and resource allocation patterns between 2004 and 2006 and develop analytic tools…

  13. School Finance Reform: A Weighted Pupil Formula for California. Report 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Governor Jerry Brown has called for a major overhaul of California's school finance policies. His proposal for a weighted pupil funding system would simplify the rules that govern the distribution of funds to schools and school districts, while targeting a larger share of available resources to the schools and students with the greatest needs. In…

  14. Impact of School Finance Reform on Resource Equalization and Academic Performance: Evidence from Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Michigan radically altered its school finance system in 1994. The new plan, called Proposal A, significantly increased state aid to the lowest-spending school districts and limited future increases in spending in the highest-spending ones, abolishing local discretion over school spending. I investigate the impact of Proposal A on the distribution…

  15. Merging Educational Finance Reform and Desegregation Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.

  16. School Finance Reform: Can It Support California's College- and Career-Ready Goal? Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For decades, when California's state leaders have wanted to see local school districts respond to shifts in policy and expectations they relied on the state-controlled school finance system to leverage local change. Through the use of categorical programs and earmarked funding, they created incentives for districts that complied and penalties for…

  17. Improving Finance for Qatari Education Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Qatar's education reform, which included implementation of a new finance system, appears to be providing schools with adequate funding but is still struggling with issues of transparency and swift policy shifts that have been difficult to accommodate. [For full report, "Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar", see…

  18. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  19. United States School Finance Policy, 1955-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes the past 25 years of school finance policy reforms, illustrates tensions among various value proponents, and distills commonalities of reform efforts and their effects. Speculations on the probable points of conflict for the 1980s are provided. (Author/LC)

  20. Preferences for School Finance Systems: Voters versus Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin D.; Fischel, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A theory that urges judges to decide that locally financed school systems are unconstitutional holds that courts must implement reforms because the legislative process is dominated by property-rich communities. However, the defeat of a New Hampshire gubernatorial candidate who advocated such reforms contradicts the theory. (JOW)

  1. Education Resourcing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: The Impact of Finance Equity Reforms in Public Schooling: Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Shireen

    2006-01-01

    Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…

  2. Implementing health financing reform: lessons from countries in transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutzin, Joseph; Cashin, Cheryl; Jakab, Melitta

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the social and economic policies of the transition countries of central and eastern Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia have diverged, including the way they have reformed the financing...

  3. The Search for Equity in School Finance: Michigan School District Response to a Guaranteed Tax Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rolla Edward; Carroll, Stephen J.

    Part of a three-volume report on the effects of school finance reform, this volume examines the effects of reform on Michigan school districts' budgets from 1971 to 1976. Econometric models were used. Researchers found a very small "price" effect--an elasticity of -.02. The data provide no evidence that state matching grants stimulate…

  4. Reform of the Educational Finance System as the Foundation of Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…

  5. School Reform Unplugged: The Bensenville New American School Project, 1991-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…

  6. Proposals for the Reform of Constitutional Regulations on Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor András Hetei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make specific proposals in the areas of public finance and the budget process in the context of the reform of the Hungarian Constitution. In preparing the proposals the author has reviewed the prevailing constitutional regulations as well as the relevant practice of the Constitutional Court, and examined and compared the constitutional schemes of European countries. The paper finds that a number of aspects of the constitutional regulation of public finance...

  7. SABER-School Finance : Data Collection Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing service delivery; (iv) budgeting with adequate an...

  8. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  9. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Free-Market School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  11. Financing reform and structural change in the health services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C W; Phillips, B U

    1986-08-01

    This paper reviews the major trends in financing reform, emphasizing their impact on those characteristics of the market for health services that economists have viewed as monopolistic, and discusses the implications of structural change for the allied health professions. Hopefully, by understanding the fundamental forces of change and responding to uncertainty with flexibility and imagination, the allied health professions can capitalize on the opportunities afforded by structural change. Overall, these trends should result in the long-term outlook for use of allied health services to increase at an average annual rate of 9% to 10%. Allied health professionals may also witness an increase in independent practice opportunities. Finally, redistribution of jobs will likely occur in favor of outpatient facilities, home health agencies, and nontraditional settings. This in turn will have an impact on allied health education, which will need to adapt to these types of reforms.

  12. Colorado School Finance Partnership: Report and Recommendations. Financing Colorado's Future: Assessing Our School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Colorado has emerged as a national leader in crafting innovative solutions for challenges facing its public school system. From implementing the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reforms to more recent legislation including standards and assessments for a preschool-through-college…

  13. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  14. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…

  15. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, GJ; Magnuson, K; Murnane, RJ

    2016-01-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learni...

  16. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  17. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  18. Health Sector Reform in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq: Financing Reform, Primary Care, and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, C Ross; Moore, Melinda; Hilborne, Lee H; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2014-12-30

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government asked the RAND Corporation to help guide reform of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The overarching goal of reform was to help establish a health system that would provide high-quality services efficiently to everyone to prevent, treat, and manage physical and mental illnesses and injuries. This article summarizes the second phase of RAND's work, when researchers analyzed three distinct but intertwined health policy issue areas: development of financing policy, implementation of early primary care recommendations, and evaluation of quality and patient safety. For health financing, the researchers reviewed the relevant literature, explored the issue in discussions with key stakeholders, developed and assessed various policy options, and developed plans or approaches to overcome barriers and achieve stated policy objectives. In the area of primary care, they developed and helped to implement a new management information system. In the area of quality and patient safety, they reviewed relevant literature, discussed issues and options with health leaders, and recommended an approach toward incremental implementation.

  19. Dental school finances: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, W H

    1986-05-01

    Total expenditures and revenues of 58 US dental school were derived from reports of the ADA Division of Educational Measurements. These financial data were studied by type of dental school (public, state-related private, and private) and by expenditure/revenue categories. Dental schools showed little diversity in expenditures: most were directed toward instruction; few were directed toward research or continuing education. Several distinctive patterns among the three types of dental schools in revenues were observed. Two configurations emerged: public and state-related private dental schools receive more than 75% of their revenues from government and tuition, and private dental schools, more than 50%.

  20. Did School Finance Equalization Increase Revenue Instability for School Districts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    This study uses an Interrupted Time Series analysis with a non-equivalent comparison group to estimate the causal effect of school finance equalization on district revenue instability. The author applies a microeconomic framework to an understudied problem in education finance and policy. In so doing, she illustrates how policies can sometimes…

  1. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....

  2. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  3. Introduction: Alternative Public School Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disend, David S., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that time and money are the two critical resources to allocate in any plan, and certainly regarding public education. Discusses four important elements in the debate about the use of resources: efficiency, content, effectiveness, and fairness. Outlines difficulties and questions regarding school funding. (SR)

  4. EnergySmart Schools National Financing Roundtable II - Key Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the discussion at the Financing Roundtable. It provides an overview of the financing opportunities, challenges, and activities involved in achieving high performance schools, as identified by the participants.

  5. Balancing Campaign Finance Reform Against the First Amendment. Looking at the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the rationale for campaign finance reform, preventing corruption or the appearance of corruption in the electoral process, and the need for balancing the constitutional rights protected by the First Amendment. Discusses the issues of disclosure, contribution limits, issue advocacy, and soft money. Includes teaching activities and…

  6. School as Community, Community as School: Examining Principal Leadership for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…

  7. Powering Africa: Meeting the financing and reform challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, Anton; Shkaratan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces chronic power problems, including insufficient generation capacity, low connectivity, poor reliability, and high costs, all of which constrain development. The investment requirements to meet Africa's power needs are noted and strategies to address the funding gap are set out. The time for an ideological debate on public versus private investment is over—both are needed. Africa's key challenges are the management of hybrid power markets, the reform of state-owned utilities, cost-reflective pricing, better targeting of subsidies, the nimbler rollout of electrification, and stronger regional integration. - Highlights: ► Africa has insufficient power generation, low connectivity, poor reliability, and high costs. ► Investment requirements to meet Africa's power needs are calculated. ► Key challenges are the management of hybrid power markets and the reform of state-owned utilities. ► Other challenges are cost-reflective pricing, extending access, and stronger regional integration.

  8. Financing of health care in four Caribbean territories: a comparison with reforms in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, F; Lapré, R; Antonius, R; Dokoui, S; Haqq, E; Roberts, R; Mills, A

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers health care finance in four Caribbean territories and plans for reform in comparison with developments in European countries, to which these territories are historically linked. European health care reforms are aimed at making resource allocation in health care more efficient and more responsive to consumers' demands and preferences. These reforms in Europe have been continuing without appearing to have influenced the developments in the Caribbean very much, except in Martinique. In Trinidad and Tobago current reform entails delegation of responsibility for providing services to four regional health authorities and no purchaser/provider split at the regional or facility level as in the UK has been implemented. In the Bahamas, managed care arrangements are likely to emerge given the proximity of the United States. Recent universal coverage reform in Martinique was aimed at harmonisation of finance by bringing social security and social aid functions together under one management structure and may provide more opportunities for contracting and other initiatives towards greater efficiency. The first priority in Suriname is to restore proper functioning of the current system. Reforms in the four Caribbean territories have a largely administrative character and affect the organisation of the third party role in health care rather than fundamentally changing the relationship between this third party and the various other parties in health care.

  9. Schooling, the School Effectiveness Movement, and Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence

    The widely accepted notion that the management of resources in schools involves merely strategic decisions about the deployment of finances, staff, and materials must be contested. The school effectiveness movement ignores the social and political context of schools and, through emphasis upon superficial managerial matters, teaches pupils to…

  10. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  11. THE NECESSITY OF IMPLEMENTING REFORMS IN THE FIELD OF LOCAL PUBLIC FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezure Oana Sabina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties faced by local authorities as a result of the austerity conditions in which they work, the elements inherited from the previous regime, the need for additional resources to optimize public finance to meet the needs, optimally, if possible, citizens, require the design and continue the reform of public finances at the local level that correspond to these requirements. Optimization of the reform process in local public finances depend to a great extent on the use of financial levers of fiscal efficiency, fulfilment of the functions of public finance, the way resources are provided and how their administration for economic and social development. The uneven development of economic weakness of the assembly reflect and are unacceptable because, in their turn, become a source of economic and political instability. Responsibility for ensuring sufficient local revenue must not belong to a large measure, the central authorities, the context in which local authorities should prioritize finding solutions to supplement the local budget and obtain funds from the central budget. At the same time, cannot be intended directions of reform in the field of public administration without taking into account the financial implications reflected in the budgets for each level of Government, pyramid-shaped, from central to local level.

  12. Stakeholders' views on the strengths and weaknesses of maternal care financing and its reform in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengelia, Lela; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2017-08-08

    The improvement of maternal health has been one of the aims of the health financing reforms in Georgia. Public-private relationships are the most notable part of the reform. This study aimed to assess the strengths and weakness of the maternal care financing in Georgia in terms of adequacy and effects. A qualitative design was used to explore the opinions of key stakeholders about the adequacy of maternal care financing and financial protection of pregnant women in Georgia. Women who had used maternal care during the past 4 years along with health care providers, policy makers, and representatives of international partner organizations and national professional body were the respondents in this study. Six focus group discussions to collect data from women and 15 face-to-face in-depth interviews to collect data from the other stakeholders were conducted. Each focus group discussion consisted of 7-8 women. Two focus group discussions were carried out at each of the target settings (i.e. Tbilisi, Imereti and Adjara). Women were selected in each location through the hospital registry and snowballing method. The evidence shows that there is a consensus among maternal care stakeholder groups on the influence of the healthcare financing reforms on maternal health. Specifically, the privatization of the maternal care services has had positive effects because it significantly improved the environment and technical capacity of the maternity houses. Also, in contrast to other former-soviet republics, there are no informal payments anymore for maternal care in Georgia. However the privatization, which was done without strict regulation, negatively influenced the reform process and provided the possibility to private providers to manipulate the formal user fees in maternal care. Stakeholders also indicated that the UHC programs implemented at the last stage of the healthcare financing reform as well as other state maternal health programs protect women from catastrophic health

  13. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-05

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time to Reform the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshtain, Jean Bethke

    1983-01-01

    Indicates that parents, teachers, and concerned citizens must become involved in the decision-making process regarding public education. Recommends that (1) schools be decentralized to allow for more parent participation and teacher responsiveness, (2) schools of education be phased out, (3) parents and students get involved in educational…

  15. Reform of the global financial architecture: a new social contract between society and finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Banziger, H.

    2009-01-01

    The current global crisis poses significant challenges for our fi nancial system, our economies, and our societies. Overcoming these will require a new “social contract” between society and finance. This must include improvements to corporate governance, a reform of capital requirements, a more transparent and less procyclical accounting framework, banking laws to reflect modern financial markets, better infrastructure, and stronger supervision. Given the global nature of today’s capital mark...

  16. The New Technology and Educational Reform: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…

  17. Q&A: The Basics of California's School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In a state as large and complex as California, education financing can become as complicated as rocket science. This two-page Q&A provides a brief, easy-to-understand explanation of California's school finance system and introduces the issues of its adequacy and equity. A list of resources providing additional information is provided.

  18. Personal Finance Education: Effective Practice Guide for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhofer, Thomas; Kerr, David; Gardiner, Clare

    2010-01-01

    This document provides guidance on effective practice in delivering personal finance education in secondary schools. It is based on the findings from research carried out by NFER (the National Foundation for Educational Research) on behalf of pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) as part of an evaluation of Learning Money Matters (LMM). This…

  19. The Finance of Non Government Schools in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Edwin B.; And Others

    The educational system in Bangladesh is unique in its finance and management structure. Elementary and higher education are mostly publicly financed, while secondary and intermediate education are mainly private organized. This study concentrates on private schools at the secondary, intermediate, and college level; and the difference in access…

  20. Risk Financing for Schools: The Capital Markets Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The capital markets approach is an alternative means of risk financing whereby a school system establishes and controls its own insurance company and makes systematic contributions to pay for expected and anticipated losses and their associated costs. (MLF)

  1. Public School Finance Problems in Texas. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Research League, Austin.

    The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…

  2. School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

  3. Challenges facing the finance reform of the health system in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania

    2014-05-28

    Financing is one of the key functions of health systems, which includes the processes of revenue collection, fund pooling and acquisitions in order to ensure access to healthcare for the entire population. The article analyzes the financing model of the Chilean health system in terms of the first two processes, confirming low public spending on healthcare and high out-of-pocket expenditure, in addition to an appropriation of public resources by private insurers and providers. Insofar as pooling, there is lack of solidarity and risk sharing leading to segmentation of the population that is not consistent with the concept of social security, undermines equity and reduces system-wide efficiency. There is a pressing need to jumpstart reforms that address these issues. Treatments must be considered together with public health concerns and primary care in order to ensure the right to health of the entire population.

  4. Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

    2014-01-01

    The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government's commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage.

  5. Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional

  6. Business Curriculum and Assessment Reform in Hong Kong Schools: A Critical Review from a Competence-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Christina Wai Mui

    2010-01-01

    From September 2009 onwards, a new business curriculum which focuses on three key business disciplines, namely management, accounting and finance, has been implemented in Hong Kong senior secondary schools. A new assessment guide has been also proposed in light of the new curriculum. Such business curriculum and assessment reform move in the…

  7. Financing School Capital Projects in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    Financing school capital projects in New York State is a responsibility involving both local school districts and the state government. State building aid is provided through an aid ratio and approved expenditure formula. This formula has an equalizing effect among districts by explicitly providing an aid amount inversely proportional to property…

  8. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  9. Perspectives on High School Reform. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a brief, informative booklet. This volume of Viewpoints focuses on issues related to high school reform. This booklet offers background information explaining the issues surrounding high school reform with perspectives from research, policy, and practice. It also provides a list of…

  10. Reforming Schools: A Case Study of New Basics in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Walsh, Lynne; Niesche, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective…

  11. EnergySmart Schools National Financing Roundtable II—Key Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-11-01

    As a follow-up to the release of its Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools, the the National Financing Roundtable brought together individuals with diverse knowledge of school building programs and projects to discuss financing issues and options that build upon those described in the first Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools.

  12. Health in Southeast Asia 6 Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Patcharanarumol, W; Ir, P; Aljunid, SM; Mukti, AG; Akkhavong, K; Banzon, E; Huong, DB; Thabrany, H; Mills, A

    2011-01-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for natio...

  13. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  14. Effects of Iranian Economic Reforms on Equity in Social and Healthcare Financing: A Segmented Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Objectives One of the main objectives of the Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) in Iran was to improve equity in healthcare financing. This study aimed at measuring the effects of the TSL, which was implemented in Iran in 2010, on equity in healthcare financing. Methods Segmented regression analysis was applied to assess the effects of TSL implementation on the Gini and Kakwani indices of outcome variables in Iranian households. Data for the years 1977-2014 were retrieved from formal databases. Changes in the levels and trends of the outcome variables before and after TSL implementation were assessed using Stata version 13. Results In the 33 years before the implementation of the TSL, the Gini index decreased from 0.401 to 0.381. The Gini index and its intercept significantly decreased to 0.362 (p<0.001) 5 years after the implementation of the TSL. There was no statistically significant change in the gross domestic product or inflation rate after TSL implementation. The Kakwani index significantly increased from -0.020 to 0.007 (p<0.001) before the implementation of the TSL, while we observed no statistically significant change (p=0.81) in the Kakwani index after TSL implementation. Conclusions The TSL reform, which was introduced as part of an economic development plan in Iran in 2010, led to a significant reduction in households’ income inequality. However, the TSL did not significantly affect equity in healthcare financing. Hence, while measuring the long-term impact of TSL is paramount, healthcare decision-makers need to consider the efficacy of the TSL in order to develop plans for achieving the desired equity in healthcare financing. PMID:29631352

  15. School-Based Management: The Next Needed Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…

  16. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  17. Teacher Identity and Reform: Intersections within School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Heather Ann; Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton

    2016-01-01

    In the era of school accountability, school reform programs aimed at shifting school culture are often implemented in an attempt to increase student achievement as measured by standardized test scores. This ethnographic case study was conducted in Hawk Elementary, a low-performing, high-poverty school. Quantitative and qualitative data collected…

  18. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  19. Public School Finance Programs, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther O., Comp.

    This compendium describes the programs of state financial aid to school districts that were in effect in the 1978-79 school year. The introductory section of the report is an analysis of the situation and contains summary tables. The report for each state consists of two parts. The first part reports features of the state and local systems of…

  20. Selected Papers in School Finance: 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther O.; And Others

    The three papers in this volume describe exploratory efforts to adjust state aid to local school districts so as to reflect differences in local costs unrelated to school program content. Each study is limited to an analysis of relevant data for one of the three states considered--Michigan, California, and Florida. The underlying assumption is…

  1. Banking reform and the financing of firm investment : An empirical analysis of the Chilean experience, 1983-92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R

    This article investigates whether the Chilean banking reforms of the 1980s have contributed to reducing market imperfections in Chilean financial markets in the late 1980 and early 1990s. To analyse this issue, patterns of investment and its finance for different types of firms are studied, based on

  2. Improving Schools through Networks: A New Approach to Urban School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Malloy, Courtney L.; Chau, Derrick; Polhemus, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Data from an evaluation of the Annenberg Challenge in Los Angeles, a reform effort that experimented with school networks as a vehicle for improving schools, revealed that when school networks created structures that decentralized power and distributed organizational resources throughout the network, they also enhanced school capacity for reform.…

  3. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  4. A 50-State Strategy to Achieve School Finance Adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan R.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Goetz, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This article estimates the costs of school finance adequacy in each of the 50 states and Washington, D.C. by applying the recommendations from an evidence-based model to the student characteristics of each individual state. Using two different prices, (a) the national average teacher salaries adjusted by a comparable wage index and (b) individual…

  5. Delegation and Staff Commitment in the School of Finance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Delegation of Authority and Staff Commitment in the School of Finance and Banking in Kigali Rwanda. A cross-sectional survey design was used with the target sample size of 97 out of 130 parent population. The total number of questionnaires that were ...

  6. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  7. The Gateway Paper--financing health in Pakistan and its linkage with health reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pakistan currently principally uses three modes of financing health--taxation, out of pocket payments and donor contributions of which the latter is the least significant in terms of size. Less than 3.6% of the employees are covered under the social security scheme and there is a limited social protection mechanism, which collectively serves the health needs of 3.4% of the population. The main issues in health financing include low spending, lack of attention to alternate sources of financing and issues with fund mobilization and utilization. With respect to the first, health reforms proposed as part of the Gateway Paper make a strong case for promoting the reallocation of tax-based revenues and developing sustainable alternatives to low levels of public spending on health. With respect to alternative sources of health financing, the Gateway Paper lays stress on exploring policy options for private health insurance, broadening the base of Employees Social Security, creating a Federal Employees Social Security Programme, developing social health insurance within the framework of a broad-based social protection strategy, which scopes beyond the formally employed sector, establishing a widely inclusive safety net for the poor; mainstreaming philanthropic grants as a major source of health financing; developing a conducive tax configuration; generating greater corporate support for social sector causes within the framework of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and developing cost-sharing programmes, albeit with safeguards. The Gateway Paper regards efficient fund utilization a priority and lays stress on striking a balance between minimizing costs, controlling costs and using resources more efficiently and equitably--in other words, getting the best value for the money, on the one hand, and increasing the pool of available resources, on the other. Specific interventions such as the promotion of transparent financial administration, budgeting and cost

  8. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

    2007-01-01

    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  9. Making Good Choices: Districts Take the Lead. Comprehensive School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…

  10. Democratic School Leadership Reforms in Kenya: Cultural and Historical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…

  11. Public School Finance Programs, 1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther O., Comp.

    This publication describes state funds transmitted to local agencies for the support of elementary and secondary education. Each distribution identified as a separate fund by the state is described in terms of (1) title, (2) legal citation, (3) appropriation for the school year or estimate, (4) percentage of total state funds transmitted, (5)…

  12. State School Finance System Variance Impacts on Student Achievement: Inadequacies in School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael J.; Wiggall, Richard L.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.; Emanuel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate funding for the nation's schools to meet the call for higher student achievement has been a litigious issue. Spending on schools is a political choice. The choices made by state legislatures, in some cases, have failed to fund schools adequately and have incited school finance lawsuits in almost all states. These proceedings are generally…

  13. New systems of care for substance use disorders: treatment, finance, and technology under health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pating, David R; Miller, Michael M; Goplerud, Eric; Martin, Judith; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2012-06-01

    This article outlined ways in which persons with addiction are currently underserved by our current health care system. However, with the coming broad scale reforms to our health care system, the access to and availability of high-quality care for substance use disorders will increase. Addiction treatments will continue to be offered through traditional substance abuse care systems, but these will be more integrated with primary care, and less separated as treatment facilities leverage opportunities to blend services, financing mechanisms, and health information systems under federally driven incentive programs. To further these reforms, vigilance will be needed by consumers, clinicians, and policy makers to assure that the unmet treatment needs of individuals with addiction are addressed. Embedded in this article are essential recommendations to facilitate the improvement of care for substance use disorders under health care reform. Ultimately, as addiction care acquires more of the “look and feel” of mainstream medicine, it is important to be mindful of preexisting trends in health care delivery overall that are reflected in recent health reform legislation. Within the world of addiction care, clinicians must move beyond their self-imposed “stigmatization” and sequestration of specialty addiction treatment. The problem for addiction care, as it becomes more “mainstream,” is to not comfortably feel that general slogans like “Treatment Works,” as promoted by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment during its annual Recovery Month celebrations, will meet the expectations of stakeholders outside the specialty addiction treatment community. Rather, the problem is to show exactly how addiction treatment works, and to what extent it works-there have to be metrics showing changes in symptom level or functional outcome, changes in health care utilization, improvements in workplace attendance and

  14. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  15. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Putting "The System" into a School Autonomy Reform: The Case of the Independent Public Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobby, Brad

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Federal and state governments have been introducing neoliberal reforms to the governance of their education systems for a number of decades. One of the most recent programs of reform is the Western Australian Independent Public Schools (IPS) initiative. Similar to decentralizing reforms around the world, the IPS program seeks…

  17. Provision of capital for shutdown, dismantling and disposal. Cost risks and proposals for reform for a responsibility related financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina; Wronski, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    In Germany the latest discussion on the cost of nuclear phase-out, dismantling and waste disposal has shown that the provision of capital by the concerned companies for these challenges and the actual regulations are not sufficient for a long-term financing security. The study presents a reform concept including the need of improved transparency on the provision of capital, a differentiated financial statement, the introduction of a stock under public law for insolvency protection including a financing responsibility for the companies and subsequent payments in case of cost increase, and an increase of protection in case of insolvency.

  18. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  19. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  20. Comprehensive School Reform with a Focus on Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyburt, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the past years of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR), educators have begun to be innovative and employ strategies to support teaching and learning by incorporating high standards and inspiring high performance. Unfortunately, student achievement is not increasing and the achievement gap is continuing to widen. The next step for schools is to…

  1. School Reform and the Emotional Demands of Principals: Lorna's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Niesche, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The issue of emotions in school leadership is one that has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper we present a case study of the emotional demands upon one principal as she undertakes a programme of school reform. This case study works against the common discourse of "emotional maturity" inherent in an individual…

  2. "Turnaround" as Shock Therapy: Race, Neoliberalism, and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amanda Walker

    2013-01-01

    "Turnaround" strategies of educational reform promise that school closure, reconstitution, privatizing, and reopening them will bring miraculous results. Questioning the implications, this article situates "turnaround" strategies locally, following the closure of a predominantly minority high school in 2008, in Austin, Texas.…

  3. Fast Capitalism, School Reform, and Second Language Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Meg

    2004-01-01

    This 2-year qualitative study explores the ironies of educational reform in the United States as experienced by three second language learners attending a school attempting to transform itself into a high-performance elementary school in California's Silicon Valley. Drawing on the concept of fast capitalism in a globalized economic work order…

  4. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  5. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households. Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban and −0.0281 (rural in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban and −0.0097 (rural in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,���0.1436 in 2007.. Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve

  6. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform--a case study on Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Yuxin

    2012-12-18

    In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China's state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China's poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were -0.0024 (urban) and -0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and -0.0177 (urban) and -0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: -0.0615 in 2002,-0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably. Optimizing benefit packages in public health insurance is

  7. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  8. Multisite Case Study of Florida's Millennium High School Reform Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Mullen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study should have immediate utility for the United States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to comprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislative funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS model in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary leadership for preparing students for postsecondary education

  9. Analysis of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies

  10. The Feasibility of Collecting School-Level Finance Data: An Evaluation of Data from the School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS) School Year 2013-14. Research and Development Report. NCES 2018-305

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Zhou, Lei; Ampadu, Osei; D'Antonio, Laura; Gromos, David; Wheeler, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This report presents school-level finance data on expenditures by function from the School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS). The SLFS is an extension of two existing collections being conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in collaboration with the Census Bureau: the School District Finance Survey (F-33) and the state-level…

  11. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Voici la 17e édition du Rapport moral sur l’argent dans le monde, publié chaque année depuis 1994 par l’Association d’économie financière avec le soutien de la Caisse des Dépôts. Abordant une nouvelle fois les grands débats qui traversent actuellement le monde de la finance, il se consacre dans un premier temps à la lutte contre la criminalité et les délits financiers, et plus particulièrement à la lutte contre la corruption, la délinquance dans la finance et la fraude fiscale. Dans un second...

  12. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ces deux ouvrages tirent les enseignements de l’impact de la crise de la finance mondiale sur l’économie réelle et se focalisent, dans ce contexte, sur le financement du Mittelstand. Le banquier JASCHINSKI, lorsqu’il passe en revue le système bancaire allemand, constate ainsi que si les moyennes entreprises trouvent les crédits nécessaires auprès de leurs solides partenaires de toujours que sont les Sparkassen, les grandes sociétés, internationales, que compte le Mittelstand n’ont pas de part...

  13. How different are hospitals' responses to a financial reform? The impact on efficiency of activity-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biørn, Erik; Hagen, Terje P; Iversen, Tor; Magnussen, Jon

    2010-03-01

    For policy-makers the heterogeneity of hospital response to reforms is of crucial concern. Even though a reform may entail a positive effect on average efficiency, policy-makers will consider the reform as less attractive if the variation in hospital efficiency increases. The reason is that increased variance of efficiency across hospitals is likely to increase the impact of geography on access to hospital services. This paper examines the heterogeneity with respect to the impact of a financial reform-Activity Based Financing (ABF)-on hospital efficiency in Norway. From a theoretical model we find an ambiguous effect of hospital heterogeneity on the effect of ABF on efficiency. The data set is from a contiguous 10-year panel of 47 hospitals covering both pre-ABF years and years after its imposition. Substantial heterogeneity in the responses, as measured by both estimated and predicted coefficients, is found. We did not find any significant correlation between pre-ABF measures of efficiency and the effect of ABF on efficiency. We did however find a strongly significant correlation between the effect of ABF and post-ABF efficiency. Thus, the analysis confirms the impression that, whereas pre-ABF efficiency did not play any role in how hospitals responded to ABF, those responding generally ended up as better-performing hospitals. Hence, for the type of reform studied in this article we find that policy-makers do not need to worry about the impact of location on patients' access to hospital services.

  14. Public School Finance Assessment Project Aligned with ELCC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This is a detailed description of an assessment that can be used in a graduate level of study in the area of public school finance. This has been approved by NCATE as meeting all of the stipulated ELCC standards for which it is designed (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.). This course of…

  15. School Finance Policies and Practices. The 1980s: A Decade of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W., Ed.

    This book presents the ideas of several authors who share the viewpoint that social values play an important role in determining financial policies in public schools. The first section reviews the historic and social context of school financing, summarizing U.S. school finance policy from 1955 to 1980 and describing the political environment of…

  16. Educational Equity, Adequacy, and Equal Opportunity in the Commonwealth: An Evaluation of Pennsylvania's School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce; Levin, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Pennsylvania has historically operated one of the nation's least equitable state school finance systems, and within that system exist some of the nation's most fiscally disadvantaged public school districts. The persistent inequalities of Pennsylvania's school finance system are not entirely a result of simple lack of effort, as policies intended…

  17. Medical workforce education and training: A failed decentralisation attempt to reform organisation, financing, and planning in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government proposed introducing a radical decentralisation reform of the organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education and training in England. However, following public deliberation and parliamentary scrutiny of the government's proposals, it had to abandon and alter its original proposals to the extent that they failed to achieve their original decentralisation objectives. This failed decentralisation attempt provides important lessons about the policy process and content of both workforce governance and health system reforms in Europe and beyond. The organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education is as an issue of national importance and should remain in the stewardship of the national government. Future reform efforts seeking to enhance the skills of the workforce needed to deliver high-quality care for patients in the 21st century will have a greater chance of succeeding if they are clearly articulated through engagement with stakeholders, and focus on the delivery of undergraduate and postgraduate multi-professional education and training in universities and teaching hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  20. Creating a Comprehensive School Reform Model: The Talent Development High School with Career Academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.; Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for comprehensive reforms in school organization, curriculum and instruction, and professional development to address the problems of large urban high schools. Describes the Talent Development High School with Career Academies model being developed to meet the needs of such schools. (SLD)

  1. Curricular Reform in Schools: The Importance of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation plays a pivotal role in deciding what the learners learn and what the teachers teach in schools. The paper reports a study of English-language teaching conducted in Delhi State of India that sought to examine the assumption that a change in an evaluation pattern can trigger curricular reform. Did concomitant changes take place in the…

  2. Standards, Accountability, and School Reform: Perils and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Biddle, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines current debates about educational standards, accountability, and school reform from the perspective of Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory. Research reveals various perils associated with rigid standards, narrow accountability, and tangible sanctions that can debase student and teacher motivation and performance. Alternative…

  3. Will Mayor De Blasio Turn Back the School Reform Clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    While heads were spinning, policy watchers seemed genuinely perplexed by New York City's Mayor de Blasio's education opinions. De Blasio opposed many of Bloomberg's reform efforts despite the achievement gains realized by the nation's largest school district during the last 12 years. Yet on close reading, de Blasio's nine-page education plan…

  4. Bridges, Tunnels, and School Reform: It's the System, Stupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    After almost three decades of school reform, student achievement nationally is about where it was when it started, and student behavior has declined dramatically. Numbers of dropouts, especially in cities and among the poor and minorities, have gotten much higher. Yet many billions of dollars have been spent; countless professionals have carried…

  5. Educational Partnership and the Dilemmas of School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, David

    Today's educational reform proposals are undermined by four dilemmas. First, the public may demand visible results before it will provide the funding needed to achieve them. Second, higher academic standards will increase failure rates, while more attainable standards will inadequately educate students. Third, the current focus on high schools may…

  6. Comprehensive School Reform and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Hewes, Gina M.; Overman, Laura T.; Brown, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews research on the achievement effects of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models. There are limitations on the overall quantity and quality of the research base, but the overall effects of CSR appear promising. The combined quantity, quality, and statistical…

  7. Place Matters: Mathematics Education Reform in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…

  8. School Reforms In Ghana: A Challenge To Teacher Quality And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the teacher in the modern school system is increasingly important and complex. A teacher needs a high level of professional knowledge and autonomous decision making when faced with professional challenges. Educational reform in Ghana like any other parts of the world calls for the type of teacher who is ...

  9. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Bisher veröffentlicht unter dem Titel: "Modern Finance" Das Buch beinhaltet ebenso einige Portraits: Die didaktische Erfahrung lehrt, dass man sich wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und Ansätze besser merken kann, wenn eine Assoziation zu jener Person bildlich konkret wird, der wir den betreffenden Denkansatz verdanken. Aus Fragen der Finanzierung und der Investitionsentscheidungen von Unternehmen ist in der Verschmelzung mit der Analyse von Kapitalmärkten ein grosses Gebiet entstanden, da...

  10. Evidence on equity, governance and financing after health care reform in Mexico: lessons for Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes evidence on equity, governance and health financing outcomes of the Mexican health system. An evaluative research with a cross-sectional design was oriented towards the qualitative and quantitative analysis of financing, governance and equity indicators. Taking into account feasibility, as well as political and technical criteria, seven Mexican states were selected as study populations and an evaluative research was conducted during 2002-2010. The data collection techniques were based on in-depth interviews with key personnel (providers, users and community leaders, consensus technique and document analysis. The qualitative analysis was done with ATLAS TI and POLICY MAKER softwares. The Mexican health system reform has modified dependence at the central level; there is a new equity equation for resources allocation, community leaders and users of services reported the need to improve an effective accountability system at both municipal and state levels. Strategies for equity, governance and financing do not have adequate mechanisms to promote participation from all social actors. Improving this situation is a very important goal in the Mexican health democratization process, in the context of health care reform. Inequality on resources allocation in some regions and catastrophic expenditure for users is unequal in all states, producing more negative effects on states with high social marginalization. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses, as relevant evidences for other Latin American countries which are designing, implementing and evaluating reform strategies in order to achieve equity, good governance and a greater financial protection in health.

  11. A Broader and Bolder Approach to School Reform: Expanded Partnership Roles for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Noguera, Pedro A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a broader, bolder approach to education reform aimed at addressing the social and economic disadvantages that hinder student achievement. Central principles of this approach to reform include the provision of supports such as early childhood and preschool programs, after-school and summer enrichment programs, parent…

  12. On Sheep and Goats and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Roland S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the preoccupation of U.S. schools with "list logic": a conception of educational improvement that relies on the identification and prescription of a myriad of characteristics of effective schools, administrators, and teachers. Suggests reasons for this phenomenon and advocates the alternative of "communities of…

  13. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  14. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  15. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  16. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  17. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Régulièrement au cœur de l'actualité, les trois agences de notation (Standard & Poor's, Moody's et Fitch) règnent sur le monde de la finance internationale. Mais quelles sont-elles et à qui appartiennent-elles véritablement ? Détenues par de puissants fonds d'investissements, elles ont progressivement renforcé leurs rôles et pouvoirs. L'auteur interpelle le citoyen sur un système dans lequel les fonds d'investissements profitent des agences de notation (et de leur rôle de « gardien des marché...

  18. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Les investisseurs financiers et a fortiori les hedge fonds sont accusés de tous les maux. Ces « sauterelles » tomberaient sur les entreprises allemandes pour s’enrichir en les dépeçant. Un journaliste économique du quotidien des affaires Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung publie là un portrait objectif et factuel de ces « nouvelles stars » de la finance mondiale. Un portrait de branche, doublé d’une analyse de l’impact sur le « capitalisme rhénan » de la montée en puissance de ces nouveaux acteur...

  19. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  20. The "Business" of Reforming American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Denise

    This book's central thesis is that the relationship between school managers and teachers predicts the type of education offered children. That is, education can be seen as a handing down of information, or it can be viewed as a cooperative affair. The text is divided into two parts: 1895-1925 and 1961-1995. Chapter 1, which discusses America's…

  1. The Need for Transformational Leadership in Singapore's School-Based Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2009-01-01

    In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…

  2. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  3. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  4. Key Aspects of Current Educational Reforms in Islamic Educational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hashim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that Islamic education plays a significant role in producing an integrated personality of young generation in order to fulfil the needs of present society. This study is important to address the key educational changes in pedagogy, curricular and teaching approach that relate directly to the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Education in Islamic schools. Questions raised in this writing is whether and how Muslim schools have transformed to meet the changes and challenges of the globalizing world and what should be done to ensure Islamic schools meet current needs. Thus, it argues that there is a need for reform in contemporary Islamic schools with particular reference to the changes in the curriculum, teaching style, role of Islamic schools and gender participation. The paper considers the possibility of integrating new perspectives across the curriculum and outlines the integrated approach to ensure the quality and excellence of their graduates.

  5. Charter Schools: An Experiment in School Reform. ASPIRA Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Belinda Corazon; And Others

    Charter schools incorporate the focus of magnet schools but often go beyond their academic specialization to more social goals. They can operate at both elementary and secondary levels, although they are always quite small. The greatest difference, however, between charter schools and other public schools is their status as a bridge between public…

  6. Single-Sex Schools, the Law, and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…

  7. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  8. 75 FR 21146 - Public Input on Reform of the Housing Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...Consistent with the Obama Administration's commitment to openness and transparency and the President's Open Government Initiative, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seek public input on establishing a more stable and sound housing finance system.

  9. Improving Public Education through Comprehensive School Reform: An Issue Brief from the International Reading Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program is a new initiative that could affect International Reading Association members in the United States--but will benefit only those who take advantage of it. The purpose of the CSR initiative is to provide financial incentives for schools to develop comprehensive school reforms. Funding is available to…

  10. Leading Inclusive Reform for Students with Disabilities: A School- and Systemwide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…

  11. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  12. Intersections between School Reform, the Arts, and Special Education: The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…

  13. Parents' Participation and Chicago School Reform: Issues of Race, Class and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollow, Sharon G.; Bennett, Michael

    Most studies of the early implementation of Chicago (Illinois) school reform have focused on the creation and early functioning of the Local School Councils (LSCs). This study is concerned with understanding the resources that different school communities have to embrace the LSC reform, the time frame needed to promote educational change, and the…

  14. Cutting through the Hype: The Essential Guide to School Reform. Revised, Expanded, and Updated Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Cuban, Larry

    2010-01-01

    "Cutting Through the Hype: The Essential Guide to School Reform" is a revised, expanded, and updated version of the classic work by Jane L. David and Larry Cuban. It offers balanced analyses of 23 currently popular school reform strategies, from teacher performance pay and putting mayors in charge to turnaround schools and data-driven instruction.…

  15. On Politics and Education Finance: A Bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst. Vance Bibliographies, Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-821.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst on politics and educational finance is presented. Specific topics include the following: whether financial support of public schools should be assumed completely by states, school finance policies and practices, school finance reform versus the spending and tax limitation…

  16. Adequate Education: Issues in Its Definition and Implementation. School Finance Project, Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther, Ed.

    Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…

  17. The 2010 U.S. health care reform: approaching and avoiding how other countries finance health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    This article describes and analyzes the U.S. health care legislation of 2010 by asking how far it was designed to move the U.S. system in the direction of practices in all other rich democracies. The enacted U.S. reform could be described, extremely roughly, as Japanese pooling with Swiss and American problems at American prices. Its policies are distinctive, yet nevertheless somewhat similar to examples in other rich democracies, on two important dimensions: how risks are pooled and the amount of funds redistributed to subsidize care for people with lower incomes. Policies about compelling people to contribute to a finance system would be further from international norms, as would the degree to which coverage is set by clear and common substantive standards--that is, standardization of benefits. The reform would do least, however, to move the United States toward international practices for controlling spending. This in turn is a major reason why the results would include less standard benefits and incomplete coverage. In short, the United States would remain an outlier on coverage less because of a failure to make an effort to redistribute--a lack of solidarity--than due to a failure to control costs.

  18. Effects of Iranian Economic Reforms on Equity in Social and Healthcare Financing: A Segmented Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Hamed; Takian, Amirhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Bayati, Mohsen; Zahirian Moghadam, Telma; Rezaei, Satar; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    One of the main objectives of the Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) in Iran was to improve equity in healthcare financing. This study aimed at measuring the effects of the TSL, which was implemented in Iran in 2010, on equity in healthcare financing. Segmented regression analysis was applied to assess the effects of TSL implementation on the Gini and Kakwani indices of outcome variables in Iranian households. Data for the years 1977-2014 were retrieved from formal databases. Changes in the levels and trends of the outcome variables before and after TSL implementation were assessed using Stata version 13. In the 33 years before the implementation of the TSL, the Gini index decreased from 0.401 to 0.381. The Gini index and its intercept significantly decreased to 0.362 (pfinancing. Hence, while measuring the long-term impact of TSL is paramount, healthcare decision-makers need to consider the efficacy of the TSL in order to develop plans for achieving the desired equity in healthcare financing.

  19. Situating Texas School Finance Policy in a CRT Framework: How "Substantially Equal" Yields Racial Inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to conduct a critical race policy analysis of Texas school finance policy. This empirical article examines three chapters of the Texas education code (TEC) and identifies the racial effects that the school funding system has on seven majority-Mexican American school districts. Methodology: Critical Race…

  20. Boarding Schools and Capital Benefits: Implications for Urban School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the boarding school model as a schooling alternative to improve life chances for disadvantaged youth, particularly African American youth, by positively meeting their social and educational needs. Bourdieu, Coleman, and other social scientists purported that these needs can be better met by exposing students to social and…

  1. Modern money theory and ecological tax reform: A functional finance approach to energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Scott L. B.

    This dissertation contributes to heterodox economics by developing a theoretical and policy-relevant link that will promote the conservation of energy while driving the value of the domestic currency. The analysis relies upon the theoretical foundation of modern money theory and functional finance, which states that "taxes-drive-money" where the value of a sovereign nation's currency is imputed through the acceptance by the sovereign nation of the currency in payment of taxation. This theoretical perspective lends itself to various public policy prescriptions, such as government employment policies or the employer of last resort (ELR), which has been discussed at length elsewhere (Wray 1998; Tcherneva 2007, Forstater 2003). This research contributes to this overall program by arguing that the basis for taxation under modern money theory allows public policy makers various alternatives regarding the make-up of the tax system in place. In particular, following functional finance, taxes do not have the sole purpose of paying for government spending, but rather drive the value of the currency and may be designed to perform other functions as well, such as penalizing socially undesirable behavior. The focus in this dissertation is on the amelioration of pollution and increasing energy conservation. The research question for this dissertation is this: what federally implemented tax would best serve the multiple criteria of 1) driving the value of the currency, 2) promoting energy conservation and 3) ameliorating income and wealth disparities inherent in a monetary production economy? This dissertation provides a suggestion for such a tax that would be part of a much larger overall policy program based upon the tenets of modern money theory and functional finance. Additionally, this research seeks to provide an important theoretical contribution to the emerging Post Keynesian and ecological economics dialog.

  2. Health financing reform in Uganda: How equitable is the proposed National Health Insurance scheme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda is proposing introduction of the National Health Insurance scheme (NHIS in a phased manner with the view to obtaining additional funding for the health sector and promoting financial risk protection. In this paper, we have assessed the proposed NHIS from an equity perspective, exploring the extent to which NHIS would improve existing disparities in the health sector. Methods We reviewed the proposed design and other relevant documents that enhanced our understanding of contextual issues. We used the Kutzin and fair financing frameworks to critically assess the impact of NHIS on overall equity in financing in Uganda. Results The introduction of NHIS is being proposed against the backdrop of inequalities in the distribution of health system inputs between rural and urban areas, different levels of care and geographic areas. In this assessment, we find that gradual implementation of NHIS will result in low coverage initially, which might pose a challenge for effective management of the scheme. The process for accreditation of service providers during the first phase is not explicit on how it will ensure that a two-tier service provision arrangement does not emerge to cater for different types of patients. If the proposed fee-for-service mechanism of reimbursing providers is pursued, utilisation patterns will determine how resources are allocated. This implies that equity in resource allocation will be determined by the distribution of accredited providers, and checks put in place to prohibit frivolous use. The current design does not explicitly mention how these two issues will be tackled. Lastly, there is no clarity on how the NHIS will fit into, and integrate within existing financing mechanisms. Conclusion Under the current NHIS design, the initial low coverage in the first years will inhibit optimal achievement of the important equity characteristics of pooling, cross-subsidisation and financial protection. Depending

  3. The Need for District Support for School Reform: What the Researchers Say. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Deborah

    This article focuses on the school district's role in implementing Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). Research shows that effective district support for CSR varies from district to district. This is due, in part, to the fact that many prior models bypassed the district, operating under the belief that reform would be more effective if it targeted…

  4. School Performance, Accountability and Waiver Reforms: Evidence from Louisiana. CEPA Working Paper No. 17-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas; Dizon-Ross, Elise

    2017-01-01

    States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms…

  5. 9 Hard Things to Do in Order to Sustain School Reform. Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement invited Ann Chafin to share her thoughts and ideas about sustaining school reform. Chafin, chief of Program Improvement and Family Support Branch of the Maryland State Department of Education, was a speaker at the annual Institute for CSR State Coordinators held May 9-10 in Washington,…

  6. The Influence of News Framing on Support for Charter School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of media framing on attitudes toward charter school reform. Participants in an Internet-based experiment were presented, at random, with one of three manipulated news articles framing charter school reform as (a) supportive of values such as freedom, choice, and innovation; (b) conflicting with values such as…

  7. It's Our School Too: Youth Activism as Educational Reform, 1951-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajunwa, Kelechi

    2011-01-01

    Activism has the potential for reform (Howard, 1976). Unlike previous studies on high school activism this study places a primary focus on underground newspapers and argues that underground newspapers allowed high school students to function as activists as well as educational reformers. In order to make this argument, this study examined over 150…

  8. Comprehensive Reform for Urban High Schools: A Talent Development Approach. Sociology of Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert; Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.

    This book offers an alternative to current reform efforts, the talent development approach, detailing organizational, curricular, and instructional strategies that provide practitioners with a blueprint for whole school reform. The book presents the story of what happened in urban high schools when this approach was implemented. There are eight…

  9. School Sector and Student Achievement in the Era of Standards Based Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William; Covay, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine whether standards based accountability reforms of the past two decades have closed the achievement gap among public and private high school students. They analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine sector differences in high school achievement in the era of standards based reforms. The authors found…

  10. Converging Paths or Ships Passing in the Night? An "English" Critique of Japanese School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Examines origins and potential effects of liberalizing reforms in Japanese secondary education in light of British experiences with policies such as local school management and school choice. Argues that Japanese reform involves necessary diversification of curriculum and pedagogic practices, but administrative shifts toward deregulation and…

  11. Leadership practices and inclusive education reform in primary schools in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mullick, Jahirul

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate leadership practices for Inclusive Education (IE) reform in primary schools in Bangladesh. Specifically, the study investigated leadership practice structures, views of school leaders about the accountability approach in primary schools, school leaders’ opinions on challenges to implementing IE and possible strategies to address the identified challenges. The study also explored the relationships between school variables, teachers’ demographic variabl...

  12. No Child Left Behind and the Spectacle of Failing Schools: The Mythology of Contemporary School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…

  13. Financing of private power development and power sector reform in emerging nations: an essential nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Reinier

    1995-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate and illustrate important relationships between the concept of the independent economic regulator and the evolution of emerging nation electric power sectors from patterns of government dominance that have undermined both their efficiency and their receptivity to substantial private sector involvement. It re-emphasizes the important relationships between industry structure, competition, market mechanisms and regulation; and the important distinctions between the different roles government can and should play in the power sector in different stages of evolution -as owner, manager, regulator and political policy maker. It seeks to put content and meaning into the concept of the independent regulator in the broader context of power sector reform. It distills from the experience of those countries with developed regulatory systems a series of practical guidelines or principles that may be helpful in the design and implementation of regulatory regimes for electricity and other infrastructural industries in emerging nations in the process of transformation from government dominated monopolies. (author)

  14. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  15. Performance-based financing as a health system reform: mapping the key dimensions for monitoring and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance-based financing is increasingly being applied in a variety of contexts, with the expectation that it can improve the performance of health systems. However, while there is a growing literature on implementation issues and effects on outputs, there has been relatively little focus on interactions between PBF and health systems and how these should be studied. This paper aims to contribute to filling that gap by developing a framework for assessing the interactions between PBF and health systems, focusing on low and middle income countries. In doing so, it elaborates a general framework for monitoring and evaluating health system reforms in general. Methods This paper is based on an exploratory literature review and on the work of a group of academics and PBF practitioners. The group developed ideas for the monitoring and evaluation framework through exchange of emails and working documents. Ideas were further refined through discussion at the Health Systems Research symposium in Beijing in October 2012, through comments from members of the online PBF Community of Practice and Beijing participants, and through discussion with PBF experts in Bergen in June 2013. Results The paper starts with a discussion of definitions, to clarify the core concept of PBF and how the different terms are used. It then develops a framework for monitoring its interactions with the health system, structured around five domains of context, the development process, design, implementation and effects. Some of the key questions for monitoring and evaluation are highlighted, and a systematic approach to monitoring effects proposed, structured according to the health system pillars, but also according to inputs, processes and outputs. Conclusions The paper lays out a broad framework within which indicators can be prioritised for monitoring and evaluation of PBF or other health system reforms. It highlights the dynamic linkages between the domains and the different pillars

  16. Performance-based financing as a health system reform: mapping the key dimensions for monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Toonen, Jurrien; Meessen, Bruno; Kagubare, Jean; Fritsche, György; Vaughan, Kelsey

    2013-09-29

    Performance-based financing is increasingly being applied in a variety of contexts, with the expectation that it can improve the performance of health systems. However, while there is a growing literature on implementation issues and effects on outputs, there has been relatively little focus on interactions between PBF and health systems and how these should be studied. This paper aims to contribute to filling that gap by developing a framework for assessing the interactions between PBF and health systems, focusing on low and middle income countries. In doing so, it elaborates a general framework for monitoring and evaluating health system reforms in general. This paper is based on an exploratory literature review and on the work of a group of academics and PBF practitioners. The group developed ideas for the monitoring and evaluation framework through exchange of emails and working documents. Ideas were further refined through discussion at the Health Systems Research symposium in Beijing in October 2012, through comments from members of the online PBF Community of Practice and Beijing participants, and through discussion with PBF experts in Bergen in June 2013. The paper starts with a discussion of definitions, to clarify the core concept of PBF and how the different terms are used. It then develops a framework for monitoring its interactions with the health system, structured around five domains of context, the development process, design, implementation and effects. Some of the key questions for monitoring and evaluation are highlighted, and a systematic approach to monitoring effects proposed, structured according to the health system pillars, but also according to inputs, processes and outputs. The paper lays out a broad framework within which indicators can be prioritised for monitoring and evaluation of PBF or other health system reforms. It highlights the dynamic linkages between the domains and the different pillars. All of these are also framed within

  17. School Finance: Achieving High Standards with Equity and Efficiency. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard A.; Swanson, Austin D.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    This third edition of this book explores traditional economic and political models and contemporary issues that affect the social, political, and economic state of schools. Like the previous two editions, this edition takes a balanced approach to understanding school finance issues by using paradigms of both the economist and the political…

  18. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  19. A Cure for Insomnia: Dispelling Four Myths of International School Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data provided by the Council of International Schools and a literature review to contextualize the subject, this article examines the topic of international school finance. It is suggested that postgraduate programmes are not doing enough to supply financial training for teachers turned administrators, and that a lack of understanding of…

  20. Foreign-Affairs Schools Warily Add Professors and Classes in Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Prompted in part by student demand, schools of international affairs are offering new courses, hiring new faculty, and creating research centers focused on business and finance. Schools feel this move is necessary in a world where business dominates international relations and the public and private sectors have become intertwined. Critics feel…

  1. Coign of Vantage and Action: Considering California's Local Accountability and School Finance Plans for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Romero, Lisa S.; Hopkins, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Local control has been a bedrock principle of public schooling in America since its inception. In 2013, the California Legislature codified a new local accountability approach for school finance. An important component of the new California Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) approach is a focus on English learners (ELs). The law mandates that…

  2. Assessing the Role of the Courts in Addressing the Educational Problems Caused by Racial Isolation in School Finance Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Preston C., III.

    2013-01-01

    Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…

  3. School Finance Litigation in a Post-Rodriguez Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the pertinent rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court in Rodriguez, examines the impact of Rodriguez on future education reform litigation in Federal courts, discusses the potential impact that Rodriguez will have on law suits challenging tax related education inequalities, and examines the impact of the Rodriguez decision on State court…

  4. Categorical Funds: The Intersection of School Finance and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Gasparian, Hovanes; Perry, Nicholas; Capinpin, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    How a state chooses to design its system of funding schools is ultimately a question of education governance, determining who--state policymakers, school districts, or school principals--gets to make the decisions about how and where funding is spent. States have two primary ways of funding schools: the foundation, or base funding that is intended…

  5. Schooling Reforms in England: From Quasi-Markets to Co-Opetition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnett, Nick; Davies, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Economic analysis of the impact of recent schooling reforms in England designed to promote competition or cooperation between schools. Outlines the theoretical relationships between school competition and cooperation and school effectiveness. Briefly describes the development of policy in England and analyzes the interaction between the incentives…

  6. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  7. Impact of school location on transportation infrastructure and finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Public school planning and land use planning have become increasingly separated fields over the last 35 years. This results in misaligned goals when school districts do not plan facilities that support a communitys land use planning goals. The res...

  8. Journalism and Urban School Reform: Versions of Democratic Decision Making in Two American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, Dorothy; Fowlkes, Elizabeth; Peltzman, Alissa

    2006-01-01

    School reform involves the public: its expectation of participation and its support for a reform agenda. In theory, the press influences both. To explore this link, we compare education coverage in four press outlets, two each in Chicago and Cleveland. Articles and editors are interrogated for (1) style of journalism and (2) assumptions about the…

  9. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  10. Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Paul

    An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…

  11. Unpacking Resistance to Change within-School Reform Programmes with a Social Justice Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in the area of resistance has inadequately described opposition to change within-school reform initiatives with a social justice orientation. A lack of attention to, and agreement on, the nature and causes of resistance may explain why so many equity-minded educational reforms fail to be sustained. This article highlights various…

  12. Negotiating Tensions: Grassroots Organizing, School Reform, and the Paradox of Neoliberal Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork at a community-based organization (CBO) engaged in parent organizing for urban school reform, this paper examines how organizers engaged with the imperatives of neoliberal reform and the broader neoliberal policy context. It highlights organizers' agency but also shows how hegemonic discourse constrained their…

  13. The golden 45 minutes – School Reforms and Physical Activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Runge Larsen, Lisbeth

    Introduction: In August 2014 the biggest reshaping of primary schools in forty years was implemented in Denmark. From the very early stages of the reform process, there was broad agreement among key stakeholders that children and young people should be more physically active during the school day....... Therefore, it is part of the reform program that physical activity (PA) form part of the syllabus for all year groups at primary schools corresponding on average to 45 minutes per day. Methods: The reform states, that the 45 minutes of daily, school-based PA must serve a pedagogical purpose – e.g. including...... to implement PA as part of the school day: How to include brain breaks in formal teaching sessions, making recess more active and using the physical school environment to promote PA are some of the initiatives currently in play in Denmark. Results: Available data indicates that Danish schools have acted...

  14. Toward an Understanding of How Teachers Change during School Reform: Considerations for Educational Leadership and School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan

    2012-01-01

    As the concept of distributed leadership and its concomitant organizational structures become more prevalent in schools, studying how teacher capacity can be enhanced and can be used as a catalyst for reform is important. This article documents the nature of how the implementation of a research-validated reform influenced what teachers thought…

  15. School District Campaign Planner: A Guide to Successful Finance Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Carolyn Copen; And Others

    As a guide for those concerned with presenting the financial needs of the schools to the voting public, general research findings in the art of campaigning for school funds are summarized. Techniques, tools, and practices that have been used with success are reported, as well as the importance of understanding the attitudes of voters toward school…

  16. Changing by Design: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform. [Booklet with Audiotapes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Comprehensive school reform (CSR) focuses on reorganizing and revitalizing entire schools, rather than on implementing individual programs. The idea behind CSR is that schools cannot educate all students to high levels unless all the education system's components work together toward a common goal. Choosing a CSR model can be difficult and…

  17. School Stakeholders' Experience with Navigating ICT Policy Reforms in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Kheng, Catherine Chua Siew

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative research inquiry methods, this inquiry attempts to explore how school stakeholders cope with incessant and seemingly endless transformations in schools. The central phenomenon to be studied focuses on how school stakeholders "make sense" of educational reform. In order to do this, an exploratory case study of two target…

  18. Implementing Marzano's Model: The Reality of Educational Leadership and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveny, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…

  19. Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Ida

    2007-01-01

    The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

  20. Judicial Review: Issues of State Court Involvement in School Finance Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, William Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Due to state legislatures' reluctance to initiate school-funding reform, judicial bodies are asked to provide relief from alleged inequities. Before providing judicial review, the judiciary must decide whether an issue is justiciable (does not violate separation of powers) and warrants court intervention. Children's education has not substantially…

  1. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  2. Next Needed Steps in the Evolution of American Education Finance and Policy: Attenuating a Judicially Imposed Policy Distraction, Activating a Balanced Portfolio of K-12 School Reforms, Advancing Rationality as a Goal in Pursuing Productivity, Advocating Change in a Responsible and Effective Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This article asserts that although there has been a consistently increasing demand on both the national and state levels for alignment of resources (inputs) to improved student outcomes (outputs), the lack of a systematic and well-defined policy portfolio has limited reform effectiveness. This article specifically examines the overreliance on…

  3. The Student Equity Effects of the Public School Finance System in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the student equity effects of Louisiana's public school finance program in terms of fiscal neutrality and revenue inequality over a nine-year period, using regression techniques. Overall, Louisiana's system became less equal over the time period examined, while revenue distribution became more equal. Includes 35 references. (MLH)

  4. Cadillacs or Chevrolets? The Effects of State Control on School Finance in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    Although California's real spending per pupil grew 13 percent between 1980-81 and 1990-91, real growth in educational spending here has not kept pace with the rest of the country. The reasons are complex, with many causes rooted in the state tax system design and the resulting school finance structure. This paper describes how and why California's…

  5. Redesigning School Finance Systems: Lessons from CPRE Research. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2007-01-01

    This policy brief describes how the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has approached the objectives of educational equity and adequacy over the past decade and a half, and reveals how their current finance research has begun to explicitly link the level and use of resources with strategies that districts and schools can deploy to…

  6. Evaluating the Recession's Impact on State School Finance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession's effect on state school finance systems was unlike previous downturns in the early 1990s and early 2000s in that it: a) involved a greater loss of taxable income in many states, thus greater loss to state general fund revenues, b) also involved a substantial collapse of housing markets and related reduction or at least…

  7. The Equity of Public School Finance in Missouri: 1977-1981. A Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sharon; Walker, Anne

    Updated were statistics of an earlier study done by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) in 1980, entitled "The Missouri School Finance Study." The recent results differed from the earlier study's, illustrating the extent to which revenues per pupil depended on local property wealth and income. The results of the first study…

  8. A Capital-Financing Plan for School Systems and Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Penny

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are best equipped to lead in funding operating and capital needs because they understand the need for a methodical means of funding ongoing costs over time and the benefits of planning for future financial needs rather than letting emergencies dictate spending priorities. A capital-financing plan makes it possible to…

  9. The Effects of School Board Consolidation and Financing on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John; Payne, A. Abigail; Chan, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, states and provinces have become increasingly involved in the financing and administration of elementary and secondary education. Local school boards, however, still retain control over key aspects of the provision of education. Historically, these boards were organized at the community level so as to meet the wants of the…

  10. School Reform: America’s Winchester Mystery House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Meyer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlation between international student achievement test outcomes and national competitiveness rankings. Student achievement data are derived from a variation-adjusted, common-scale metric data set for 74 countries that have participated in any of the international mathematics and science achievement tests since 1964. National competitiveness data are taken from the 2014–15 Global Competitiveness Index (GCI published by the World Economic Forum. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of nations. For all nations, there was a moderate positive correlation between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of a nation, rs(98=0.688, p<0.001. However, this relationship disappeared among the 18 most competitive nations, the cohort to which the United States belongs. The relationship also disappeared among the 18 nations with the highest achievement scores on international tests. Student performance on international assessments appears to have no relationship to the competitiveness of the United States. This study has implications for legislators and public education leaders who want to maximize the return on investments in education. Education dollars and reform initiatives should be diverted toward addressing poverty, funding schools equitably, alleviating social stress and violence, and supporting young families and students of immigrant families.

  11. Learning Science and English: How School Reform Advances Scientific Learning for Limited English Proficient Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Minicucci, Catherine

    1996-01-01

    This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...

  12. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  13. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  14. Reforming Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemann, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of adding a distinct feature of the Danish mortgage market to the US market, namely a buyback option, which enables mortgagors to buy back their share of the mortgage-backed security at market price. Extending a standard referenced pricing-model, we find that the introdu...

  15. Using TANF to Finance Out-of-School Time Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relave, Nanette; Flynn-Khan, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses how the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program can be an important source of funding for maintaining, improving, and expanding out-of-school time initiatives. The report is designed to help policymakers and program developers understand the opportunities and challenges of effectively using TANF funding to…

  16. Innovative Financing for Out-of-School Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite government commitments to Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve access to education, more than 18 million primary-aged children remain out of school in the Asia-Pacific (UNESCO, 2014). Given the impact of education on individuals, societies, and economies, there is great urgency for governments to…

  17. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  18. A Place Called Home: Educational Reform in a Concord, Massachusetts School, 1897-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of place in the reform efforts of two teachers who established Miss White's Home School in Concord, Massachusetts (USA). Flora and Mary White rebelled against the prevailing industrial model of instruction in tax-supported schools where they taught. As a solution, they moved to Concord--a nonconformist town with a…

  19. New Orleans's Unique School Reform Effort and Its Potential Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Four years following the decimation of the New Orleans Public Schools by Hurricane Katrina the city has been described as the center of a unique urban public school reform effort. This effort is a combination of events that transpired just before the storm and those that have occurred as a result of it. In particular some claim that the emerging…

  20. Social Foundations and School Reform Networks: The Case Against E.D. Hirsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Critiques the views of E.D. Hirsch, highlighting limitations of his book, "The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them." The paper acknowledges Hirsch's influence on public opinion about school reform, but details flaws and errors Hirsch makes, asking foundational scholars in teacher education to better prepare students to respond to…

  1. The Epistemic Role of Novel Metaphors in Teachers' Knowledge Constructions of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a parallel is drawn between Steven Hawking's use of common and novel metaphors in his evolving explanation of the theory of the universe and the similar use of common and novel metaphors by educators in four school contexts attempting to illuminate their experiences of school reform storied and restoried over time. The epistemic…

  2. The New Basic Education and Whole School Reform: A Chinese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yuhua; Li, Jiacheng

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has entered an era of transformation which has extended its reach to education and school reforms. The "New Basic Education" (NBE) was born in this era and implemented by the East China Normal University together with schools around the country. NBE aims at nurturing the active, healthy development of a new…

  3. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  4. Turnaround, Transformational, or Transactional Leadership: An Ethical Dilemma in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Ian M.; Scribner, Jay P.

    2014-01-01

    This case was written for school leaders, specifically building-level principals and central office administrators attempting to implement school turnaround reform efforts. Often, leaders who embark on this type of organizational change work in intense environments that produce high levels of pressure to demonstrate improvement in student…

  5. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  6. School Autonomy Reform and Public Education in Australia: Implications for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…

  7. Examining Relational Engagement across the Transition to High Schools in Three US High Schools Reformed to Improve Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in students' relational engagement across the transition to high school in three schools reformed to improve the quality of student-teacher relationships. In order to analyze this data we employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling techniques (n = 637). We ran three LGC models on three…

  8. Payment reform to finance a medical home: comment on "Achieving cost control, care coordination, and quality improvement through incremental payment system reform".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    This commentary on R. F. Averill et al. (2010) addresses their idea of risk and quality adjusting fee-for-service payments to primary care physicians in order to improve the efficiency of primary care and take a step toward financing a "medical home"for patients. I show how their idea can create incentives for efficient practice styles. Pairing this with an active beneficiary choice of primary care physician with an enrollment fee would make the idea easier to implement and provide an incentive and the financing for elements of service not covered by procedure-based fees.

  9. Creative Bus Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  10. Assessing Success in School Finance Litigation: The Case of New Jersey. Education, Equity, and the Law. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Weiss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Education finance policy in New Jersey has been shaped by over 30 years of school finance litigation. Through its decisions in "Robinson v. Cahill" (1973-1976) and "Abbott v. Burke" (1985-2005), the justices of New Jersey's supreme court have defined the state's constitutional guarantee of a "thorough and efficient"…

  11. A Storefront School: A Grassroots Approach to Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Gary; Brown, David

    1996-01-01

    The Storefront School, a collaboration between Springfield Public Schools and Southwest Missouri State University, provides at-risk students with a holistic, integrated curriculum. The school features decentralized decision making, interagency cooperation, a community orientation, and mandatory family involvement. (SK)

  12. Systems, Stakeholders, and Students: Including Students in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Shelley D.

    2009-01-01

    The education system in the United States is under pressure from a variety of sources to reform and improve the delivery of educational services to students. Change across a system as complex and dynamic as the educational system requires a systemic approach and requires the participation or buy-in of all participants and stakeholders. This…

  13. Tobephobia Experienced by Teachers in Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study Focusing on Curriculum Reform in the Nelson Mandela Metropole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its history from apartheid to democracy, the aspiration to reform schools is a recurrent theme in South African education. Efforts to reform education in schools based on the outcomes-based education (OBE) curriculum approach created major challenges for policy makers in South Africa. The purpose of this exploratory research was…

  14. Expanding Knowledge Gaps: The Function of Fictions in Teaching Materials after the 2011 Swedish High School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeske, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The aim in the study is to analyze how work with fiction is organized in six textbooks for senior high school in Sweden after the school reform 2011. Research into Swedish teaching materials has been neglected in recent years and there is a knowledge gap about how the work with fictions is affected by the reform in 2011. In the study quantitative…

  15. Tides of School Reform: A Case for Servant Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Natalie Christine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, narrative inquiry, case study explored the philosophy of servant leadership through the lens of a new high school principal and its impact on the culture of a suburban high school in New Jersey. This case study examined the impact the philosophy of servant leadership had on the school's culture by examining to what extent a) the…

  16. Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century: Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…

  17. From Government to Governance: Teach for India and New Networks of Reform in School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vidya K.

    2018-01-01

    The Teach for India (TFI) programme, an important offshoot of the Teach for All/Teach for America global education network, began as a public-private partnership in 2009 in poorly functioning municipal schools in Pune and Mumbai. Like its American counterpart, the programme in India has similar ideas of reform and recruits college graduates and…

  18. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  19. Neoliberalism as Nihilism? A Commentary on Educational Accountability, Teacher Education, and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism. The article provides commentary on five recent articles on teacher education and the neoliberal agenda. The article presents an analysis of neoliberalism as despair, and as a form of nihilism. The author discusses an indigenous model of school reform and…

  20. Using Assessment to Drive the Reform of Schooling: Time to Stop Pursuing the Chimera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, over the last 20-30 years, changing the procedures and processes of assessment has come to be seen, by many educators as well as policy-makers, as a way to frame the curriculum and drive the reform of schooling. Such developments have often been manifested in large scale, high stakes testing programmes. At the same time…

  1. Big Business as a Policy Innovator in State School Reform: A Minnesota Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…

  2. The Meaning(s) of Teacher Leadership in an Urban High School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of teacher leadership from teachers' perspectives. The authors examine teachers' practice of and talk about legitimate sources of power and influence in the context of an urban high school reform. Design: This is an interpretive study of teacher leadership situated in one small high…

  3. Using Symbolic Interactionism to Analyze a Specialized STEM High School Teacher's Experience in Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: "inquiry curriculum" and "curriculum change" through the process lens of interactions, actions,…

  4. How Leadership for an ICT Reform Is Distributed within a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, David Ng Foo; Ho, Jeanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of information communication technology (ICT) reform in a government school in Singapore. The focus is on the distributed leadership actions performed by various individuals, and how the multiple leaders and their leadership practices interacted with one another.…

  5. Reforming the Discipline Management Process in Schools: An Alternative Approach to Zero Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajs, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for educational reform of zero tolerance policies in school disciplinary management procedures. Zero tolerance policies are rigid mandates of predetermined consequences for specific student misconduct. Common sense and fairness are not necessarily served by the application of inflexible disciplinary rules that do not address the…

  6. Commentary on "Finance, Management, and Costs of Public and Private Schools in Indonesia" and "Do Local Contributions Affect the Efficiency of Public Primary Schools?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mark C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on Indonesia and the Philippines in this special issue examine how local financial control affects costs of providing primary schooling. In both countries, schools with greater financial decentralization operated more efficiently. These results have important implications for U.S. schools, where decentralization reforms in Kentucky and…

  7. Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen

    2001-12-01

    A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.

  8. Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goggio Borgeson, Merrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-04-01

    This guide focuses on clean energy financing options for school administrators, facility managers, and other K-12 school decision makers who are considering investments in high performance school projects. This guide explicitly focuses on comprehensive energy upgrades, those that involve multiple measures and are targeted toward achieving significant energy savings. Successful implementation of clean energy upgrades in schools is a matter of understanding the opportunity, making the commitment, and creatively tapping into available financing. This guide attempts to provide the foundation needed for successful projects in U.S. schools. It walks through the financing options available to K-12 schools and provides case studies of six school districts from around the country.

  9. How the Media Misleads the Story of School Consumerism: A Perspective from School Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Kieran

    2007-01-01

    Noting the dramatic rise in media reporting on the topic of school commercialism and consumer activity in schools, this research explores the fiscal benefits of such activities. Though a variety of activities frequently associated with school consumerism generate revenues for schools, in the example of student activity fees there is very little…

  10. What to Do with the Bounty? Organizational Patterns for the Implementation of Resources Allocated by the Courage to Change (Oz Letmura) Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Emanuel; Shaked, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the way in which school administrations implement resources provided by Israel's "Courage to Change" reform. The uniqueness of this reform stems from the fact that the allocated resources come in the form of "weekly instruction time" rather than finance, and the school management needs to decide how to…

  11. Social Media Illuminates: Some Truths about School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenreich, Megan; Jaffe-Walter, Reva

    2015-01-01

    Montclair Cares About Schools (MCAS) is a citizen-activist group in Montclair, New Jersey, that used Facebook, emails, and online petitions to inform and organize citizens on local educational policy issues. Emerging in response to a new superintendent's plans to reshape Montclair schools with new teacher evaluations, administrative hires, and…

  12. Community Schools as an Effective Strategy for Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David

    2016-01-01

    Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…

  13. The Keys to Effective Schools: Educational Reform as Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Working in tandem with the powerful National Education Association's KEYS initiative (Keys to Excellence in Your Schools), this second edition focuses on how to change a school's organizational structure and culture to improve the quality of teaching and learning. Each chapter, revised and updated to address continuous improvement and narrowing…

  14. Science teachers' beliefs about teaching and reform: Case studies from a restructured high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth A.

    A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and

  15. Alternatives to the EEG levy. Possible effects of a reform of the energy transition financing on the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheyhing, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been adjusted six times since the year 2000, it has not yet been possible to manage the unrestricted growth of the EEG levy. In the 2017 election year, it becomes therefore ever more obvious that an alternative way to finance the energy transition is high on the political agenda. This would lead to significant changes for energy-intensive companies, regardless of whether they have benefited from a release from the levy or not. At the same time, the alternatives currently discussed have quite different effects on the industrial companies concerned and thereby the industry location Germany. [de

  16. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  17. Development and Implementation of Inquiry-Based and Computerized-Based Laboratories: Reforming High School Chemistry in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hofstein, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Reforms in science education in general and in chemistry education in particular have been introduced in many countries since the beginning of the 21st Century. Similarly, at this time in Israel both the content and pedagogy of the chemistry curriculum in high schools were reformed. New content and pedagogical standards emerged, fostering…

  18. The Relationship Between Reformed Teaching and Students' Creativity in a Chinese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglin

    Current education reform in both the United States and China promotes a reformed inquiry-based approach based on the constructivist learning theory. This study contributes to the research literature by exploring the relationship between reformed science teaching and students' creativity. Chinese education is often criticized for a lack of creativity by some news media (Stack, 2011). This study was designed to explore the creativity of students and the extent to which inquiry instruction is used in the science classroom. The study used a convenience sample of two classes from a middle school located in Wuhu city, Anhui province, China. A total of 120 students and 3 science teachers participated. A mixed-methods research approach was adopted for integrated explanation. Student surveys, the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Verbal, Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), and semi-structured interview were utilized as research tools for collecting quantitative and qualitative data. The findings indicate that there was a positive relationship between reformed teaching and students' creativity (F (2, 117) = 19.760, pteaching but also revealed several challenges. The findings from the Verbal TTCT and classroom observation provided evidence of Chinese students' creativity. Directions for future research are provided.

  19. School Building Programs, Equipment Acquisitions and Cash Flow: The Anatomy of School Debt Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Edgar H.

    1992-01-01

    Budget shortfalls and fund deficits in many school districts are expected to continue in the 1990s. School boards and administrators must develop plans to manage and maintain the financial health of the school system. One important aspect of this planning is management of debt. (58 references) (MLF)

  20. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  1. Vermont's Act 60: Comprehensive School Finance Reform--Effects in the First Year of Full Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Fleming, Brenda L.

    Vermont's Act 60 received national attention not only because of the controversy surrounding the sharing pool (or recapture provision) but also because of its "potential for being the most equitable system in the country." For fiscal years 1998 to 2001, tax rates have become more equitable, and a direct relationship has appeared between…

  2. Two Essays on the Political and Normative Aspects of American School Finance: An Historical Perspective. The MacArthur/Spencer Special Series on Illinois School Finance, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickrod, G. Alan Karnes-Wallis; Ward, James Gordon

    Two essays are presented in this monograph, the first in a series of publications examining educational finance and using Illinois data. After an introduction, the first essay replies to a "Forbes" magazine cover story on educational finance that asks if education is economically efficient. The central theme is that the maintenance of a…

  3. Schools under Pressure: The External Environment and Recent Organizational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Laura H.

    Reductions in resources and increases in external demands place schools under pressure that can be relieved to some extent by organizational changes. When resources are sufficient, these changes may take the form of technical rationality--that is, decisions concerning policy and practices are made on the basis of neutral, measurable data rather…

  4. High School Reform? A Symposium on the Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Three principals, a publishing company marketing manager, a director of instruction, a teacher, and an assistant superintendent express their opinions on the past year's major reports on schooling. Issues addressed include the "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education," vocational education, administrative leadership, and social responsibility…

  5. Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Mircea I; Kellermann, Arthur L; Hunter, Christine; Curtis, Jerri; Rice, Charles; Wilensky, Gail R

    2017-07-01

    To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. They calculated the NPV for students pursuing one of four specialties in two cities with divergent tax policies. Borrowers were assumed to have a median level of debt ($180,000), and conservative projections of inflation, discount rates, and income growth were employed. Sensitivity analyses examined different discount and income growth rates, alternative repayment strategies, and various lengths of public-sector service by scholarship recipients. For those wealthy enough to pay cash or fortunate enough to secure a no-strings scholarship, self-financing produced the highest NPV in almost every scenario. Borrowers start practice $300,000 to $400,000 behind their peers who secure a national service scholarship, but those who enter a highly paid specialty, such as orthopedic surgery, overtake their national service counterparts 4 to 11 years after residency. Those in lower-paid specialties take much longer. Borrowers who enter primary care never close the gap. Over time, the value of a medical degree offsets the high up-front cost. Debt avoidance confers substantial economic benefits, particularly for students interested in primary care.

  6. Comprehensive School Reform Models: A Study Guide for Comparing CSR Models (and How Well They Meet Minnesota's Learning Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri; Jacob, Stacy; Cekic, Osman; Kupersmith, Leigh; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    A growing number of schools are exploring the prospect of applying for funding to implement a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model. But the process of selecting a CSR model can be complicated because it frequently involves self-study and a review of models to determine which models best meet the needs of the school. This study guide is intended…

  7. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  8. The imperative for systems thinking to promote access to medicines, efficient delivery, and cost-effectiveness when implementing health financing reforms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Lesego, Abaleng

    2017-03-21

    also comes with many challenges. Decision-makers keen to achieve universal health coverage, must view health financing reform through the holistic lens of the health system and its interactions with the population, in order to anticipate its potential benefits and risks. Failure to embrace this comprehensive approach, would potentially lead to counterproductive results.

  9. A Model for Rural School Consolidation: Making Sense of the Inevitable Result of School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Craig; Chance, Edward W.; Steinhoff, Carl

    Passage in 1989 of Oklahoma's education reform bill, H.B. 1017, provided encouragement and financial rewards for use of consolidation as a reform strategy, but this approach is often met with anxiety and hostility from stakeholders. In an effort to identify strategies that facilitate consolidation, semistructured interviews were conducted with the…

  10. Proactive educational reforms in South Korea: Schools for Improvement and multicultural education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This paper discusses the educational issues and societal changes that have led to proactive reforms in the education system of South Korea. Korean pupils achieve high academic levels, but there have been some criticisms relating to sociocultural issues. In addition, Korea is being transformed into a multicultural society. Here we consider two examples of Korea’s educational interventions, introduced in response to contextual demands and societal changes: firstly, the Schools for...

  11. Provision of capital for shutdown, dismantling and disposal. Cost risks and proposals for reform for a responsibility related financing; Atomrueckstellungen fuer Stilllegung, Rueckbau und Entsorgung. Kostenrisiken und Reformvorschlaege fuer eine verursachergerechte Finanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina; Wronski, Rupert

    2014-10-10

    In Germany the latest discussion on the cost of nuclear phase-out, dismantling and waste disposal has shown that the provision of capital by the concerned companies for these challenges and the actual regulations are not sufficient for a long-term financing security. The study presents a reform concept including the need of improved transparency on the provision of capital, a differentiated financial statement, the introduction of a stock under public law for insolvency protection including a financing responsibility for the companies and subsequent payments in case of cost increase, and an increase of protection in case of insolvency.

  12. Meeting the Demands of Science Reforms: A Comprehensive Professional Development for Practicing Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Mesa, Jennifer; Hayes, Lynda

    2018-03-01

    Preparing teachers to teach science consistent with current reforms in science education is a daunting enterprise given a lack of high-quality science professional development (PD) adaptable across various contexts (Wilson 2013). This study examines the impact of a comprehensive professional development program on middle school teachers' disciplinary content knowledge and instructional practices. In this mixed methods investigation, data sources included classroom observations, content knowledge assessments, surveys, and a range of interviews. The teachers in the program showed significant improvements in their disciplinary content knowledge and demonstrated through their enactment of a reform-based curriculum, a range of ability levels to translate their knowledge into instructional practices consistent with the principles espoused in the PD. We conclude that programs that attend to elements of effective PD identified in the literature can positively impact middle school science teachers' enactment of reform-based science teaching. Our findings extend these elements to include the strategic engagement of school and district leadership and the provision of a safe learning space for teachers to collectively engage in reciprocal learning and critical practice. This study has worldwide implications for designing PD for science teachers and for extending our understanding of the impact of each element.

  13. Curriculum reform and evolution: Innovative content and processes at one US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Janet E; Olvet, Doreen M; Iuli, Richard J; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2018-03-11

    Curriculum reform in medical schools continues to be an ever-present and challenging activity in medical education. This paper describes one school's experiences with specific curricular innovations that were developed or adapted and targeted to meet a clear set of curricular goals during the curriculum reform process. Those goals included: (a) promoting active learning and learner engagement; (b) establishing early professional identity; and (c) developing physician competencies in an integrated and contextual manner while allowing for individualized learning experiences for the millennial student. Six specific innovations championed by the school are described in detail. These included Themes in Medical Education, Translational Pillars, Stony Brook Teaching Families, Transition Courses, Educational Continuous Quality Improvement Processes, and our Career Advising Program. Development of the ideas and design of the innovations were done by faculty and student teams. We discuss successes and ongoing challenges with these innovations which are currently in the fourth year of implementation. Our curriculum reform has emphasized the iterative process of curriculum building. Based on our experience, we discuss general and practical guidelines for curriculum innovation in its three phases: setting the stage, implementation, and monitoring for the achievement of intended goals.

  14. Deficit Financing of Schools? The Impact of Statutory Change on School District Borrowing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefson, Carla

    In the 70s and 80s, Ohio relaxed its balanced-budget laws to give school districts more options for borrowing over the end of the fiscal year. Two provisions that permit districts to borrow against next year's revenues in order to balance the current year's budget include the Emergency School Advancement program and the Spending Reserve. This…

  15. Equity for Rural School Districts: The Final Report of the Countryside Council's School Finance Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Steve

    Soaring values of agricultural land have created inequities in funding between urban and rural school districts in Minnesota. The state's Foundation Aid to school districts is formulated so that districts of high property valuation receive less Foundation Aid than those districts with low property valuation. In recent years inflation has had…

  16. New actors, financial mechanisms and reformed aid reporting: What role for SRHR in post-2015 financing for development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Karen; Stratmann, Johanna; Schaffler, Peter

    2015-05-01

    As governments around the world prepare to adopt a new development framework and supportive financial flows, the OECD Development Assistance Committee is exploring new ways of measuring and reporting on resource flows enabling development, including population assistance. These changes will affect the evidence base, discourse about and donor incentives related to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). They may lead to: i) reduction of grant aid in favour of instruments that are less suitable for SRHR, like loans and market-like instruments; ii) expansion of the range of development stakeholders to include those with market power that can steer the discussion away from the needs of the most under-served populations; and iii) diversion of attention and resources away from SRHR. The discourse over how to provide, incentivize and report on development assistance in the new framework demonstrates the crucial relationship between knowledge, evidence, practice and power in relation to funding for SRHR in developing countries. With all that is at stake, although the OECD debate on the future of the development finance measurement system may seem highly abstract, this is a high-stakes game that SRHR advocates need to have a hand in. Those who seek to improve SRHR are well served to engage in these discussions as early and often as possible before the momentous decisions over the coming months. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  18. Curricular constraints, high-stakes testing and the reality of reform in high school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Jennifer

    Through a series of open-ended interviews, this study investigated the beliefs of six third year high school science teachers about how they implement science education reform ideals in their practice and the contextual challenges they face as they attempt to implement reform. The teachers argue that the lack of connection between their curricula and students' lives serves as a significant obstacle to them utilizing more inquiry-based and student-centered strategies. In their science classes that are not subject to a high stakes exam, the teachers shared instances where they engage students in inquiry by refraining the focus of their curricula away from the decontextualized factual information and onto how the information relates to human experience. In their science classes subject to a high stakes test, however, the teachers confessed to feeling no choice but to utilize more teacher-centered strategies focused on information transmission. This study provides an in depth analysis of how the presence of high stakes tests discourages teachers from utilizing reform based teaching strategies within high school science classrooms.

  19. Elementary school teachers perspective about educative reform in Zacatecas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cristina Bañuelos Sánchez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a research carried out in the state of Zacatecas, México, aiming at probing teachers perceptions about the Educative Reform (RE to elementary school education approved in 2013 in the country are presented. Structural reforms served as the research theoretical frame and are the starting point to analyze changes that reorganized educative institutions in general. The information gathering was conducted by an interview with open answers, focusing on the aspects which have direct effects on teachers: evaluation, entry requirements and the job continuity. The results show that most teachers do not oppose the evaluation, provided that it is used as a tool for improving their teaching practice. Yet they do mistrust the transparency of the system, since they consider that the RE is a hidden mechanism to fire teachers, instead of a mechanism to improve the quality of education.

  20. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  1. Circulation and Internationalisation of Pedagogical Concepts and Practices in the Discourse of Education: The Hamburg School Reform Experiment (1919-1933)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the international exchange of school reform ideas and concepts, the new schools in Hamburg were recognised as exemplary instances of a revolutionary and forceful reform in the public elementary school systems. Based on studies of transfer and their premise that the transnational transfer of ideas, practices and objects does not…

  2. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  3. A School in Every Village: Educational Reform in a Northeast China County, 1904-31. Contemporary Chinese Studies Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVen, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Qing dynasty implemented a series of institutional reforms to shore up its power. The most important were a nationwide school system and the abolition of the centuries-old civil examinations. "A School in Every Village" recounts how villagers and local state officials in Haicheng County enacted orders to establish…

  4. High School Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Extra Effort during Educational Reform: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…

  5. Mediating Global Reforms Locally: A Study of the Enabling Conditions for Promoting Active Learning in a Maldivian Island School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores active learning reform in the small state of the Maldives. Acknowledging the implementation challenges of active learning approaches globally, the study explored the policy-practice intersection by examining the experiences of one island school and its approach to promoting active learning pedagogy. The school was selected for…

  6. Educational and school managers training in the context of educational reforms: consensus and dissensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Rescia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some of the results from a doctoral research on the educational and school managers training to the beginning of XXI century, in the context of decentralization and trends of educational reforms in Latin America at the end of 1980s and 1990s. Guided by a qualitative, bibliographic and documentary research, the methodological procedures had reference in studies conducted by international organizations, such as: UNESCO, ECLAC and ILPE as well as scholars from different management paradigms, considering the Latin-American education systems’ needs. In Brazil, we sought to understand the requirements of transformation of local competences in planning and educational management after implications and managers training initiatives within this new reality. Therefore, it was analyzed for comparative purposes, three educational and school managers training programs in public schools: Management Circuit Program; Distance Learning Program for School Managers and the Managers’ School Program of Public Basic Education. It was intended to identify the trends of each program for educational and school managers training, with a view to the changes occurred in our society and education and the requirements to acquire new skills and abilities. As conclusion, the research indicated that although the training programs have originated from different instances and explain various guidelines, everything converges to the same set of skills in educational and school managers training.

  7. The pedagogical and ethical legacy of a "successful" educational reform: The Citizen School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2016-02-01

    The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.

  8. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  9. Using symbolic interactionism to analyze a specialized STEM high school teacher's experience in curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: inquiry curriculum and curriculum change through the process lens of interactions, actions, and interpretations. Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical framework we used to frame our analysis of how this teacher, Darren Daley (a pseudonym) and various stakeholders purposefully and strategically engaged in "face-work" and act out lines of actions to advocate or oppose curriculum change. Symbols are used in this world of face-to-face encounters to communicate, imply, and assert, meanings through socially flexible and adjustable processes. We scrutinize how Daley (un)consciously engaged all of these to defend his decisions, actions, and outcomes and "look" to others as doing inquiry reform. The meanings of such work are not intrinsically driven or reactions to psychological and extraneous factors and forces, but emergent through interactions. The data collection methods include interviews with Daley, school administrators, students, and parents, lesson observations in Daley's class, and gathering of school website pages, brochures, and curriculum materials. We represent data in narratives describing storied history, voices, interactions, anecdotal accounts from individuals' experiences, and interpretations. The analysis and findings illuminate the nature of teacher agency—how it is reclaimed, sustained, reinforced, contested, exercised, and modified in more nuanced ways, hence offering an alternative lens to theorizing and empirically analyzing this construct.

  10. Constructing New Finance Models That Balance Equity, Adequacy and Efficiency with Responsiveness. Education Finance in the States: Its Past, Present and Future. ECS Issue Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Policymakers continue to face major challenges in education finance, despite a history of reforms. Today's challenges include ensuring financial adequacy, maintaining gains in distributional equality, coping with the increasing need for teachers, satisfying public preference for diversity in schools and programs, and devising performance…

  11. Violence Prevention and School Climate Reform. School Climate Brief, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a positive school climate is an essential part of violence prevention. Many factors influence the association between school climate and behavioral outcomes. Positive school climate alone cannot prevent all variables that may contribute to the expression of aggression. Nevertheless, positive school climates influence…

  12. High Pressure Reform: Examining Urban Schools' Response to Multiple School Choice Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice…

  13. Educational Reform in Management Courses of Agricultural & Forestry Higher Vocational Schools from the Perspective of Microblog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuhe; JIN

    2014-01-01

    At present there are many socialized microblog platforms.With powerful mobility,real-time information,fragment of information dissemination,and innovation of interaction,the microblog has become a socialized interaction mode in recent years.Since microblog is very popular with students of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,with the rising and development of network education,the microblog as a new information platform will be used by more and more teachers in education.From the perspective of microblog,this paper studied educational reform in management courses of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,in the hope of providing certain reference and help for current education practice of agricultural and forestry management courses.

  14. School Finance in Arizona: A State-Local Partnership. A Special Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.

    This report discusses the dispute in Arizona over the 1967 legislation regulating educational finance and offers alternatives to that legislation. The document describes factors and issues relevant to an understanding of the present dispute, defines accepted principles of educational finance, provides factual information about Arizona's support of…

  15. The Implementation and Impact of Evidence-Based Mathematics Reforms in High-Poverty Middle Schools: A Multi-Site, Multi-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the first 4 years of an effort to develop comprehensive and sustainable mathematics education reforms in high poverty middle schools. In four related analyses, we examine the levels of implementation achieved and impact of the reforms on various measures of achievement in the first 3 schools to implement the Talent…

  16. School Reform in a High Poverty Elementary School: A Grounded Theory Case Study of Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Stephanie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…

  17. Schooling for Social Mobility: High School Reform for College Access and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Floyd M.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses what schools that seek to promote social mobility as opposed to status maintenance among their students really ask of them. Focusing on several prominent charter school organizations, the article details the social and behavioral expectations of the schools and understands them through an application of Goffman's work on…

  18. K-5 mentor teachers' journeys toward reform-oriented science within a professional development school context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Jacqueline L.

    Reform-oriented science teaching with a specific focus on evidence and explanation provides a student-centered learning environment which encourages children to question, seek answers to those questions, experience phenomena, share ideas, and develop explanations of science concepts based on evidence. One of the ways schools have risen to meet the challenge of ever-increasing demands for success in science and all other curricular areas has been in the development of professional development schools (PDSs). Dedicated to the simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education programs, the structure of a PDS plays a significant role in the change process. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the nature of change in mentor teachers' beliefs and pedagogical practices toward science teaching in the elementary school as conveyed through their own "stories of practice". The major research questions that guided the study were: (1) How do mentor teachers describe their science teaching practices and how have they changed as a result of participation in PDS? (a) In what ways do PDS mentor teachers' descriptions of practice reflect contemporary reform ideas and practices in science education? (b) To what extent do their stories emphasize technical aspects of teaching versus epistemological changes in their thinking and knowledge? (c) How is student learning in science reflected in teachers' stories of practice? (2) What is the relationship between the levels and types of involvement in PDS to change in thinking about and practices of teaching science? (3) What is the depth of commitment that mentors convey about changes in science teaching practices? Using case study design, the research explored the ways experienced teachers, working within the context of a PDS community, described changes in the ways they think about and teach science. The connection to the issue of change in teaching practices grew out of interest in understanding the relationship

  19. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  20. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  1. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  2. Mathematics training for the teaching of basic knowledge in times of teaching school reform of Parana (Year 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara da Silva França

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article discusses the mathematical training of primary teachers in Paraná and aims to understand how elementary mathematical knowledge was included in the reform carried out by Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa, in the 1920’s and directed by Prieto Martinez for the modernization of the state’s primary education. Supported by theoretical and methodological framework of cultural history, this study is guided by the question: Considering the Reform of teaching school and thinking about the mathematics education of Paraná teachers, what has changed, why has it changed and what for? With the reform subjects more focused on practical teaching in primary school were introduced, and that favored the renewal of teaching methods and teaching resources, curriculum reorganization which reflected in the quality of Math education of future teachers in the state’s primary education. Keywords: Mathematics Teaching. Primary Education Teacher. History of Education.

  3. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  4. The Quasi-Human Child: How Normative Conceptions of Childhood Enabled Neoliberal School Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…

  5. Disruptive Fixation: School Reform and the Pitfalls of Techno-Idealism. Princeton Studies in Culture and Technology Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Christo

    2017-01-01

    In New York City in 2009, a new kind of public school opened its doors to its inaugural class of middle schoolers. Conceived by a team of game designers and progressive educational reformers and backed by prominent philanthropic foundations, it promised to reinvent the classroom for the digital age. Ethnographer Christo Sims documented the life of…

  6. The Effects of Reform in Principal Selection on Leadership Behavior of General and Vocational High School Principals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…

  7. Achieving Flourishing City Schools and Communities--Corporate Reform, Neoliberal Urbanism, and the Right to the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This essay critiques the ideological assertions of corporate school reform and discusses how these logics perpetuate failure in urban education. Drawing on theories of neoliberal urbanism, the right to the city, and the commons, the essay argues that educational researchers and advocates need to reframe the values of urban education in line with a…

  8. Evidence as Source of Power in School Reforms: The Quest for the Extension of Compulsory Education in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…

  9. Inclusive Education for Students with Refugee Experience: Whole School Reform in a South Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Karen; Every, Danielle; Hattam, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in students with refugee experience in the UK, the US, Europe and Australia. These students face many barriers to education, and appropriately educating this diverse student population presents many challenges to schools and education departments. We argue that a whole of school approach that includes…

  10. RAND Research Brief: A Decade of Whole-School Reform. The New American Schools Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... NAS's core premise was that all high-quality schools possess, de facto, a unifying design that enables all staff members to function to the best of their abilities and that integrates research-based...

  11. Intertextuality in Educational Reform: Reflections on Equity in Swedish School Reform La Intertextualidad en las reformas educativas: reflexiones sobre la equidad en la reforma escolar sueca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Francia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes intertextuality as a conceptual instrument for the deeper understanding of the phenomenon of equity in educational Reform in times of decentralization. This analysis starts from a dynamic vision of education reforms as interactions of texts. To illustrate the use of intertextual analysis of equity in education, this article introduces and discusses the analyzed examples of the educational national policy and of educational practice in the educational reform implemented in the 90?s and currently in force in the compulsory school in Sweden. It is argued that the meaning of equity is never a fixed one; it varies according to the interactions between political texts at a national level and texts of educational practice at communal and school levels. En este artículo se propone la intertextualidad como herramienta conceptual para lograr una mayor comprensión de la equidad en las reformas educativas en tiempos de descentralización. En este análisis se parte de una visión de reforma educativa como sistema dinámico de interacciones de textos. Para ilustrar la utilidad del análisis intertextual de la equidad educativa se presentan y discuten ejemplos de la política y de la práctica escolar en la reforma introducida en la década de los noventa y actualmente vigente en la escuela obligatoria sueca. Se argumenta que el significado de equidad nunca es fijo, sino que varía de acuerdo con las interacciones de los diferentes textos de la política educativa y de la práctica escolar.

  12. Local Control: Fear or Fantasy. A Report of the New Jersey Education Reform Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan H.

    Today local control over education seems to face the most serious challenge in its history. The movement to reform school finance raises the specter of the State assuming its formal consitutional powers and removing autonomy from the communities. Hence, it is argued, as the State takes over control of taxation and expenditures it will want to…

  13. Teachers’ Working Conditions Amid Swedish School Choice Reform: Avenues for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Åsa Parding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, governance changes, including customer choice agendas, have permeated the public sector and, consequently, welfare sector professionals’ work. One example is the education sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss avenues for further research when it comes to teachers’ working conditions in the light of current choice agendas. This is accomplished by presenting an overview of previous studies on implications of the reforms for teachers’ working conditions. How are these conditions described in relation to the current school choice agenda in Sweden? What directions should be applied to increase knowledge of these conditions? We conclude by identifying some avenues for further research: the issues of organization of work, temporal and spatial dimensions of working conditions, and finally comparative studies of various forms, are suggested as warranting further investigation to highlight the diversified labor market in which teachers find themselves today.Keywords: Competition, governance change, privatization, professional work, school choice, Sweden, teaching profession, working conditions

  14. Arts-Based School Reform: A Whole School Studies One Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Georgianna

    2001-01-01

    Describes arts-based, anchored instruction at Fair Arts IMPACT Elementary School (Columbus, Ohio), a five-week program centered around "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte" (Georges Seurat). Addresses unit objectives such as understanding social climate with respect to race/gender discrimination and examining why people…

  15. The Forgotten Side of School Finance Equity: The Role of Infrastructure Funding in Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.; Vesely, Randall S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, local school districts have shouldered the burden of funding school infrastructure in the name of local control, relying upon local property tax revenues and the willingness of local voters to approve bond issues. Given vast disparities in school districts' property wealth, gross inequities in school facilities will remain without…

  16. CIMPA-UNESCO-MESR-MINECO-MOROCCO research school entitled Statistical Methods and Applications in Finance and Actuarial Science

    CERN Document Server

    Essaky, El; Vives, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This book is the outcome of the CIMPA School on Statistical Methods and Applications in Insurance and Finance, held in Marrakech and Kelaat M'gouna (Morocco) in April 2013. It presents two lectures and seven refereed papers from the school, offering the reader important insights into key topics. The first of the lectures, by Frederic Viens, addresses risk management via hedging in discrete and continuous time, while the second, by Boualem Djehiche, reviews statistical estimation methods applied to life and disability insurance. The refereed papers offer diverse perspectives and extensive discussions on subjects including optimal control, financial modeling using stochastic differential equations, pricing and hedging of financial derivatives, and sensitivity analysis. Each chapter of the volume includes a comprehensive bibliography to promote further research.

  17. Community Responses to School Reform in Chicago: Opportunities for Local Stakeholder Engagement. A Report by Public Agenda for the Joyce Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on how community stakeholders, including parents, teachers, community leaders and advocates, think about current efforts by Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to "turn around" Chicago's lowest-performing schools, and their expectations for future school reform actions. It was prepared by Public Agenda, with support from the…

  18. State School Finance Inequities and the Limits of Pursuing Teacher Equity through Departmental Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Weber, Mark

    2016-01-01

    New federal regulations (State Plans to Ensure Equitable Access to Excellent Educators)1 place increased pressure on states and local public school districts to improve their measurement and reporting of gaps in teacher qualifications across schools and the children they serve. Yet a sole focus on resource disparities between schools within a…

  19. 77 FR 17407 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Survey of School System Finances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... cannot provide information on the assets of individual school systems. School systems have the choice to... school systems in states where the state education agency cannot provide information on the indebtedness... information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in...

  20. Enacting the Carnegie Foundation call for reform of medical school and residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Irby, David M

    2013-01-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the Flexner Report, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching published a new study of medical education. This study, titled Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical Schools and Residency Programs, contained four primary recommendations intended to stimulate innovation and improvement in medical education. In this article, the authors examined the ways others have applied the four recommendations from Educating Physicians within and beyond medical education. In their review of 246 publications citing the Carnegie work, they found that the recommendation for integration was addressed most frequently, often through descriptions of integration of curricular content in undergraduate medical education. The recommendation to focus on professional identity formation was the second most frequently addressed, followed by standardization and individualization, then inquiry, innovation, and improvement. The publications related to these latter three recommendations tended to be conceptual rather than descriptive or empirical. Publications spanned the continuum of medical education (from medical school to residency to physicians in practice) and even into other fields, but undergraduate medical education received the most attention. The authors discuss common themes among the citing publications and highlight opportunities for further discussion and innovation. Many exciting developments have occurred in medical education and beyond since the publication of Educating Physicians in 2010. Thus far, most of the publications citing the Carnegie recommendations describe incremental changes in medical education, particularly in the area of integration. Some of the conceptual work around these recommendations, coupled with a variety of external factors such as changes in health care and accreditation systems, suggests the potential for changes that are more transformative in nature.

  1. Dewey and Italian School Policy: Proposals for Reform by Scuola e Città (1950–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mariuzzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the role of Ernesto Codignola’s «Florence School of Pedagogy» in the renewal of Italian democratic and secular education after World War II, particularly its commitment to the diffusion of John Dewey’s educational thinking across Italy, previously dominated by the influence of traditional neo-idealism. Through a systematic analysis of the journal Scuola e Città, the group’s mouthpiece, the paper highlights the importance of Dewey’s ideas in the elaboration of educational policy proposals and potential legislative measures for school reform. It analyses the extent to which the «Deweyan laboratory» in Florence contributed to the emergence and foundation of the positions held by one of its exponents, Ernesto Codignola’s son Tristano – the Italian Socialist Party’s Education minister, in the parliamentary debate of the Sixties. The paper focuses on three main themes: (i assessment of the government’s primary school curricula, drawn up in the mid-fifties, characterized by an overhaul of the existing educational practices, which Scuola e città authors considered to be insufficient and contradictory; (ii universal access to a junior secondary education along the lines of the comprehensive school model to guide the active stimulation of students’ abilities and interests; and (iii school administration reform in response to the persistence of pre-war centralism and the authoritarian character of traditional Italian pedagogy.

  2. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jechoutek, K.G.; Lamech, Ranjit

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  3. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  4. Quality Reform: Personality Type, Preferred Learning Style and Majors in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…

  5. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2016-01-01

    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  6. Recursos próprios da UNB, o financiamento das IFES e a reforma da educação superior The University of Brasília own revenues, the financing of FISHE and the higher education reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Velloso

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available texto discute o comportamento de despesas da Universidade de Brasília (UNB, enfatizando as receitas próprias, no cenário do financiamento das Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior (IFES, e trata das fundações de apoio em anteprojetos de reforma da educação superior do Governo Lula. O financiamento da UNB com verbas do MEC não difere muito do observado nas IFES, predominando recursos cadentes num sistema em expansão, no contexto da crise de hegemonia da universidade e de políticas voltadas para uma heterogeneidade no sistema federal. A UNB tem alta proporção de gastos com receitas próprias, vem tendo crescente dependência destas, mas a maioria é consumida na sua geração, mostrando que nenhuma universidade federal de qualidade pode prescindir dos recursos da União. O primeiro dos anteprojetos trouxe notáveis inovações no financiamento das IFES, mas o segundo renunciou a muitas das propostas originais. Exigiu transparência na atuação das fundações de apoio, subordinação a colegiados superiores e sinalizou longinquamente para uma futura reforma da gestão financeira e patrimonial.The text analyses the behavior of expenditures of the University of Brasília (UNB, emphasizing its own revenues, in the context of the financing of Federal Institutions of Higher Education (FISHE, and deals with the university support foundations in preliminary proposals for a higher education reform bill of President Lula Government Administration. The public funding of UNB does not differ substantially from that of FISHE, in which falling resources relative to enrollment growth have prevailed; these are viewed within the framework of a hegemonic crisis of the university and of policies aimed to heterogeneity in the federal system. UNB has a high share of expenditures with its own revenues, and has been increasingly dependent on them, but most has been used up in their production, indicating that public funding is the key to quality

  7. School Finance Crisis in Chicago: A Study of Failure in the City that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the effects of patronage politics on Chicago schools. Cites overtime abuse, poor job and program cost control, favoritism in contractual building maintenance, and capital building programs as some of the costs that political patronage imposes. (GC)

  8. The Effects of the Washington Education Reform on School and Classroom Practice, 1999-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stechner, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... One way that these efforts differ from earlier reforms is that they involve the adoption of content and student performance standards--explicit benchmarks of what students should know and be able...

  9. Property Rights, Finance, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Johnson; John McMillan; Christopher Woodruff

    1999-01-01

    Is investment constrained more by insecure property rights or by limited external finance? For five transition economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union we find that weak property rights limit the reinvestment of profits in startup ma nufacturing firms. Access to credit does not appear to explain differences in investment. At least in the early stages of post-communist reform, retained earnings appear to have been enough to finance the investments that managers wanted to make.

  10. From pedagogy to timeagogy? Leisure-time pedagogues handling time in the reformed Danish Primary School and Leisure-time Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Ringskou, Lea Thomsen

    for effectiveness contributes to increasing amounts of discipline techniques and new requirements in relation to the pedagogues’ skills in classroom management. Seemingly, the enhanced encounter between time and pedagogy both provide potentials and pitfalls, triggering different, often ambivalent, emotional......, Denmark. E-mail: dtg@viauc.dk Research topic/aim: In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. A reform that meant longer school days, emphasizing varied learning environments and better results for each pupil regardless of social background. In general, the reform matches other educational reforms...... effectiveness and academic outcomes. In our presentation, launching the concept of timeagogy, we analyze and discuss the encounter between time and pedagogy. Which strategies, techniques and action evolve when time challenges pedagogy? How do pedagogues handle time demands and in which way does time constitute...

  11. Equity in School Financing: District Power Equalizing. Fastback Series, No. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Behind the concept of power equalization is the assumption that at any specified tax rate every school district in a State, regardless of wealth, has the same dollar resource level per pupil. A State established schedule of local district funding level choices related to tax rates is essential; however, tax levels are always a product of the…

  12. Financing the Public Schools in the Great Lake States: Declining Revenues in the 1980s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes data on the economic prospects of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--including demographic and economic trends, trends in taxation systems, school revenue and expenditure trends, and future revenue prospects--and offers prognoses for individual states. Generally, short-range revenue prospects are bleak, and long-range…

  13. Wise Choices? The Economics Discourse of a High School Economics and Personal Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Tamara Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Today's high school students will face a host of economic problems such as the demise of the social safety net, mounting college student debt, and costly health care plans, as stated in the rationale for financial literacy provided by the Council for Economic Education's National Standards for Financial Literacy. These problems are compounded by…

  14. Conditional Wealth Neutrality as a School Finance Equity Criterion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmink, David P.; And Others

    This study looks at the relationship between district wealth and revenues available for education in Illinois using a "conditional" conception of wealth neutrality that holds constant the operational tax rate. Data used were demographic data of Illinois school districts. An analysis of beta weights suggested an undesirable relationship…

  15. Financing Schools and Property Tax Relief -- A State Responsibility. The Report in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report is the first response to President Nixon's request to the Commission for an evaluation of the proposed replacement of school property taxes by a Federal value added tax. The report findings reveal that a federal program to bring tax relief is neither necessary nor desirable, and the Commission suggests that the States assume a greater…

  16. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  17. The Public Administration Accounting in the Light Public Finance Managements Reform and Changes of the New Accounting Directive of the European Parliament and the European Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košovská Iveta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public administration accounting is to secure a database of relevant information essential for the management of public finances and need for presenting of operations results of our country within the European Union (EU. The accounting of public administration entities should provide a true and fair view on the assets and liabilities, as well as the financial situation and the use of public appropriations. After the entry of the Slovak Republic (SR to the European Union (EU the International Public Sector Accounting Standards began to be applied in our legislation. They provide a uniform basis for the data consolidation as well as more efficient information for the economic decisions of individual users

  18. LEARNING FINANCES IN A EASY AND FUN WAY: AN EXPERIENCE WITH PUBLIC SCHOOLS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelmara Mendes Vieira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal financial education is primordial in society, as it influences directly the economic decisions of individuals. This way, the present survey, based on a project that developed and implemented a financial education course for young people, aims to measure the financial literacy level of the students, before and after the course. The sample comprised 302 elementary school students from public schools in Santa Maria, aged between 11 and 17. The results show that the students had a low financial knowledge, which improved after the course, and the variables “math grades”, “parental education” and “total household monthly incomes” are significant to the financial literacy level of students.

  19. An economic theory of Islamic finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabid Ali Al-Jarhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to provide an economic rationale for Islamic finance. Design/methodology/approach - Its methodology is simple. It starts with listing the contributions to economic analysis relevant to the required rationale in the theories of banking, finance, price, money and macroeconomics, to identify the main rationale for Islamic finance. A concise description of the author’s model for an Islamic economic system, within which Islamic finance can be operational, is provided. Findings - The paper finds distinct advantages of Islamic finance, when properly applied within the author’s model. Islamic finance can therefore be a candidate as a reform agenda for conventional finance. It opens the door for significant monetary reform in currently prevalent economic systems. Research limitations/implications - The first limitation of the paper is that the distinct benefits of Islamic finance are all of macroeconomic types which are external to Islamic banking and finance institutions. They are therefore not expected to motivate such institutions to apply Islamic finance to the letter, without regulators interference to ensure strict application. The second limitation is the necessity to set up enabling institutional and regulatory arrangements for Islamic finance. Originality/value - The results are unique as they challenge the received doctrine and provide non-religious rationale for Islamic finance.

  20. Differentiated Financing of Schools in French-Speaking Belgium: Prospectives for Regulating a School Quasi-Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeuse, Marc; Derobertmasure, Antoine; Friant, Nathanael

    2010-01-01

    The school quasi-market in French-speaking Belgium is characterised by segregation. Efforts to apply measures that encourage greater social mixing have met with stiff resistance. In 2008 and 2009, turbulence was caused by the application of the "social mixing" law influencing the registration procedures. The purpose of this article is to…

  1. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  2. Changing Course on School Reform: Strategic Organizing around the New York City Mayoral Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Billy

    2014-01-01

    New York City's new mayor, Bill de Blasio, represents a dramatic shift from his predecessor Michael Bloomberg in the area of education. Bloomberg was a national trendsetter on market reforms focused on privatization, testing, and competition. De Blasio was elected on an agenda of classroom investments, student supports, parent and community…

  3. Public Management Reform without Managers: The Case of German Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintrop, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of principals in light of public management reforms taking place in the German educational system and in reference to the empirical patterns uncovered by the papers contained in the Special Issue. Policy makers have created new expectations and new technologies that seem to suggest to…

  4. Tailor-made finance versus tailor-made care. Can the state strengthen consumer choice in healthcare by reforming the financial structure of long-term care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grit, K; de Bont, A

    2010-02-01

    Policy instruments based on the working of markets have been introduced to empower consumers of healthcare. However, it is still not easy to become a critical consumer of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of the state to strengthen the position of patients with the aid of a new financial regime, such as personal health budgets. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with executives, managers, professionals and client representatives of six long-term care institutions. With the introduction of individual budgets the responsibility for budgetary control has shifted from the organisational level to the individual level in the caregiver-client relationship. Having more luxurious care on offer necessitates a stronger demarcation of regular care because organisations cannot simultaneously offer extra care as part of the standard care package. New financial instruments have an impact on the culture of receiving and giving care. Distributive justice takes on new meaning with the introduction of financial market mechanisms in healthcare; the distributing principle of 'need' is transformed into the principle of 'economic demand'. Financial instruments not only act as a countervailing power against providers insufficiently client-oriented, but are also used by providers to reinforce their own positions vis-à-vis demanding clients. Tailor-made finance is not the same as tailor-made care.

  5. The 1921 Agrarian Reform in Transylvania and its Reflection in the Considerations of the Members of the Bucharest School of Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELEGDY, Balázs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1921 agrarian reform aimed to be a significant step towards Romania’s agricultural development. The main motive of this reform – at least on a declarative level – was a socially oriented one: to expropriate a part of the big landowners’ estates, and to distribute in among the poverty-stricken people, with a special concern towards the First World War veterans, or their widows. At the same time, the agrarian reform recognised the differences in development between the different regions of the newly-formed Greater Romania, and as such there were two different laws regulating the reform processes in the Old Kingdom and in the newly annexed territories. The members of the Bucharest School of Sociology, based on the scarce data available to them to the time, approached the economically questionable results of this reform in a critical manner. József Venczel, who had acquired the bases of his professional knowledge at the same school, also proves, with regard to the Transylvanian land reform, that this had a second, national policy oriented goal, and its implementation was also ethnically biased.

  6. What Happened to the Beacon Schools? Policy Reform and Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of the Beacon schools initiative on the social and academic characteristics of secondary schools in England. The Beacon schools programme ran from 1998 to 2004 and epitomised the (then) Labour government's focus on school improvement through diversity, collaboration and partnership. This paper looks at variation in…

  7. Alternatives to the EEG levy. Possible effects of a reform of the energy transition financing on the industry; Alternativen zur EEG-Umlage. Moegliche Auswirkungen einer Reform der Energiewende-Finanzierung auf die Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyhing, Joerg [ECG Energie Consulting GmbH, Kehl (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Although it has been adjusted six times since the year 2000, it has not yet been possible to manage the unrestricted growth of the EEG levy. In the 2017 election year, it becomes therefore ever more obvious that an alternative way to finance the energy transition is high on the political agenda. This would lead to significant changes for energy-intensive companies, regardless of whether they have benefited from a release from the levy or not. At the same time, the alternatives currently discussed have quite different effects on the industrial companies concerned and thereby the industry location Germany. [German] Obwohl seit dem Jahr 2000 inzwischen sechsmal angepasst, ist es bisher nicht gelungen, den ungebremsten Anstieg der EEG-Umlage in den Griff zu bekommen. Im Wahljahr 2017 wird deshalb immer offensichtlicher, dass ein alternativer Weg zur Finanzierung der Energiewende weit oben auf der politischen Tagesordnung steht. Damit kaemen auf die energieintensiven Unternehmen signifikante Veraenderungen zu, und zwar unabhaengig davon, ob sie bisher von einer Befreiung von der Umlage profitiert haben oder nicht. Dabei haben die derzeit diskutierten Alternativen durchaus unterschiedliche Auswirkungen auf die betroffenen Industrieunternehmen und damit den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland.

  8. Rebel with a Cause: A School Board Member Calls for Reform in Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the experience of a new school board member in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Marta Perez, as she discovers a wide range of ethical and management problems in the school district and attempts to deal with them. Layered throughout the case are challenges pertaining to the school board's roles and responsibilities,…

  9. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  10. Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative finance instruments can help increase funding of investments aimed at environmental and social sustainability. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘innovations in financing environmental and social

  11. Corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    P. Quiry; Y. Le Fur; A. Salvi; M. Dallocchio; P. Vernimmen

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition, the website www.vernimmen.com and the Vernimmen.com newsletter are all written and created by an author team who are both investment bankers/corporate financiers and academics. This book covers the theory and practice of Corporate Finance from a truly European perspective. It shows how to use financial theory to solve practical problems and is written for students of corporate finance and financial analysis and practising corporate financie...

  12. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  13. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  14. Quality reform and "the learning pre-school child" in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The article argues that Early Childhood Education & Care (ECEC) is being redesigned based on quality reform discourse with references to global knowledge economy across Nordic countries and the EU. This takes place in policy processes that extend from transnational agents like the OECD and EU...... to national governments, local municipalities and ECEC institutions. Drawing on theoretical insights from Foucauldian genealogy, Laclau and others, the article explores how these policy processes reconfigure what counts as quality in ECEC in a Danish context. It is substantiated how the Danish government...... promotes governance structures among municipalities and professionals that pull ECEC into comprehensive educational strategies. This process draws on policy advice from the OECD and EU. Quality reform thus changes in fundamental ways the organisation and content in ECEC. In discourse, learning displaces...

  15. Education Reform in New Orleans: Voices from the Recovery School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Max S.; Kirylo, James D.; Mirón, Luis; Frazier, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    In the post-Katrina education landscape in New Orleans, teachers in charter schools and district-run schools in the Recovery School District are uniquely situated to provide a direct eyewitness account of the successes and failures of the city's new direction in public education. This narrative presents the opinions of teachers in a critical…

  16. Turning around Maple Shade Middle School: A Principal's Initial Reform Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Levy, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, specifically those related to organizational change, school improvement/turnaround, and the principalship. It explores a veteran principal's first year as a "turnaround specialist" in a low-performing middle school, where she works with a sense of urgency to achieve an…

  17. Inventing Better Schools: An Action Plan for Education Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    If schools are not changed in dramatic ways very soon, public schools will lose their place as a vital component of the American education system. The first three chapters of this book describe the crisis in American education, arguing that what the schools were designed to do no longer serves the needs of American society. The presence of…

  18. The Transformation of Schools' Social Networks during a Data-Based Decision Making Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuning, Trynke

    2016-01-01

    Context: Collaboration within school teams is considered to be important to build the capacity school teams need to work in a data-based way. In a school characterized by a strong collaborative culture, teachers may have more access to the knowledge and skills for analyzing data, teachers have more opportunity to discuss the performance goals to…

  19. The transformation of schools' social networks during a data-based decision making reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, Trynke; Geel, Marieke Van; Visscher, Adrie; Fox, Jean Paul; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802

    2016-01-01

    Context: Collaboration within school teams is considered to be important to build the capacity school teams need to work in a data-based way. In a school characterized by a strong collaborative culture, teachers may have more access to the knowledge and skills for analyzing data, teachers have more

  20. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  1. Peeling Back the Layers of Policy and School Reform: Revealing the Structural and Social Complexities within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside-Jiron, Haley; Gehsmann, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the complex process of school change over a six-year period in one high-poverty, urban elementary school in a northeastern city of the United States. The school included in this instrumental case study was identified by its State Department of Education as "being in need of improvement" in March 2000. Findings…

  2. "Decentralised" Neoliberalism and/or "Masked" Re-Centralisation? The Policy to Practice Trajectory of Maltese School Reform through the Lens of Neoliberalism and Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The politics of the later part of the twentieth century have been marked by the emergence of neoliberalism, which has consequently impregnated the global policy climate with neoliberal technologies of government. It is within this political scenario of hegemonic neoliberal discourse that I explore one aspect of school reform in Malta--contrived…

  3. Examining the Potential of Critical and Kaupapa Maori Approaches to Leading Education Reform in New Zealand's English-Medium Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Egan, Margaret; Ford, Therese

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses expectations, policies and practices that currently underpin education within the New Zealand context. It acknowledges the ongoing failure of this policy framework to positively influence reform for Indigenous Maori students in regular, state-funded schools and highlights the need for extensive change in the positioning and…

  4. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracun Sova, Rajka; Kemperl, Metoda

    2012-01-01

    One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011) and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European…

  5. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  6. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  7. Impact of a school district's science reform effort on the achievement and attitudes of third- and fourth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.

    2004-10-01

    This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, [1997]) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., [1998]), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.

  8. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  9. SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM REFORM. SURVEY CONDUCTED IN UPPER HIGH SCHOOLS OF BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau Remus Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers

  10. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  11. The impact of education on the probability of receiving periodontal treatment. Causal effects measured by using the introduction of a school reform in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Jostein; Skau, Irene

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of receiving periodontal treatment in the adult Norwegian population. In Norway, a substantial part of the cost of periodontal treatment is subsidized by the National Insurance Scheme. In that case, one might expect that the influence of individual resources, such as education, on receiving treatment would be reduced or eliminated. Causal effects were estimated by using data on a school reform in Norway. During the period 1960-1972, all municipalities in Norway were required to increase the number of compulsory years of schooling from seven to nine years. The education reform was used to create exogenous variation in the education variable. The education data were combined with large sets of data from the Norwegian Health Economics Administration and Statistics Norway. Since municipalities implemented the reform at different times, we have both cross-sectional and time-series variation in the reform instrument. Thus we were able to estimate the effect of education on the probability of receiving periodontal treatment by controlling for municipality fixed effects and trend variables. The probability of receiving periodontal treatment increased by 1.4-1.8 percentage points per additional year of schooling. This is a reasonably strong effect, which indicates that policies to increase the level of education in the population can be an effective tool to improve oral health, including periodontal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights from Food Service Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…

  13. From Heroes to Organizers: Principals and Education Organizing in Urban School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Educational leadership is key to addressing the persistent inequities in low-income urban schools, but most principals struggle to work with parents and communities around those schools to create socially just learning environments. This article describes the conditions and experiences that enabled principals to share leadership with…

  14. Chicago Business Leadership and School Reform. Supporting Leaders for Tomorrow, Occasional Paper #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarik, David

    Chicago's city leaders, unlike other city leaders, are going after fundamental and radical restructuring of the nation's third largest school system, but have found that it is hard to achieve. This paper provides a snapshot of the growing political involvement of Chicago's business leadership with the city's troubled school system. The need for…

  15. Effective Consultants: A Conceptual Framework for Helping School Systems Achieve Systemic Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazle Bussey, Leslie; Welch, Jennie C.; Mohammed, Meca B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of organisations--universities, non-profits, independent consultants--are emerging as partners to school systems pursuing systemic improvement. This proliferation invites questions probing the interaction between school systems and their consulting partners. Drawing on a cross-disciplinary review of literature, this theoretical…

  16. Public School and Teacher Education Reform: A Proposal for Shared Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Whitford, Betty Lou

    1986-01-01

    Public schools must play a more central role in teacher education than they do now. What is needed is an organization separate from public schools, the university, and the teachers' organizations that can act as an effective force for teacher professionalization. (Author)

  17. Social Problems and America's Youth: Why School Reform Won't Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenmeyer, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Using the schools to achieve racial balance, eliminate poverty, fight drug abuse, prevent pregnancy, and reduce youth suicide is too large a task. Teachers and principals should address educational issues, not unmet social needs. To improve the educational performance of the schools, the quality of life for youth must first be improved. (MSE)

  18. Examining the Perceptions of Curriculum Leaders on Primary School Reform: A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…

  19. Who Defines "Democratic Leadership?": Three High School Principals Respond to Site-Based Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on behaviors and activities of three high school principals as they respond to district's decision to implement a shared decision-making model designed to give teachers and parents a larger voice. Describes these administrators' varying responses, along with varied ways democratic leadership was multilaterally defined in each school by…

  20. Sources of Funding for Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the trends in educational funding patterns needed to enact educational reform. Local property taxes, state revenues, and federal aid continue to provide the bulk of financing. Includes two tables. (MD)

  1. Revamping California's Education Finance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Describes reasons for California's budget deficits and their impact on school finance. Offers five possible solutions to the school funding crises: Restructure the state's tax and revenue system, restore school district revenue-sharing abilities, initiate a top-to-bottom mandate review, provide greater fiscal and program flexibility, and revamp…

  2. High School Principals and School Reform: Lessons Learned from a Statewide Study of Project Re:Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Shirley, J. Robert

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes a study examining the high school principal's role in providing the leadership needed to explore and implement Project Re:Learning. The 4-phase study initially included 15 schools and involved questionnaires, interviews, and shadowing. Identifies six types of administrators: the absent administrator, the pawn, the pragmatic principal,…

  3. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights From Food Service Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status. Qualitative interview data were team coded in Atlas.ti v7 and analyzed with principles of constant comparative analysis. FSDs reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and its potential impacts, as well as improved fruit and vegetable consumption, despite initial challenges with plate waste, procurement of whole grain-rich products, and fast paced sodium targets. Implementation was described as complex, ongoing processes; with time and in-service trainings, student acceptance to these changes improved. These findings are directly relevant to future reauthorization of the Child Nutrition Act and to revisions to the implementation time line for the federal school meal standards related to sodium, whole grains, and flavored milk. Insights into FSDs' strategies suggest that more time and targeted technical assistance at federal, state, and local levels is warranted. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Changes in educational inequalities in Poland. Comments on Zbigniew Sawiński’s article “Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAŁ SITEK

    2017-01-01

    In his text published in Edukacja, 141(2), 2017 („Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”), Zbigniew Sawiński analyses data from the 2000 to 2012 editions of the OECD PISA study and argues that lower secondary school reform has not reduced educational inequalities in Poland. The importance of students’ social origin remained at the same level as before the reform, the impact of social origin on the choice of type of secondary school remained th...

  5. Financing Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2014-01-01

    We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and h...

  6. Healthier students are better learners: a missing link in school reforms to close the achievement gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health on "Healthier Students Are Better Learners." Literature was reviewed and synthesized to identify health problems affecting school-aged youth that are highly prevalent, disproportionately affect urban minority youth, directly and indirectly causally affect academic achievement, and can be feasibly and effectively addressed through school health programs and services. Based on these criteria, 7 educationally relevant health disparities were selected as strategic priorities to help close the achievement gap: (1) vision, (2) asthma, (3) teen pregnancy, (4) aggression and violence, (5) physical activity, (6) breakfast, and (7) inattention and hyperactivity. Research clearly shows that these health problems influence students' motivation and ability to learn. Disparities among urban minority youth are outlined, along with the causal pathways through which each adversely affects academic achievement, including sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. Evidence-based approaches that schools can implement to address these problems are presented. These health problems and the causal pathways they influence have interactive and a synergistic effect, which is why they must be addressed collectively using a coordinated approach. No matter how well teachers are prepared to teach, no matter what accountability measures are put in place, no matter what governing structures are established for schools, educational progress will be profoundly limited if students are not motivated and able to learn. Particular health problems play a major role in limiting the motivation and ability to learn of urban minority youth. This is why reducing these disparities through a coordinated approach warrants validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative to close the achievement gap. Local, state, and national policies for implementing this

  7. Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

  8. Reforming High School Science for Low-Performing Students Using Inquiry Methods and Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Marsha Gail

    Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.

  9. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  10. Ripple effects of reform on capital financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Healthcare leaders should inventory and quantify the capital initiatives deemed critical for success under changing business models. Key considerations in planning such initiatives are opportunity costs and potential impact on productivity. Senior leaders also should create rolling five-year estimates of expenditures in addition to a one-year budget. Approaches to paying for such initiatives include borrowing from cash reserves, partnering to share cash and other resources, and developing new revenue sources derived from the initiatives themselves.

  11. Evaluating Health Care Financing Reforms in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Africa is on a steady economic growth path. Over the last decade, most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries outperformed European and North-American countries’ growth rates, as shown in Figure 1. A number of SSA countries are among the fastest growing economies

  12. Quantitative Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  13. Empowerment Patterns of Leaders in ICT and School Strengths Following the Implementation of National ICT Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in Israel has, over the past two years, been running an education program designed to lead the implementation of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in schools. Implementation of the program is accompanied by training and support of teachers selected to be ICT leaders. The role of the ICT leader is divided to…

  14. A Study on Linking High-School Physics and Perfect Teaching Reformation of College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolai; Li, Qun; Gao, Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    For the students who have just entered colleges, learning university physics would be a challenge. This paper discusses how to make students who have just finished senior high school physics won't feel difficult in learning university physics and how to guide and cultivate the students' interest in the study of physics so to stimulate the…

  15. Necessary Educational Reform for the 21st Century: The Future of Public Schools in Our Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Armando; Pearl, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    We offer a theoretical and ecological argument for the preparation of citizens in U.S. public schools. This democratic education draws legitimacy from the concern of the nations founders for a populace educated to govern itself. We also emphasize the need for new democratic skills and knowledge in the face of today's challenges, and our…

  16. Curriculum Reform and School Performance: An Evaluation of the "New Basics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karl L.; Pallas, Aaron M.

    This report examines whether a high school curriculum organized around the five "new basics" suggested by the National Commission on Excellence in Education is likely to enhance student achievement. Data from the ETS Growth Study reveals that completion of the core curriculum has sizable effects on senior-year test performance, even when…

  17. Creating Optimal Learning Environments through Invitational Education: An Alternative to Control Oriented School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what motivates people to put forth effort, persevere in the face of obstacles, and choose their behaviors is key to creating an optimal learning environment--the type of school that policy makers desire, but are unknowingly sabotaging (Dweck, 2000). Many motivation and self-concept theories provide important insight with regard to…

  18. Understanding Comprehensive School Reforms: Insights from Comparative-Historical Sociology and Power Resources Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The historical origins and development of comprehensive schooling have seldom been analyzed systematically and comparatively. However, there is a rich comparative and historically grounded literature on the development of welfare states, which focuses on many relevant policies, but ignores the education system. In particular, the power resources…

  19. "Seeing" the School Reform Elephant: Connecting Policy Makers, Parents, Practioners, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tony; Sconyers, Nancy

    This report is part of a multi-year project conducted by the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE) and Boston University components of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning. The report draws on results of a series of focus groups and interviews conducted in 1994 and 1995 to explore how policymakers and parents,…

  20. The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

  1. Fear and Trembling in the American High School: Educational Reform and Teacher Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Roxanne M.; Brooks, Melanie C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a two-year case study of teachers in a single public high school. Data were gathered and analyzed using a conceptual framework that conceived of alienation as a set of five sub-constructs: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and estrangement. Findings suggested that teachers experienced each…

  2. Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.

  3. Financiamento e democratização do acesso à educação superior no Brasil: da deserção do Estado ao projeto de reforma Financing and democratizing the access to higher education in Brazil: from State desertion to the reform project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Corbucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto aborda o financiamento da educação superior no Brasil, tendo como recorte temporal o início da década de 1990 até o presente. Parte-se do pressuposto de que esse período refletiu, em alguma medida, o esgotamento dos modelos político e econômico vigentes até a primeira metade dos anos de 1980, para se analisar o papel atribuído à educação superior nos programas de governo da década seguinte. Discorre sobre o avanço do setor privado a partir de meados dos anos de 1990, além de tratar da suposta dicotomia entre educação superior e educação básica. No que se refere ao financiamento stricto sensu, analisa a participação dos entes públicos e privados, e compara a situação brasileira com a de países da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE. Ainda sobre o tema, analisa as possibilidades de autofinanciamento das instituições federais de ensino superior, a partir de estudo de caso realizado no âmbito da Universidade de Brasília (UNB. Por fim, apresenta as primeiras medidas que integram a proposta de reforma da educação superior, que tem sido coordenada pelo Ministério da Educação (MEC. À guisa de conclusão, aventa possíveis implicações e desdobramentos das políticas de financiamento da educação superior, implementadas nos últimos anos.This text deals with the financing of higher education in Brazil, focusing on the period from the early 90s to present. It assumes that, to some extent, this period has reflected the collapse of the political and economical models in force up to the mid-80s so as to analyze the role assigned to higher education in government programs from the following decade. It then discusses the advance of the private sector from the mid-90s onwards and the supposed dichotomy between higher education and basic schooling. With regard to stricto sensu financing, this paper analyses the share of public and private entities, respectively, and compares

  4. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.

  5. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  6. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Bračun Sova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011 and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European competences. One such competence is cultural awareness and expression, which until now has been an issue more in the context of cultural policies than school policies in Slovenia. The purpose of the present article is to critically analyse the curricular reform of art education (i.e., visual art education, through which, in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, it is foreseen that the student will gain a knowledge of art, develop an ability to experience works of art and develop a creative attitude towards art and heritage. Because the starting point and goal of curricular change is the curriculum, our analysis is derived from curriculum theories, and not from the art theories and pedagogical theories that have predominantly framed previous attempts at curriculum analysis. Critical consideration of the curricular reform of art education in primary school in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression was undertaken by comparing curricula in the field of aesthetic education. We compared art education with music education and literature within the Slovenian language curriculum. Qualitative analysis showed that, despite the reform, the curriculum for arts education does not realise selected components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, largely due to the curriculum’s conceptual structure. Art education is centred principally on art-making activities, with an obvious neglect of appreciation. The integration of arts subjects at school, as proposed by the White Paper, is therefore not possible, due to the existing

  7. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les

    2011-01-01

    A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  8. Reforming a middle school for educational equity : implications for teacher interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of research concludes that teacher knowledge is critical for high levels of student achievement. One mechanism for improving teacher knowledge is the development of "professional communities" of teachers at a school site. Indeed, many policy-makers and educators have placed considerable faith in these communities without a detailed understanding of the efficacy or dynamics of teacher interaction in the workplace. This research study examined teacher professional interactions at...

  9. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  10. Financing Vidalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the innovative techniques the participants in the Vidalia, Mississippi hydropower project used to overcome the numerous obstacles to the financing of the project. The topics of the article are early obstacles, funding and permitting, hydrology questions, matching income to debt, unorthodox provisions and a tough closing

  11. HEALTH & FINANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEALTH & FINANCE. Patrick Thokwa Masobe. Patrick Thokwa Masobe completed his undergraduate studies at Grinnel/. University in the USA, and a Master. Degreefrom the University of London in. 1995. He is wrrently employed by the national Department of Health, where he led the task team charged with making.

  12. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  13. Health Financing, Equity and Poverty in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health financing has been a key entry point of reform initiatives in Chile, ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth ... Findings from an IDRC-supported program figure prominently at the annual ...

  14. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  15. Possible Regulatory Improvements of the American Housing Finance System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3......Book review of: Susan M. Wachter and Joseph Tracy (eds.): Principles of Housing Finance Reform. PENN—University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 282 pp, $65.00s, ISBN: 978-0-8122-4862-3...

  16. Reform Stall: An Ecological Analysis of the Efficacy of an Urban School Reform Initiative to Improve Students' Reading and Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Marlon C.; Rupley, William H.; Hall, Kristin Kistner; Nichols, Janet Alys; Rasinski, Timothy V.; Harmon, Willie C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the implementation of a program titled Consensus Initiative [pseudonym] in an urban school district that served 20,000 linguistically, economically, and racially diverse students situated in the northeast region of the United States. Using a research derived ecological framework from the school reform…

  17. Effects of a school reform on longitudinal stability of students' preferences with regard to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könings, Karen D; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Elen, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Students' perspective on education is of crucial importance for its effectivity, but students' opinions are seldom acknowledged by teachers and designers. Student participation in the educational design process could be a suitable tool to better take students' preferences into account. However, for effective participatory design, it is necessary to know whether students have stable preferences for the design of their education. Changeability of preferences would require a more continuing design process allowing continuous adaptations. This longitudinal survey study aimed to determine the changeability over time of students' preferences for different aspects of a learning environment. Additionally, causes of possible changes in preferences are investigated. The participants were 1,335 high school students of five schools for secondary education in the Netherlands, joining this study during a period of 2 years. Data about students' preferences were collected at three moments, using the Inventory of Perceived Study Environment Extended. Learning-related student characteristics, such as processing strategies and motivational orientations, were measured with the Inventory of Learning Styles. Additionally, data on learning performances were collected. The results showed stability on preferences for almost all studied characteristics of the learning environment. Particularly remarkable was a drop in desirability for student autonomy. This was larger for students with a certificate-oriented motivation and smaller for self-regulated students. Additionally, poorly performing students had a larger decrease in preference for autonomy. The stability on most aspects supports that participatory design might result in fairly stable instructional designs, although caution is needed with respect to student autonomy. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  19. Rural and Micro-Enterprise Financing in Tanzania: Lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence shows that little progress has so far been made in financing rural and micro-enterprise activities despite the inception of financial sector reforms in 1991. This little progress could be attributed to, among other things, the failure by the reforms to include comprehensive and complementing policies on rural and ...

  20. Modernizing "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez": How Evolving Supreme Court Jurisprudence Changes the Face of Education Finance Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to "modernize" the current legal debate over inequitable public school funding at the state and local level. The 1973 Supreme Court case of "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" established precedent, allowing for property-tax based education funding programs at the state-level--a major source…

  1. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.

  2. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  3. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  4. More Fragmented, and yet More Networked: Analysing the Responses of Two Local Authorities in England to the Coalition's "Self-Improving School-Led System" Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greany, Toby

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores school reform in England under the Conservative-led Coalition government, elected in 2010, through a focus on the changing roles and status of Local Authorities (LAs). The Coalition's stated aim was the development of a "self-improving, school-led" system in which LAs should become "champions for children."…

  5. Analysis of Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes from a Bottom-up Comprehensive School Reform in the Absence of Student Level Data through Simulation Methods: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines the efficacy of a bottom-up comprehensive school reform (CSR) program by evaluating its impact on student achievement, attendance, and behavior outcomes through an explanatory mixed methods design. The CSR program (Gear Up) was implemented in an urban junior high school over the course of seven years allowing for…

  6. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  7. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  8. Project Financing

    OpenAIRE

    S. GATTI

    2005-01-01

    Στην εισαγωγή της παρούσας εργασίας δίνεται ο ορισμός του project financing, τα ιστορικά στοιχεία και οι τάσεις αγοράς του. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο αναφέρεται γιατί οι εταιρείες προτιμούν την χρηματοδότηση με project financing. Γίνεται λόγος για τα πλεονεκτήματά του έναντι της άμεσης χρηματοδότησης, καθώς και για τα μειονεκτήματα του project financing. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα χρηματοοικονομικά στοιχεία και ο ρόλος του χρηματοοικονομικού συμβούλου. Στην τρίτη ενότητα γίνεται η αναγνώ...

  9. Division of Finance Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards You are here Administration / Finance Division of Finance Updates IRIS Expenditure Object Codes

  10. The Waning Impact of School Finance Litigation on Inequality in Per Student Revenue during the Adequacy Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condron, Dennis J.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1989, most states have faced "adequacy" lawsuits that target state constitutions' education clauses in aiming to boost funding provided to disadvantaged districts--which should reduce overall inequality in school funding. Using pooled time-series data on 44 states over 19 years spanning the adequacy era, this study examines how…

  11. The Impact of the Great Recession on School District Finances: Evidence from New York. Working Paper #03-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Setren, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There is a slowly emerging literature that seeks to understand how the Great Recession affected other parts of the economy; however, there is no research that examines the effect of Great Recession (or any other recession) on schools. Given the fundamental role of education in human capital formation and growth, it is essential to understand the…

  12. Financing Information Communication Technology Projects in Secondary Schools E-Learning: A Case of Mombasa County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, Violet Muyoka

    2015-01-01

    Information communication and technology (ICTs) has become common place entities in all aspects of life. Within the education sector, ICT has begun to have a special attention although not extensively as in other fields both globally and locally. Limited funds still presents a challenge in rolling out the e-school projects in Kenyan secondary…

  13. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    studies. As a point of departure we study the discourse formations that emerge in specific media texts applying a Foucauldian archive analytical strategy. Concurrently, we study processes of how political ideas and discourses are translated through plurivocal dialogue (Bakhtin) and translation processes...

  14. Finance and Management Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile health care provider about vitamin D and the risks and benefits of supplementation. Finance and Management Services The Division of Finance and Management Services (FMS) provides financial, administrative

  15. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  16. The Scale of Funds of Urbanization and the Reform of Land Finance:Commentary of the Compensatory Mechanisms of Land Finance in the Context of New-type Urbanization%城镇化建设资金规模及土地财政改革--新型城镇化背景下土地财政代偿机制研究评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛翠翠; 冯广京; 张冰松

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to analyze of the scale of funds in the process of promoting new-type urbanization in China, and discuss the direction of improving land finance in the context of new-type urbanization. On the basis of expert discussion, combined with relevant research results, the paper discusses the scale of funds and the sources of funds. The results indicate that 1) China’s new-type urbanization will need to invest more than 16 trillion RMB by 2020 according to conservative estimates;2) Based on the current tax financial system, many local governments have been dependent on the land finance, so in the process of new-type urbanization construction, they will still largely depend on land finance;3) Although the land finance has practical positive significance, the land finance still needs to be improved and perfected because of the existing problem, i.e., lower level of sustainability, the financial risk and other issues. It is concluded that 1) In order to promote new-type urbanization, the central government needs reform the funding and supplying modes, the taxation system, the land system and other related systems, and establishes scientific, sustainable and controllable risk financial system, eventually replaces the land finance;2) Improving land finance system in the context of new-type urbanization require innovation in theory, institutional and technological. Current amelioration measures include that advancing land tax finance, standardizing the investment fund financing platform, promoting municipal bonds and other debt financing, and encouraging the role of private capitals.%研究目的:分析中国推进新型城镇化建设所需资金规模,探讨新型城镇化背景下土地财政的改进、完善方向。研究方法:在专家座谈的基础上,结合相关研究成果,分析探讨新型城镇化对资金的需求及筹集渠道,分析指出土地财政目前存在的问题及改进和完善

  17. Changes in educational inequalities in Poland. Comments on Zbigniew Sawiński’s article “Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAŁ SITEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his text published in Edukacja, 141(2, 2017 („Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”, Zbigniew Sawiński analyses data from the 2000 to 2012 editions of the OECD PISA study and argues that lower secondary school reform has not reduced educational inequalities in Poland. The importance of students’ social origin remained at the same level as before the reform, the impact of social origin on the choice of type of secondary school remained the same, and an increasing differentiation of lower secondary schools did not lead to an increase in educational inequalities. I present methodological arguments and the results of a re-analysis of PISA data, indicating changes in wider educational inequalities. Between 2000 and 2012: (a the strength of association in the performance of 15-year-olds with the socio-economic status of students’ families did not change, but (b the variation of results decreased, which was mainly due to the improved performance of the lowest performing students, (c the differences between students of high and low socio-economic status decreased, (d the influence of social origin on the choice of the type of upper secondary school decreased. The effects of socio-economic status on upper secondary school choice is largely direct: it is not mediated by the educational achievements of students. The commentary also highlights the complexity of lower secondary school reform, which was not limited to the introduction of such schools. I indicate the role of factors that make it difficult to interpret the results of the reform in causal terms – particularly the role of unobserved variables related to the changes in the learning environments of subsequent cohorts of students.

  18. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  19. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  20. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Missouri. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…

  1. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  2. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

  3. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  4. Behavioral finance: Finance with normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Statman

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral finance substitutes normal people for the rational people in standard finance. It substitutes behavioral portfolio theory for mean-variance portfolio theory, and behavioral asset pricing model for the CAPM and other models where expected returns are determined only by risk. Behavioral finance also distinguishes rational markets from hard-to-beat markets in the discussion of efficient markets, a distinction that is often blurred in standard finance, and it examines why so many investors believe that it is easy to beat the market. Moreover, behavioral finance expands the domain of finance beyond portfolios, asset pricing, and market efficiency and is set to continue that expansion while adhering to the scientific rigor introduced by standard finance.

  5. Reforms in VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam: Student engagement, a Minor elective semester and stakeholder collaboration in improving the quality of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Daelmans, Hester E; Horrevoets, Anton; de Haan, Marian; van der Meijde, Margreeth; Croiset, Gerda

    2018-03-07

    At VUmc School of Medical Sciences, major curricular reforms occurred in 2005 and 2015, related to the introduction of a Bachelor-Master structure, a new legislation from the Ministry of Education, the changing societal context, and taking note of students' and teachers' needs. Summary of work: Along with the introduction of the Bachelor-Master system, the period between 2005 and 2009 saw the movement from traditional lecture-based teaching to small group teaching in a competency-based curriculum, in which the students were responsible for their learning. Student engagement grew through students' designing learning modules and conducting some of the teaching. In the Bachelor program, an elective "Minor", was designed to broaden and deepen the knowledge of our students beyond the core learning outcomes, in a discipline of their choice. The examination board (EB), responsible for maintaining the quality of assessment, was split into the General EB, which handled overall strategy issues, and the Executive EB, which handled student requests and monitored the quality of assessments. Students develop a sense of what education is about if they are provided opportunities in designing teaching and conducting it. A Minor elective in the medical study can provide the students with an opportunity to learn outside the medical field. Collaborative working between different stakeholders in a medical school is crucial for safeguarding the quality of assessments. Curricular reforms need time to be accepted and integrated into the culture of the medical school. The educational vision needs to be refreshed regularly in alignment with the changing societal context.

  6. Healthcare financing in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Kovač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare financing system is of crucial importance for the functioning of any healthcare system, especially because there is no country in the world that is able to provide all its residents with access to all the benefits afforded by modern medicine. Lack of resources in general and rising healthcare expenditures are considered a difficult issue to solve in Croatia as well. Since Croatia gained its independence, its healthcare system has undergone a number of reforms, the primary objective of which was to optimize healthcare services to the actual monetary capacity of the Croatian economy. The objectives of the mentioned re - forms were partially achieved. The solutions that have been offered until now, i.e. consolidation measures undertaken in the last 10 years were necessary; however, they have not improved the operating conditions. There is still the issue of the deficit from the previous years, i.e. outstanding payments, the largest in the last decade. Analysis of the performance of healthcare institutions in 2011 shows that the decision makers will have to take up a major challenge of finding a solution to the difficulties the Croatian healthcare system has been struggling with for decades, causing a debt of 7 billion kuna. At the same time, they will need to uphold the basic principles of the Healthcare Act, i.e. to provide access to healthcare and ensure its continuity, comprehensiveness and solidarity, keeping in mind that the National Budget Act and Fiscal Responsibility Act have been adopted.

  7. The Ideological Dominance of Market Logic: Adapting U.S.-based Education Reforms into Rio de Janeiro's Poorest Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The extant literature on 20th and 21st century public policy in Brazil makes clear that the private sector and social elite have long had an interest and influence in government across all sectors, that they have at many times brought in reforms from outside of Brazil, and that for the last several decades that international influence has been neoliberal in both policy and ideology. More to the point, the current literature argues that neoliberal ideology is commonly reflected in contemporary...

  8. Strengthening revenue cycle capabilities in an era of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-05-01

    Strategies that healthcare finance professionals should incorporate to help their organizations respond effectively to payment reforms include: Assessing the organization's ability to capture and share relevant data. Educating themselves, the board of trustees, and the medical staff on pertinent rules as payment reforms are rolled out. Examining inefficiencies related to care processes. Establishing policies and procedures to address "commingled" data.

  9. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  10. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  11. Economic democracy and financial reform in Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the rationale and trajectory of finance sector reform as part of the donor-sponsored Comprehensive Reform Program (CRP) in Vanuatu and provides an analysis of the problems associated with the lack of affordable credit for sectors of the population that do not fulfill...... commercial lending criteria. The article relies on financial hegemony theory in order to explain Vanuatu's role within larger international financial structures and rationale for reform. The discussion shows that foreign banking institutions are not interested in broadening credit access to poorer sections...

  12. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.

    2016-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  13. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  14. "Money in Finance"

    OpenAIRE

    L. Randall Wray

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by defining, and distinguishing between, money and finance, and addresses alternative ways of financing spending. We next examine the role played by financial institutions (e.g., banks) in the provision of finance. The role of government as both regulator of private institutions and provider of finance is also discussed, and related topics such as liquidity and saving are explored. We conclude with a look at some of the new innovations in finance, and at the global financial...

  15. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  16. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  17. INVESTMENT FINANCING THROUGH THE "PROJECT FINANCE"

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Arenaza, Hércules; Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article analizes and compares the various aspects related to the "Project Finance" technique using projects financing in the Capital Market, both in developed countries and in developing countries. Likewise, the application's technique is illustrated by Antamina mining enterprise. El artículo analiza y compara los diferentes aspectos relacionados con la técnica del Project finance usado en el financiamiento de proyectos en el mercado de capitales, tanto en los países desarrollados com...

  18. Emerging trends in health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, J B

    1994-01-01

    Access to capital will become more difficult. Capital access is dependent on ability to repay debt, which, in turn, is dependent on internally generated cash flows. Under any health care reform proposal, revenue inflows will be slowed. The use of corporate finance techniques to limit financial risk and lower cost will be a permanent response to fundamental changes to the health care system. These changes will result in greater balance sheet management, centralized capital allocation, and alternative sources of capital.

  19. Rethinking capital markets reform: a reassessment of Olson problem and regulatory dualism in the German capital markets from a varieties of capitalism perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ziccardi de Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its proposition by Peter A. Hall and David Soskice the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC approach has been particularly important to explain the relationship between economic agents and sets of institutional arrangements that, even in regulatory scenarios that Law and Finance’s school would consider “less than optimal”, are able to generate sustainable economic growth. In this context the VoC approach has been consistently challenging the traditional “one fits all” approach towards capital markets reform usually endorsed by institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as by many scholars and capital markets regulators associated with La Porta’s Law and Finance School. As any theoretical framework, however, the VoC approach also faces its own challenges and still lacks the scientific maturity achieved by the Law and Finance School. Consequently a conciliation between the relational view of the firm proposed by the VoC approach and the overview of corporate governance practices throughout the world presented by the Law and Finance School would be instrumental to construe a more clear understanding of the competitive advantages generated by certain sets of institutions and, at the same time, more accurately assess impacts of reforms that, even if implemented with the legitimate goal of promoting firms’ transparency and higher corporate governance standards, may counter-intuitively generate unprecedented corporate and capital markets crisis. By analyzing two concepts proposed by Ronald J. Gilson, Henry Hansmann and Mariana Pargendler that have an apparent fundamental link to La Porta’s school of Law and Finance (i.e. Olson Problem and Regulatory Dualism through a varieties of capitalism approach, this study aims at rethinking the traditional “one fits all” approach towards capital markets reform and taking a further step in the direction of conciliating the VoC approach with La Porta’s Law

  20. Minding the gaps: health financing, universal health coverage and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Govender, Veloshnee; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Yates, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In a webinar in 2015 on health financing and gender, the question was raised why we need to focus on gender, given that a well-functioning system moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) will automatically be equitable and gender balanced. This article provides a reflection on this question from a panel of health financing and gender experts.We trace the evidence of how health-financing reforms have impacted gender and health access through a general literature review and a more detailed case-study of India. We find that unless explicit attention is paid to gender and its intersectionality with other social stratifications, through explicit protection and careful linking of benefits to needs of target populations (e.g. poor women, unemployed men, female-headed households), movement towards UHC can fail to achieve gender balance or improve equity, and may even exacerbate gender inequity. Political trade-offs are made on the road to UHC and the needs of less powerful groups, which can include women and children, are not necessarily given priority.We identify the need for closer collaboration between health economists and gender experts, and highlight a number of research gaps in this field which should be addressed. While some aspects of cost sharing and some analysis of expenditure on maternal and child health have been analysed from a gender perspective, there is a much richer set of research questions to be explored to guide policy making. Given the political nature of UHC decisions, political economy as well as technical research should be prioritized.We conclude that countries should adopt an equitable approach towards achieving UHC and, therefore, prioritize high-need groups and those requiring additional financial protection, in particular women and children. This constitutes the 'progressive universalism' advocated for by the 2013 Lancet Commission on Investing in Health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  1. Path innovation of rural property mortgage financing in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    Rural property mortgage financing, as an important breakthrough to deepen the reform of rural property right system and financial system, is an important approach to increase the farmers’ property income. Besides, rural property mortgage financing is of great significance in implementing the rural land usufructuary right and meeting the demand of medium-and-long-term and large-scale operation of the funds used in agricultural production. Under the existing institutional arrangement, the prope...

  2. PBL in the Era of Reform Standards: Challenges and Benefits Perceived by Teachers in One Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariman, Nahid; Chrispeels, Janet

    2016-01-01

    We explore teachers' efforts to implement problem-based learning (PBL) in an elementary school serving predominantly English learners. Teachers had an opportunity to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using PBL in a summer school setting with no test-pressures. To understand the challenges and benefits of PBL implementation, a…

  3. Schools for the Twenty-First Century: Leadership Imperatives for Educational Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    Purpose shapes vision and vision shapes purpose. Any reasonable effort to restructure schools must begin with a serious consideration of the purposes of education. In chapter 1, purpose in the life of organizations is examined. Chapter 2 shows how historical circumstances have shaped both the purpose and the structure of schools. Chapter 3…

  4. A Study of Curriculum Development and Reform in Residential Schools for the Blind in the United States: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holiday, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand curriculum development in residential schools for the blind after the enactment of NCLB and was guided by the research question, "How do residential schools for the blind and visually impaired develop their curriculum to meet the unique needs of students who are blind and visually impaired?" In the…

  5. A Persistent Reformer: Jonathan Kozol's Work to Promote Equality in America. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, Richard, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has been a leading educational critic and social activist since 1967 when "Death at an Early Age," his book about racism in Boston's schools, was published and won a National Book Award. Since then, Kozol has written eleven more books which focus on such issues as segregation in schools and society, poverty, inequitable school…

  6. Attitudes and Perceptions of Vocational Education in New York City: Implications for the Mayor's School Reform Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    Under-performing New York City (NYC) schools precipitated Mayor Michael Bloomberg's decision to advance a vocational education initiative. The initiative was to address the problem of the many city high school graduates lacking both the skills for gainful employment and the academic preparedness to pursue higher education. The mayor's initiative…

  7. Can Instructional Reform in Urban Middle Schools Help Students Narrow the Mathematics Performance Gap? Some Evidence from the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…

  8. Strengthening Pennsylvania's Charter School Reform: Findings From the Statewide Evaluation and Discussion of Relevant Policy Issues. Year Five Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Nelson, Christopher; Risley, John

    In 2001, the Pennsylvania Department of Education contracted with Western Michigan University to evaluate Pennsylvania's charter schools and charter school initiative over two years. The study used site visits, work sample review, document review, focus groups, portfolios and surveys to gather data regarding the movement's effectiveness, progress,…

  9. Challenging the Sounds of Silence: A Qualitative Study of Gay-Straight Alliances and School Reform Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Maralee; Chenneville, Tiffany; Currie, Sean

    2013-01-01

    We explore the efficacy of one increasingly familiar strategic intervention designed to disrupt antigay school environments--Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Despite the increasing popularity of GSAs, there has been little research on the ways in which they do--and do not--impact school climate. The ubiquity of antigay and homophobic attitudes…

  10. Saving Now and Saving Later: How High School Reform Can Reduce the Nation's Wasted Remediation Dollars. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For young people entering the twenty-first-century job market, high school graduation is no longer the finish line, but the starting line. While one-third of students will fail to graduate from high school, too many students who do graduate and make it to the postsecondary starting line find that they are underprepared for postsecondary work. A…

  11. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  12. Finance/security/life.

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, P.

    2017-01-01

    What is the contemporary relation between finance and security? This essay encourages further research into the securitization of finance by developing the notion of ‘finance/security/life’. A focus on the intersections of finance/security/life will be shown to prompt a broadened range of critical, cross-disciplinary concerns with the various ways in which financial markets are positioned as vital to securing wealth, welfare and wellbeing.

  13. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  14. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  15. Uganda; Background Paper on Issues in Financial Sector Reform, and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper examines issues in Uganda’s financial sector reform. In Uganda, reforms in the financial sector have included the liberalization of interest rates, the development of instruments of indirect monetary control, the modernization of banking legislation, the restructuring of the central bank, and reforms in the commercial banking system. These reforms are aimed at improving monetary management, which would enhance the prospects for achieving stabilization. Ultimately, financ...

  16. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  17. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  18. Critical Race Feminism and the Complex Challenges of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers-McKee, Cherese D.; Hytten, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the past several decades, there has been an abundance of research about school reform, particularly in schools predominated by students of color and students experiencing poverty. Critics acknowledge that many reform efforts have failed and comprehensive solutions to school change remain elusive. In this article, we provide an overview…

  19. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  20. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. The Tangiers School of Medicine and its Physicians: A Forgotten Initiative of Medical Education Reform in Morocco (1886-1904)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Antonio, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    In 1886, the Spanish army medical officer Felipe Óvilo Canales (1850-1909) opened up a school of medicine in the Moroccan city of Tangiers. This school was originally sponsored by the Spanish government and intended to provide a number of Spanish Franciscan priests and young upper-class Moroccans a basic education in Western medicine. Later, with support from Sultan Hassan I, it was transformed into a training centre for Muslim military doctors for the Moroccan army. My paper will try to pres...

  2. On the Way of Educational Reform: Thai High School Physics Teachers' Conceptions of the Student-Centered Approach and Their Perceptions of Their Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumklang, Kawin

    During the past two decades, the student-centered approach has been widely promoted and accepted by the educational community as one of the most effective instructional approaches. It has been continually developed and revised to match our current understanding of how humans learn (American Psychological Association, 1997). It is based upon the belief that students should take responsibility for their own learning. Thus, curriculum, instruction, and assessment should be carefully designed to stimulate, facilitate, and accelerate students' learning as much as possible. In order to do so, the teacher needs to take the following factors into consideration: students' cognitive structures, metacognitive and regulative skills, motivation and affective states, developmental and individual differences, and social supports. However, the term student-centered has been defined and described by researchers and scholars in many different ways. Little is known about how practicing teachers conceptualize this term and how they perceive their classroom practices in relation to these conceptions. The purpose of this study was to utilize a qualitative multiple-case study approach to investigate teachers' conceptions of the student-centered approach and their perceptions of their classroom practices. Four Thai high school physics teachers, who were considered products of the current student-centered educational reform movement in Thailand, participated in this study. Data were collected for one learning unit (three to eight weeks) through classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis. The data analysis revealed that teachers' conceptions of student-centered curriculum, instruction, and assessment had three common characteristics: (a) students' active participation; (b) special emphasis on students' background knowledge, understanding, motivation, affective states, and learning capability; and (c) benefits to students. The results also indicated that there

  3. Implications of Financing Higher Education for Access and Equity: The Case of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Nader; Salloum, Siba

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the implications for access and equity of the Syrian government's efforts to reform higher education in the country over the past decade. In the context of social and economic reforms that are moving the county from a state-controlled to a social market economy, it focuses on adequacy in financing higher education, as well as…

  4. Constructivism and Pedagogical Reform in China: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This article critically discusses the constructivist ideas, assumptions and practices that undergird the current pedagogical reform in China. The pedagogical reform is part of a comprehensive curriculum reform that has been introduced across schools in Mainland China. Although the official documents did not specify the underpinning theories for…

  5. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  6. The Impact of Professional Development on Poverty, Schooling, and Literacy Practices: Teacher Narratives and Reformation of Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    The study examines the impact of professional development on the topic of poverty in one high poverty school community located in a small city in southern Ontario, Canada. It considers narrative-based experiences of teachers' collaborative inquiry on literacy practices after a significant amount of professional development was provided to…

  7. Two decades of reforms. Appraisal of the financial reforms in the Russian public healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, Vladimir S; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2011-10-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the outcomes of the financial reforms in the Russian public healthcare sector. A systematic literature review identified 37 relevant publications that presented empirical evidence on changes in quality, equity, efficiency and sustainability in public healthcare provision due to the Russian public healthcare financial reforms. Evidence suggests that there are substantial inter-regional inequalities across income groups both in terms of financing and access to public healthcare services. There are large efficiency differences between regions, along with inter-regional variations in payment and reimbursement mechanisms. Informal and quasi-formal payments deteriorate access to public healthcare services and undermine the overall financing sustainability. The public healthcare sector is still underfinanced, although the implementation of health insurance gave some premises for future increases of efficiency. Overall, the available empirical data are not sufficient for an evidence-based evaluation of the reforms. More studies on the quality, equity, efficiency and sustainability impact of the reforms are needed. Future reforms should focus on the implementation of cost-efficiency and cost-control mechanisms; provide incentives for better allocation and distribution of resources; tackle problems in equity in access and financing; implement a system of quality controls; and stimulate healthy competition between insurance companies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  9. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  10. Resolved, That the Federal Government Should Fully Finance a Defensible Minimum Education for All Children in the Public Schools. An Affirmative Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Walter G.

    This report discusses several kinds of Federal aid to education and decides that a Federal foundation program is the best type. Arguments in favor of such a program are that (1) contemporary societal problems require a national policy (including a federally financed education program), (2) equity of financial responsibility for the educational…

  11. Aspects of financial history in Romania. Reform and reformers. The financial tax reform accomplished BY Nicolae Titulescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the financial reform designed by Nicolae Titulescu at the beginning of the 1920’s. His tax reform law was formulated after thorough research of other European tax systems. He tried to implement it while he was Minister of Finance. Even though the law was adopted, it was never enacted. It met a certain amount of controversy in the Assembly of Deputies. The analysis made also tries to explain the cedular tax system.

  12. LA REFORMA FALLIDA DE LOS CENTROS DE ATENCIÓN MÚLTIPLE EN MÉXICO (MEXICAN FAILED REFORM TO SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cedillo Ismael

    2009-08-01

    inclusive education affected the whole special education system. One of the intended purposes was the reorganization of special education schools so that they would only serve students with severe disabilities whom regular schools would be unable to serve, and also to facilitate the integration of students to regula r schools. This paper reports on a qualitative study in four CAMs in an urban area in central Mexico. Four principals, twelve specialists, eleven special education teachers and twelve parents were interviewed. Results show that these four CAMs have followed different trajectories in their reorganization process. Two of them made structural changes to incorporate new policy guidelines, the other two are still working as the old special education schools with few superficial changes. In general, principals, teachers and specialists tend to have negative opinions regarding the changes derived from the reform and to question the technical support they received. Overall, this seems to have been a failed reform.

  13. Financing Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.

    2001-06-29

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

  14. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  15. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  16. The Housing Finance Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Green; Susan M. Wachter

    2007-01-01

    While other countries dismantled their segmented housing finance systems and linked housing finance to capital markets through deregulated depositories, the US linked housing finance to capital markets through depository deregulation and securitization. Elsewhere securitization has not developed. The US provided the underpinnings for its mortgage security infrastructure with the creation of FNMA in 1938 and in order to create liquidity in the mortgage market required the standardization of mo...

  17. Project Finance: Basic Components

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri Li Ojeda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The natural speed of the contemporary world demands large investment projects which require specialized financial techniques such as Project Finance, defined as a fund to finance investment projects of great magnitude. Every Project Finance involves a wide range of elements such as promoters, government, contractors andsuppliers, among others, that will ensure project success. La rapidez del mundo contemporáneo exige que los grandes proyectos de inversión requieran de técnicas financieras ...

  18. What is project finance?

    OpenAIRE

    João M. Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Project finance is the process of financing a specific economic unit that the sponsors create, in which creditors share much of the venture’s business risk and funding is obtained strictly for the project itself. Project finance creates value by reducing the costs of funding, maintaining the sponsors financial flexibility, increasing the leverage ratios, avoiding contamination risk, reducing corporate taxes, improving risk management, and reducing the costs associated with market ...

  19. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2009-01-01

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants

  20. Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Financing constraints are one of the biggest concerns impacting potential entrepreneurs around the world. Given the important role that entrepreneurship is believed to play in the process of economic growth, alleviating financing constraints for would-be entrepreneurs is also an important goal for policymakers worldwide. We review two major streams of research examining the relevance of financing constraints for entrepreneurship. We then introduce a framework that provides a unified perspecti...