In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178
Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.
Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…
Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.
In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena. Using the media as major environmental information sources, in which environmental issues are constructed as environmental risks, teachers are being environmentally educated in lay and not in scientific terms. Moreover, the image of nature emerging from their ideas about the three environmental issues is that of the romantic archetype, which prevails in postindustrial societies. Such a view, though, gives a conceptualization of nature as balance, under which the greenhouse effect and acid rain are seen as exclusively human-induced disturbances.
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin
Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet the chal...... Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet...... the challenges new designs for teaching and learning emerge while teacher-student relations transform and the children and young people's competencies are resources in the processes of learning. The chapter present research based on the proactive schools and exemplifies possible outlines of the school...... in the knowledge society. Finally the findings are extrapolated into a vision of the future local global school in the knowledge society....
Maksić Slavica B.
Full Text Available In the process of education the knowledge is acquired which is a necessary base for creativity. The problem of relations between creativity and knowledge in school context is posed as a problem of relations between creativity and academic performance due to the influence it has on personal and professional development of an individual. The paper presents the results of survey on relations between creativity, academic performance and academic preferences. Creativity was measured by the test for creative thinking - drawing production of Urban and Jellen, academic performance by general achievement, and academic preferences by a questionnaire. The sample comprised final primary school graders. Low and statistically significant positive correlation was found between creativity and school achievement in the sub-sample of girls. However, girls have a significantly better school achievement and prefer art as a school subject and the test administered demands visual art expression. Hence, it can not be claimed for sure that the obtained results reflect realistic differences in creativity between boys and girls. It is of vital importance for work in school the data that high creativity can be possessed by students who are failures at school. It has been concluded that initial step in the acquisition of knowledge that will contribute to student creative thinking and behavior is the development of cognitive flexibility.
Valdivielso, Pedro; Ramírez-Bueno, Alba; Ewald, Nils
Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well established and the most common cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) after alcohol and gall stone disease. It is alleged to account for up to 10% of all pancreatitis episodes. Studies suggest that in patients with triglyceride (TG) levels>1000 mg/dL (>11.3 mmol/L), hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTGP-AP) occurs in approximately 15-20% of all subjects referred to Lipid Clinics. Until now, there is no clear evidence which patients with severe HTG will develop pancreatitis and which will not. Underlying pathophysiological concepts include hydrolysis of TG by pancreatic lipase and excessive formation of free fatty acids with inflammatory changes and capillary injury. Additionally hyperviscosity and ischemia may play a decisive role. The clinical features of HTG-AP patients are supposed to be no different from patients with AP of other etiologies. Yet, there are well-conducted studies suggesting that HTG-AP is associated with a higher severity and complication rate. Therapeutic measurements in HTG-AP include dietary modifications, different antihyperlipidemic agents, insulin and/or heparin treatment. The beneficial use of plasmapheresis is repeatedly reported and suggested in many studies. Yet, due to the lack of randomized and controlled trials, it is currently unknown if plasmapheresis may improve morbidity and mortality in the clinical setting of HTG-AP. Since there are no commonly accepted clinical guidelines in the management of HTG-AP, there is a definite need for an international, multicenter approach to this important subject. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article explores the process and practice of knowledge creation within development and research (D and R) networks. It focuses upon D and R networks in England that are currently engaged in collaboration and innovation. Early evaluative evidence suggests that D and R school networks offer "spaces" for collaborative working, mutual…
Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar
The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…
Full Text Available The school of today faces circumstances that differ very much from the ones in which the current educators have been educated as students, especially in the countries that are new members of the European Union as EU-27. Therefore, in order to manage knowledge in their school of today, one must understand the socio-economic development trends and their impact over the school as a subsystem of the emerging innovative society in which the innovative business leaves little or no room for the routine-loving behaviour of previous decades, centuries, and millennia. This contribution summarizes a dialectical system of this development trends and the resulting newly required attributes of the contemporary schools and teachers, but it does so on the level of provocation for readers’ creative and innovative thinking and action rather than on the level of any final answers. The Bologna Process seems to be an underused opportunity for innovation of higher education in Europe.
Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.
Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge
Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of external knowledge test results for school ranking and the implicit effect of such ranking. A question of validity is raised and a review of research literature and main known problems are presented. In many western countries publication of school results is a common practice and a similar trend can be observed in Slovenia. Experiences of other countries help to predict positive and negative aspects of such publication. Results of external knowledge tests produce very limited information about school quality—if we use other sources of information our ranking of schools can be very different. Nevertheless, external knowledge tests can yield useful information. If we want to improve quality in schools, we must allow schools to use this information themselves and improve from within. Broad public scrutiny is unnecessary and problematic—it moves the focus of school efforts from real improvement of quality to mere improvement of the school public image.
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning. PMID:24576209
This study endeavored to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived practices of continuous assessment (CA). Ninety-five primary school teachers from three primary schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia, were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and content analyses were ...
Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta
Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.
Business schools have been using information for years to improve the efficiency of academic services and effectiveness of academic programs. As more trustees, administrators, faculty, parents, students have begun to seek better outcomes, not surprisingly these schools are investing in technology. But these schools are finding that technology implementation does not necessarily improve decision-making nor does it necessarily improve outcomes and decision-making. This paves the way to recognis...
Full Text Available Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility.
Maekawa, S; Yoshida, T; Wang, P-C; Chen, S-C
Nocardia sp. is the causative agent of nocardiosis, a lethal granulomatous disease of the skin, muscle, and various inner tissues affecting various teleost and shellfish. Four species of Nocardia have been isolated from diseased fish and shellfish, namely Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia seriolae, Nocardia salmonicida and Nocardia crassostreae. Therefore, in fish aquaculture, nocardiosis has caused severe economic losses, especially in the Asian region. Considerable research has been performed, since the first report of identified Nocardia sp. in fish, to characterize Nocardia sp. and identify rapid detection techniques, immune response against infection and prophylactic approaches. In this review, the current state of knowledge about nocardiosis in fish has been presented, including the pathogenesis, diagnosis, host immune response and vaccine development. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dec 12, 2013 ... COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS ON NATIONAL SCHOOL-. BASED DE-WORMING PROGRAMME. F. KARANI, L. MUTHAMI, J. H. KIHARA and H. K. MBERIA. ABSTRACT. Objectives: To determine the community level of knowledge, attitude and perception of soil transmitted helminthes ...
Full Text Available This research aims to determine the manner of school principals regarding knowledge managementin primary school education. The research is a subjective one conducted in general scanning method. Personal informationform and five-likert scale are the main means in which data was collected. During the data collection stage, school principalswere requested to provide information about the way in which they obtain, share, process, evaluate knowledge, take decisionand analyze problems within the scope of knowledge management. In the virtue of the data acquired, the research shows that;the school principals obtain knowledge by attending meetings with teachers, making personal observation, their personalexperience and online resources. Regarding the sharing of knowledge, the research shows the principals always shareknowledge with their assistant principals and teachers; in using of knowledge, decision making and analyzing problemsresearch also shows that principals take decisions in co-operation with assistant principals and teachers. Last but not least,research shows that in storing the knowledge principals mainly use computers and traditional filing techniques. Seminarsshould be organized periodically by specialists with respect to acquiring, sharing, using and also filling knowledge followingdecision-making in order for school administrators to keep abreast of the latest developments in knowledge management
Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217
This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate…
Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and perception about cervical cancer. Results: Of all the interviews conducted, 89.1% were aware that cervical cancer is a life threatening situation, and 67.4% of the respondents knew that cervical cancer is linked to the virus, Human ...
This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…
Full Text Available The activity of local government units requires them to constantly deepen the financial knowledge and competence of their employees. This article presents review of current trends in shaping financial knowledge of local government units in Poland. The first part of this paper shows trends concerning sources of gaining financial knowledge. The second part shows the most interesting areas of financial knowledge. The third part contains the review of the most popular financial knowledge sharing methods.
Adrian U.J. Yap; Ai Ping Chua
Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular diso...
van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus
Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it
Douglas, P D; Douglas, J G
The purpose of this study was to analyze the food practices and nutrition knowledge of high school athletes currently participating in interscholastic sports and to evaluate differences in terms of selected sports variables. The data for the study were obtained by a questionnaire administered to a sample of 943 athletes from randomly selected high schools in Connecticut. The stated hypotheses were tested statistically using analysis of variance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients where appropriate. The results of the study indicated that the female athletes had better knowledge of nutrition but poorer food practices than the male athletes. There were also significant relationships between sport forms, seasons, and nutrition knowledge and food practices. High school athletes perceived their best source of nutrition knowledge to be their parents. Results on the nutrition knowledge component of the instrument showed that out of 48 possible answers, the mean correct was 26.4, while out of a possible score of 5, the mean score for food practices was 2.2. Because a positive relationship existed between the number of sport seasons and nutrition knowledge and food practice scores, sport participation may be a catalyst for learning about nutrition.
Cournoyer, Janie; Tripp, Brady L
Participating in sports while experiencing symptoms of a concussion can be dangerous. An athlete's lack of knowledge may be one factor influencing his or her decision to report symptoms. In an effort to enhance concussion education among high school athletes, legislation in Florida has attempted to address the issue through parental consent forms. To survey high school varsity football players to determine their level of knowledge about concussions after the initiation of new concussion-education legislation. Cross-sectional study. Descriptive survey administered in person during a team meeting. A total of 334 varsity football players from 11 high schools in Florida. Participants completed a survey and identified the symptoms and consequences of a concussion among distractors. They also indicated whether they had received education about concussions from a parent, formal education, neither, or both. The most correctly identified symptoms were headache (97%), dizziness (93%), and confusion (90%), and the most correctly identified consequence was persistent headache (93%). Participants reported receiving education from their parents (54%) or from a formal source (60%). Twenty-five percent reported never receiving any education regarding concussions. No correlations were found between the method of education and the knowledge of symptoms or consequences of concussion. The high school football players we surveyed did not have appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and consequences of concussions. Nausea or vomiting, neck pain, grogginess, difficulty concentrating, and personality or behavioral changes were often missed by participants, and only a small proportion correctly identified brain hemorrhage, coma, and death as possible consequences of inappropriate care after a concussion. Even with parents or guardians signing a consent form indicating they discussed concussion awareness with their child, 46% of athletes suggested they had not.
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.
Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap
Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches.
Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping
Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052
Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping
Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.
Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.
Ridda, Iman; King, Catherine; Rashid, Harunor
Hajj attendance increases the risk of respiratory infections including pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequently identified pathogen, found in about 10% of respiratory tract samples of symptomatic Hajj pilgrims; and at least 20% of these isolates are penicillin resistant. However, the burden of pneumococcal disease at Hajj is not precisely defined at serotypic level, and it is postulated that due to intense mixing of pilgrims the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes at Hajj could be different from pilgrims' country of origin or of Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes are 23F, 6B, 19F, 18C, 4, 14, and 19A, and 90% of the serotypes are covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) as well as 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23). However, due to lack of Hajj-specific data, the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health has not yet recommended pneumococcal vaccine for pilgrims, and the immunisation recommendation and uptake vary greatly across countries. As at least one third of Hajj pilgrims are 'at risk' of pneumococcal disease either by virtue of age or pre-existing medical conditions, consideration should be given to vaccinating high risk pilgrims against pneumococcal disease. Other preventive measures such as smoking cessation, pollution reduction and vaccinations against influenza and pertussis should also be considered. Precisely defining the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease to identify an optimum vaccination schedule for Hajj pilgrims is a current research priority.
effects at the prevailing level of exposure. Nevertheless this hypothesis is currently unconfirmed by epidemiological studies. The implications of this scientific incertitude for the implementation of preventive measures are briefly discussed.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a common business school framework based on knowledge resources that are available in business schools. To support the arguments made based on review literature, the paper presents the holistic framework of knowledge resources in a business school and also provides a knowledge value chain in sharing…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
M.M.J. van der Vorst (Maria); M. Kist (Manfred); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert); J. Burggraaf (Jacobus)
textabstractThis review summarizes current knowledge on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical application of the most commonly used diuretics in children. Diuretics are frequently prescribed drugs in children. Their main indication is to reduce fluid overload in acute
Reha Metin ALKAN
Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.
McCann-Sanford, Thurma; And Others
This study assessed elementary school students' knowledge of upper respiratory tract infection and correlated it with parental socioeconomic status, ethnic background, and school absences. Schools chosen for the study represented different socioeconomic and ethnic populations. Students had a general knowledge of the etiology, symptoms, treatment,…
Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy
The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…
Prepare a generation of young people for the challenges of the future is a task which forces us to rethink the school, not just for being difficult, but also because students feel that the school has very little to offer, especially something that interests them. Thus, the school is dysfunctional, is ill, and needs prompt treatment. School have to adjust to the new times, and this does not mean changing the old blackboards by advanced interactive whiteboards. The school has to find the way to the students with something that seduce them: the Challenge. The Astronomy Club that I lead in my school is essentially a Project space. Students who voluntarily joined the club, organize themselves according to their interests around projects whose outcome is not defined from the beginning, which requires them to do, undo and redo. Which obliges them to feel the need to ask for help to mathematics or physics to achieve answers, to feel the passion to study with a genuine purpose of learning. Some examples of the work: The younger students are challenged to reproduce the historical astronomical experiments that have opened the doors of knowledge such as the Eratosthenes experiment to determine the perimeter of the Earth (on equinox), or by using congruent triangles, determine the diameter the sun. These students are driven to establish distance scales in the solar system, which, to their astonishment, allows them to clear misconceptions that arise from some pictures of books and allows them to have a scientifically correct idea of the planetary orbit and distance separating the planets of the Solar System. For students from 15 to 18 years, I have to raise the level of the challenges and use the natural tendency of this age bracket to assert making new and exciting things. To this purpose, I am fortunate to have the support of large organizations like NUCLIO, ESA, CERN, and Go-Lab Project, Inspiring Science Education, Open Discovery Space and Global Hands on Universe. Through
The practice of music therapy in school settings was the focus of this study. Survey forms were mailed to 244 NAMT members who indicated school setting as their place of employment. A total of 190 forms were received, 138 of which fit the qualifications for inclusion and were included in the data summaries. Greater numbers of respondents lived in Texas (21), New York (17), and Michigan (11), and were employed full-time (60&percent;). Employers were more typically school systems (53&percent;) for the highest percentage of full-time respondents (80&percent;), and self-employers (25&percent;) for the highest percentage of part-time respondents (80&percent;). A considerably higher percentage of time was spent each week in direct service delivery (62&percent;) than in consultation (13&percent;), travel (18&percent;), documentation (11&percent;), or preparation (14&percent;). Over 40&percent; of the respondents had been music therapists for more than 8 years, but not necessarily in their current positions. Almost 40&percent; needed a valid teaching certificate for employment, while over 50&percent; currently held one. Respondents most frequently worked with persons who were developmentally disabled (80&percent;). The impact of employer and the inclusion movement on professional practice issues was discussed, as were possible trends in the practice of music therapy in school settings.
Pombo, F. de O.
Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.
Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.
Harrington, Denis; Kearney, Arthur
Purpose: This paper aims to consider the extent to which business school transition has created new opportunities in management development, knowledge transfer and knowledge creation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a critical review of knowledge exchange in a business school context with a particular focus on the "translation or…
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The knowledge of reproductive health issues amongst secondary school adolescents in Calabar was studied. ... One hundred and eight students from the selected schools had a two-day workshop on ...
Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony
To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. Two global themes and several organising themes were identified. The first global theme, 'structural curriculum-based problems', emerged from three organising themes of: inconsistencies in provided food education programs at schools in Australia; insufficient coverage of food-related skills and food systems topics in school curricula; and the lack of trained school teachers. The second global theme, 'insufficient levels of school-leavers knowledge of N&FS ', was generated from four organising themes, which together described Australian school-leavers' poor knowledge of N&FS more broadly and knowledge translation problem for everyday practices. Study findings identified key problems relating to current school-based N&FS education programs in Australia and reported knowledge gaps in relation to N&FS among Australian school-leavers. These findings provide important guidance for N&FS curriculum development, to clearly articulate broadly-based N&FS knowledge acquisition in curriculum policy and education documents for Australian schools. © 2017 The Authors.
Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline
This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…
Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney
The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...
O'Dowd, C.D.; Leeuw, G. de
The current knowledge in primary and secondary marine aerosol formation is reviewed. For primary marine aerosol source functions, recent source functions have demonstrated a significant flux of submicrometre particles down to radii of 20 nm. Moreover, the source functions derived from different
Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
Eco-schools aim to improve the environment through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are those that result from the implementation of an environmental management system. Indirect effects are educational gains. The current study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning three student outcomes: (1) environmental knowledge, (2)…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Also, findings from the study revealed poor attitude of school counselors to bibliotherapy practice in schools while storytelling and reading clubs were establisjed as techniques of practicing bibliotherapy in schools. A negative correlation was established between knowledge of bibliotherapy and practice of bibliotherapy (r ...
Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey
Background: We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. Methods: High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
knowledge and misperceptions of primary school teachers in towns on the periphery of the Cape Town .... Collaborating with and advising parents and other role players effectively also demand extensive knowledge on ..... possible relationships between teachers' knowledge of ADHD and their background characteristics.
Segundo Quintriqueo Millán
Full Text Available This article describes the gap between Mapuche and school knowledge in schools of the Ninth Region of Araucanía, Chile. To that end, we examine the implications of a monocultural curriculum for the education of Mapuche children and youth who present different systems of logic for native knowledge and academic knowledge. The methodology used is educational research, based on the multi-method approach. The results provide a knowledge base for understanding the gap between school knowledge and traditional Mapuche knowledge in intercultural educational contexts. The objective is to overcome epistemological issues in the teaching and learning of sciences, through contextualized pedagogical practices that will generate intercultural dialogue in the school-based educational process of Mapuche and non-Mapuche children and youth.
Erich H Rudolph
Full Text Available The genus Virilastacus was created in 1991 to accommodate Parastacus araucanius Faxon, 1914. At present, Virilastacus comprises four burrowing species, three of which were described at the beginning of the XXI century, and biological knowledge about these species is mainly limited to taxonomic and distributional aspects. This review compiles published information about these species, together with other data available to the author in order to update the current state of biological knowledge and, in turn, to promote the conservation of these species. An upgraded diagnosis of the genus Virilastacus is provided, together with information related to each species with regard to: distinctive morphological traits, geographic distribution, habitat, burrow morphology, burrowing behavior, body size, sexual system, and state of conservation. Some aspects related to morphological adaptations to their burrowing life style, phylogenetic affinities and main threats to conservation are also discussed. It is concluded that biological knowledge about these four species is scarce and fragmentary; furthermore, they are currently under threat as a result of anthropogenic activities that are degrading and fragmenting their habitat.
Janssen, S.; Huson, M. A. M.; Bélard, S.; Stolp, S.; Kapata, N.; Bates, M.; van Vugt, M.; Grobusch, M. P.
Reliable and comprehensive data on the HIV/AIDS and TB co-pandemics from Central Africa remain scarce. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview on current and past research activities in the region and provides a basis for future research work to close knowledge gaps. The scientific
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…
Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David
We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.
Steiner, Israel; Kennedy, Peter G E
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually an acute, multi-focal, and monophasic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. The disorder is mainly a condition of the pediatric age group, but neurologists are also involved in the management of adult patients. The lack of defined diagnostic criteria for ADEM underlies the limited understanding of its epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, course, prognosis, therapy, as well as the association with, and distinction from, multiple sclerosis. The present review summarizes current knowledge and outlines unanswered questions the answers to which should be eventually provided through a synergistic combination of clinical and basic research.
Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi
Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential.
Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.
BASED DE-WORMING PROGRAMME. F. Karani, BSc ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: To determine the community level of knowledge, attitude and perception ..... study of the effectiveness of a community mobilization programme for ...
Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex
In the present study, we tested the assumption that performance in a knowledge retrieval test would be lower in secondary school students with temporarily depleted self-control strength (n = 53) compared to secondary school students with temporarily available self-control strength (n = 56). After manipulating self-control strength, students were…
Aug 10, 2015 ... teachers with good knowledge of school health programme in a study carried out in a rural area. = 0.5211 n (minimum acceptable sample size)= 207 per group. Sampling procedure. A list of the schools in the two LGAs was obtained and served as sampling frame. Simple random sampling method was ...
Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz
The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…
Objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge about tooth decay and practice towards oral health education among basic school teachers. Also to determine their decayed, missed and filled tooth index (DMFT) and Oral hygiene index (OHI). Subjects and Methods: Cross-sectional study among 184 basic school ...
Toh, Tin Lam
This paper reports the performance of one entire cohort of Singapore prospective secondary school mathematics teachers in a mathematics proficiency test. The prospective teachers were admitted to the teacher education program specializing in teaching secondary school mathematics. The strengths of the prospective teachers' content knowledge, their…
This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of contraception and sexual awareness amongst high school pupils in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Two hundred males and 200 females from five high schools in the Jozini district completed confidential, self-administered questionnaires in isiZulu. South African Family ...
We evaluated the knowledge, attitudes to and consequences of menstrual morbidities among in –school adolescents in Ibadan and determined their effect on school attendance. The pattern of drug use for menstrual symptoms was also assessed. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1194 respondents in ...
Dotterer, Aryn M; Wehrspann, Elizabeth
It is well established that parental knowledge contributes to adolescents' well-being and school success and scholars have noted that parents and adolescents report different levels of knowledge. Discrepancies in parental knowledge have implications for adolescent outcomes such as risk behaviors, but little is known about the implications of knowledge discrepancies for adolescents' school outcomes. The present study examined discrepancies in parent and adolescent reports of parental knowledge and investigated the extent to which knowledge discrepancies were linked to school engagement. Participants were early adolescents (N = 174; 53 % female) and their parents (90 % mothers). Adolescents (57 % African American/Black, 18 % multiracial, 17 % White/Caucasian, 7 % Hispanic/Latino and 1 % Asian American) attended a Midwestern, Title 1, urban, public middle school. Adolescents completed surveys in their homerooms and parents completed paper-pencil surveys at home or surveys via telephone. Results showed that parents reported more knowledge of adolescents' activities and whereabouts compared to adolescents' reports. Knowledge discrepancies were associated with school bonding and school self-esteem such that dyads in which adolescents reported more knowledge than their parents reported had significantly higher levels of school bonding and school self-esteem compared to dyads in which parents reported much more knowledge.
Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A; Suziedelyte, Agne
We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. OLS estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education - such as post-school qualifications - and health knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taçoy, Gülten; Cengel, Atiye
There are important differences between left and right ventricle. Due to anatomical location and structural features, in daily clinical practice the right ventricle cannot be assessed easily as the left ventricle. Therefore, the right ventricle has remained in the background of the left ventricle. Recent clinical studies and advanced imaging modalities have demonstrated that right ventricle is decisive for survival particularly in patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, the detailed evaluation of the right ventricle has become necessary in current clinical practice. For this reason, in our review we aimed to examine the embryological development, anatomical structure, physiological, metabolic characteristics, responses to different pathological conditions, effects on arrhythmias, causes of failure and imaging modalities of the right ventricle in light of the current knowledge's.
Heidi Vandebosch; Karolien Poels; Gie Deboutte
Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff memb...
Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat
The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…
Frederico Cesar Mafra Pereira
Full Text Available This article present the knowledge-conversion process in a small business company located in Belo Horizonte (MG - study of case in a specialized school -, using the theoretical referencial of the four knowledge-conversion processes (NONAKA and TAKEUCHI, 1997.
The respondents showed average nutrition knowledge in the majority of the questions. Conclusions: This study observed malnutrition and average nutrition knowledge, with many gaps relating to aspects, such as the role of the various food groups in the diet and safe hygiene practices. Keywords: primary school children; ...
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Knowledge of reproductive health issues among secondary school adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria. ... There were also misconceptions on the frequency of coitus that could result in pregnancy and prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Following the two-day workshop, the number of participants knowledgeable about ...
Muhamad Afiq Akbar
Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.
New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for
problem-solving, reflection, creativity and innovation. Thus, it was recommended that schools incorporate active learning methods and CA. In the development of students' capacity, innovativeness and creativity, active learning and CA function as integral parts of ... classroom activities (Chapelle and. Douglas, 1993).
Emergency contraception (EC) is of public health importance for preventing unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Challenged by the high incidence of unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions observed among female high school learners who were attending the clinics in Tswaing Sub-district of North West ...
Price, Joy A.; And Others
Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating…
Cheng, Eric C. K.; Wu, S. W.; Hu, Jim
Teachers and school administrators in Hong Kong have had to cope with more work and performance pressure as they strive to implement educational reforms aimed at deepening students' life-long learning skills. Management systems, which save time and transfer ideas, experiences, and knowledge more efficiently could help schools meet reform goals and…
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.
The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430
Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph
The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…
Ji Hoon Song; Woocheol Kim; Dae Seok Chai; Sang Hoon Bae
.... The results indicate that an innovative school climate positively influences teachers' knowledge sharing and work engagement and affects the outcome variable, teachers' knowledge creation practices...
Zezulková, Eva; Kaleja, Martin
Article presents problems reader's literacy within the context of communication competence. It focuses in detail on the processes of reading comprehension and reading intentions in the selected group of school-aged pupils of various kinds of primary school education. Scientific pedagogical, special educational and psychological knowledge are supplemented by an interpretation of results of current research findings. Comparative analysis procedure was used to assess an educational progress in p...
Full Text Available Recently, the light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., brown carbon (BrC, has received an increasing attention, because they could significantly absorb the solar radiation in the range of short wavelengths rather than the purely scattering effect. BrC is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It could undergo long range transport within the atmospheric circulation. After the deposition on the surface of snow or ice in the cryospheric region, as the major light absorbing impurities with black carbon and dust, BrC could reduce the snow albedo and accelerate the glacier melting. In this context, this paper summarized the current knowledge of BrC (in aerosols and snow in the cryospheric regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpines. Although some works have been conducted in those region, the current dataset on the optical properties of BrC like Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE is still limited, which hampers stimulating an accurate evaluation of its climate effects. Especially in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where very limited information concerning BrC is available. Considering biomass burning as a dominant source of BrC, a large amount of emissions from biomass burning in South Asia could reach the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where the climate effect of BrC merits more investigation in the future.
Khanal, K; Maharjan, R; Pokharel, B R; Sanjel, S
Background Studies on Knowledge towards epilepsy among school teachers are very limited on developing countries especially with reference to Nepal. Level of knowledge of schoolteachers plays an important role on providing a greater educational support for epileptic child and to maintain good communication skills between epileptic and normal child. Objective Objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge about epilepsy and its associated factors among school teachers. Method A cross sectional study was conducted from 10th June to 4th July, 2014 among 165 teachers teaching in six different schools of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. A selfadministrated questionnaire consisting of structured and multiple choice questions were designed to collect information on the teacher's socio-demographic profile and knowledge about epilepsy. A scoring system was developed for each question: each correct answer was given a score of 1, and a score of 0 for wrong answer. Total score was categorized on two categories: Good Knowledge and Poor Knowledge. Result Teacher's age did not correlate significantly with their knowledge about epilepsy but total years of teaching experiences and knowledge about epilepsy were found to be positively correlated (ρ= 0.165, p= 0.01). Academic qualification of teachers and different teaching level were associated with level of knowledge (p= 0.023, p= 0.021). Significant difference on knowledge score was found among teachers having different academic qualification (p= 0.019). Conclusion All teachers were aware about epilepsy, but their knowledge about epilepsy was not sufficient therefore, health education training program about epilepsy is needed for teachers.
Yadav, Ram Naresh; Joshi, Shrijana; Poudel, Rajesh; Pandeya, Pawan
Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal. This study was done among 276 students from grade seven and eight of 11 schools. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from school students. Descriptive analysis was done to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management. 67.4% respondents had fair knowledge and 26.4% respondents had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene management. However, out of 141 female adolescent respondents, only 56 (40%) were engaged in good menstrual hygiene practices. Around half of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management related issues. Although knowledge on menstrual hygiene management among school adolescents is fair, still attitude and practice need to improve. Findings indicate the need of behavior change communication campaigns along with frequent reinforcement of school health education programs.
Sallo, Marielle Limfueco
This study examined the impact of multi-school collaboration through Parent College Knowledge Workshops for parents of Latino first and second-generation students at all-girl Catholic Secondary Schools. As schools educate students on the expectations and college admissions process, parents have not always been part of the discussion. For Latina students, their parents play an important role in making future decisions. Additionally, small all-girl Catholic schools do not always have access ...
Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.
Pull, Charles B
This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.
Pádraig J. Duignan
Full Text Available Phocine distemper virus (PDV was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.
Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and
This study examined the knowledge and practices of 209 public secondary school teachers in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria towards HIV/AIDS in order to assess their level of preparedness to deliver qualitative HIV/AIDS education within the context of a comprehensive sexuality education program. This has ...
Tucker, Marc S.
Discusses Peter Drucker's recommendations in "The Age of Discontinuity" (1969) concerning the decline of manual work, the ascendancy of knowledge work, and the relationship between economic stability and an educated, productive work force. Applies Drucker's principles to the movement to restructure schools, which aims to make line…
knowledge and misperceptions of primary school teachers in towns on the periphery of the Cape Town ... immediacy or feedback of consequences) also influence the performance of children diagnosed with ADHD ...... serious disorder can lead to teachers making inaccurate referrals, giving incorrect advice to parents and ...
Twenty-one percent had ever had sex under influence of alcohol or marijuana. 55% were willing to be tested, however none had been tested. CONCLUSION: Senior secondary school students in Uvwie have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, and poor attitude towards people living with AIDS. Few are sexually active and are ...
This study was to ascertain whether teacher trainees have adequate content knowledge for teaching basic school mathematics when they finally pass out as professional teachers. A total of 98 teacher trainees and 108 JSS final year students were conveniently sampled for the study. An achievement test was administered ...
AJRH Managing Editor
It creates a general awareness on human health in both the teachers and the pupils as well as members of the wider community; inculcates and promotes good health habits in school children and provides the children with the knowledge useful in taking decisions for themselves on health and well-being and ensures that.
School governing bodies in England have considerable powers and responsibilities with regard to the education of pupils. This article explores how power relations operate, within governing bodies, through struggles over which types of knowledge are claimed and valued. The article draws on the analysis of policy and on ethnographic research in the…
Swaziland is one of the Sub-Sahara Africa countries that continue to face the scourge of HIV infection. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers regarding HIV/AIDS. The study adopted a quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design. One hundred and twenty teachers were randomly ...
Contraceptives are freely available for all women in South Africa (SA). Nevertheless, the numbers of teenage pregnancies continue to increase. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health concern. The study explored secondary school girls' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding emergency ...
Structured questionnaires were administered to 160 teachers from different Nursery and Primary Schools in GRA Onitsha, Nigeria to assess their knowledge, ... A high percentage o the teachers (754 %) attributed malaria to eating too much oily food, hereditary (0.7 %), intense sunlight (2.1 %), drinking of dirty water (0.7 %) ...
The study investigated knowledge and attitude of public secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude ...
Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school students in Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State of HIV/AIDS. ... RESULTS: All had heard of AIDS, of which 40% cited the media as source of information. Seventy four percent knew the cause to be a virus, 63% could differentiate between AIDS and ...
There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...
Background: The School health programme is designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional, social and educational development of students. Teachers play a major role in the promotion and successful implementation of the Programme. Objective: To determine and compare teachers knowledge, attitude and ...
Knowledge management has seen something of a resurgence in attention amongst health librarians recently. Of course it has never ceased to exist, but now many library staff are becoming more involved in organisational knowledge management, and positioning themselves as key players in the sphere. No single model of knowledge management is proliferating, but approaches that best fit the organisation's size, structure and culture, and a blending of evidence based practice and knowledge sharing. Whatever it is called and whatever models are used, it's clear that for librarians and information professionals, the importance of putting knowledge and evidence into practice, sharing knowledge well and capturing it effectively, are still what we will continue to do. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Memisoglu, Salih Pasa
The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…
Suresh, B S; Ravishankar, T L; Chaitra, T R; Mohapatra, A K; Gupta, V
Children under the age of 5 years generally spend most of their time with their parents and guardians, especially mothers, even when they attend pre-schools or nurseries. It has been found that young children's oral health maintenance and outcomes are influenced by their parent's knowledge and beliefs. This study was done to assess the mother's knowledge about the oral health of their pre-school children in Moradabad, India. Mothers of children aged 1-4 years, attending the hospital for vaccination or regular checkups in the pediatric division of government hospitals, were invited to participate in the study. A 20-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, was distributed to their mothers, during their visit to the hospital. Responses of the mothers were recorded on a Likert Scale. The sample comprised 406 mothers, with the mean age of children being 3.8 years. Three hundred (73.8%) mothers had a good knowledge about diet and dietary practices, while only 110 (27.1%) and 103 (25.4%) mothers were found to have a good knowledge about the importance of oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, respectively. Mothers with higher educational qualification and information gained through dentist had a better knowledge about child's oral health. Oral hygiene habits and dietary habits are established during pre-school days and the parents, especially mothers, function as role models for their children.
Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko
Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maria Helena Esteves
Full Text Available About 100 teachers participated in a study and helped to understand how new reforms are faced by those who work in the field, in the particular case of the discipline of geography. The study that was done with geography teachers after 10 years of national curriculum revealed many gaps in terms of what teachers are expected to do. Only recently, some legislation has been issued to regulate the kind of training teachers do as they progress in their teaching careers. The national curriculum for basic education is a huge step in terms of being a part of the world agenda in what concerns a modern teaching and a new vision of what schools should prepare students to, but the instruments of that change (teachers have been neglected.
Sri Adelila Sari
Full Text Available The study entitled "The Application of School Watching to Increase the Earthquake Disaster Knowledge of Primary School Students, MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh" was aimed to describe the students' knowledge of the different dangerous objects in the face of an earthquake. The approach used in this study was qualitative and quantitative. The type of study was descriptive. Subjects used were as many as 30 students MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh. The method used was an experimental, which was divided into two classes, namely the experimental and control classes. Data collection technique was using questionnaires, which included the questions about common dangerous objects, dangerous objects in the class and also in the school yard. The results showed that there was a significant effect on students' knowledge before and after the implementation of the method School Watching. In addition, the knowledge of students toward the dangerous objects was found to be significant different between control and experimental class.
Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Han, Mie Mie; Teetipsatit, Somchai
To explore dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior among secondary school students in Nong-Kheam, Bangkok, Thailand. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 300 students between 12 and 16 years old currently attending secondary schools in the Bangkok metropolitan areas using self-administered questionnaires. Data were subsequently summarized using descriptive statistics. Only 18.0% of students had a good level of overall knowledge of DHF but more than half had a good level of perception of DHF The results also revealed that only 4.7% of students had a good level of preventive behavior and 75.6% required improvement. The levels of knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior were low. Health education programs should be continued and intensified with emphasis on improving the knowledge of students on prevention and control practices.
Rayment, John; Smith, Jonathan
Purpose: Considerable debate since the global financial crisis has been evident concerning the role of business schools. This article aims to outline the authors' research on their role. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with an overview of the significant literature highlighting the current debates impacting on business schools and…
Through this experiential co-adaptation the Turkana people have accumulated a wealth of indigenous knowledge and established institutions that have helped them to cope with their fragile environment. However, not much of this knowledge has been used in the design and implementation of development initiatives.
Krejsler, John Benedicto
states engage in ongoing policy processes that are consolidated in strengthened collaboration. Drawing on (post-)Foucauldian theory, this chapter maps the genealogy of how transnational truth regimes have been produced that link school and education policy to the performance of the national economy...... by means of discursive imaginaries – the Knowledge Economy discourse in particular. As a result, discourses about the purpose of school, what counts as public good, and – by implication – teacher education, are fundamentally transformed. The transnational turn in European school and education policy......The genealogy of the transnational turn in European school and education policy is a narrative about epochal transformations since the 1990s where European national education policies are increasingly negotiated in transnational forums (the OECD, EU, and the Bologna Process). Here diverse nation...
Awang, Marinah; Ismail, Ramlee; Flett, Peter; Curry, Adrienne
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on changes in the Malaysian education system, with particular reference to the development of Smart Schools, and to evaluate progress with respect to knowledge management in school education. Design/methodology/approach: The research is designed around questionnaires based on a knowledge…
Dogan, Soner; Yigit, Yakup
The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes of school administrators and teachers working in Turkish schools towards knowledge management. In this research, an explanatory design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative strand of the study was designed as a survey model, and the data was collected from…
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff members of 309 primary and secondary schools in Flanders, which is the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. The questionnaire measured the schools’ experiences with cyberbullying and their perceived responsibility and efficacy in dealing with this issue as well as their concrete preventive, detective, and reactive actions. The results indicate that, although most schools are aware of relatively few cases of cyberbullying, they do consider cyberbullying to be a problem. Many schools consider it their duty to inform students about cyberbullying and to help find solutions to cyberbullying incidents involving students, even if they take place away from the school grounds or outside school hours. Although most schools organize concrete actions with regard to cyberbullying, they often seem uncertain about the appropriateness and effectiveness of their actions. They would welcome evidence-based intervention programmes that would appeal to their students.
Reinhardt, John W
This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."
Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Tallman, Nancy J; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; McCorkle, Ruth; Krouse, Robert S
This study builds on the authors' previous studies that demonstrate that persons living with a colostomy who practice colostomy irrigation (CI) experience quality-of-life benefits. Studies also reveal that patients may not be taught about CI. The purpose of this study was to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WOC nurses on CI. The target population was ostomy nurses who were members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse's Society. Nine hundred eighty-five nurses out of a possible pool of 4191 members responded, providing a response rate of 24%. Their average age was 53 years (range, 25-79 years). Respondents averaged 12 years' experience as a WOC nurse (range, 1-40 years) and 90% (n = 875) were certified. Participants practiced in a variety of settings, including acute and long-term care facilities, home health, and ambulatory clinics. They saw an average of 37 ± 60.5 (mean ± SD) ostomy patients per year (range, 0-1100). A 1-time online survey (SurveyMonkey) of members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society was conducted. In addition to demographic and educational information, questions also included (1) CI advantages and disadvantages; (2) CI content routinely taught; (3) challenges in assisting patients to learn CI; and (4) where preparation was received for teaching this procedure. Nurses were asked whether they believe CI is evidence-based. More than half identified irrigation as an evidence-based practice (59%), but half indicated they do not routinely teach CI. Multiple factors correlated with nurses' decisions to teach CI, including years of experience (P = .03), specific CI education (P < .001), and considering the intervention evidence-based (P < .001). Factors influencing CI instruction are multifactorial; they include nurses' attitudes, experience base, education, medical indications, setting characteristics, and patient interest and physical abilities. Education on this procedure is urgently needed for
Birman, Dina; Espino, Susan Ryerson
This study assesses the impact of parent practices and knowledge of school on school success for a sample of 240 immigrant and nonimmigrant high school students and their parents. Immigrant parents from the former Soviet Union were less knowledgeable about and had less contact with the school, and allowed less autonomy than U.S.-born parents. Some…
Ercan, Hulya; Ozen, Ahmet; Karatepe, Hande; Berber, Mustafa; Cengizlier, Reha
One in 10,000 children experiences an anaphylactic attack, every year. It has been demonstrated that 82% of these attacks occur in children of school age and that most of the attack-related deaths have occurred in schools. In this study, we aimed to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge about and attitudes toward anaphylaxis. A total of 237 teachers were questioned: 91 working in elementary state schools and 146 in private schools. A questionnaire was completed to obtain data on their knowledge of anaphylaxis and the availability of emergency treatment facilities in schools. Fifty-two percent of the teachers knew which students had an allergic disease. When questioned about agents that can potentially cause anaphylaxis, the most significant causes were thought to be pollen by 54% of the teachers, food by 47%, mites by 40%, and drugs by 30%. Of foods, eggs (30.4%) and strawberries (25.3%) were thought to be the two leading causes. The teachers' responses on what would be their initial reaction in the event of an anaphylactic reaction were: he/she would give first aid in 24.3%, notify the school nurse in 39.7%, and call the emergency services in 19.8%. Only 10% were aware of an epinephrine autoinjector, and only 4% knew where to apply it. While 28% of the teachers reported that they had been informed about anaphylaxis previously, most had formed their ideas from brochures or the media. While 25% of the teachers knew all of the symptoms of anaphylaxis, 54% knew some, and 21% none. Only 6% of the teachers reported that there was a management plan for anaphylaxis in their schools. This study shows that primary school teachers are not well informed about anaphylaxis. Teachers should be given training on the subject, and there should be a re-evaluation of school and health policies with a wider global perspective. There is an urgent need to inquire into the allergy management plans and policies in schools and to develop teacher education organizations on the
Arlen, Angela M; Boyt, Margaret A; Cooper, Christopher S
We surveyed school nurses on toileting conditions in schools, their level of understanding related to normal toileting patterns in school-age children, and whether they are in need of additional resources to promote healthy toilet habits for their students. An Institutional Review Board approved web-based survey with 34 questions was employed; 562 nurses completed the survey and 97% were currently employed as school nurses. Participants were invited via email blasts through national school nursing associations and the Iowa Department of Education. Only 48% and 33% of respondents suspected an underlying health problem in children with frequent urination and bladder or bowel accidents, respectively. Despite 61% reporting never receiving information about children's normal elimination patterns, 43% had been asked to provide such information to teachers. Only 42% felt they had adequate resources to respond to such requests. School nurses requested information about treatment of dysfunctional elimination (67%), health effects of childhood toileting habits (65%), fluid intake guidelines (44%) and improvement of bathroom facilities (39%); 70% were unaware of local providers specially trained to treat children with these problems. Our survey results suggest that school nurses need additional information and resources in order to promote healthy elimination patterns in school children. Copyright Â© 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finn, Cindy A.
In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…
Marchese, Francis T
Presents the state of the art in visualization research and development Highlights research developing at key intersections with other disciplines and its applicability to addressing complex real-world problems Discusses how visualization researchers are addressing complex issues of representation in knowledge, art, and culture
Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.
Gilmar Beserra de Farias
Full Text Available An analysis of the present state of ornithological knowledge is required for the guidance of researchers in their future investigations. This work provides a survey of literature describing the development of ornithological research in the state. Between 1880 and 2008, many lists were organized, which contributed towards the systematization of the knowledge about Pernambuco’s birds. Out if the 535 species recorded, 49 are found in marine environments or wetlands, 450 occur in the Atlantic Rainforest, and 270 reside in the semi-arid Caatinga. We suggest that studies on the birds of the Caatinga are most important and should be prioritized at present, in addition to effective actions for the conservation of endemic species and of species under risk of extinction.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to test the level of information on CPR and suitability to current application of the phsicians practicing in hospital ANEAH. Material and Method: The form of a test of 20 questions fort his purpose has been prepared in accordance with the 2010 AHA-ERC CPR guidelines. This form distributed to volunteer physicians to fill in. A total of 173 physicians agreed to participate in he study. The results were analyzed statistically and tried to determine the factors affecting the level of information. Results:According to the results of the study physicians gender, age and the total duration of physicians and medical asistance doesn%u2019t affect the level of information. The number of CPR within 1 month positively affect the level of knowledge. The number of theoretical and practical training in medical school, have taken the positive impact the level of knowledge of physicians. The training period after graduation, significantly increased the level of physicians information. The order of these training sessions with the asistant courses, congress, seminars and lessions on the sempozims are effective. Discussion: CPR trainig programs for physicians should be standardized, updated and expanded. Recurent in-service trainig should be provided to increase phsicians knowledge on skills.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive
Full Text Available An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.
Adolfo Espejo Serna
Full Text Available A current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of native Mexican Bromeliaceae is presented. There are 22 genera of Bromeliaceae recorded from the country that include 326 species. The genus Ursulaea with 2 species is endemic to Mexico, while Hechtia with 48 of its 50 species has its principal center of diversity in the country. Tillandsia (175 spp, Hechtia (48 spp and Pitcairnia (46 spp are the genera with the greatest number of species. We present a comparative analysis of Mexican Bromeliaceae with that of other American regions that have recently published accounts for the Family, particularly the Mesomerican area, Venezuela, Ecuador, and the Guianas. Our results led us to the conclusion that all these floras should be considered as distinct. We observe a progressive decrease of the Simpson index value related with the remoteness of the Mexican area. A general analysis of the species numbers of Mexican bromeliad genera shows a distinct preference of the species for coniferous and oak forests, followed by tropical caducifolious forests. There is also significant representation of the family in other vegetation types such as cloud forests and tropical perennifolious forests. Generally Mexican Bromeliaceae species have scarce and sparse populations and in many cases they inhabit cliffs, bluffs and scarps in restricted areas. Concerning the geographic distribution of Mexican genera, 77.27 % are neotropical, 4.54% are South American and the remainder are Mexican and Central American. The generic endemism is very low (4.54 %, even if we extend the country limits to Megamexico sensu Rzedowsi (1991 it reaches only 13.63 %. The family endemism at specific level reaches 63.07 %. There are not available data about a specific analysis of the conservation status of Mexican Bromeliaceae, but we can point out that a great number of taxa are only known from the type collection or at the most from the type locality. This can perhaps be attributed in part to
Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.
This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…
Pantano, Kathleen J
The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge high school coaches have about the female athlete triad and to determine if gender differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors exist. Cross-sectional survey. Twenty-six high schools in and around the vicinity of Cleveland, Ohio. Two-hundred currently employed high school coaches. Participants completed a 30-question survey used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors coaches had about the female athlete triad. Descriptive statistics (means, SD, frequency) and gender differences in response to triad knowledge, attitude, and behavior questions. One hundred twenty-three high school coaches completed the survey. Survey respondents were between 25 and 35 years of age, coached for 6-10 years, and coached female athletes 75%-100% of the time. Twenty-four percent reported "having heard of the triad" and 14% (17 of 123) were able to correctly name all of its components. There were no significant differences between gender and the coach's ability to correctly name the 3 triad components (t = 1.47, P = .14). There was no correlation between coach gender (r = 0.13, P = .07), age (r = 0.07, P = .42), number of years of coaching (r = 0.014, P = .88), and coach's knowledge of the triad components, respectively. Female athletes might be at risk for developing the female athlete triad and high school coaches can be instrumental in identifying athletes who are at risk. This study showed that gaps in knowledge about the triad exist and that educating coaches about the condition could serve as an important means of prevention for the condition. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J
To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.
Janssen, S; Huson, M A M; Bélard, S; Stolp, S; Kapata, N; Bates, M; van Vugt, M; Grobusch, M P
Reliable and comprehensive data on the HIV/AIDS and TB co-pandemics from Central Africa remain scarce. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview on current and past research activities in the region and provides a basis for future research work to close knowledge gaps. The scientific literature was searched for publications meeting the following search terms: "tuberculosis" or "HIV" or "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome", combined with "Central Africa", or the names of individual countries within the region. Original studies, reviews and case series were included, and a selection of relevant articles was made. Most research in the field of HIV and TB has been conducted in Cameroon, where the epidemics have been described fairly well. The Democratic Republic of Congo ranked second on the amount of publications, despite the civil wars over the past several decades. Very little has been published on HIV and TB in the other countries, possibly due to the poor infrastructure of health care systems, lack of scientific capacity building or shortage of laboratory equipment. Despite the relatively high burden of HIV and TB in the Central African region, the amount of research activities on these topics is limited. A better understanding of the co-epidemics in this region is urgently needed. The occurrence of opportunistic infections, treatment complications and drug resistance in TB and HIV need to be better described; the failure of public health systems needs to be understood, and research infrastructure needs to be developed. Only then will it be possible to turn the tide against the HIV and TB epidemics in this region.
Ab. Samad, Rahmad Sukor; Rahmad Sukor, Mohamed Iskandar; Syah, Darwyan; Muslihah, Eneng
...). One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy...
Grace Mary George
Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.
Shea, Megyn L.
The role and function of school counselors remains a consistent source of concern in the school counseling profession. Aligning school counseling activities with comprehensive school counseling practice is a way to standardize the profession. Creating a school board policy for counseling is a strategy to gain support for and institutionalize…
Trakman, Gina L; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina
Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.
Gina L. Trakman
Full Text Available Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1 To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2 to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items, study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.
Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.
Full Text Available Chemical senses Ã¢Â€Â“ especially smell Ã¢Â€Â“ are known to be important for the fundamental life events such as sensing predators, selecting mates, as well as finding food. The chemical senses are decoded in the olfactory system which is able to detect and differentiate thousands of odorous substances comprised of chemically divergent structures (i.e. odorants. The high selectivity of the olfactory system is heavily dependent on the receptors for each odorants (i.e. odorant receptors. Thus, studying odorant receptors may not only facilitate our understanding the initial events of olfaction but provide crucial knowledge for developing a novel, odorant receptor-based biosensor for chemical screening. Here we provide a review of recent advances in our understanding of odorant receptors.
Shawn M Crump
Full Text Available There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances.
Background Spirometry is a cost-effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of lung function and for case-finding in a resource-limited setting. The acceptance of this test depends on the awareness of its indications and the ability to interpret the results. No studies have assessed the knowledge of spirometry among Nigerian doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current knowledge, awareness and practice of spirometry among hospital-based Nigerian doctors. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey among 321 doctors working in Nigerian hospitals between March 2008 and June 2008. Information on knowledge, awareness, practice of and barriers to spirometry were obtained using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire and the data were then analysed. Results Of the 321 doctors that participated, 108 (33.6%) reported that they have good knowledge of spirometry. One hundred and ninety-five (60.7%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in aiding the diagnosis of respiratory diseases; 213(66.4%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in determining the severity of diseases. Medical school was the most common source of knowledge on spirometry (64.5%). Eighty-one (25.2%) doctors reported having a spirometer in their hospitals. Doctors having access to a spirometer used it more frequently for aiding the diagnosis of COPD (40.7% vs.27.5%) and for monitoring of asthma (18.5% vs.11.3%) than those without access to a spirometer. The doctors working in University Teaching Hospitals and Federal Medical Centres (FMC) (22.4% vs. 4.5%) and those having access to a spirometer (40.7 vs.11.3%) were very confident of interpreting spirometry results compared to those working in District and General Hospitals and without access to a spirometer. Irrespective of access to a spirometer or the type of hospital they were employed in, doctors reported that unavailability of a spirometer was the greatest barrier to its use (62.5%) followed by lack of awareness
Krejsler, John Benedicto
been called global Knowledge Economies, and how the format for thinking teacher quality and teacher education is, by implication, transformed. The genealogy of US K-12 education policy discourse is a specific evolvement with its particular traits that refer to the constitution and traditions......This chapter takes as its point of departure that the single most important factor framing how teacher education can be constructed is how K-12 and school policy discourse evolves. This policy discourse is, so to speak, the negotiation of imaginaries about the purpose and priorities concerning what...... teachers should do and, by implication, what teacher education should be about. This chapter explores how these imaginaries about school and education are produced according to a format of comparability in the US as well as in Europe, as national economies become increasingly interconnected in what has...
Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad
Full Text Available This study intends to assess the implementation of policies in high-performance schools (HPS. One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy. Whereas the correlation indicated that all 10 factors, namely, mission and vision, school strategy, school culture, intellectual modal, learning organization, leadership management, teamwork and learning community, knowledge sharing, new knowledge generation, and digital advancement, have significant relationships with the understanding of knowledge management, at different levels.
Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B
Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures.
Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R
Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.
Card, David J; Gorska, Renata; Cutler, Jacky; Harrington, Dominic J
Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient that is required for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in hepatic and extra-hepatic proteins involved in blood coagulation and preventing cartilage and vasculature calcification. In humans, sources of vitamin K are derived from plants as phylloquinone and bacteria as the menaquinones. Menadione is a synthetic product used as a pharmaceutical but also represents an intermediate in the tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, which preferentially resides in tissues such as brain. Research into vitamin K metabolism is essential for the understanding of vitamin K biology in health and disease. Progress in this area, driven by knowledge of vitamin K and the availability of markers of vitamin K status, has already proved beneficial in many areas of medicine and further opportunities present themselves. Areas of interest discussed in this review include prophylactic administration of vitamin K1 in term and preterm neonates, interactions between vitamins K and E, the industrial conversion of vitamin K to dihydro-vitamin K in foods, tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, the biological activity of the five and seven carbon metabolites of vitamin K and circadian variations. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R
A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.
Odailso Sinvaldo Berté
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the ways in which cultural pedagogies are related to school knowledge. In line with different research of the visual culture education field, the text articulates theoretical arguments that approach the pedagogies of pleasure, question, and conflict. It grounds pedagogical proposals that advance from a critical assessment of culture to considerations about the body, experiences, affections, practices of image’s uses and cultural artifacts in order to articulate creative and emancipatory forms of the teaching-learning processes.
Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.
BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358
Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.
Pereyre, Sabine; Goret, Julien; Bébéar, Cécile
Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections, particularly in school-aged children and young adults. These infections occur both endemically and epidemically worldwide. M. pneumoniae lacks cell wall and is subsequently resistant to beta-lactams and to all antimicrobials targeting the cell wall. This mycoplasma is intrinsically susceptible to macrolides and related antibiotics, to tetracyclines and to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides and related antibiotics are the first-line treatment of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections mainly because of their low MIC against the bacteria, their low toxicity and the absence of contraindication in young children. The newer macrolides are now the preferred agents with a 7-to-14 day course of oral clarithromycin or a 5-day course of oral azithromycin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae, according to the different guidelines worldwide. However, macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years worldwide, with prevalence now ranging between 0 and 15% in Europe and the USA, approximately 30% in Israel and up to 90-100% in Asia. This resistance is associated with point mutations in the peptidyl-transferase loop of the 23S rRNA and leads to high-level resistance to macrolides. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations can be detected using several molecular methods applicable directly from respiratory specimens. Because this resistance has clinical outcomes such as longer duration of fever, cough and hospital stay, alternative antibiotic treatment can be required, including tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline or fluoroquinolones, primarily levofloxacin, during 7-14 days, even though fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are contraindicated in all children and in children < 8 year-old, respectively. Acquired resistance to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones has never been reported in M. pneumoniae clinical isolates but reduced susceptibility was reported in in
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class pilot has not served over a particular route within the past 60 months, that person's license or MMC...
Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo
Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.
Marina de Tommaso
Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease (PD and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND, Huntington’s disease (HD, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed.
Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Hadi, Reza; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Hossein Khosravi, Mohammad; Ajudani, Reza; Dolatimehr, Fardin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
Context Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results. Results OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Conclusions With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects. PMID:26734487
Natalie C. Ebner
Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.
Full Text Available Vitamin D, i.e. 1,25(OH 2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes. Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D. i.e. the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years.
Radlović, Nedeljko; Mladenović, Marija; Simić, Dusica; Radlović, Petar
Vitamin D, i.e., 1.25(OH)2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes.Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D, i.e., the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years.
Aniebue, P N
To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.
Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O
Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in learning about the periodontal disease and the
Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO
Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Majowicz, Shannon E; Diplock, Kenneth J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Bredin, Chad T; Rebellato, Steven; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Dubin, Joel A
To measure the food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of high school students in Ontario. We administered a school-wide paper survey to the student body (n = 2,860) of four Ontario high schools. We developed the survey by selecting questions from existing, validated questionnaires, prioritizing questions that aligned with the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education's educational messages and the food safety objectives from the 2013 Ontario High School Curriculum. One in five students reported currently handling food in commercial or public-serving venues; of these, 45.1% had ever taken a course that taught them how to prepare food (e.g., food and nutrition classes, food handler certification). Food safety knowledge among respondents was low. For example, 17.3% knew that the best way to determine whether hamburgers were cooked enough to eat was to measure the temperature with a food thermometer. Despite low knowledge, most respondents (72.7%) reported being confident that they could cook safe, healthy meals for themselves and their families. Safe food handling practices were frequently self-reported. Most students (86.5%) agreed that being able to cook safe, healthy meals was an important life skill, although their interest in learning about safe food handling and concern about foodborne disease were less pronounced. Our findings suggest that food safety knowledge is low, yet confidence in preparing safe, healthy meals is high, among high school students. Because work and volunteer opportunities put students in contact with both the public and food, this group is important to target for increased education about safe food handling.
Howley, Marged D.; Howley, Aimee; Henning, John E.; Gillam, Mary Beth; Weade, Ginger
This study used qualitative interviewing with teachers at three high schools to answer research questions about teachers' assessment knowledge, school-specific assessment cultures, and teachers' perceptions of the assessment literacy of other key stakeholders. Data analysis revealed shared knowledge and practices across schools--use of formative…
Lenhart, Sara Talley
This study investigated the relationship between middle school math teacher pedagogical content knowledge as gathered from a teacher assessment and student Standards of Learning scores. Nine middle-school math teachers at two rural schools were assessed for their pedagogical content knowledge in geometry and measurement in the specific area of…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine public and private middle school students’ levels of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge (HRFK according to school type, gender, and grade. A cross-sectional survey method was applied in the research. A total of 334 public middle school students (nfemale =154 and nmale = 180 and 386 private middle school students (nfemale =187 and nmale = 199 participated in the survey. The data collection instrument was developed by Hunuk and Ince (2010 based on the “Superkids-Superfit Knowledge” study (Mott, Virgilio, Warren and Berenson, 1991. The data collected was analysed using the following descriptive and non-parametric tests: the Pearson chi-square, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Findings indicated a significant difference according to school type and age group (p<.05, but a non-significant difference according to gender and HRFK test result. Results improved year to year except among 7th graders. In other words, private middle school students’ HRFK results were higher than those of public middle school students; grade level was also linked to HRFK, but gender was not. These results suggest that physical education curriculums should be developed with reference to HRFK objectives. Another recommendation would be that HRFK tools be customized by grade level in the Turkish context.
Boesdorfer, Sarah B.
Pedagogical content knowledge has been defined by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) and others for the purpose of understanding science teachers' knowledge and teaching practice. It is hoped that by improving our understanding of science teachers' PCK, we can improve the education and practice of science teachers. Research describing all domains of a teacher's PCK and its use in the practice of teaching has not been well established. The purpose of this study is to understand how two experienced secondary chemistry teachers' PCK manifests itself in their daily teaching practice. For each teacher, observations, interviews, and class documents were utilized to provide a detailed description of the five domains for PCK as defined by Magnusson et al. Both teachers were well regarded in their schools, but one teacher's PCK was found to be significantly more consistent with our current understanding of science teaching and learning. Along with the comparisons of the two teachers' knowledge, this research found that the teachers' knowledge and their enacted knowledge did not always correspond---suggesting the importance of observations for understanding PCK's influence on teaching practices. In addition, this study supports the importance of clearly defining a teacher's orientation toward science teaching in understanding a teacher's PCK. Both teachers' orientations toward science teaching were found to greatly influence their knowledge and actions in the other PCK domains. Finally, this study suggests that a teacher's knowledge of science curriculum should not be defined only as the knowledge of goals and objectives because this narrow definition of curriculum does not allow a complete understanding of the teacher's knowledge nor how their knowledge affects their practice. These conclusions have implications for future research and teacher educators.
Geramian, Nahid; Akhavan, Shohreh; Gharaat, Leila; Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba
The aim of the current study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of high school students toward addicting drugs. Thus, the interventions, which are more appropriate for this age group can be designed and applied. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 in Isfahan province. The study population was high school students, who were randomly selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The evaluation tool was an author-devised questionnaire, which was filled out by the students. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. Among 6998 students who filled out the questionnaire, 50.1% were female. The mean knowledge scores were 58.7 +/- 10.3 and 57.9 +/- 10.2 for girls and boys, respectively, which were significantly different (p = 0.002). Considering the scores students obtained in attitude toward inclination to drug abuse, the most important factors in this regard were parents' divorce, familial conflicts, seeking pleasure, adolescents' curiosity, availability of the drugs, peer pressure, low levels of self-confidence, psychological disorders, and strict parents. With respect to the results obtained, promoting the knowledge and modifying the attitude of students, and increasing their self-confidence particularly in schools can play an important role in decreasing drug abuse in this age group. Moreover, policymakers should consider the strategies, which can support the family structure and reduce the harms in unstable families.
Zeller, Cynthia Lee
Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a school health module on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of middle school students. Method: A convenience sample of 39 middle school students received education related to breastfeeding and completed a pre-test and a post-test. The School Survey on Breastfeeding…
Objective: To assess what kinds of knowledge policymakers in a sample of English primary schools utilised to make decisions about their school's sex and relationships education policy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policymakers at three primary schools in the southwest of England, and documentary analysis of the schools'…
Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…
Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred
The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…
This study investigated the differences between Taiwanese experienced and preservice elementary school science teachers' content knowledge (CK) about electric circuits and their ability to predict students' preconceptions about electric circuits as an indicator of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). An innovative web-based recruitment and…
cliché for centuries. Descartes ’ cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is also a cliché, and also a phrase for traditional epistemology. Knowledge...manage what they know. Watertown, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Descartes , R. (1644). Principles of philosophy. Translated by Miller, V. R
McGladrey, Brian W; Hannon, James C; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Shultz, Barry B; Shaw, Janet M
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that current and preservice high school (HS) physical educators and sport coaches possess regarding the principles and methods involved in youth resistance training (RT) and to determine if that knowledge was acceptable based on a predetermined criterion (passing score). A panel of 10 experts in RT or sport pedagogy used a Delphi technique to create a 90-question assessment (examination) that was administered to 287 HS physical educators and sport coaches and 140 university physical education teacher education (PETE) students. An analysis of the results revealed that neither group demonstrated the minimal knowledge necessary to design, implement, and supervise RT programs based on a passing score of 75%: HS physical educators/coaches, mean = 59.30, SD = 14.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.64-60.96], t(286) = -18.61, p = 0.000; university PETE students, mean = 56.61, SD = 16.59, 95% CI = 53.84-59.38, t(139) = -13.12, p = 0.000. The pass rate for physical educators and sport coaches was 14.3% and for university PETE students it was 20.7%. The results of this study indicate that both current and preservice physical educators and sport coaches need additional education and training specific to the design and implementation of RT programs for HS students. Given that school districts typically require their educators attend in-service training programs, it may be advisable to develop an in-service program that allows both current and preservice HS physical educators and sport coaches to earn an RT certification that specifically addresses the unique physical and psychosocial needs of school-aged youth.
Mohammed Sultan Al-Darwish
Conclusion: The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media.
Carmen Batanero Bernabeu; Emilse Gómez Torres; José Miguel Contreras García; Carmen Díaz Batanero
This study assesses some elements of common and specialized mathematical knowledge and of knowledge of content and students in relation to elementary probability from a sample of prospective primary school teachers...
Babikar, Haydar E; Abbas, Islam M
The attitudes toward school pupils with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of school teachers' knowledge of the disorder. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instructions on epilepsy during their training. This study aims to assess school teachers' knowledge, attitude and practice when dealing with epilepsy in school children. This study was part of a series mandated by the Gezira Epilepsy Care Programme (GECP), to obtain baseline data for a community-adapted epilepsy education program. A pretested, semi-structured, 35-items questionnaire was the investigational tool. It was used to evaluate the knowledge of the basic facts about epilepsy among school teachers in this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire allowed teachers to express their opinions by means of free answers. The schools were chosen at random but not in a systematic equiprobability design. Two hundred teachers from public primary (100) and secondary (100) schools in the rural area of south Gezira Locality, Gezira State, Central Sudan, were recruited. In this study, the majority of respondents had never been informed about epilepsy and therefore gave evasive answers to many questions. Few of the respondents considered epilepsy as contagious. None of participants objected to having epileptic children in their classes. Only 47 teachers (47%) in the primary schools had any knowledge of the initial procedures to help a child in seizure, presenting reasonable answers, compared to 64 (64%) teachers in the secondary schools. All school teachers should be given some kind of training in health services. The GECP should involve teachers in its current training programs for caregivers and lay association to help epileptic patients.
Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.
Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…
Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh
Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Siegler, Robert S; Davis-Kean, Pamela E
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement.
Owusu, Kofi Acheaw; Conner, Lindsey; Astall, Chris
Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is the knowledge required for effective technology integration in teaching. In this study, New Zealand high school science teachers' TPACK was assessed through an online survey. The data and its analysis revealed that New Zealand's high school science teachers in general had a high perception of…
Wachob, David A.
The purpose of this study was to determine K-12 teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices of brain-based learning strategies in western Pennsylvania schools. The following five research questions were explored: (a) What is the extent of knowledge K-12 public school teachers have about the indicators of brain-based learning and Brain Gym?; (b) To…
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Memisoglu, Salih Pasa
This study aims to determine the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of knowledge management competence in high school administration. The study was conducted using the screening model and the study group consisted of 162 teachers and 35 administrators working at eight high schools in Turkey. Administrators' knowledge management competence…
Lombard, Thomas J.
Recently American schools have attempted to provide more family-oriented services. As school psychologists expand their roles to include home-school consultation in the treatment of students' educational and psychological problems, they must understand the legislation related to various policy issues in public schools. School psychologists must be…
Ciolfi, Michael Anthony; Kasen, Patsy Anne
Chiropractors frequently practice within health care systems requiring the business acumen of an entrepreneur. However, some chiropractors do not know the relationship between the level of business knowledge required for practice success and their current level of business knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between chiropractors' perceived level of business knowledge required and their perceived level of current business knowledge. Two hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey (Health Care Training and Education Needs Survey) which included eight key business items. Participants rated the level of perceived business knowledge required (Part I) and their current perceived level of knowledge (Part II) for the same eight items. Data was collected from November 27, 2013 to December 18, 2013. Data were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation to determine the statistically significant relationships for the perceived level of knowledge required and the perceived current level of knowledge for each of the paired eight items from Parts I and II of the survey. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were performed to determine the statistical difference between the paired items. The results of Spearman's correlation testing indicated a statistically significant (p ethical, (e) managerial decisions, and (f) operations. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks testing indicated a significant difference for three paired items: strategic management; marketing and; legal and ethical. The results suggest that relationships exist for the majority of business items (6 of 8) however a statistically difference was demonstrated in only three of the paired business items. The implications of this study for social change include the potential to improve chiropractors' business knowledge and skills, enable practice success, enhance health services delivery and positively influence the profession as a viable career.
Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.
Teacher knowledge guides a teacher's behaviour in the classroom. Teacher knowledge for technology education is generally assumed to play an important role in affecting pupils' learning in technology. There are an abundant number of teacher knowledge models that visualise different domains of teacher knowledge, but clear empirical evidence on how…
Rogér, James M; Wehmeyer, Meggan M H; Milliner, Matthew S
During the inaugural year (2006-07) of the Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP), 110 faculty members at ten different dental schools were interviewed by dental students who were participating as ADCFP fellows in this year-long program designed to introduce them to faculty roles and activities and help them gain an appreciation for the rewards and issues associated with academic life. The goals, format, and components of the ADCFP are described in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Dental Education. One of the fellows' assignments during the ADCFP was to interview faculty at various academic ranks who had differing degrees of work emphasis in teaching, research, service/patient care, and administration. Sixty-nine (63 percent of the total) of these interviews were reviewed and analyzed by the authors, who were student fellows in the ADCFP during 2006-07. The purpose of these interviews was to provide the fellows with insight into the positive aspects and challenges in becoming and remaining a dental school faculty member. This aggregate perspective of the interviews conducted at ten dental schools highlights the motivations and challenges that confront a dentist during the process of choosing a career in academic dentistry and determining if dental education is a good fit for each individual who elects to pursue this pathway. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed several factors consistently identified by faculty across the schools as being positive influences on the quality of the academic work environment and career satisfaction: mentorship and student interaction, opportunities for scholarship (research and discovery), job diversity, intellectual challenge, satisfaction with the nature of academic work, lifestyle/family compatibility, flexibility, lifelong learning, professional duty, and lab responsibility. A series of negative themes were also consistently identified: bureaucracy/administrative burdens and barriers, time
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools. This study was conducted among five high schools under an education foundation. The analysis models used in the study were correlation analysis and t-test. The respondents were used as the profession references are 86 teachers. The result of the study shows that knowledge management implementation has a positive and significant influence toward the quality of high schools.
Markham, Christine M.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Addy, Robert C.; Lewis, Holly; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Tortolero, Susan R.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI among youth in the U.S. As alternative school students are at higher risk of acquiring STIs compared to regular high school students, this study examined HPV knowledge and risk perception among Latino youth attending 9 alternative high schools in Houston, Texas. HPV knowledge measures assessed prevalence, health consequences, symptoms, transmission, and risk reduction strategies. Three measures assessed perceived risk. The sample included 414 ...
This paper investigated knowledge of autism among school personnel in the Garki District of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The study sample comprised 194 school personnel made up of 82 males and 112 females. The respondents were randomly selected from government- owned primary and secondary schools ...
Rose, Sally B.; Lanumata, Tolotea; Lawton, Beverley A.
Background: School-based human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer vaccination programs have been implemented widely, but few studies have investigated the knowledge and views of school staff about this new vaccine. Methods: Prior to the introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2009, we surveyed staff at 14 socioeconomically diverse schools to assess…
Bütüner, Suphi Önder
This study describes secondary school mathematics teachers' use of history of mathematics in their classes and their knowledge levels in this field. The study population included a total of 58 secondary school mathematics teachers working at the secondary schools located in Yozgat city center, and the sample included 32 mathematics teachers from…
Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M
The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.
Most of the teachers (94.6%) agreed that reproductive health education should be taught in schools and that it should form part of the school curriculum. Those with contrary views opined that teaching of reproductive health education in schools would encourage sexual intercourse among the students. If teachers are to ...
Salter, Brian; Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted
Since 1997 there have been two concerted attempts to expand the number of medical school students in England: by increasing the size of existing medical schools, and by creating new medical schools. These initiatives have been a direct result of government policy, although policy implementation was delegated to the state apparatus. They also led…
This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students' knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania. The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in...
Full Text Available Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i schooling and ii local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane' from whom we collected information on 1 schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy, 2 local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3 working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.
Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza
Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.
T-test. Results: 81 Health teachers were studied and the ratio of knowledge score of all of health teachers to a maximum knowledge score was obtained to be 43/1%. There was no significant relationship between the school health teacher knowledge and their work experiences and age (P=0.23-0.6, respectively. Average of knowledge score of who were educated was more than who were not educated previously (P<0.001. Conclusion: Primary school health teachers' knowledge of dealing with Avulsion was not at a high level. Therefore, training on the dental trauma cases is quite essential for them.
Lee, Chi-Lung; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yang, Chyan; Hou, Huei-Tse
Knowledge management systems, or KMSs, have been widely adopted in business organizations, yet little research exists on the actual integration of the knowledge management model and the application of KMSs in secondary schools. In the present study, the common difficulties and limitations regarding the implementation of knowledge management into…
Odom, Arthur L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate students' understanding about scientifically acceptable content knowledge by exploring the relationship between knowledge of diffusion and osmosis and the students' certainty in their content knowledge. Data was collected from a high school biology class with the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test…
Nordin, Hasniza; Faekah, Tengku Ariffin Tengku
Purpose: This study focused on the validation of a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) instrument for using ICT in teaching and learning effectively in a Malaysian secondary school setting. The aim of this study was to confirm a seven-factor TPACK model which includes Technological Knowledge, Content Knowledge, Pedagogical…
Keirle, Kathleen; Thomas, Malcolm
A comparative investigation was conducted involving two school situations; one identified as being health promoting and having a comprehensive policy and a defined programme of health education, and the other not health promoting, having no policy and an unstructured programme of health education. A total of 367 students from two secondary and four primary schools participated in the study. The factors used to categorise schools are highlighted. A self-completion questionnaire was employed to assess students' knowledge and behaviour with regard to nutrition and health. Students' dietary intake was monitored by employing a frequency of consumption tick sheet. The results revealed that students from the more health promoting secondary school (School 1(H)) were more knowledgeable of what constitutes a healthy diet and the benefits and risks to health. The implications of these results are considered within the context of the many factors that could influence students' knowledge and behaviour.
Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had
dr. Ruurd Taconis; prof. dr. Wim Jochems; dr. Ellen J. J Rohaan
Teacher knowledge guides a teacher's behaviour in the classroom. Teacher knowledge for technology education is generally assumed to play an important role in affecting pupils' learning in technology. There are an abundant number of teacher knowledge models that visualise different domains of teacher
Torres, José Luis; Ordóñez, José Genaro; Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe
To identify dengue-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among primary school students in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, before and after an educational intervention. The study was carried out at 19 randomly selected public primary schools. Surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practices were conducted before and after educational sessions with fifthand sixth-grade elementary school students. The educational strategy "Escuelas sin mosquitos" ("Schools without Mosquitoes") emphasized the importance of students' participation in taking care of their schools and homes in order to prevent dengue through vector control. Before and after the educational sessions, a total of 3 124 surveys were conducted on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 1 562 fifth and sixth-grade students (772 and 790 students, respectively) between 10 and 12 years of age. The students' level of knowledge was significantly higher after the implementation of the educational strategy. In comparison with the fifth-graders, the sixth-grade students both already had and also acquired significantly more knowledge of several aspects of the disease and the vector. In all the schools, there were containers with water identified as potential breeding sites, and in 68% of the schools, these containers tested positive for Aedes aegypti larvae. It was demonstrated that by implementing an educational strategy, children's knowledge, attitudes, and practices were improved in terms of taking care of their schools and promoting a change of attitude to this disease at home.
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Danielsen, Oluf; Nielsen, Janni
and learning networks; they are important contributions to the school of the knowledge society. The ICT in New Learning Environments project based on anthropologically inspired methods and social learning theories shows that students bring their informal forms of learning into the school context. This happens...... working with ICT and project-based learning is shown to simultaneously constitute a mixed mode between the school of the industrial and the knowledge society. The research shows that it is possible to tip the balance in the direction of the school of the knowledge society, and thus of the future...... merely communicators of knowledge, they will have to become knowledge managers and overall leaders of projects, and this entails much more dialogue with the pupils....
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 15 years, knowledge translation in healthcare has emerged as a multifaceted and complex agenda. Theoretical and polemical discussions, the development of a science to study and measure the effects of translating research evidence into healthcare, and the role of key stakeholders including academe, healthcare decision-makers, the public, and government funding bodies have brought scholarly, organizational, social, and political dimensions to the agenda. Objective This paper discusses the current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare and how elements in this agenda shape the discovery and translation of health knowledge. Discussion The current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare involves the influence of values, priorities, and people; stakes which greatly shape the discovery of research knowledge and how it is or is not instituted in healthcare delivery. As this agenda continues to take shape and direction, ensuring that it is accountable for its influences is essential and should be at the forefront of concern to the Canadian public and healthcare community. This transparency will allow for scrutiny, debate, and improvements in health knowledge discovery and health services delivery.
Capece, Jó António
This article is the result of an ongoing research under the project entitled "The local curriculum in Mozambican schools: epistemological and didactic-methodological strategies for its implementation". Based on ethnographic research, the collection is being made. Systematization of knowledge and cultural experiences of local communities…
Blake, Jamilia J.; Graves, Scott; Newell, Markeda; Jimerson, Shane R.
Why is there a need to increase the racial/ethnic diversity of faculty in school psychology? Chiefly, school psychologists serve the most racially/ethnically diverse population: children in US schools. Therefore, developing a knowledge base that is inclusive of this wide range of perspective as well as growing a workforce that is reflective of…
Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J
Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Caforio, Alida L P; Pankuweit, Sabine; Arbustini, Eloisa
In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its di...
Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann
Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…
Sert Çibik, Ayse
The aim of this study is two-fold. Its first aim is to determine science teacher candidates' knowledge (academic success) and misconceptions about electric current and its second aim is to compare these results across participants' year of study and gender. A total of 132 teacher candidates studying in their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years in Gazi…
Repping-Wuts, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Achterberg, T. van
To describe rheumatologists' knowledge, attitude and current management of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a postal questionnaire was sent to all rheumatologists (N = 204) and trainees (N = 49), members of the Dutch Society of Rheumatology. The overall response rate was 44% (N =
Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol
Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased in their…
Yusuf, Hanna Onyi; Mohammed, Sadiq
This study was carried out to determine the influence of prior knowledge questions on pupils' performance in reading comprehension in primary schools in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two schools were used for the study. Ungwar Dosa primary school was used as the experimental school while Ungwar Rimi primary school was used as the control school. Thirty (30)…
Ennett, Susan T; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Thorne, Judy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Vincus, Amy; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley; Jones, Shelton
The series of seminal meta-analytic studies of school-based substance use prevention program studies conducted by the late Nancy S. Tobler and colleagues concluded that programs with content focused on social influences' knowledge, drug refusal skills, and generic competency skills and that use participatory or interactive teaching strategies were more effective than programs focused on knowledge and attitudes and favoring traditional didactic instruction. The present study compared current school practice against evidence-based standards for "effective content" and "effective delivery," derived from the Tobler findings. Respondents were the lead staff who taught substance use prevention in the 1998-1999 school year in a national sample of public and private schools that included middle school grades (N = 1,795). Results indicate that most providers (62.25%) taught effective content, but few used effective delivery (17.44%), and fewer still used both effective content and delivery (14.23%). Those who taught an evidence-based program (e.g., Life Skills Training, Project ALERT), however, were more likely to implement both effective content and delivery, as were those teachers who were recently trained in substance use prevention and were comfortable using interactive teaching methods. The findings indicate that the transfer to practice of research knowledge about school-based substance use prevention programming has been limited.
Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda
Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.
Heidi Vandebosch; Karolien Poels; Gie Deboutte
Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims...
John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2015
This brief is part of a series that shares findings from a research collaboration between the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University and Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) focused on understanding implementation of the community school model in the district. This brief highlights findings related to…
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…
Tang, Shuang-yang; Liu, Zhi-hua; Li, Le; Cai, Heng-ling; Wan, Yan-ping
To investigate awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among high school students and to provide a basis for health education on HPV infection for high school students in China. A questionnaire on HPV awareness and knowledge was administered to 900 high school students in Xiangtan City of Hunan Province in China by layer cluster sampling. A total of 848 anonymous valid questionnaires were received from volunteers who completed the questionnaire correctly. Only 10.1% had heard of HPV, and of those only 18.6% knew that HPV could lead to cervical cancer. Single factor analysis indicated that home address, age, grade, academic achievement, sex history, gender, father's education level and mother's education level were impact factors for HPV knowledge of high school students. Multiple regression analysis showed 4 independent risk factors associated with HPV knowledge: academic achievement, sex history, gender, and mother's education level. The limited knowledge came primarily from television and radio broadcasts (59.3%), the Internet (57.0%), parents (25.6%), medical workers (20.9%), and teachers (18.6%). High school students lack HPV knowledge, which is affected by multiple factors. Targeted health education of all sorts must be provided. Both schools and families are responsible for reinforcing HPV education provided to high school students.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study whether agricultural high school students' attitudes towards social support for consumers would improve with their involvement in a school lunch program for elementary and middle school pupils. A comparison of the pre- and post-intervention data revealed the food knowledge, production skills, and attitudes towards food production for children among students at the experimental and control schools. A pilot trial study was conducted that involved growing tomatoes and distributing a newsletter on school lunches to primary and middle school children. The study was implemented from April to October every year from 2006 to 2009. A total of 92 agricultural high school students and 20 controlled agricultural students participated during these four years. The evaluation survey comprised questions about food nutrition, food production, and access to health and nutritional support services. The students who worked in assisting the school lunch program exhibited increased knowledge and skills related to producing a newsletter on produce for consumers as compared to the control student group. The students' food knowledge and production skills showed a significant positive correlation with their attitudes towards assisting in the school lunch program. Therefore, the acquisition of knowledge and skills regarding the preparation of a newsletter on produce by agricultural high school students increased significantly through the experience of supporting a school lunch program.
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe
Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Al-Rashedy, Oliyan Shoqer; Alsaab, Rayan Saad; Alfayez, Abdulrahman Saad; Almarri, Nawaf Rashed
To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (ppractice levels (p=0.152). The students exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.
Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J
Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.
Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal
Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219
Some research studies in South Africa have shown that existing intellectual property laws have managed to protect Indigenous Knowledge held by indigenous people. However, more needs to be done, particularly regarding the recognition of indigenous laws when protecting Indigenous Knowledge in research publications ...
0.176, respectively). Areas of particular concern included knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of a severe acute asthma attack, asthma medication and management, and asthma and sports. Conclusion: This study demonstrates deficiencies in teachers' knowledge of asthma, which will need to be addressed if they ...
Introduction: The level of accurate knowledge adolescents have about HIV/AIDS, is important to enhance effective preventive actions, which ultimately result in a decrease in the incidence of the disease among adolescents. This study assessed the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the first source of the information on HIV ...
Main outcome measures:Knowledge on emergency management of dental injuries. Results: The teachers did not have adequate knowledge on the emergency management of traumatised teeth. Significant differences were observed between the study groups. Teachers from the seminar group were likely to re-implant an ...
Aycan, Zehra; Önder, Aşan; Çetinkaya, Semra; Bilgili, Hatice; Yıldırım, Nurdan; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat Yılmaz
Training teachers and education professionals on diabetes is crucial for full-time monitoring of diabetic children in schools. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on diabetes in a group of school teachers in Turkey. Between November 2010 and November 2011, 1054 teachers from three regions of Ankara were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on diabetes. The mean age of the group (27% males, 73% females) was 38.8±8 years. 61.7% of the participants were class teachers, 23.3% were school counselors, and the rest were physical education teachers and administrators. A fair percentage (47.6%) of the participants had a moderate knowledge level on diabetes and 32.4% expressed a lower level of knowledge. A large proportion (94%) gave an accurate definition of diabetes. Of the total group of 1054 teachers, 625 were aware that blood glucose level might decrease in diabetic children during follow-up. Also, 75% believed that diabetic children were eligible for physical education classes. 52.8% of these teachers had no diabetic child in their classes and teachers with a diabetic patient in their family had better knowledge of diabetes compared to their counterparts. Our study results indicate that school teachers have limited knowledge on diabetes. We believe that their knowledge levels can be improved by widespread training programs.
Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz
Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.
Cureau, Natacha; AlJahdali, Nesreen; Vo, Nguyen; Carbonero, Franck
The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota.
Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is a multidisciplinary subject which involves efforts from professionals with diverse backgrounds. This paper aims to investigate the needed educational background and skills for knowledge management professionals. In particular,the focus of the paper is to examine whether a master’s degree in library and information science (LIS is a preferred educational background listed in KM-related job postings. In addition, the preferred skills and knowledge required by KM employers are analyzed to reveal the association with graduate courses in library and information science. Job postings were collected from various sources during a specific timeframe. Content analysis was used to discover the kinds of backgrounds, skills, and knowledge that are expected from the employers. By examining both KM literature and the job postings, it is agreed that a certain set of skills can be taught and essential knowledge can be obtained through the LIS curriculum.
Salih A. Abdulla
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school managers regarding epilepsy among school children in Erbil City, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools between 18 June and 18 August 2013. A total of 80 primary school managers were selected to answer a questionnaire covering three domains: socio-demographical characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards epilepsy. Results: More than half of the participants (55% had spent less than 10 years in school administration. More than one-third (37.5% of the participants believed that epilepsy was an infectious disease, and over half of the respondents (53.75% stated that epilepsy cannot be treated or prevented. Conclusion: Although the respondents’ attitudes towards pupils with epilepsy were generally positive, their knowledge of epilepsy was imperfect; thus, an epilepsy education campaign is required. This should focus on the causes of epilepsy and its management.
Jan 4, 2010 ... normally.5 Furthermore, research has shown that dietary habits in childhood impact ... implemented globally, focusing mainly on obesity, the importance of ... the same group of 10 randomly selected primary school children.
Abstract. Teachers are in a vantage position to facilitate positive health among school-age children through the School Health Programme (SHP). ... Des proportions plus élevées de personnes âgées de 40 ans et, qui aient jamais été mariés et ont eu 2 qualifications avaient une connaissance suffisante par rapport à leurs ...
Kurowski, Brad; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Schaiper, Courtney; Gittelman, Michael A
Many organizations and health care providers support educating high school (HS) athletes about concussions to improve their attitudes and behaviors about reporting. The objectives of this study were to determine if previous education, sport played, and individual factors were associated with better knowledge about concussion and to determine if more knowledge was associated with improved self-reported attitudes toward reporting concussions among HS athletes. We conducted a survey of HS athletes aged 13 years to 18 years from two large, urban HSs. Players were recruited from selected seasonal (fall and winter) as well as men and women's sports. During preseason, each participant was given a survey asking about his or her previous education, current knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association of age, sex, sport, and previous concussion education with knowledge and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Surveys were completed by 496 athletes. The median age was 15 years, and 384 (77.4%) were male. A total of 212 (42.7%) participated in football, 123 (24.8%) in soccer, 89 (17.9%) in basketball, and 72 (14.5%) in wrestling. One hundred sixteen (23.4%) reported a history of concussion. Improved knowledge regarding concussions was not associated with improved self-reported behaviors (p = 0.63) in bivariate regression models. The multivariate model demonstrated that older age (p = 0.01) and female sex (p = 0.03) were associated with better knowledge. Younger age (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.0002), and soccer participation (p = 0.02) were associated with better self-reported behaviors around reporting concussions. Previous education on concussions was less predictive of knowledge about concussions when controlling for other factors such as sport and sex. Younger age, female sex, and soccer participation were more likely to be
Maria Ediney Ferreira da Silva
Full Text Available This article seeks to problematize from the trajectory of school discipline geography constitution and consolidation of particular school knowledge. This way the Northeast region is present in the list of contents for the teaching. The school discipline geography have in the textbooks, a period marked by discussion of geographical science in school, before any institutionalization of this discipline. This period is very important for geography because this discipline have in the list of their content the regions of Brazil. Between these: the northeastern Brazil. This way the Northeast region teaching and the textbooks appear as sources for this apprehension. Possibility to understand what was still present in these speeches or what was stated as being the Northeast in the given period of history of school geography. In order to understand what was still present in these speeches. I tried to revisit the past. Understanding this spatial area involves the rescue of historical complexity that surrounds their existence. This article appears as a possibility to discuss or at least signal the path of construction of this school content, filling some gaps in the history of the Northeast still taught today in the school. Result of successive reworking, at different times and junctures during the Brazilian historical process, but also in "representations" built this way to mentally recall the idea of a Northeast dry, the highwaymen, of messianic or "problem area" present today in the popular imagination present today in the popular imagination. O presente artigo busca problematizar a partir da trajetória da disciplina escolar geografia a constituição e consolidação de um determinado conhecimento escolar, no caso a região Nordeste, presente no rol de conteúdos destinados ao seu ensino. buscando na historia disciplina escolar geografia a compreensão da produção e circulação desta região nos livros didáticos de geografia da primeira metade do s
Wei, Yifeng; Hayden, Jill A; Kutcher, Stan; Zygmunt, Austin; McGrath, Patrick
Conduct a systematic review for the effectiveness of school mental health literacy programs to enhance knowledge, reduce stigmatizing attitudes and improve help-seeking behaviours among youth (12-25 years of age). Reviewers independently searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, grey literature and reference lists of included studies. They reached a consensus on the included studies, and rated the risk of bias of each study. Studies that reported three outcomes: knowledge acquisition, stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking behaviours; and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, and controlled-before-and-after studies, were eligible. This review resulted in 27 articles including 5 RCTs, 13 quasi-experimental studies, and 9 controlled-before-and-after studies. Whereas most included studies claimed school-based mental health literacy programs improve knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking behaviour, 17 studies met criteria for high risk of bias, 10 studies for moderate risk of bias, and no studies for low risk of bias. Common limitations included the lack of randomization, control for confounding factors, validated measures and report on attrition in most studies. The overall quality of the evidence for knowledge and help-seeking behaviour outcomes was very low, and low for the attitude outcome. Research into school-based mental health literacy is still in its infancy and there is insufficient evidence to claim for positive impact of school mental health literacy programs on knowledge improvement, attitudinal change or help-seeking behaviour. Future research should focus on methods to appropriately determine the evidence of effectiveness on school-based mental health literacy programs, considering the values of both RCTs and other research designs in this approach. Educators should consider the strengths and weaknesses of current mental health literacy programs to inform decisions regarding possible
The purpose of the research is to assess knowledge levels of physical education teachers in inclusive education in secondary schools. For the research, the survey method was employed. It consisted of 55 physical education teachers employed in 47 secondary schools included in inclusive education program under Kocaeli Provincial Directorate of…
Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Cook-Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie L.
This study examines the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning for 9,556 students of 181 middle school physical science teachers. Assessment instruments based on the National Science Education Standards with 20 items in common were administered several times during the school year to both students and their teachers. For items…
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…
Gill, Andrew M.; Gratton-Lavoie, Chiara
The authors extend the literature on the efficacy of high school economics instruction in two directions. First, they assess how much economic knowledge that California students acquired in their compulsory high school course is retained on their entering college. Second, using as a control group some college students from the state of Washington,…
Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.
The study investigated female EFL primary school teachers' attitudes as well as teachers' knowledge and skills in alternative assessment. Data was collected via a questionnaire from 335 EFL primary school teachers randomly selected from six educational zones. An interview with principals and head teachers and a focus group interview with EFL…
Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Levrini, Olivia; Bertozzi, Eugenio; Gagliardi, Marta; Tomasini, Nella Grimellini; Pecori, Barbara; Tasquier, Giulia; Galili, Igal
The paper deals with physics teaching/learning in high school. An investigation in three upper secondary school classes in Italy explored the reactions of students to a structuring lecture on optics within the discipline-culture (DC) framework that organises physics knowledge around four interrelated fundamental theories of light. The lecture…
Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini
This paper investigates the level of knowledge and interest in biotechnology education of Malaysian secondary school students. The research was based on a questionnaire adapted from the instruments developed by Prokop et al. and Kidman. Six schools in the Klang Valley were involved in the research and with participation by a total of 427 Grade 11…
Boyd, Marie Nicole
The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of special education law held by public and private school principals as the law pertains to providing the appropriate services to students with disabilities. Numerous studies have investigated public school principals' level of preparation, training, and role within in special education law.…
Amr, Muna; Al-Natour, Mayada; Al-Abdallat, Bassam; Alkhamra, Hatem
This study explores teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward the inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream schools in Jordan. It also examines the barriers the teachers perceived to hinder successful inclusions. The study sample consisted of 87 primary school teachers who responded to an open-ended questionnaire asking…
In New Zealand teacher practice is expected to be inclusive and supportive of all learners (Ministry of Education, 2007). However, diverse evidence highlights inequitable school experiences for Maori and Pasifika students. This study explored the application of funds of knowledge (FoK) theory within a New Zealand high school, with a focus on…
Mayo, Linda A.; Mayo, Joseph A.
Using data gathered from the "Childhood Bipolar Disorder Survey," this study explored Pennsylvania school psychologists' knowledge and practices when evaluating children for Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Results indicate that only a small percentage of school referrals involved children or adolescents with BPD. Participating school…
Sophie René de Cotret
Full Text Available One of the aims of school education is that students develop knowledge they will be able to use in their professional and personal life. However, it seems that school does not completely reach its goal. Too often, learned knowledge is not used when it should be. Actually, many research results illustrate the fact that well learned knowledge is not necessarily used outside its belonging discipline, for instance in a day-today context, even if it could be helpful. We assume that, in those cases, decisions are based on common sense instead of school knowledge, however the later was learned. Developing a didactic of common sense, our research project has two goals: the first one is to better understand the dynamic between school knowledge and common sense knowledge involved in day-to-day situations. The second one is to design a device that will upgrade the common sense in order for it to mobilize relevant learned school knowledge when dealing with problems pertaining to real life situations. This paper will focus on the first steps of the research dealing with the second goal.
Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines
During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish
d'Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye
A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes
Arghavan Kamali; Amene Taghdisi Kashani; Masume Hydarpoor
Background and Aims: Trauma to the teeth is a common problem that occurs in children. Avulsion is the one of the most complex dental damages that if be untreated can cause multiple problems. Since many of dental traumas happen in school and school health teachers have main role in children treatments, the aim of this study was to evaluate the primary school health teachers’ knowledge regarding the emergency treatment of avulsed permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: In this cross-s...
Jayashree S Gothankar
Conclusions: Health education program by medical students helped significantly to improve the knowledge of school students regarding tuberculosis. Thus, medical college students can be involved to some extent for conducting health-related behavioral change communication (BCC activities in schools during their Community Medicine morning posting. Collaboration of private medical colleges, schools, and district tuberculosis units (DTUs can be ideally achieved under public private partnership (PPP for health awareness programs.
Full Text Available Gastric infection with Helicobacter Pylori in end-stage renal disease patients is of rele-vance because of its potential impact on the quality of life as well as morbidity and mortality of patients. Existed data on the issue are controversial, and we attempt in this article to evaluate the available data to approach extended perception of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, relevance, and optimum therapeutic strategies.
Cho, Il-Sik; Shin, Hyo-Keun; Baek, Seung-Hak
Objective A national survey was conducted to assess orthodontic residents' current concepts and knowledge of cleft lip and palate (CLP) management in Korea. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 7 categories and 36 question items was distributed to 16 senior chief residents of orthodontic department at 11 dental university hospitals and 5 medical university hospitals in Korea. All respondents completed the questionnaires and returned them. Results All of the respondents reported that they bel...
Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy
Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…
In this way, only the language for communication purposes is taught, which does not mean full literacy in the language, or cultural integration. The argument is that with a willing heart on the part of the School Governing Body (SGB), as well as the School Management Team (SMT), language could be used as a tool to ...
Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil
Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…
The research was conducted in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was aimed to study the HIV&AIDS knowledge levels among high school students and make contribution towards the prevention of HIV by making recommendations for improving their knowledge in order to make them aware about HIV&AIDS
Miller, David N.; Jome, Larae M.
This study examined the perceptions of a national sample of school psychologists in the United States regarding their knowledge, preferred roles and training needs in the assessment of nine prominent childhood internalizing disorders. Knowledge about all disorders was rated by respondents as being at least fairly important. In particular,…
Cohen, Rebecca A.; Mather, Nancy; Schneider, Deborah A.; White, Jennifer M.
One-hundred-fourteen kindergarten through third-grade teachers from seven different schools were surveyed using "The Survey of Preparedness and Knowledge of Language Structure Related to Teaching Reading to Struggling Students." The purpose was to compare their definitions and application knowledge of language structure, phonics, and…
Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena
Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…
Gómez-Torres, Emilse; Batanero, Carmen; Díaz, Carmen; Contreras, José Miguel
In this paper we describe the development of a questionnaire designed to assess the probability content knowledge of prospective primary school teachers. Three components of mathematical knowledge for teaching and three different meanings of probability (classical, frequentist and subjective) are considered. The questionnaire content is based on…
Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Steyn, Nelia P.; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M.; Hill, Jillian; Lambert, Estelle V.; Draper, Catherine E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity. Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a…
Wilson, Laurie M.; Bloom, Gordon A.; Harvey, William J.
Background: Research on coach development and knowledge acquisition has traditionally focused on those working at either university or Olympic levels. Despite the large body of research using these participants, there are relatively few empirical studies on the knowledge development of high school coaches, in particular, physical education…
Mtebe, Joel S.; Kibga, Elia Y.; Mwambela, Alfred A.; Kissaka, Mussa M.
The failure rates and lack of interest amongst students in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Tanzania is a serious problem. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project to enhance and upgrade the pedagogical knowledge and subject content knowledge of teachers in selected difficult topics in science…
Stofflett, Rene Therese
Investigates the knowledge of elementary school teacher candidates on rock-cycle processes. Three different instructional interventions were used to improve their knowledge: (1) conceptual-change teaching; (2) traditional didactic teaching; and (3) microteaching. The conceptual-change group showed the most growth in understanding, supporting…
Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.
This paper reports an investigation into Australian primary school teachers' knowledge and confidence for mental health promotion. Questionnaires were delivered to 1397 teachers. In-depth interviews were held with 37 teachers. Quantitative results showed that half to two thirds of teachers felt efficacious and knowledgeable about selected…
Jassi, Amita D.; Kolvenbach, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel; Macleod, Trish; Rose, Joel; Diamond, Holly
Objective: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children can be difficult to detect. Schools and families need to be made aware of the signs and symptoms of OCD in order to facilitate access to treatment. Parents of children with OCD may require support as well as knowledge. This study evaluated two initiatives aimed at increasing knowledge and…
White, Thomas G.; Grissmer, David W.; Altenhofen, Shannon; Larson, Jennifer
The authors are presently in the fourth year of a six-year, lottery-based randomized control trial (RCT) studying the effectiveness of nine Colorado charter schools that have implemented Core Knowledge®. Core Knowledge (CK) is a comprehensive K-8 curriculum for language arts, math, science, social studies, visual arts, and music that is intended…
Lee, Chung-Ping; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung
This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to quantify important knowledge management behaviors and to analyze the weight scores of elementary school students' behaviors in knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation. Based on the analysis of Expert Choice and tests for validity and reliability, this study identified the weight scores of…
Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.
"Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice—the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for selecting and analyzing classroom episodes showing content knowledge for teaching about energy (CKT-E), and illustrate this methodology with examples from high school physics instruction. Our work has implications for research on teacher knowledge and for professional development that enhances teacher CKT-E.
Full Text Available Introduction: In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator-guided self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were students attending regular school in 14 high schools located in 14 different districts in eastern Ethiopia. The proportion of in-school adolescents with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was computed and compared by sex. The factors that were associated with the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Only about one in four, 677 (24.5%, in-school adolescents have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. The knowledge was better among in-school adolescents from families with a relatively middle or high wealth index (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.39 [1.03–1.87] and 1.75 [1.24–2.48], respectively, who got HIV/AIDS information mainly from friends or mass media (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.17–2.27] and 1.55 [1.14–2.11], respectively and who received education on HIV/AIDS and sexual matters at school (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.59 [1.22–2.08]. The females were less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to males (adjusted OR and [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49–0.75]. Conclusions: In general, only about a quarter of in-school adolescents had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Although the female adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection and its effects, they were by far less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. HIV/AIDS information, education and communication activities need to be intensified in high schools.
... or to contextualize examples and questions they ask. Therefore there should be well planned environmental education for both pre-service and in-service teachers specifically synchronized with the secondary school curriculum. This should go together with more comprehensive geography syllabus and teachers guide.
in Durban completed a nutrition education questionnaire (NEQ) to identify activities and visuals suitable for this age group (Phase 1). Consequently, a classroom-based NEP was developed by the researcher in consultation with the foundation phase teacher recruited to teach the NEP. The participating schools were.
Geometric experience, spatial representation, spatial visualization, understanding the world around us, and developing the ability of spatial reasoning are fundamental aims in the teaching of mathematics. (Freudenthal, 1972) Learning is a process which involves advancing from level to level. In primary school the focus is on the first two levels…
Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…
Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory conditions affecting young children. It is estimated that asthma affects 20% of schoolchildren in South Africa. The school setting represents “home” for most children, and teachers are recognised as in loco parentis. Therefore, it is imperative that primary ...
Ramzan, Sara; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of instruments which can be used to quantitatively assess school children's knowledge about medicine in different countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate the Danish translation of a school children's medicine knowledge questionnaire developed...... in Finland. METHODS: A total of 685 children from 37 Danish elementary schools, aged 10-14 years, participated in a validation study. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability, as well as known-group-validity of the translated instrument were investigated. Significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS...... regression model was run for correct knowledge scores, and it significantly explained 9.2% of variance (R square 0.092, P school grade and use of medicine for asthma were significant predictors in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The translated questionnaire showed a fair test-retest and inter...
Berradre-Sáenz, Belén; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Bosqued, María José; Moya, María Ángeles; López, Lázaro
To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 182 secondary schools from Madrid, during 2013-2014 school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated. The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items (0-12) within the range. 65.5% of the schools were unaware of the national recommendations. The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The percentage of schools within the range for each food item varied between 13% and 95%. The mean of overall adherence was 6.3, with no differences depending on whether the menu was prepared or not at schools or there was or not a person in charge of nutrition standards. The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit. Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of knowledge of surveyed women about breastfeeding before and after the maternity school. Material and methods. The anonymous survey of 300 women on breastfeeding has been conducted. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: theoretical and practical. The questionnaire has been filled in on the 3d day after the childbirth (before the maternity course. On the 4th day after the childbirth mothers have been provided with the main issues on breastfeeding and practical recommendations. Results. The questionnaire survey has showed the low level of knowledge of mothers about breastfeeding before the maternity school. The level of knowledge after the school has increased in 2.5 times. The knowledge in practical aspects has increased in 5.2 times. Conclusion. The courses on breastfeeding contribute to the educational status of mothers concerning the questions of correct lactation dominant.
Full Text Available In today’s society, knowledge management is recognized as the most important key positions in individual and institutionalsuccess. Those individuals who know the ways how to obtain, share, use and store knowledge contribute to the developmentof society individually as well as institutionally. For this reason, the importance of applying knowledge management ineducation is growing. Particularly, the subject of the degree of how effective is the implementation of knowledgemanagement has gained the interest in the educational system of North Cyprus in the recent years. This study is designed tolight upon the related subject The aim of this study is to determine ad compare knowledge management competencies ofprimary school administrators in education in the districts of Northern Cyprus and parallel to primary school teachers withthe relation to studies and perceptions of teachers and their applications that have been viewed appropriate and in facteffective. Total number of the population is 88 official primary schools in Northern Cyprus.
Oluwole, O; Kirychuk, S P; Lawson, J A; Karunanayake, C; Cockcroft, D W; Willson, P J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C
Current knowledge regarding the association between indoor mold exposures and asthma is still limited. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children. Parents completed a questionnaire survey of health history and home environmental conditions. Asthma cases had a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or current wheeze without a cold in the past 12 months. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Vacuumed dust samples were collected from the child's indoor play area and mattress. Samples were assessed for mold levels and quantified in colony-forming units (CFU). Sensitization to mold allergens was also determined by skin testing. Being a case was associated with family history of asthma, pet ownership, and mold allergy. Mold levels (CFU/m2 ) in the dust samples of children's mattress and play area floors were moderately correlated (r = 0.56; P mold levels (≥30 000 CFU/m2 ) in dust samples from play [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.03-6.43] and mattress (aOR) = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.11-8.00) areas were significantly associated with current asthma. In this study high levels of mold are a risk factor for asthma in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
know about the importance of iodized salt. Conclusion: The observed degree of iodine deficiency in children and the limited knowledge about iodine in an urban area such as Hawassa stress the urgent need for implementing interventions to combat iodine deficiency. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):30-35] ...
protection behaviour. Several studies have been carried out to assess the impact of the. UVI, including on whether the UVI is understood by the public of. NZ and Australia, on the knowledge, awareness and use of the. UVI among Australians, on media uptake in response to advocacy and promotion, and in relation ...
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
psychomotor skills and tasks (e.g., performing preventive maintenance, operating equipment). While the research on skill retention has been extensive...Montague, Wetzel, & Konoske, 1983; Farr, 1986). Much of the research on skill and knowledge retention has focused on procedural/ psychomotor skills and
Sousa, Paula; Dias, Paulo C.; Cadime, Irene
Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability that is described as a heterogeneous and persistent cognitive disorder. Given the need to detect and intervene as early as possible to minimise its effects, teachers' knowledge about symptoms, characteristics and effective intervention strategies in dyscalculia is essential. Given the…
AIDS) is seen as one of the most devastating infection/disease known to have attacked the human population. This study is aimed at assessing the level of knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of the medical students in a Caribbean Medical ...
Observes that the need for art education to include discussions of popular visual culture that influences student knowledge grows more pressing as mass communication increasingly becomes a major source of information about art. Discusses representations of culture in art in advertising and art in film. Specifically looks at art in the film…
Commander, Clayton W; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M; Isaacson, Ari J; Yu, Hyeon; Burke, Charles T; Dixon, Robert G
To determine if there was a difference in the level of knowledge about interventional radiology (IR) between medical students in preclinical years of training compared with medical students in clinical years of training at two medical schools and to compare awareness of IR based on the curriculum at each school: one with required radiology education and one without such a requirement. An anonymous survey was distributed to students at two medical schools; the survey assessed knowledge of IR, knowledge of training pathways, and preferred methods to increase exposure. Responses of the preclinical and clinical groups were compared, and responses from the clinical groups at each school were compared. "Poor" or "fair" knowledge of IR was reported by 84% (n = 217 of 259) of preclinical students compared with 62% of clinical students (n = 110 of 177; P lack of knowledge" (65%, n = 136 of 210 preclinical; 20%, n = 32 of 162 clinical). Students in the clinical group at the institution with a required radiology rotation reported significantly better knowledge of IR than clinical students from the institution without a required clerkship (P = .017). There are significant differences in knowledge of IR between preclinical and clinical students. Required radiology education in the clinical years does increase awareness of IR. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak
of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....
Capasso, Lorenzo; Capolongo, Stefano; Flacco, Maria Elena; Manzoli, Lamberto; Buffoli, Maddalena
A literature search was performed to evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding housing quality in Italy and the adequacy of methods used to assess it. The simple adoption of current criteria required by national and local legislation for the evaluation of dwellings seems to be inadequate, because some crucial parameters, including radon testing and evaluation of accessibility are not considered. Also, current assessment methods have been used exclusively at the local level, and the health impact of housing quality in Italy has never been estimated. There is a strong need for more sensitive methods of evaluation of indoor environments, to be validated on large and representative samples. The authors discuss two possible alternative models which may ensure a multifactorial, holistic assessment of the quality of housing spaces, also by including an evaluation of psycho-social components.
Full Text Available A large part of the literature on sensory perception and behavior in dolphins is devoted to its well-developed vocal and echolocation abilities. In this review, we aim to augment current knowledge by examining the literature on dolphins’ entire Merkwelt (which refers to everything a subject perceives, creating a crucial part of the subject’s Umwelt. We will show that despite extensive knowledge on audition, aspects such as context relatedness, the social function of vocalizations or socio-sexual recognition, remain poorly understood. Therefore, we propose areas for further lines of investigation. Recent studies have shown that the sensory world of dolphins might well be much more diverse than initially thought. Indeed, although underwater and aerial visual systems differ in dolphins, they have both been shown to be important. Much debated electro- and magnetoreception appear to be functional senses according to recent studies. Finally, another neglected area is chemoreception. We will summarize neuroanatomical and physiological data on olfaction and taste, as well as corresponding behavioral evidence. Taken together, we will identify a number of technical and conceptual reasons for why chemosensory data appear contradictory, which is much debated in the literature. In summary, this article aims to provide both an overview of the current knowledge on dolphin perception, but also offer a basis for further discussion and potential new lines of research.
Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement
Full Text Available Using a variety of tools is a common and essential component of modern human life. Patients with brain damage or neurological disorders frequently have cognitive deficits in their recognition and manipulation of tools. In this study, we focused on improving tool-related cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and non- invasive brain stimulation has identified the anterior temporal lobe (ATL and inferior parietal lobule (IPL as brain regions supporting action semantics. We observed enhanced performance in tool cognition with anodal tDCS over ATL and IPL in two cognitive tasks that require rapid access to semantic knowledge about the function or manipulation of common tools. ATL stimulation improved access to both function and manipulation knowledge of tools. The effect of IPL stimulation showed a trend toward better manipulation judgments. Our findings support previous studies of tool semantics and provide a novel approach for manipulation of underlying circuits.
Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P
Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Van Steenbrugge, H.; Lesage, E.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.
This research analyses preservice teachers' knowledge of fractions. Fractions are notoriously difficult for students to learn and for teachers to teach. Previous studies suggest that student learning of fractions may be limited by teacher understanding of fractions. If so, teacher education has a key role in solving the problem. We first reviewed…
African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Hobson, Deslyn T G; Gaskins, Jeremy T; Frazier, LaTisha; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Meriwether, Kate V
The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram.
Song, Eun Young; Pruitt, B. E.; McNamara, James; Colewell, Brian
Analyzed findings from studies conducted from 1960-97 regarding the effects of school sexuality education on adolescents' sexual knowledge. The meta-analysis included 67 studies. The studies reported 72 outcomes regarding sexual knowledge, which were grouped into six variables related to sexuality knowledge. Results indicated that school-based…
Shah, Sweta S; Parker, Crystal L; Davis, Carla M
Increasingly, teachers are the first respondents to food allergic reactions in schools. Studies of food allergy in school settings have identified deficiencies in teacher recognition and treatment of reactions. We sought to determine the effect of a didactic session on teacher knowledge of the causative foods, symptoms, and treatment of reactions in diverse elementary schools. An educational intervention project using a pretest-posttest control group design was performed. Teacher knowledge about food allergy causes, symptoms, and treatment of food allergic reactions was assessed. The average percentage of correctly answered questions by teachers at baseline for each school ranged from 60% to 68%. After education, teachers at the intervention schools answered 24.6% to 34.6% (confidence interval = 21.5-74.1 and 32.1-103.9, respectively) more questions correctly compared with 4.0% to 4.3% (confidence interval = 2.5-21.6 and 0.9-31.0, respectively) in control schools. Education significantly increased teacher knowledge of food allergy causes, symptoms, and treatment of food allergic reactions in diverse schools.
Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Korwin, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Tońska, Katarzyna
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic, maternally inherited disease caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. LHON patients present with sudden, painless and usually bilateral loss of vision caused by optic nerve atrophy. The first clinical description of the disease was made by Theodor Leber, a German ophthalmologist, in 1871. Here we present his thorough notes about members of four families and their pedigrees. We also provide insights into the current knowledge about LHON pathology, genetics and treatment in comparison with Leber's findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horacio Javier Etchichury
Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to the high prevalence and worldwide distribution of Enterobius vermicularis and its readily transmission among children, parents' knowledge and health education have an important role in restriction and infection control. This study was performed to evaluate the girl students' knowledge about transmission, symptoms, and prevention of oxyuriasis in 2012–2013 in Kashan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 students in three levels of middle schools were studied. To evaluate the students' knowledge level of oxyuriasis, the standardized questionnaire was distributed and completed. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS. Results: Among three levels of students of middle schools, 67.6% of students had average awareness (information, 17.4% had weak information, and 15% had high information. In the assessment of the level of awareness in the first-level students, 23.41% of the students had weak information, 66.4% had average information, and 10.12% had high information. In the second-level students, 12.57% had weak information, 73.14% had average information, and 14.28% had high information. In the third-level middle-school students, 16.76% of students had weak knowledge, 62.87% had average knowledge, and 20.35% had high knowledge. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that knowledge of middle-school students about this infection is good but not sufficient, and it is necessary for teachers and health officers in schools to increase hygienic knowledge of the students and to train about this infection to decrease the damage of personal and social problems.
Blakeney, Allison Black
Assuming the responsibility of ensuring that hundreds or thousands of students obtain the instruction and knowledge that they will need to be successful in life is a serious undertaking. Courageous school principals who accept this challenge are held responsible for providing the organization and leadership that provides the foundation for an…
McManus, Alexandra; Dhar, Lipi
.... The aim of the study was to evaluate adolescent school girls' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards STIs/HIV and safer sex practice and sex education and to explore their current sexual behaviour in India...
For children of Tibetan nomadic ("drokpa") families, it is often a struggle to attend school. The long distance from home to school, irrelevance of school learning to daily life and available jobs after graduation contribute to the choice by some parents to keep their children at home for domestic work. Although some parents consider…
All teacher respondents were used in the analysis. On the other hand 65 school based supervisors, 13 principals and 10 cluster supervisors were selected using comprehensive sampling techniques as they are highly responsible for supervisory practices and their number was also manageable. The main instruments used ...
Cockburn, Ilze, Comp.
In 1970, the OISE library published an annotated bibliography entitled, Open Plan (See ED 051 549), that covered the design of open plan schools and the educational practices connected with these facilities. Since then, a clearer distinction has developed between the terms "open plan" and "open education." This revision of the earlier volume…
Mittal, Hema; Das, Saurabhi; Faridi, M M A
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global disease with increase in concern with growing morbidity and mortality after drug resistance and co-infection with HIV. Mother to neonatal transmission of disease is well known. Current recommendations regarding management of newborns of mothers with tuberculosis are variable in different countries and have large gaps in the knowledge and practices. We compare and summarize here current recommendations on management of infants born to mothers with tuberculosis. Congenital tuberculosis is diagnosed by Cantwell criteria and treatment includes three or four anti-tubercular drug regimen. Prophylaxis with isoniazid (3-6 months) is recommended in neonates born to mother with TB who are infectious. Breastfeeding should be continued in these neonates and isolation is recommended only till mother is infectious, has multidrug resistant tuberculosis or non adherent to treatment. BCG vaccine is recommended at birth or after completion of prophylaxis (3-6 months) in all neonates.
Christiane Borges do Nascimento Chofakian
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to test how knowledge on emergency contraception (according to age at sexual initiation, type of school, and knowing someone that has already used emergency contraception influences the method’s use. This was a cross-sectional study in a probabilistic sample of students 15-19 years of age enrolled in public and private middle schools in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil (n = 307. Data were collected in 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equations model was used for the data analysis. Considering age at sexual initiation and type of school, knowledge of emergency contraception was not associated with its use, but knowing someone that had used the method showed a significant mean effect on use of emergency contraception. Peer group conversations on emergency contraception appear to have greater influence on use of the method than knowledge itself, economic status, or sexual experience.
Wells, Nancy M.; Myers, Beth M.; Todd, Lauren E.; Barale, Karen; Gaolach, Brad; Ferenz, Gretchen; Aitken, Martha; Henderson, Charles R., , Jr.; Tse, Caroline; Pattison, Karen Ostlie; Taylor, Cayla; Connerly, Laura; Carson, Janet B.; Gensemer, Alexandra Z.; Franz, Nancy K.; Falk, Elizabeth
This randomized controlled trial or 'true experiment' examines the effects of a school garden intervention on the science knowledge of elementary school children. Schools were randomly assigned to a group that received the garden intervention (n = 25) or to a waitlist control group that received the garden intervention at the end of the study (n = 24). The garden intervention consisted of both raised-bed garden kits and a series of 19 lessons. Schools, located in the US states of Arkansas, Iowa, Washington, and New York, were all low-income as defined by having 50% or more children qualifying for the federal school lunch program. Participants were students in second, fourth, and fifth grade (ages 6-12) at baseline (n = 3,061). Science knowledge was measured using a 7-item questionnaire focused on nutritional science and plant science. The survey was administered at baseline (Fall 2011) and at three time points during the intervention (Spring 2012, Fall 2012, and Spring 2013). Garden intervention fidelity (GIF) captured the robustness or fidelity of the intervention delivered in each classroom based on both lessons delivered and garden activities. Analyses were conducted using general linear mixed models. Survey data indicated that among children in the garden intervention, science knowledge increased from baseline to follow-up more than among control group children. However, science knowledge scores were uniformly poor and gains were very modest. GIF, which takes into account the robustness of the intervention, revealed a dose-response relation with science knowledge: more robust or substantial intervention implementations corresponded to stronger treatment effects.
Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).
Ibáñez-Vea, Maria; Zuazo, Miren; Gato, Maria; Arasanz, Hugo; Fernández-Hinojal, Gonzalo; Escors, David; Kochan, Grazyna
The current knowledge on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is based mainly on the extensive work performed in murine models. Data obtained for human counterparts are generated on the basis of tumor analysis from patient samples. Both sources of information led to determination of the main suppressive mechanisms used by these cell subsets in tumor-bearing hosts. As a result of the identification of protein targets responsible for MDSCs suppressive activity, different therapeutics agents have been used to eliminate/reduce their adverse effect. In the present work, we review the current knowledge on suppressive mechanisms of MDSCs and therapeutic treatments that interfere with their differentiation, expansion or activity. Based on the accumulation of new evidences supporting their importance for tumor progression and metastasis, the interest in these cell types is increasing. We revise the methods of MDSC generation/differentiation ex vivo that may help in overcoming problems associated with limited numbers of cells available from animals and patients for their study.
Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F
Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence.
Loretta N. Nworgu
In spite of the preponderance of in-service education programmes in Nigeria, no noticeable impact has been recorded in terms of actual improvement in the quality of secondary school biology teaching. The purpose of this study therefore was to ascertain the effect of a Constructivist-based in-service model on secondary school biology teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge (PCK). The study which employed the posttest-only control group experimental design investigated seven dimensions of the te...
Shilpi Singh; Vijayakumar, N.; Priyadarshini, H. R.; Meena Jain
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use among school children is becoming a serious problem indeveloping countries. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from becoming victims of this addiction. AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children of Bangalore City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed and data on tobacco usage was collected from 1288 students age...
Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
This paper describes the development of veterinary school accreditation in Mexico and six South American countries. There is wide variation in the organisation of accreditation systems between countries, with different levels of involvement of national veterinary associations on the definition and/or operation of accreditation processes. There is also variation in the specificity of the standards used to evaluate veterinary education. In addition, the extent of implementation of accreditation mechanisms ranges from a country such as Mexico, where the first accreditation of a veterinary programme occurred more than ten years ago (there are now 15 accredited programmes), to countries such as Peru and Bolivia, which have not yet implemented an accreditation process for veterinary schools.
Purnomo, Yoppy Wahyu; Widowati, Chairunnisa; Aziz, Tian Abdul; Pramudiani, Puri
Division of fractions is often acknowledged by mysterious rule which is not based on conceptual knowledge. The purpose of the study was to explore elementary school student's knowledge of division fractions. For this purpose, a case study was conducted. The participant of the study was Lala (pseudonym) who enrolled at one elementary school in East Jakarta. The data were collected by administering written test and semi-structured interview respectively. The findings of the study indicated that Lala was able to describe strategy of division fractions as inverse of repeated addition flexibly. She also had basic understanding of fractions division concept as equal sharing, but when she was challenged with advance problems, she performed poorly. Lala also encountered difficulty when dealing with dividing fraction by fraction problem in which she interpreted it as subtraction problem. In this case, her procedural knowledge was likely to be more salient than her conceptual knowledge.
Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah
Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (part stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.
Fatin Najwa Amelia binti Marsani
Full Text Available Malaysia is typified by three major ethnic groups namely Malay, Chinese and Indian. The evolution of national unity in Malaysia, which is based on acceptance and tolerance towards different cultures has been allowed to flourish in tandem with the realization of national aspirations. Even though education system is seen to be the best tool to cultivate team work among these three major ethnic groups, contemporary research reveals that there is still a lack of intercultural embedment in both tertiary and non-tertiary settings. Worst, non-tertiary setting national schools are seen as the breeding ground of racial polarization. Thus, the main objectives of this research is to explore the level of intercultural knowledge that can enhance intercultural awareness among Malaysian secondary school students. Data was collected using a structured survey questionnaire to elicit responses from Form Four students in one national secondary school in Penang, Malaysia on their level of intercultural knowledge. The results of this study shows low level of intercultural knowledge among secondary school students and it indicates poor intercultural awareness among them in the contexts of intercultural knowledge. This suggest that classroom intervention is needed to improve the students’ intercultural knowledge and at the same time improve their intercultural sensitivity towards other cultures.
Sekhar, Vidya; P, Sivsankar; M A, Easwaran; L, Subitha; N, Bharath; K, Rajeswary; S, Jeyalakshmi
School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0. Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that children's teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students. The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules.
Elyas Nikooy Koupas
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of current study was to investigate the existence of any possible relationship between the components of self-knowledge and affiliation with delinquent peers at tendency to addiction among high school student girls. Materials and Methods: The research method is correlation. 132 high school student grils were selected through a random cluster sampling method in 2014-2015 academic years, and responded to the self-knowledge, affiliation with delinquent peers, and tendency to addiction scale questionnaires. For data analysis, the Pearson coefficient and stepwise regression are used. Results: The findings of the study showed that, among the components of self knowledge, there is a meaningful and negative relationship between self-observation with tendency to addiction (p<0.01 and a positive relationship between social-comparison and social-feedbacks with tendency to addiction (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, with adjustment of self-knowledge and also psychological holding classes for teenager to select appropriate friends and peers, tendency to addiction can be reduced.
I Ketut Suda
Full Text Available This study discusses”Mercantilism of Knowledge in Education: a Case Study atMelati Sukma Elementary School Denpasar”. The matter observed is a shift ofeducational paradigm, from enlightenment paradigm into instrumental paradigm. Whenthe system of market economy influenced the Indonesian economic system in 1960s or inthe beginning of 1970s, which is now getting more materialistic-capitalistic, socialorganizations such as educational organizations (read: schools have found it difficult toavoid it. This study aims at exploring why the management of Melati Sukma ElementarySchool Denpasar has implemented “mercantilism of knowledge” in education, and whythe consumers have accepted it. This study also aims at identifying the mechanism ofhow “mercantilism of knowledge” has occurred at Melati Sukma Elementary SchoolDenpasar, and its implications on the pupils, the school, the learning-teaching process,and on the community.Qualitative method was employed for conducting the research. In this context,various types of information related to why the school management has implemented themercantilism of knowledge, the mechanism of how it has occurred, and its implicationson the pupils, the school, the process of learning and teaching process in the classrooms,and the community were obtained. Firstly, problems were identified, then theories forexamining the data were selected, later the primary and secondary data were collected,next the selected data were analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the report writing and theresults of the research were constructed. The theories employed are Comodificationtheory, Hegemony theory, and Deconstruction theory.The results are as follows: firstly, those which have been responsible for themercantilism of knowledge are the fact that the teachers have been getting marginalizedfrom the process of national development, the system of market economy and theconsumptive attitude of the community including the teachers have
Menesini, Ersilia; Salmivalli, Christina
During the school years, bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context. Research on bullying started more than forty years ago, when the phenomenon was defined as 'aggressive, intentional acts carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him- or herself'. Three criteria are relevant in order to define aggressive behaviour as bullying: (1) repetition, (2) intentionality and (3) an imbalance of power. Given these characteristics, bullying is often defined as systematic abuse of power by peers. It is recognised globally as a complex and serious problem. In the present paper, we discuss the prevalence, age and gender differences, and various types of bullying, as well as why it happens and how long it lasts, starting from the large surveys carried out in western countries and to a lower extent in low- and middle-income countries. The prevalence rates vary widely across studies; therefore, specific attention will be devoted to the definition, time reference period and frequency criterion. We will also focus on risk factors as well as short- and long-term outcomes of bullying and victimisation. Finally, a section will be dedicated to review what is known about effective prevention of bullying.
Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi
The development of emergent literacy skills in early childhood is best conceptualised as a continuum that occurs prior to entry into formal schooling and formal instruction. Thus, the family literacy environment and the activities that parents engage their children in can play a critical role in the development of these skills. Emergent literacy encompasses skills such as print concepts, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and oral language. Alphabet knowledge and phonological awarene...
Y. Herlanti; Y. Mardiati; R. Wahyuningtias; E. Mahardini; M. Iqbal; A. Sofyan
The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summ...
Gower, Jared R; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Wilkinson, Robert D; Slater, Hillarie; Jordan, Kristine C
Limited surveys are available to assess the nutrition knowledge of children. The goals of this study were to test the validity and reliability of a computer nutrition knowledge survey for elementary school students and to evaluate the impact of the "Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids" nutrition intervention via the knowledge survey. During survey development, a sample (n=12) of health educators, elementary school teachers, and registered dietitians assessed the survey. The target population consisted of first- through fourth-grade students from Salt Lake City, UT, metropolitan area schools. Participants were divided into reliability (n=68), intervention (n=74), and control groups (n=59). The reliability group took the survey twice (2 weeks apart); the intervention and control groups also took the survey twice, but at pre- and post-intervention (4 weeks later). Only students from the intervention group participated in four weekly nutrition classes. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients for knowledge scores. Results demonstrated appropriate content validity, as indicated by expert peer ratings. Test-retest reliability correlations were found to be significant for the overall survey (r=0.54; PNutrition knowledge was assessed upon program completion with paired samples t tests. Students from the intervention group demonstrated improvement in nutrition knowledge (12.2+/-1.9 to 13.5+/-1.6; Pnutrition survey demonstrated content validity and test-retest reliability for first- through fourth-grade elementary school children. Also, the study results imply that the Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids intervention promoted gains in nutrition knowledge. Overall, the computer survey shows promise as an appealing medium for assessing nutrition knowledge in children. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thurston, Virginia Carol; Wales, Paula Sue; Bell, Mary Alice; Torbeck, Laura; Brokaw, James Joseph
Relatively little is known about how medical genetics is being taught in the undergraduate medical curriculum and whether educators concur regarding topical priority. This study sought to document the current state of medical genetics education in U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. In August 2004, surveys were sent from the Indiana University School of Medicine to 149 U.S. and Canadian medical genetics course directors or curricular deans. Returned surveys were collected through June 2005. Participants were asked about material covered, number of contact hours, year in which the course was offered, and what department sponsored the course. Data were collated according to instructional method and course content. The response rate was 75.2%. Most respondents (77%) taught medical genetics in the first year of medical school; only half (47%) reported that medical genetics was incorporated into the third and fourth years. About two thirds of respondents (62%) devoted 20 to 40 hours to medical genetics instruction, which was largely concerned with general concepts (86%) rather than practical application (11%). Forty-six percent of respondents reported teaching a stand-alone course versus 54% who integrated medical genetics into another course. Topics most commonly taught were cancer genetics (94.2%), multifactorial inheritance (91.3%), Mendelian disorders (90.3%), clinical cytogenetics (89.3%), and patterns of inheritance (87.4%). The findings provide important baseline data relative to guidelines recently established by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Ultimately, improved genetics curricula will help train physicians who are knowledgeable and comfortable discussing and answering questions about genetics with their patients.
Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we
Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn
The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.
Cushing Herbert E
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.
Full Text Available Nana Nimo Appiah-Agyekum,1,3 Robert Henry Suapim2,3 1Department of Public Administration and Health Services Management, University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of General Administration, Achimota Government Hospital, Ghana Health Service, Achimota, Ghana; 3Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Institute for Health and Wellbeing, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Abstract: HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. Keywords: adolescent school girls, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, awareness, knowledge
Cvetković Vladimir M.
Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and
Habiba, Ume; Ormsby, Gail M; Butt, Zahid Ahmad; Afghani, Tayyab; Asif, Muhammad
Teachers' perspectives on eye health can be limited, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess teachers' knowledge and practices associated with eye health of primary students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This was a cross-sectional survey of primary school teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 443 participants from 34 private and 17 public schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Teachers' knowledge ranged from "high" (35.89%), "moderate" (49.89%), and "low" (14.22%). Teachers' practices associated with students' eye health ranged from "high" (10.16%), "moderate" (23.02%), and "low" (66.82%). The teachers' knowledge index scores increased 4.28 points with successive age groups and increased 2.41 points with each successive level of education. For teachers whose close relatives experienced eye disease, their knowledge index score was 4.51 points higher than those teachers whose relatives never had any eye disease. Teachers' age, education level, and their close relatives experiencing eye disease were significant predictors of their knowledge (R2 = 0.087, P teachers' practices index score was 10.35 points higher than the male teachers and public school teachers had 10.13 points higher than the private school teachers. Teachers' gender and type of school were significant predictors of their practices (R2 = 0.06, P teachers' knowledge and practices related to students' eye health. Innovative strategies are needed to improve how teachers address students' eye health issues in the classroom.
Sümen, Adem; Öncel, Selma
This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effect of skin cancer training provided to maritime high school students on their knowledge and behaviour. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test intervention and control groups. Two maritime high schools located in the city of Antalya were included within the scope of the study between March and June 2013, covering a total of 567 students. While the knowledge mean scores of students regarding skin cancer and sun protection did not vary in the pre-test (6.2 ± 1.9) and post-test (6.8 ± 1.9) control group, the knowledge mean scores of students in the experimental group increased from 6.0 ± 2.3 to 10.6 ± 1.2 after the provided training. Some 25.4% of students in the experimental group had low knowledge level and 62.2% had medium knowledge level in the pre-test; whereas no students had low knowledge level and 94.3% had high knowledge level in the post-test. It was determined that tenth grade students, those who had previous knowledge on the subject, who considered themselves to be protecting from the sun better, had higher knowledge levels and their knowledge levels increased as the risk level increased. It was found that the provided training was effective and increased positively the knowledge, attitude and behaviour levels of students in the experimental group in terms of skin cancer and sun protection. Along with the provided training which started to form a lifestyle, appropriate attitudes and behaviours concerning skin cancer and sun protection could be brought to students who will work in outdoor spaces and are members of the maritime profession within the risk group.
Margolies, Liz; Brown, Carlton G
To review the current state of knowledge about cancer in lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people by focusing on four major issues across the cancer continuum including: 1) lack of data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2) need for a culturally competent workforce; 3) the need for a culturally competent health care system; and 4) creating LGBT tailored patient/client information and education. Published literature. Oncology nurses and health care providers can work to improve the care of LGBT patients with cancer by following suggestions in this article. Oncology nurses and other health care providers have many distinct occasions to improve overall cancer care for LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali
More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.
Pittet, Laure F; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M
Bordetella holmesii is a recently recognized Gram-negative bacterium causing both pertussis-like respiratory symptoms and invasive infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, pericarditis and endocarditis. Few data are available on its epidemiological characteristics, mostly related to respiratory infections. However, these are frequently misdiagnosed as a Bordetella pertussis infection as most diagnostic tests routinely used are not species-specific, thus biasing the epidemiological studies of both strains, as well as the efficacy studies on pertussis vaccination. There is no accepted agreement on treatment and it remains unknown if antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated in certain clinical settings. We review here the current knowledge on B. holmesii and the need for further research.
Andriessen, Karl; Videtic-Paska, Alja
Suicide is a multidimensional problem. Observations of family history of suicide suggest the existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Starting with a historical perspective, the article reviews current knowledge of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour, distinct from the genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, focused on clinical and population-based studies, and findings from recent molecular genetics association studies. The review includes peer-reviewed research articles and review papers from the professional literature in English language, retrieved from PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO. The research literature confirms a existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Even though the results of individual studies are difficult to compare, genetic influences could explain up to half of the variance of the occurrence of suicide. Genetic vulnerability could be a distal risk factor for suicide, which helps us to understand the occurrence of suicide among vulnerable people. Ethical implications of such vulnerability are highlighted.
Wilson, S. K.
Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.
Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C
Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.
Garseth, Å H; Fritsvold, C; Svendsen, J C; Bang Jensen, B; Mikalsen, A B
Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe cardiac disease affecting Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The disease was first recognized in farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway in 1985 and subsequently in farmed salmon in the Faroe Islands, Scotland and Ireland. CMS has also been described in wild Atlantic salmon in Norway. The demonstration of CMS as a transmissible disease in 2009, and the subsequent detection and initial characterization of piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV) in 2010 and 2011 were significant discoveries that gave new impetus to the CMS research. In Norway, CMS usually causes mortality in large salmon in ongrowing and broodfish farms, resulting in reduced fish welfare, significant management-related challenges and substantial economic losses. The disease thus has a significant impact on the Atlantic salmon farming industry. There is a need to gain further basic knowledge about the virus, the disease and its epidemiology, but also applied knowledge from the industry to enable the generation and implementation of effective prevention and control measures. This review summarizes the currently available, scientific information on CMS and PMCV with special focus on epidemiology and factors influencing the development of CMS. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jacoby, Richard; Peukert, Manuela; Succurro, Antonella; Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav
In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics. There is clear evidence that plants shape microbiome structures, most probably by root exudates, and also that bacteria have developed various adaptations to thrive in the rhizospheric niche. The mechanisms of these interactions and the processes driving the alterations in microbiomes are, however, largely unknown. In this review, we focus on the interaction of plants and root associated bacteria enhancing plant mineral nutrition, summarizing the current knowledge in several research fields that can converge to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. PMID:28974956
Full Text Available In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics. There is clear evidence that plants shape microbiome structures, most probably by root exudates, and also that bacteria have developed various adaptations to thrive in the rhizospheric niche. The mechanisms of these interactions and the processes driving the alterations in microbiomes are, however, largely unknown. In this review, we focus on the interaction of plants and root associated bacteria enhancing plant mineral nutrition, summarizing the current knowledge in several research fields that can converge to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon.
Gutkin, Terry B.
School psychology consultants rated the primary consultee problem for each of their consultation cases. Findings indicate significantly more consultation cases resulted from consultee lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence than from consultee lack of objectivity. Findings question the practical utility of psychodynamically oriented Caplanian…
Pragmatic competence and its development has been a pivotal issue in ELT in the last two decades. This paper explored pragmatic knowledge incorporation into Iranian EFL textbooks. Three high school English books named "English Book 2," "English Book 3" and "Learning to Read English for Pre-University Students" were…
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
This study explores the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for three experienced mathematics secondary teachers from a Toronto public school. By using a multiple case study, teachers' attitudes, skills, and approaches toward the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in classrooms are described. By being aware of…
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente
The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…
Holec, Stanislav; Pfefferová, Miriam Spodniaková
Paper focuses on issues of physics teaching in primary and secondary schools and secondary vocational education. Physics teaching is discussed in the context of science education with the aim of not increasing the range of knowledge, but with an emphasis on the use of the most effective methods of teaching, for example inquiry-oriented activities by students.
Duffy, Francis M.
This article describes a new supervision model conceived to help a school system redesign its anatomy (structures), physiology (flow of information and webs of relationships), and psychology (beliefs and values). The new paradigm (Knowledge Work Supervision) was constructed by reviewing the practices of several interrelated areas: sociotechnical…
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia
To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…
Jones, Mark T.; Eick, Charles J.
Two elementary certified middle school science teachers are studied for changes in practical knowledge supporting the implementation of kit-based inquiry as part of a schoolwide reform effort. Emphasis is placed on studying how these two pilot teachers enact guided inquiry within their unique pedagogical and curricular interests, and what…
Parents seem to agree that children who play sport are allowed to use NS to assist them to perform better, without knowledge of the health risks associated with these products. Despite information on websites and information sessions arranged by schools, parents seem to disregard advice given to them by experts.
Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang
Previous studies on the effects of virtual and physical manipulatives have failed to consider the impact of prior knowledge on the efficacy of manipulatives. This study focuses on the learning of plane geometry in junior high schools, including the sum of interior angles in polygons, the sum of exterior angles in polygons, and the properties of…
Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry
HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.
Luneeva, Olga L.; Zakirova, Venera G.
New educational standards implementation prioritizes the projective beginning of training in school education. Therefore, consideration of educational activity only as the process of obtaining ready knowledge should be abandoned. Thus the relevance of the studied problem is substantiated by the need to develop methodical works connected with the…
The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…
Patiño-Santos, Adriana; Pérez-Milans, Miguel; Relaño-Pastor, Ana María
This article explores the ways in which what counts as "legitimate" knowledge is produced and negotiated in two multilingual classrooms of two different programmes designed to "attend to diversity" at secondary schools in the Madrid region. Following a sociolinguistic approach, the article focuses on the ways in which local…
Mignon, Deolinda; Cadenhead, Gerry; McKee, Adam
A survey completed by 189 high school counselors assessed their knowledge of professional nursing in terms of educational preparation, career opportunities, and salary and mobility potential. Most felt well informed about nursing careers. Females and whites rated nursing higher as a profession than did males and African Americans. (SK)
Maganur, Prabhadevi C; Satish, V; Marwah, Nikhil; Vishwas, T D; Dayanand, M C
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school teachers toward oral health. Descriptive study. School teachers (n = 150) of Davangere city were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on oral health. The results were statistically analyzed and percentage was calculated. The participants' oral hygiene habits were found to be regular. The majority of teachers showed good knowledge on oral health. Most of the teachers in this study recognized the importance of oral health. The majority of teachers did incorporate the importance of oral health in teaching and educating children in the school. But, not all teachers are involved effectively. So, the teachers should be trained comprehensively regarding importance of oral health and creating awareness on oral health promotion for their students in combination with health care personnel. Maganur PC, Satish V, Marwah N, Vishwas TD, Dayanand MC. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of School Teachers toward Oral Health in Davangere, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):89-95.
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of a group of 12 teachers in primary special schools in Scotland for children with moderate learning difficulties. It sets out an analysis of classroom observations and interviews that explored teachers' knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning in mathematics with children with…
Lee, Elizabeth A.; Reed, Brenda; Laverty, Corinne
Graduating preservice teachers were surveyed regarding their knowledge of information literacy concepts, the pedagogy of information literacy, and the role of the teacher librarian and school library programs. The preservice teachers felt poorly prepared to teach information literacy to pupils, had a limited array of information skills, and held a…
Shroyer, Josh; Stewart, Craig
The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and opinions on concussions of high school coaches from a geographically large yet rural state in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Few medical issues in sport are more important, or have had as much publicity recently, as concussions. The exposure gleaned from tragic health…
Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
Crne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Ales; Javornik, Branka; Kosmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila
Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications.…
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate primary school teachers' knowledge regarding emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in fifty randomly chosen primary schools from Casablanca, Morocco. All teachers of the selected schools were included in the study. The data were collected by self administered questionnaires. The questions focusedon the teachers' general characteristics, experience of avulsed teeth and the importance of emergency management. The data were analyzed using chi square test.Results: A total of 501 teachers, of which 23.6% were male and 75.4% were female, answered the questionnaire. The results showed that 44.5 % of the teachers had an experience of avulsed tooth at school, 82.82% of them knew the importance of emergency managementand 32.6% would look for a dentist for treatment of the cases. Only 15.8% would reimplant the tooth themselves. Regarding the storage media, 21.95% would keep the avulsed tooth in milk. There was no significant difference between gender and education level (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study shows school teachers' lack of knowledge regarding dental trauma and especially tooth avulsion. Therefore, the results indicated that educational programs are necessary for improvement in their level of knowledge.
Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning
Gargus, Gerald Vincent
This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support
Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.
Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…
Letlape, S V; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O
The objective of this study was to ascertain the knowledge of students on the composition of a healthy diet, daily nutritional requirements and the importance of regular exercise. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions to assess students 'knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise was conducted. The study group were students of Tswaing High School in Pretoria, South Africa, who were in attendance on a particular day when the study was conducted and who consented to participate in the study Only 500 students of the school participated in the study Results showed that 77% of the students do not have adequate knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise while 23% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge. Approximately 26% and 16% of the students reported that they participated in rigorous and moderate exercise respectively The study also showed that the majority of the students were however not engaged in physical activities. Students at Tswaing High School do not have adequate knowledge on nutrition, diet and exercise. Their views on what exercise entails were found not to be satisfactory. Programmes/ information or seminars that could assist to inform students on the importance of diet and exercise are therefore suggested.
Langille, Donald B; Flowerdew, Gordon; Aquino-Russell, Catherine; Strang, Robert; Proudfoot, Kathryn; Forward, Kevin
Chlamydia is the most prevalent sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Canadian adolescents. STI account for 20% of cases of infertility in Canada and 42% of ectopic pregnancies are attributable to previous chlamydia infection. Despite the importance of this infection, little is understood about young people's knowledge of it. A survey was conducted at a rural high school in Nova Scotia, Canada, to assess students' knowledge of chlamydia and associations of knowledge with gender and protective behaviours. Knowledge was assessed using true-false responses to 15 statements about chlamydia. Each statement was examined for differences in the percentage of correct responses by sex. Correct responses were summed, creating a knowledge score. Socioeconomic status variables and age were included in multivariate regression models to determine if they modified associations between knowledge score and protective behaviours seen in simple regression. Eighty-six percent of registered students (n = 538) participated in the survey. Girls responded to 10 of the 15 knowledge statements significantly more often than boys. Respondents were least knowledgeable about their rights to confidential health services for chlamydia infection. Knowledge score was associated with use of both condoms and oral contraception at last intercourse in girls (odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.31). No association of knowledge score was seen with having had an STI test in the previous year. School sexual health programs should make special efforts to meet the needs of male students, and programs and health professionals should include information about the confidential nature of sexual health services for adolescents.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.
Rasmussen, Annette; Andreasen, Karen Egedal
educational context of upper secondary school, bridge-building activities are meant to facilitate their decision-making on educational paths, but also to attract more and new groups of pupils. However, the premises of the inherent differences of educational contexts and of pupils’ lacking knowledge of upper...... secondary education can be questioned. In this ethnographic case study of a bridge-building project in a rural area in Denmark, we analyse the implicit knowledge of the general upper secondary school, as it is practiced in a bridge-building project, and how it is experienced by the pupils on the background...... of their prior knowledge. The analysis is theoretically informed by especially the code concepts of Basil Bernstein....
Avachat, Shubhada Sunil; Phalke, Deepak Baburao; Phalke, Vaishali Deepak
Reproductive capability is now established at earlier age. But the subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. There is widespread ignorance about risks of unprotected sex, problems among adolescents. Unfortunately need of sex education is not perceived and fulfilled in India especially in rural areas. The present study was conducted to assess the need and demonstrate the impact of sex education among adolescent school children. The impact of sex education workshop was tested by analysing pre- and postintervention questionnaire. The felt need of sex education increased considerably and the knowledge regarding contraceptives increased from manifolds after the intervention. There was significant increase in knowledge about menstrual hygiene, sexually transmitted diseases, etc, after sex education workshop. This study concludes that there is intense need of sex education and it has significant impact on knowledge of adolescent school children.
Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Ahmed S
Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of sleep medicine topics in the curriculum (47%). Medical students in the surveyed institutions possess poor knowledge regarding sleep medicine, which reflects the weak level of education in this field of medicine. To improve the recognition of sleep disorders among practicing physicians, medical schools
Ehizele, A; Chiwuzie, J; Ofili, A
A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for effective dental education of children. Teachers can be used as oral health educators but only if they have a good knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health. This study's main objective was to compare the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of public and private primary school teachers and to determine the proportion of teachers presently involved with oral health education of school children. The study was carried out on 320 private and 320 public school teachers in Benin-City, Nigeria, using self-administered questionnaire. The result revealed that the teachers involved in this study generally had positive attitude to oral health. Many of the two groups of primary school teachers had poor oral health practices. Only 42.4% of the respondents have ever been to the dentist for routine dental checkup or treatment. About 87.6% of teachers still use potentially traumatic materials for interdental cleaning and 60% of teachers consume regularly various forms of refined sugar. Over 90% of the two groups of teachers are presently involved in teaching their pupils basic oral health education although they have a poor knowledge of the aetiology of the two most common oral diseases. The teachers' major source of oral health information is the dentist. Similar pattern of incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices but positive oral health attitude was observed among the two groups of the studied teachers. This observation suggests that the primary school teachers can serve as oral health educators after organized training to heighten their oral health knowledge and perfect their oral practices. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available This paper reports on part of a study with the aim of exploring how Muslim learners' knowledge and attitudes of HIV/AIDS were influenced by family and school culture. Findings from data collected during individual semi-structured interviews with the principals, Life Orientation educators, and school guidance counsellors are discussed. Reviewed literature supported the assumption that there were collaborative relationships within school culture that permitted children to learn about sexuality and HIV/ AIDS. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the Eight Gateways or "entry points" of school culture supported the data collection and reinforced the findings theoretically. A purposive sample was used for the qualitative case study within an interpretivist paradigm. The study indicated that the educators believed that the school should teach adolescents' about HIV/AIDS. The aim of the school was to create awareness about non-risky behaviour in terms of HIV/AIDS among the learners. Educators were aware that this education did not always lead to positive behaviour changes. The school interventions had generally engendered positive values and dependable, safe relationships that helped adolescents to make responsible decisions in the face of HIV and AIDS. Educators did concede that despite the education at school, learners had to sometimes make difficult decisions as they were tempted to behave against the principles and education within the macro-society.
JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO
Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.
Pradabpech, Pipat; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Sriampai, Anan
This research for: 1) to study the current situation and problem in KM, 2) to develop the KM Model, and 3) to evaluate the finding usage of the KM Model for developing the Internal Quality Assurance of Educational Opportunity Expansion Schools. There were 3 Phases of research implementation. Phase 1: the current situation and problem in KM, was…
Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.
November 13). Air Force Center of Excellence for Knowledge Mangement Briefing. Washington, D.C. Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge...Strategic Management Journal , 473-496. Holsapple, C. W., & Jones, K. (2006). Knowledge Mangement Strategy Formation. Managerial Aspects of Knowledge... Mangement , 419-428. 70 Hoss, R., & Schlussel, A. (2009). How Do You Measure the Knowledge Management (KM) Maturity of Your Organization? Metrics
Full Text Available Caroli's disease belongs to a group of hepatic fibropolycystic diseases and is a hepatic manifestation of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. It is a congenital disorder characterized by segmental saccular dilatations of the large intrahepatic bile duct and is frequently associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF. The most viable theory explaining its pathogenesis suggests that it is related to ductal plate malformation. The development of the polycystic kidney (PCK rat, an orthologous rodent model of Caroli's disease with CHF as well as ARPKD, has allowed the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and the therapeutic options for its treatment to be examined. The relevance of the findings of studies using PCK rats and/or the cholangiocyte cell line derived from them to the pathogenesis of human Caroli's disease is currently being analyzed. Fibrocystin/polyductin, the gene product responsible for ARPKD, is normally localized to primary cilia, and defects in the fibrocystin from primary cilia are observed in PCK cholangiocytes. Ciliopathies involving PCK cholangiocytes (cholangiociliopathies appear to be associated with decreased intracellular calcium levels and increased cAMP concentrations, causing cholangiocyte hyperproliferation, abnormal cell matrix interactions, and altered fluid secretion, which ultimately result in bile duct dilatation. This article reviews the current knowledge about the pathogenesis of Caroli's disease with CHF, particularly focusing on studies of the mechanism responsible for the biliary dysgenesis observed in PCK rats.
Berner Andrée Sandoval-Ramírez
Full Text Available Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject.
Sandoval-Ramírez, Berner Andrée; M. Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Sasot, Gemma; Doménech, Monica
Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject. PMID:28904736
Sato, Yasunori; Ren, Xiang Shan; Nakanuma, Yasuni
Caroli's disease belongs to a group of hepatic fibropolycystic diseases and is a hepatic manifestation of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). It is a congenital disorder characterized by segmental saccular dilatations of the large intrahepatic bile duct and is frequently associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). The most viable theory explaining its pathogenesis suggests that it is related to ductal plate malformation. The development of the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat, an orthologous rodent model of Caroli's disease with CHF as well as ARPKD, has allowed the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and the therapeutic options for its treatment to be examined. The relevance of the findings of studies using PCK rats and/or the cholangiocyte cell line derived from them to the pathogenesis of human Caroli's disease is currently being analyzed. Fibrocystin/polyductin, the gene product responsible for ARPKD, is normally localized to primary cilia, and defects in the fibrocystin from primary cilia are observed in PCK cholangiocytes. Ciliopathies involving PCK cholangiocytes (cholangiociliopathies) appear to be associated with decreased intracellular calcium levels and increased cAMP concentrations, causing cholangiocyte hyperproliferation, abnormal cell matrix interactions, and altered fluid secretion, which ultimately result in bile duct dilatation. This article reviews the current knowledge about the pathogenesis of Caroli's disease with CHF, particularly focusing on studies of the mechanism responsible for the biliary dysgenesis observed in PCK rats.
Nowak, E; Pfitzner, R; Koźlik, P; Kozynacka, A; Durajski, L; Przybyłowski, P
Students manifest a high level of social commitment. Improving their knowledge and developing more positive attitudes toward organ transplantation may increase the number of organ donations. This study was an assessment of the knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation among young people in Poland, with an overview of current beliefs and potential methods for improving transplantology awareness. The study included 400 medical students and 400 nonmedical students from public universities in Kraków, Poland. Data were collected by using an anonymous questionnaire examining demographic factors and transplantology issues. Despite the overall positive attitude toward transplantology among academic students in Poland, the state of knowledge of the nonmedical population remains relatively low. The most important issues for social education to focus on are the role of presumed consent and brain death diagnosis, actual hazards of living donations, recipient qualification criteria, and the attitudes of religious authorities. The overall level of knowledge and the number of positive attitudes were significantly higher among medical students than among nonmedical students, proving that formal educational programs are more efficient than the more accessible but less reliable sources of knowledge. Introduction of transplantology issues in schools and churches, promoting the positive outcomes of organ transplantation rather than negating false beliefs, and eliminating misleading information from the media may significantly increase young people's knowledge and result in more positive attitudes toward transplantology in a society-wide fashion. This outcome could create a favorable background for introducing an opt-in system of consent for organ donation.
He, Zhong-hu; Ji, Cheng-ye
To investigate HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitude among high school students in China, and to preliminarily evaluate the effects of the special HIV/AIDS prevention education programme. A total of 6487 high school students from 24 high schools of Beijing, Zhengzhou and Tangshan were investigated by using questionnaire, among which, 6487 students completed the questionnaire (96.08%). chi(2) test, t test and one way ANOVA were used to test the group differences and logistic regression was employed for further analysis. P attitude scores of the students were separately 14.42 out of 20 and 6.47 out of 10. Students from Tangshan had the significantly (P attitude level (average score of knowledge = 15.11, average score of attitude = 7.21) followed by Beijing (average score of knowledge = 14.62, average score of attitude = 6.15) and Zhengzhou (average score of knowledge = 13.56, average score of attitude = 6.07). The significant differences were observed in all except the varying attitude between Zhengzhou and Beijing (Knowledge comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 0.49, P Attitude Comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 1.06, P student (OR = 1.31, P attitude level, while higher grade (OR = 0.85, P = 0.003) and better academic performance (OR = 0.94, P = 0.003) were negative predictors of attitude. The HIV/AIDS related knowledge among high school students in China was relatively limited and instability positive attitude under the pressure of social desirability. It is necessary to tailor the special education strategies for further education effect improvement.
Oladapo, M M; Brieger, W R
Adolescents are subject to many life changes as their secondary sexual characteristics emerge. Contrary to parents' and society's wishes, these young people are more sexually active then previous generations and thus at greater risk of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and related problems. Adolescents enrolled in school have the potential opportunity to learn ways to prevent these reproductive and sexual health problems, but there is concern whether schools are living up to this challenge. Therefore, this study was designed to learn whether adolescents in secondary school in the Ondo State capital of Akure have reproductive health education and are practicing healthy sexual behaviors. The study was based on a sample of six of the twenty-eight secondary schools in Akure that fell under the jurisdiction of the Ondo State Post-Primary Schools' Management Board. Focus was placed on pupils in the final years of both Junior Secondary School (JSS 3) and Senior Secondary School (SSS 3). Overall, 30 percent of the young people reported having sexual intercourse: 21 percent of females and 38 percent of males. Also 39 percent in SSS 3 reported having had sex compared to 21 percent in JSS 3. Forty percent of students in coeducational school compared to 19 percent in boy's school and 8 percent in girl's school had sex. Respondents averaged only 11 points on a 33-point scale of reproductive health knowledge. Students in the senior classes and those in single sex schools scored higher. The mass media was stated to be the major source of reproductive health knowledge; only one-third reported that they had actually talked with someone about their reproductive health concerns. Attitudes toward pre-marital sex were more favorable among male students, pupils in mixed sex schools and those whose parents had lower levels of education. These findings suggest not only that the schools must take a more active role in providing reproductive health education, but that
York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell
Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear
Sebina, Boikanyego; Arua, Arua E.
The study investigated whether teachers' knowledge and positive perception of listening contribute to its teaching in junior secondary schools in Botswana. Using an observation schedule, data were collected from four schools in the Gaborone, Botswana, area. The main finding of the study is that knowledge of listening does not translate into good…
Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin
The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.
Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Bakalis, Vissarion; Zachari, Eleni; Sioka, Eleni; Tsimpida, Dialecthi; Magouliotis, Dimitrios; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki; Chatedaki, Christina; Tzovaras, George
The purpose of this study was to assess doctors' knowledge, current conceptions, and clinical practice regarding obesity and bariatric surgery. A self-administered survey was administered to 500 doctors with varying medical specialties in public and private practice. The response rate was 60%. Most participants (77.3%) were in private practice. Although almost half of the participants could define morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, only 8.7% felt educated about bariatric surgery. Participants had little knowledge of various types of bariatric procedures. A minority of doctors (24.7%) knew of the existence of a bariatric center in their area. Only 21.3% of doctors had referred a patient to a bariatric center. Reasons for non-referral included lack of interest in bariatric surgery (37.3%), patient refusal (35.3%), increased operative fees (17.3%), lack of confidence in bariatric surgery (6.3%), and lack of access to a nearby bariatric center (3.7%). The majority of doctors were interested in learning more about bariatric surgery and related guidelines, but they remained reluctant to conduct patients' postoperative follow-ups. The penetration of bariatric surgery in the medical community remains limited, despite its proven effectiveness in facilitating sustained weight loss and resolving several obesity-related comorbidities. A great effort should be made to inform health-care providers about the evolution of bariatric procedures, the potential benefits they offer, and the existence of certified bariatric centers. This will allow doctors to provide optimum health care to patients who could benefit from bariatric surgery. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
M. Awais Khan
Full Text Available The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture, made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots. Much of the research on root traits has thus far focused on the most common cereal crops and model plants. As cereal yields have reached their yield potential in some regions, understanding their root system may help overcome these plateaus. However, root and tuber crops such as potato, sweetpotato, cassava, and yam may hold more potential for providing food security in the future, and knowledge of their root system additionally focuses directly on the edible portion. Root-trait modeling for multiple stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, robust databases, and data analytical pipelines, may provide a valuable base for a truly inclusive ‘green revolution’. In the current review, we discuss root system architecture with special reference to root and tuber crops, and how knowledge on genetics of root system architecture can be manipulated to improve their tolerance to abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars. These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative and often influenced by environments and genotype-environment (GE interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program. The recent application of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS and Genotyping by sequencing (GBS technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide SNP markers. Recently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of Expressed Sequenced Tag (EST-derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify QTL imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed.
Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E
Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical in order to promote the student's intention to report TBI symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the relationship between the high school athlete's concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. One hundred eleven articles were retrieved and four articles met established criteria and were included in this systematic review. A link appears to exist between high school athlete concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. School nurses can provide a supportive environment and concussion knowledge to the high school athlete in order to ultimately facilitate TBI symptom reporting.
Hoopes, Andrea J; Ahrens, Kym R; Gilmore, Kelly; Cady, Janet; Haaland, Wren L; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie; Prager, Sarah
A key strategy to reduce unintended adolescent pregnancies is to expand access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, including intrauterine devices and subdermal contraceptive implants. LARC services can be provided to adolescents in school-based health and other primary care settings, yet limited knowledge and negative attitudes about LARC methods may influence adolescents' utilization of these methods. This study aimed to evaluate correlates of knowledge and acceptability of LARC methods among adolescent women at a school-based health center (SBHC). In this cross-sectional study, female patients receiving care at 2 SBHCs in Seattle, Washington completed an electronic survey about sexual and reproductive health. Primary outcomes were (1) LARC knowledge as measured by percentage correct of 10 true-false questions and (2) LARC acceptability as measured by participants reporting either liking the idea of having an intrauterine device (IUD)/subdermal implant or currently using one. A total of 102 students diverse in race/ethnicity and socioeconomic backgrounds completed the survey (mean age 16.2 years, range 14.4-19.1 years). Approximately half reported a lifetime history of vaginal sex. Greater LARC knowledge was associated with white race (regression coefficient [coef] = 26.8; 95% CI 13.3-40.4; P Adolescent women in this SBHC setting had variable knowledge and acceptability of LARC. A history of vaginal intercourse was the strongest predictor of LARC acceptability. Our findings suggest a need for LARC counseling and education strategies, particularly for young women from diverse cultural backgrounds and those with less sexual experience. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Putting inclusive education into practice and within diverse classrooms, teachers have to support and teach according to a variety of needs and preferences of learners, among them learners with ADHD. Teachers are seen as some of the most valuable sources of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of this disorder. They are also responsible for creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. However, since there is some doubt as to whether teachers have the appropriate knowledge of ADHD to fulfill this important role, we aimed at assessing the knowledge and misperceptions of primary school teachers in towns on the periphery of the Cape Town Metropole. A quantitative study using a survey was conducted. The measuring scale used was the KADDS (Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders Scale, which measures teachers' knowledge and misperceptions in three specific areas: symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, general knowledge about the nature, causes and outcome of ADHD and possible interventions with regard to ADHD. The data were statistically analysed. Overall knowledge of ADHD was poor. The results suggest that teachers are most knowledgeable about symptoms/diagnosis, scoring lower on treatment and general knowledge subscales.
Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre-Castro, M.; Gullström, M.; Uku, J.; Muthiga, N.; Lyimo, T.; Bandeira, S. O.
Sea urchins are one of the most common seagrass macro-grazers in contemporary seagrass systems. Occasionally their grazing rates exceed seagrass growth rates, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as overgrazing. Because of a reported increasing frequency of overgrazing events, concomitant with loss of seagrass-associated ecosystem services, it has been suggested that overgrazing is one of the key threats to tropical and subtropical seagrasses. In light of this, we review the current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management of sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses. Initially we argue that the definition of overgrazing must include scale and impairment of ecosystem services, since this is the de facto definition used in the literature, and will highlight the potential societal costs of seagrass overgrazing. A review of 16 identified cases suggests that urchin overgrazing is a global phenomenon, ranging from temperate to tropical coastal waters and involving at least 11 seagrass and 7 urchin species. Even though most overgrazing events seem to affect areas of <0.5 km 2, and recovery often occurs within a few years, overgrazing can have a range of large, long-term indirect effects such as loss of associated fauna and decreased sediment stabilization. A range of drivers behind overgrazing have been suggested, including bottom-up (nutrient enrichment), top-down (reduced predation control due to e.g. overfishing), "side-in" mechanisms (e.g. changes in water temperature) and natural population fluctuations. Based on recent studies, there seems to be fairly strong support for the top-down and bottom-up hypotheses. However, many potential drivers often co-occur and interact, especially in areas with high anthropogenic pressure, suggesting that multiple disturbances—by simultaneously reducing predation control, increasing urchin recruitment and reducing the resistance of seagrasses—could pave the way for overgrazing. In management, the most common response to
Bowser, Diana; Abbas, Yasmin; Odunleye, Temitope; Broughton, Edward; Bossert, Thomas
To identify the level of knowledge and competencies related to quality of care during medical education in sub-Saharan African medical schools. A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine the capacity of medical schools in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to teach about the concepts of quality of care and the inclusion of these concepts in their curriculum. A purposeful convenience sampling technique was used to select participants from 25 medical schools in 5 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondents included medical school deans or senior academic personnel. A survey was developed using the Institute of Medicine's definition of quality of care as the guiding framework. Sample means and summary statistics were used to present the results of the survey responses. While 45% of the schools surveyed are teaching on at least one of the six domains of the Institute of Medicine's definition of quality of care, there are some schools who report not teaching about quality at all, or that they "do not know". Despite these low numbers, when asked about topics related to quality of care, many schools are teaching applied management related topics and almost all schools teach about equity and patient-centered care. The results have important impacts both for incorporating quality of care into medical education and for practitioners. The tool developed for this study can be used in future qualitative and quantitative studies to further understanding of how to improve the teaching and learning about quality of care in medical schools. Keywords: quality of care, medical schools, sub-Saharan Africa, medical errors, healthcare improvement.
Shendell, Derek G; Alexander, Melannie S; Huang, Yuqi
About one in five Americans spends a considerable number of hours in school each week, and thus, is exposed to a variety of environmental agents. Community health nursing professionals require resources and specific training to acquire the environmental knowledge needed to raise personal and community awareness as an enhancement of their practice. Given limited resources for schools and local public health education initiatives, identifying and prioritizing environmental concerns comes before actions to prevent or reduce exposures. With the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma, of special concern are those agents within the school environment that may serve as asthma triggers. This pilot project, within a larger study in a large school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, developed and piloted an environmental health priorities survey with school nurses and other school staff about indoor and outdoor microenvironments relevant to school-aged children. Findings indicate that participants (N = 34) could prioritize environmental issues to inform future intervention activities (such as continuing education training), and distinguish predominantly indoor from typical outdoor exposure agents and their major sources.
Jedrzejewska, Barbara; Kalinowski, Paweł; Stachowicz, Agnieszka
It is commonly known that protection of human health depends to greatest extent on knowledge and actions good or hazardous for it. Childhood and youth are periods of life when education is more likely to have the best results. The aim of my paper was evaluation of the level of teenagers' knowledge of prohealth behaviours. The survey, in accordance with the standardised interview method, was carried out among the group of 100 secondary school students in the Lublin region. As a result it was proved that the level of the students' knowledge of certain prohealth behaviours varies. Negligence in health education is confirmed by a considerable percentage of wrong answers to questions concerning physical activity, selected issues from hygiene and stress. Health awareness among teenagers is moulded mainly by mass media and peers. The majority of the respondents admit incomplete knowledge of the subject. Since the role of the family in health education is rather limited, and the school includes this issue in its teaching programme to small extent, it would be desirable to place "health education" among other school subjects.
Aas IH Monrad
Full Text Available Abstract Background Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF is well known internationally and widely used for scoring the severity of illness in psychiatry. Problems with GAF show a need for its further development (for example validity and reliability problems. The aim of the present study was to identify gaps in current knowledge about properties of GAF that are of interest for further development. Properties of GAF are defined as characteristic traits or attributes that serve to define GAF (or may have a role to define a future updated GAF. Methods A thorough literature search was conducted. Results A number of gaps in knowledge about the properties of GAF were identified: for example, the current GAF has a continuous scale, but is a continuous or categorical scale better? Scoring is not performed by setting a mark directly on a visual scale, but could this improve scoring? Would new anchor points, including key words and examples, improve GAF (anchor points for symptoms, functioning, positive mental health, prognosis, improvement of generic properties, exclusion criteria for scoring in 10-point intervals, and anchor points at the endpoints of the scale? Is a change in the number of anchor points and their distribution over the total scale important? Could better instructions for scoring within 10-point intervals improve scoring? Internationally, both single and dual scales for GAF are used, but what is the advantage of having separate symptom and functioning scales? Symptom (GAF-S and functioning (GAF-F scales should score different dimensions and still be correlated, but what is the best combination of definitions for GAF-S and GAF-F? For GAF with more than two scales there is limited empirical testing, but what is gained or lost by using more than two scales? Conclusions In the history of GAF, its basic properties have undergone limited changes. Problems with GAF may, in part, be due to lack of a research programme testing the effects of
Arvanitakis, George; Temmerman, Robin; Spök, Armin
Cleaning products containing microbes as active ingredients are becoming increasingly prevalent as an alternative to chemical-based cleaning products. These microbial-based cleaning products (MBCPs) are being used in domestic and commercial settings (i.e., households and businesses) and institutional settings (e.g., hospitals, schools, etc.), in a variety of cleaning activities (hard surface cleaning, odour control, degreasing, septic tank treatments, etc.). They are typically described as "environmentally friendly" and "non-toxic". Publicly available information sources (scientific literature, patent databases, commercial websites) were searched for information on microbial species contained in MBCPs, their mode of action, cleaning applications in which they are used, and their potential impacts on human health and the environment. Although information was found providing a broad indication of microbial genera/species used, information on specific species/strains and quantities produced and sold is generally lacking. This makes it difficult to conduct a meaningful examination of any risks to human health and the environment from the production and use of MBCPs and to determine how effective current policies and regulatory frameworks are in addressing these issues. These and other challenges were addressed at an international workshop in Ottawa, Canada in June 2013 by a number of stakeholders, including industry, government, academic and non-governmental organizations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Al-Darwish, Mohammed Sultan
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qatar from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2200 school children aged 12-14 years were approached from 16 schools of different areas. The information about oral health knowledge and sources of information was obtained through a self-administrated questionnaire. Data analyses were performed. The overall response rate was (96%). Only (25.8%) of children reported a high level of oral health knowledge. After each meal, tooth brushing was observed by a very low percentage of children (3.7%). About 44.6% of children recognized dental floss as a cleaning device for between the teeth. A large number of children (32.5%) thought incorrectly that one must visit the dentist only in case of pain. A great majority was not aware of cariogenic potential of soft drinks (39%) and sweetened milk (97.8%). Less than half (38.9%) of children actually had heard about fluoride. Only (16.8%) correctly answered the question about sign of tooth decay. Slightly, less than half (48.4%) could not define the meaning of plaque. Parents were the most popular (69.1%), source of oral health information for the children. The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media.
Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie; Song, Kyunghee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and ...
Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz
One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…
Full Text Available There is an interest among Swedish teachers to locate teaching outdoors. This study focuses on four teachers in grades 4-6, to explore their intentions and objectives with regular teaching outdoors. Datasources consist of semi-structured interviews, descriptions on successful activities, and reflections on metaphors. The use of intentional analysis and Bloom’s revised taxonomy on teachers’ objectives show that the teachers stress the out-of-school learning that draws on the actual world and concrete material. Yet their objectives with these authentic experiences are diverse. Two teachers have mainly cognitive objectives with a holistic view of knowledge where outdoor and indoor interact. To become knowledgeable, each individual student needs teaching in this proper context. The other two teachers primarily have affective objectives, in a dichotomy between learning theoretical knowledge indoors, and learning practical, concrete knowledge outdoors. They consider the outdoor arena as crucial for students with learning difficulties.
Full Text Available The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summary notes, reciprocal teaching using mind mapping, problem-based learning, and investigation group. The results showed that those studying under problem-based learning strategy spent a significantly higher numbers in metacognitive knowledge in biology learning and followed by students who study under reciprocal teaching using mind mapping. According to the finding, it is expected that teachers of Biology will practice problem-based learning strategy in their classroom in order to increase the Metacognitive knowledge.
Full Text Available The assumption regarding the effectiveness of educational prevention programs as inevitable segments of social policy in the domain of drug abuse prevention in school population is based on the compatibility of the information presented during educational lectures and the students' actual knowledge of drug abuse problem. Qualitative research was conducted with the aim to determine the scope of primary school children's knowledge of different aspects of drug abuse, and with the aim to draw conclusions about the structure and content of educational prevention programs which could be applied to primary school children with regard to general principles of prevention program planning based on previous test results. The data was collected from groups of participants by applying the discussion technique. The sample consisted of 640 eighth grade students from nine Belgrade primary schools. Research results, obtained by summarizing and analyzing the statements, indicate that the participants are very well informed on the types, effects, consequences and causes of drug abuse, but know little about laws and services they could contact for help. Apart from that, certain misconceptions regarding drug abuse are widespread in the population of the assessed students. Practical implications for planning educational programs of drug abuse prevention in primary school students were determined from the obtained research results with regard to the principle of prevention programs effectiveness.
Huff, Cierra; Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven; Apai, Dániel
The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA-funded research coordination network whose focus is on investigating exoplanet diversity and devising strategies for searching for life on exoplanets. The fields of exoplanets and astrobiology are inherently highly interdisciplinary. Progress in these fields demands that researchers with various scientific backgrounds understand the issues and techniques of allied fields of study, including the tools and approaches used to solve different problems, as well as their limitations.In 2016, the NExSS teams at Arizona State University (ASU) and University of Arizona (UA) hosted 32 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from various scientific backgrounds for one week at the Arizona NExSS Winter School. To bridge the gaps between fields and promote interdisciplinarity, students participated in lessons, field trips, hands-on activities, and a capstone proposal-writing activity. To assess the impact of the School on knowledge and attitudes about other fields, we administered a pre- and post-School questionnaire designed using the Impact Analysis Method of Davis & Scalice (2015).The results show that all participants gained knowledge at the School, especially in areas outside their primary field of study. The questionnaire revealed interesting differences in attitudes as well. When asked whether the geochemistry of Earth without life is predictable, planetary scientists were more likely than average to say yes, and geologists were more likely than average to say no. Their attitudes had converged after participation in the School. These results demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School was impactful not just in the knowledge gained, but in the interdisciplinary attitudes of students.
Kenzie, Erin S.; Parks, Elle L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lim, Miranda M.; Chesnutt, James C.; Wakeland, Wayne
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery trajectory. Many of the obstacles faced in research and clinical practice related to TBI and concussion, including observed heterogeneity, arguably stem from the complexity of the condition itself. To improve understanding of this complexity, we review the current state of research through the lens provided by the interdisciplinary field of systems science, which has been increasingly applied to biomedical issues. The review was conducted iteratively, through multiple phases of literature review, expert interviews, and systems diagramming and represents the first phase in an effort to develop systems models of concussion. The primary focus of this work was to examine concepts and ways of thinking about concussion that currently impede research design and block advancements in care of TBI. Results are presented in the form of a multi-scale conceptual framework intended to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, improve research design, and provide a broader, multi-scale model for understanding concussion pathophysiology, classification, and treatment. PMID:29033888
Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; de Groot, Lisette; Dupont, Didier; Feeney, Emma; Ipsen, Richard; Lecerf, Jean Michel; Mackie, Alan; McKinley, Michelle C; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Rémond, Didier; Risérus, Ulf; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Tholstrup, Tine; Weaver, Connie; Astrup, Arne; Givens, Ian
Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and
Erin S. Kenzie
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery trajectory. Many of the obstacles faced in research and clinical practice related to TBI and concussion, including observed heterogeneity, arguably stem from the complexity of the condition itself. To improve understanding of this complexity, we review the current state of research through the lens provided by the interdisciplinary field of systems science, which has been increasingly applied to biomedical issues. The review was conducted iteratively, through multiple phases of literature review, expert interviews, and systems diagramming and represents the first phase in an effort to develop systems models of concussion. The primary focus of this work was to examine concepts and ways of thinking about concussion that currently impede research design and block advancements in care of TBI. Results are presented in the form of a multi-scale conceptual framework intended to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, improve research design, and provide a broader, multi-scale model for understanding concussion pathophysiology, classification, and treatment.
Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is by far the most widely used yeast in oenology. However, during the last decade, several other yeasts species has been purposed for winemaking as they could positively impact wine quality. Some of these non-conventional yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, etc. are now proposed as starters culture for winemakers in mixed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several others are the subject of various studies (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris, etc.Along with their biotechnological use, the knowledge of these non-conventional yeasts greatly increased these last ten years. The aim of this review is to describe the last updates and the current state-of-art of the genetics of non-conventional yeasts (including S. uvarum, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris, etc.. We describe how genomics and genetics tools provide new data into the population structure and biodiversity of non-conventional yeasts in winemaking environments. Future challenges will lie on the development of selection programs and/or genetic improvement of these non-conventional species. We discuss how genetics, genomics and the advances in next-generation sequencing will help the wine industry to develop the biotechnological use of non-conventional yeasts to improve the quality and differentiation of wines.
Buzzetti, Raffaella; Zampetti, Simona; Maddaloni, Ernesto
Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a reduced genetic load, a less intensive autoimmune process and a mild metabolic decompensation at onset compared with young-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The majority of patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes do not require insulin treatment for at least 6 months after diagnosis. Such patients are defined as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), which is distinct from classic adult-onset T1DM. The extensive heterogeneity of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is apparent beyond the distinction between classic adult-onset T1DM and LADA. LADA is characterized by genetic, phenotypic and humoral heterogeneity, encompassing different degrees of insulin resistance and autoimmunity; this heterogeneity is probably a result of different pathological mechanisms, which have implications for treatment. The existence of heterogeneous phenotypes in LADA makes it difficult to establish an a priori treatment algorithm, and therefore, a personalized medicine approach is required. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding and gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and clinical features of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and highlight the similarities and differences with classic T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J
Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neil J. Rowan
Full Text Available This timely review primarily addresses important but presently undefined microbial risks to public health and to the natural environment. It specifically focuses on current knowledge, future outlooks and offers some potential alleviation strategies that may reduce or eliminate the risk of problematic microbes in their viable but nonculturable (VBNC state and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the aquatic environment. As emphasis is placed on water quality, particularly surrounding efficacy of decontamination at the wastewater treatment plant level, this review also touches upon other related emerging issues, namely, the fate and potential ecotoxicological impact of untreated antibiotics and other pharmaceutically active compounds in water. Deciphering best published data has elucidated gaps between science and policy that will help stakeholders work towards the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, which provides an ambitious legislative framework for water quality improvements within its region and seeks to restore all water bodies to “good ecological status” by 2015. Future effective risk-based assessment and management, post definition of the plethora of dynamic inter-related factors governing the occurrence, persistence and/or control of these presently undefined hazards in water will also demand exploiting and harnessing tangential advances in allied disciplines such as mathematical and computer modeling that will permit efficient data generation and transparent reporting to be undertaken by well-balanced consortia of stakeholders.
Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Bely, Marina; Marullo, Philippe; Albertin, Warren
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is by far the most widely used yeast in oenology. However, during the last decade, several other yeasts species has been purposed for winemaking as they could positively impact wine quality. Some of these non-conventional yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, etc.) are now proposed as starters culture for winemakers in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae, and several others are the subject of various studies (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris, etc.). Along with their biotechnological use, the knowledge of these non-conventional yeasts greatly increased these last 10 years. The aim of this review is to describe the last updates and the current state-of-art of the genetics of non-conventional yeasts (including S. uvarum, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris, etc.). We describe how genomics and genetics tools provide new data into the population structure and biodiversity of non-conventional yeasts in winemaking environments. Future challenges will lie on the development of selection programs and/or genetic improvement of these non-conventional species. We discuss how genetics, genomics and the advances in next-generation sequencing will help the wine industry to develop the biotechnological use of non-conventional yeasts to improve the quality and differentiation of wines.
Gabi U. Dachs
Full Text Available Sufficient uptake and whole body distribution of vitamin C (ascorbate is essential for many biochemical processes, including some that are vital for tumor growth and spread. Uptake of ascorbate into cancer cells is modulated by availability, tumor blood flow, tissue diffusion parameters, and ascorbate transport proteins. Uptake into cells is mediated by two families of transport proteins, namely, the solute carrier gene family 23, consisting of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs 1 and 2, and the SLC2 family of glucose transporters (GLUTs. GLUTs transport the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydroascorbate (DHA, which is present at negligible to low physiological levels. SVCT1 and 2 are capable of accumulating ascorbate against a concentration gradient from micromolar concentrations outside to millimolar levels inside of cells. Investigating the expression and regulation of SVCTs in cancer has only recently started to be included in studies focused on the role of ascorbate in tumor formation, progression, and response to therapy. This review gives an overview of the current, limited knowledge of ascorbate transport across membranes, as well as tissue distribution, gene expression, and the relevance of SVCTs in cancer. As tumor ascorbate accumulation may play a role in the anticancer activity of high dose ascorbate treatment, further research into ascorbate transport in cancer tissue is vital.
Full Text Available One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.
Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Zak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek
One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms-two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.
Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.
Tomlinson, Katie R; Bailey, Andy M; Alicai, Titus; Seal, Sue; Foster, Gary D
Cassava is the second most important staple food crop in terms of per capita calories consumed in Africa and holds potential for climate change adaptation. Unfortunately, productivity in East and Central Africa is severely constrained by two viral diseases: cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). CBSD was first reported in 1936 from northeast Tanzania. For approximately seventy years CBSD was restricted to coastal East Africa and so had a relatively low impact on food security compared to CMD. However, at the turn of the 21st century CBSD re-emerged further inland, in areas around Lake Victoria and it has since spread through many East and Central African countries, causing high yield losses and jeopardising the food security of subsistence farmers. This recent re-emergence has attracted intense scientific interest, with studies shedding light on CBSD viral epidemiology, sequence diversity, host interactions and potential sources of resistance within the cassava genome. This review reflects on 80 years of CBSD research history (1936 - 2016) with a timeline of key events. We provide insights into current CBSD knowledge, management efforts and future prospects for improved understanding needed to underpin effective control and mitigation of impacts on food security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available High temperature is one of the biggest abiotic stress challenges for agriculture. While, Nitric oxide (NO is gaining increasing attention from plant science community due to its involvement in resistance to various plant stress conditions, its implications on heat stress tolerance is still unclear. Several lines of evidence indicate NO as a key signaling molecule in mediating various plant responses such as photosynthesis, oxidative defense, osmolyte accumulation, gene expression, and protein modifications under heat stress. Furthermore, the interactions of NO with other signaling molecules and phytohormones to attain heat tolerance have also been building up in recent years. Nevertheless, deep insights into the functional intermediaries or signal transduction components associated with NO-mediated heat stress signaling are imperative to uncover their involvement in plant hormone induced feed-back regulations, ROS/NO balance, and stress induced gene transcription. Although, progress is underway, much work remains to define the functional relevance of this molecule in plant heat tolerance. This review provides an overview on current status and discuss knowledge gaps in exploiting NO, thereby enhancing our understanding of the role of NO in plant heat tolerance.
Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas
Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337
Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos
The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Mascia, Giuseppe; Arbelo, Elena; Ojeda, Jaime Hernández; Solimene, Francesco; Brugada, Ramon; Brugada, Josep
Since its recognition as a clinical entity in 1992, the Brugada Syndrome (BrS), a hereditary disease characterized by a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern potentially predisposing to sudden cardiac death (SCD), has attracted the attention of many physicians for its circadian pattern of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), mostly occurring at rest. Exercise may potentially worsen the ECG abnormalities in BrS patients, resulting in higher peak J-point amplitudes during the vasovagal reaction of the recovery period, possibly leading to an increased risk of cardiac events. Moreover, the enhanced vagal tone in athletes could be both a BrS risk factor and an exercise effect. Therefore, the true risk of a BrS patient during exercise is still unclear. This review summarizes current knowledge, shortcomings and open questions on BrS and exercise. The paper, in particular, underlines specific considerations including BrS diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis in athletes, the genetic basis, the autonomic imbalance during exercise practice and the recommendations for athletic participation in this patient group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cernusak, Lucas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Winter, Klaus [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Dalling, James [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Holtum, Joseph [James Cook University; Jaramillo, Carlos [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Korner, Christian [University of Basel; Leakey, Andrew D.B. [University of Illinois; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Poulter, Benjamin [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, France; Turner, Benjamin [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Wright, S. Joseph [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.
Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Leeper, Nicholas J.
Several risk factors for atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) such as dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension, are heritable. However, predisposition to PAD may be influenced by genetic variants acting independently of these risk factors. Identification of such genetic variants will provide insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and facilitate the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In contrast to coronary heart disease, relatively few genetic variants that influence susceptibility to PAD have been discovered. This may be in part due to greater clinical and genetic heterogeneity in PAD. In this review, we a) provide an update on the current state of knowledge about the genetic basis of PAD including results of family studies and candidate gene, linkage as well as genome-wide association studies; b) highlight the challenges in investigating the genetic basis of PAD and possible strategies to overcome these challenges; and c) discuss the potential of genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, differential gene expression, epigenetic profiling and systems biology in increasing our understanding of the molecular genetics of PAD. PMID:25908728
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity.Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a cross-sectional survey. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and random glucose levels were measured. Twenty percent of the sample had normal weight (body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 25 to 140/90 mmHg: 50.3%, and were inactive (48.7% with a high waist circumference (> 82 cm: 57.4%. Educators' nutrition and physical activity knowledge was poor. Sixty-nine percent of educators incorrectly believed that eating starchy foods causes weight gain and only 15% knew that one should eat five or more fruit and/or vegetables per day. Aspects of poor nutritional knowledge, misconceptions regarding actual body weight status, and challenges in changing health behaviours, emerged as issues which need to be addressed among educators. Educators' high risk for developing chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs may impact on educator absenteeism and subsequently on school functioning. The aspects of poor nutrition and physical activity knowledge along with educators' high risk for NCD development may be particularly significant not merely in relation to their personal health but also the learners they teach.
Baginska, Joanna; Rodakowska, Ewa; Milewski, Robert; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena; Kierklo, Anna
The frequency of dental trauma in schools is secondary only to accidents at home. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of first aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth presented by Polish school nurses from different areas. A cross-sectional study with the use of a structured self-administrative questionnaire was conducted in 2014 on school nurses working in randomly selected Polish provinces. The instrument consisted of demographic questions, questions referring to nurses' experience and training in dental trauma and questions checking knowledge of first-aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth. The maximum number of points to be scored was eight. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis, the Mann-Whitney U and Chi(2) tests with the level of statistical significance at p nurses of which 70.1 % had experience with dental injuries and 45.7 % witnessed a tooth avulsion in pupils. 10.4 % nurses participated in training courses concerning tooth avulsion and 67.1 % of them independently broadened their knowledge. The knowledge of the first-aid management of an avulsed tooth was moderate (4.72 ± 1.95 points). 78.1 % of nurses chose a correct definition of the term of 'tooth avulsion'. Only 7.3 % of them were aware that the replantation could be conducted by any witness of an accident. Saline was most often chosen as a proper transport medium for an avulsed tooth (57.9 %), whereas 16.1 % of nurses indicated milk. 13.4 % of evaluated nurses showed readiness to conduct an immediate replantation. Most respondents preferred calling child's parents and advising them to bring the child to a dentist (63.4 %). The main factor influencing nurses' level of knowledge was self-education (p sports classes (p = 0.0423) were positive determinants of improved knowledge. Nurses from large agglomerations had significantly lower knowledge (p = 0.005). The main source of information for self-education was the Internet. The evaluated nurses were in need of education with regard
Joan Josep Solaz-Portolés
Full Text Available In this paper an experiment was carried out to test the theory of mental models of Johnson-Laird, which classifies subjects according to their previous knowledge. The subjects of the experiment were high school students of Valencia (Spain, to whom a problem solving test was administered. The results found seem to confirm that an inverse relation between the number of mental models implied in the problem and the percentage of subjects that solve it correctly, as the theory predicts. Moreover, subjects of higher previous knowledge do not always solve problems significantly better.
Kapucu, Serkan; Yildirim, Ufuk
The purpose of this study was to a) investigate prospective physics teachers' views on their knowledge about new physics concepts introduced in Turkish High School Physics Curricula; b) investigate the sources of their acquired knowledge about these new physics concepts; and c) explore if there were differences in views on knowledge about these…
Sleep is associated with an array of physical and mental health outcomes that are essential for healthy adjustment in children. Unfortunately, transfer of this knowledge into action has been slow and largely ineffective. There are only 15 published school-based sleep health promotion programs, and findings are mixed in terms of their impact on sleep behavior, knowledge and health outcomes. This paper applies a knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework to assess the strengths and weaknesses of such programs and to identify strategies that can be used to enhance the translation of empirical evidence in pediatric sleep to effective action. It is proposed that effectiveness of interventions may be increased by defining specific targets for change, identifying prospectively the gap between current sleep practice or knowledge and intervention goals, assessing and addressing barriers and facilitators for program implementation, adapting the program for local use, tailoring it to the developmental needs of the target users, using rigorous designs to evaluate outcomes and improving sustainability by engaging multiple stakeholders throughout the KTA process. Collectively it is proposed that integrating a KTA framework and related strategies will enhance the effectiveness of these programs in translating empirical evidence in pediatric sleep to effective and sustained action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William
To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from
Sewart, Bethany Bianca
Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the
Full Text Available Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5% used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 % were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 % were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07% of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. ′Easy availability′ and ′relief from tension′ were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5% and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Chuanyin Xie; Susan D. Steiner
Management education has been criticized for its limited contribution to both students and business. Yet, the traditional education approach has not undergone fundamental changes in decades. A number of new educational models have been proposed, but challenges seem insurmountable when it comes to implementation. This article explores how an effective change in management education could be made through joint creation of management knowledge between business schools and the business community....
Tsering, Dechenla; Pal, Ranabir; Dasgupta, Aparajita
Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5%) used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 %) were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 %) were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07%) of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. 'Easy availability' and 'relief from tension' were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5%) and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%). Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
Shilubane, Hilda N; Bos, Arjan ER; Ruiter, Robert AC; van den Borne, Bart; Priscilla S Reddy
Background Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are a huge problem in South Africa, especially in the rural areas. Previous research has emphasized the importance of the ability of school professionals to identify young people who are at risk of committing suicide. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge of teachers with regard to identifying the warning signs of suicidal behaviour, assessing the type of information they give to students in the class after a suicide of on...
Razieh Omidi; Kamal Heidari; Arash Ramezani; Maryam Amini; Shiva Kamrooz; Ziba Farajzadegan; Rezvan Pashmi; Seyyed Azim Fatemi; Saeed Bagheri; Abolfazl Salimi; Anahita Babak
Background: Considering the importance of anger, aggression, violence and other misbehaviours in schoolchildren education, the present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan province regarding violence, in order to figure out the required interventions for violence-reduction. Methods: In a survey during 2008-2009, 5500 junior and senior high school students of Isfahan province were assessed in a multistage sampling process to determine their leve...
Michaud, C; Saraiva, I; Henry, Y; Dodane, M
The prevalence of smoking has increased among young people aged 14 to 18 between 1993 and 1999, and most notably among girls within the same period. These observations illustrate the necessity for significant changes in mass media campaigns and education programmes related to the prevention of smoking among youth. The objective of this survey, initiated by the city of Besançon and the French National Mutual Insurance of Doubs, was to describe and analyse the knowledge and rationale of high school students on tobacco and their opinions in terms of prevention. Twelve public and private high schools in Besançon and Morteau (Doubs-France) participated in the survey; the group also represented a mix of general and professional schools. The questionnaire was filled out by 970 students selected at random. 96% of the students indicated cancer as being the main illness linked to tobacco and 94% stated that second-hand smoke constitutes a health risk. 61% admitted to seeking out the psychoactive effects of smoking. The students responses confirm that the types of messages relayed in a smoking prevention campaign which have an impact on them are: evoking fear of death (74%) and the use of humor (16%). One-third of high school students find that it is unacceptable to forbid smoking on school premises. The knowledge of the dangers related to smoking is not sufficient to keep young people from smoking and confirms that an educational approach based solely on knowledge and facts will not be sufficient to decrease their tobacco consumption. It is important to take into account the image that young people have of tobacco as a means to combat stress in future prevention strategies and campaigns.
Ndifreke E. Udonwa
Full Text Available Background: Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy.Objectives: To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria.Method: This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents.Results: Most respondents (77.5% were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%, filling up potholes (16.9%, opening up drainage (11%, using insecticide-treated nets (25.7% or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%. Less than one-tenth (8% would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers.Conclusion: The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.
Salmon, Daniel A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Omer, Saad B; Chace, Lesley M; Klassen, Ann; Talebian, Pejman; Halsey, Neal A
We studied school personnel involved in the review of student's immunization status to determine whether personnel training, immunization-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, use of alternative medicine, and sources of vaccine information were associated with the vaccination status of school children. Surveys were mailed to a stratified and random sample of 1000 schools in Colorado, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Washington. School personnel reported their training and perceptions of disease susceptibility/severity, vaccine efficacy/safety, key immunization beliefs, use of alternative medicine, confidence in organizations, sources, and credibility of vaccine information, and the rates of vaccine exemptors in their schools. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations between personnel factors and beliefs (independent variables) with the likelihood of a child having an exemption (dependent variable). Regression models were adjusted for clustering of children in schools, type of school (public versus private), and state. Surveys were returned by 69.6% of eligible participants. A child attending a school with a respondent who was a nurse was significantly less likely to be have an exemption than a child attending a school with a respondent who was not a nurse (odds ratio [OR]: 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.56). The majority of respondents believed that children (95.6%) and the community (96.1%) benefit when children are vaccinated. Nurses were more likely than nonnurses to hold beliefs supporting the utility and safety of vaccination. Greater perceived disease susceptibility and severity and vaccine efficacy and safety were associated with a decreased likelihood of a child in the school having an exemption. Vaccine misconceptions were relatively common. For example, 19.0% of respondents were concerned that children's immune systems could be weakened by too many immunizations, and this belief was associated with an increased likelihood
Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath
The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.
Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children’s understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu’s, or teacher’s questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.
Asakura, Keiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Sasaki, Satoshi
Improving the dietary habits of children is important to decrease the future burden of noncommunicable diseases. While various food education programs have been implemented worldwide, evaluation of nutrition knowledge is difficult, even at baseline. Further, the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake has not been clarified in non-western countries. After developing nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese primary school children and adults, we examined whether higher nutrition knowledge of children and their guardians was associated with better dietary intake in children. A total of 1210 children in four public primary schools and 319 guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrition knowledge questionnaires were developed for children in lower and higher grades and adults. Higher nutrition knowledge of the children was significantly associated with higher vegetable intake (p for trend = 0.024 for boys and children differed by children's sex. We developed nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese children and adults and identified a relationship between higher nutrition knowledge and healthier dietary habits. The child's own nutrition knowledge of dietary intake might be as important as that of the guardian for some foods. Sex differences in the effect of nutrition knowledge should receive greater attention in food education. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Children under the age of 5 years generally spend most of their time with their parents and guardians, especially mothers, even when they attend pre-schools or nurseries. It has been found that young children′s oral health maintenance and outcomes are influenced by their parent′s knowledge and beliefs. This study was done to assess the mother′s knowledge about the oral health of their pre-school children in Moradabad, India. Mothers of children aged 1-4 years, attending the hospital for vaccination or regular checkups in the pediatric division of government hospitals, were invited to participate in the study. A 20-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, was distributed to their mothers, during their visit to the hospital. Responses of the mothers were recorded on a Likert Scale. The sample comprised 406 mothers, with the mean age of children being 3.8 years. Three hundred (73.8% mothers had a good knowledge about diet and dietary practices, while only 110 (27.1% and 103 (25.4% mothers were found to have a good knowledge about the importance of oral hygiene practices and importance of deciduous teeth, respectively. Mothers with higher educational qualification and information gained through dentist had a better knowledge about child′s oral health. Oral hygiene habits and dietary habits are established during pre-school days and the parents, especially mothers, function as role models for their children.
Henson, Harvey, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of earthquake instruction on students' earthquake content and preparedness for earthquakes. This study used an innovative direct instruction on earthquake science content and concepts with an inquiry-based group activity on earthquake safety followed by an earthquake simulation and preparedness video to help middle school students understand and prepare for the regional seismic threat. A convenience sample of 384 sixth and seventh grade students at two small middle schools in southern Illinois was used in this study. Qualitative information was gathered using open-ended survey questions, classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were collected using a 21 item content questionnaire administered to test students' General Earthquake Knowledge, Local Earthquake Knowledge, and Earthquake Preparedness Knowledge before and after instruction. A pre-test and post-test survey Likert scale with 21 items was used to collect students' perceptions and attitudes. Qualitative data analysis included quantification of student responses to the open-ended questions and thematic analysis of observation notes and interview transcripts. Quantitative datasets were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods, including t tests to evaluate the differences in means scores between paired groups before and after interventions and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test for differences between mean scores of the comparison groups. Significant mean differences between groups were further examined using a Dunnett's C post hoc statistical analysis. Integration and interpretation of the qualitative and quantitative results of the study revealed a significant increase in general, local and preparedness earthquake knowledge among middle school students after the interventions. The findings specifically indicated that these students felt most aware and prepared for an earthquake after an
Rasmussen, K L; Knudsen, H J
The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the influence of the AIDS-campaigns on adolescents' knowledge of contraception and pregnancy and their sources of information. All pupils in their ninth school year in the municipality of Viborg answered an identical questionnaire in 1986 and 1993, dealing with the mentioned subjects. In 1986, 539 questionnaires were included, in 1993, 391. In 1986, sexually inexperienced boys had lesser knowledge than the rest. This could not be shown in 1993. Although their knowledge was not optimal, the pupils in 1993 answered better than the 1986-pupils. They had the same informational sources, but in 1993, the school was mentioned as an important source by nearly all. The mother, on the contrary, had decreasing importance as a source of information. Two thirds were generally satisfied by the sexual information given by the school. Experienced boys were significantly more often unsatisfied. It is concluded that the condom-orientated AIDS-campaigns have not in general decreased the knowledge of contraception and pregnancy among adolescents. Their knowledge is, however, not optimal. The school is extremely important as an informational source, especially if the importance of the parents decreases. This implies that fewer of those adolescents, who have left school, have adult support in dealing with sexual problems.
Feng, Xiaoying; Mugayar, Leda; Perez, Edna; Nagasawa, Pamela R; Brown, David G; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S
Recently, there has been increased attention to including cultural diversity in the education of health professionals, including concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) inclusion and visibility. Studies regarding cultural exposure and acceptance of LGBT populations have been concentrated in medicine, with findings showing that medical providers often graduate having missed the preparation required to care for LGBT persons. A visible, comprehensive, culturally competent environment in dental schools would help ensure that all oral health professionals and students are aware of services available to address the particular needs of LGBT students. The aims of this survey-based study conducted in 2015-16 were to determine dental students' perceptions regarding LGBT students' needs and to assess dental students' knowledge of resources for LGBT persons at three U.S. dental schools, one each in the Midwest, West, and South. Of the 849 students invited to participate, 364 completed the survey (338 dental, 26 dental hygiene), for an overall response rate of 43%. The response rate at individual schools ranged from 30% to 55%. The results showed perceptions of insufficient LGBT information, resources, and support at these institutions, especially at the Western school. There were significant differences among the three schools, with students at the Western school more than the other two schools perceiving that their institution was less aware of whether it met the academic, social support, and spiritual needs of LGBT students. There were no significant differences between LGBT and non-LGBT students' perceptions. The authors urge dental school administrators to explore the degree to which their programs teach respectful and caring behavior towards LGBT students and, by extension, LGBT patient populations.
Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh
Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
The Building 549 auditorium is often packed with high school interns eager to hear a scientific lecture. On April 22, however, the room swelled with interns spanning a wider age range. At the 25th Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) Anniversary Symposium, incoming, current, and former interns gathered to celebrate the program, which has provided biomedical research experience for local high school seniors.
Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy
The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.
Catón, Javier; Tucker, Abigail S
The integument forms a number of different types of mineralized element, including dermal denticles, scutes, ganoid scales, elasmoid scales, fin rays and osteoderms found in certain fish, reptiles, amphibians and xenarthran mammals. To this list can be added teeth, which are far more widely represented and studied than any of the other mineralized elements mentioned above, and as such can be thought of as a model mineralized system. In recent years the focus for studies on tooth development has been the mouse, with a wealth of genetic information accrued and the availability of cutting edge techniques. It is the mouse dentition that this review will concentrate on. The development of the tooth will be followed, looking at what controls the shape of the tooth and how signals from the mesenchyme and epithelium interact to lead to formation of a molar or incisor. The number of teeth generated will then be investigated, looking at how tooth germ number can be reduced or increased by apoptosis, fusion of tooth germs, creation of new tooth germs, and the generation of additional teeth from existing tooth germs. The development of mineralized tissue will then be detailed, looking at how the asymmetrical deposition of enamel is controlled in the mouse incisor. The continued importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions at these later stages of tooth development will also be discussed. Tooth anomalies and human disorders have been well covered by recent reviews, therefore in this paper we wish to present a classical review of current knowledge of tooth development, fitting together data from a large number of recent research papers to draw general conclusions about tooth development.
Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.
Kapiga, S H; Nachtigal, G; Hunter, D J
We assessed knowledge of AIDS among pupils in selected schools in Tanzania in August 1989. Four hundred and eight-one pupils from four randomly selected secondary schools, two from Dar-Es-Salaam (a city) and two from Bagamoyo (a semi-rural town), were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Of these, 476 (99.0%) had heard of AIDS, and 447 (92.9%) were able to mention spontaneously at least one sexually transmitted disease (STD), of whom 374 (83.7%) mentioned AIDS. Knowledge was found to increase with age and tended to be higher among women in Dar-Es-Salaam than in Bagamoyo. These data suggest that communication channels directed at women in rural areas should be strengthened. While knowledge of sexual transmission of HIV was generally high, and prevalence of reported misconceptions about modes of transmission was very low, knowledge of non-sexual means of transmission (transfusions, injections, vertical) was lacking. Although 80% of pupils mentioned reduction of number of sexual partners as a means of AIDS prevention, only 22% mentioned condom use, and less than 5% reported that they had ever used a condom. Future research should concentrate on means of promoting sexual behavior change, the ultimate aim of any AIDS prevention strategy.
Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
Wilkie, Karina J.
A key aspect of learning algebra in the middle years of schooling is exploring the functional relationship between two variables: noticing and generalising the relationship, and expressing it mathematically. This article describes research on the professional learning of upper primary school teachers for developing their students' functional thinking through pattern generalisation. This aspect of algebra learning has been explicitly brought to the attention of upper primary teachers in the recently introduced Australian curriculum. Ten practising teachers participated over 1 year in a design-based research project involving a sequence of geometric pattern generalisation lessons with their classes. Initial and final survey responses and teachers' interactions in regular meetings and lessons were analysed from cognitive and situated perspectives on professional learning, using a theoretical model for the different types of knowledge needed for teaching mathematics. The teachers demonstrated an increase in certain aspects of their mathematical knowledge for teaching algebra as well as some residual issues. Implications for the professional learning of practising and pre-service teachers to develop their mathematics knowledge for teaching functional thinking, and challenges with operationalising knowledge categories for field-based research are presented.
Rouhani, Panta; Parmet, Yisrael; Bessell, Ann G; Peay, Tamika; Weiss, Alina; Kirsner, Robert S
The aim of this study was to assess baseline knowledge of skin cancer, sun protection practices, and perceptions of tanning among third through fifth grade elementary students in Florida. A total of 4,002 students in nineteen elementary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida were surveyed. SunSmart America curriculum pretest responses were the main outcome measures. Overall students' knowledge using a students' mean knowledge scale scores of skin cancer and sun protection were low (spending greater than 2 hours in the sun when compared with girls (p students (51.3%) more frequently reported use of SPF 15 or greater sunscreen "most of the time or always" compared with Hispanic (35.3%) and non-Hispanic Black (13.4%) students (p students in south Florida have limited knowledge about sun safety, despite spending considerable amount of time in the sun. Sun safe behavior is associated with gender and ethnicity. The findings provide empirical support for the need of a school-based educational intervention.
Berhe, Tesfaye; Yihun, Bethlehem; Abebe, Emebet; Abera, Hailu
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders and is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its dramatic clinical manifestations, has resulted in a strong social stigma. Since teachers have a key role in society as educators, the purpose of this study was to find out the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards epilepsy among school teachers. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of 135 teachers about epilepsy using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered into IBM SPSS version 20.0 and analyzed. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations were used to describe the data. Associations were computed using a chi-square test and p-valueepilepsy. Only 41% of the respondents had good knowledge about epilepsy whereas 26.8% and 32.3% had fair and poor knowledge about the disease, respectively. About 74% of them had a positive attitude about epilepsy. Only 60.3% of the respondents had proper first aid training. Literacy status and years of experience were not significantly associated with the level of knowledge about epilepsy. A significant proportion of teachers had deficits in terms of general knowledge, attitude, and the appropriate management of epilepsy in the classroom. Therefore, it is important to train and update teachers on epilepsy by the responsible health authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Context knowledge is identified as an important component in statistical education but research in this area is very limited. In this study was tried to determine how students use the context knowledge in data analysis. With this aim, a performance test on data analyzing was developed. This performance test is include three questions for comparing the two data sets. The performance test was applied to total 120 students studying at six different 11th grade classes of two high school in Trabzon during 2012–2013 academic year. Students’ responses were analysed using Dapueto ve Parenti (1999 Model. Results showed that context knowledge is the most widely used form of reasoning in statistical task. Only the use of mathematical and statistical knowledge was just as much as the use of context knowledge. Both mathematical-statistical and context knowledge were quite a few of the answers that reflect the way of thinking. Forms of reasoning of students in each category are presented in detail.
Xu, Xianglong; Chen, Cheng; Abdullah, Abu S; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Hengyi; Zhao, Yong
This study examined smoking-related knowledge, sources of smoking-related knowledge and its influencing factor among male urban secondary school students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, among 1297 male secondary school students in municipal areas of Chongqing, China. Non-smokers had a better knowledge of smoking hazards than smokers. Less than 20% of students knew that smoking can cause heart disease, peptic ulcer, and cerebral stroke. Sources of smoking-related knowledge differed between smokers and non-smokers, respectively: TV (76.5 vs. 76.7%), teacher (70.1 vs. 62.4%), social network (66.6 vs. 73.1%), parents (57.0 vs. 59.2%), newspaper (55.4 vs. 61.6%), and friends (37.7 vs. 33.9%). Non-smokers' hobbies of reading were significantly higher than smokers' (χ 2 = 11.5845, p = 0.0007). Smokers' hobbies of online games (χ 2 = 14.9106, p = 0.0001), and sports (χ 2 = 4.8609, p = 0.0275) were significantly higher than non-smokers'. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) found that students whose both father and mother smoke were unable to receive tobacco-related knowledge. GEE also found that students in high school, with affluent family economic condition and with an opposing attitude towards father smoking possessed a better smoking-related knowledge. However, male students with disagreement or neutral attitude towards friends smoking were negatively associated with the knowledge of smoking hazards. The findings of the present study suggest that a significant proportion of male secondary school students in urban Chongqing lack specific knowledge about smoking-related diseases. Targeted educational programs for secondary school students in China are needed to promote tobacco control and tobacco use reduction and cessation among students.
Arora, Prerna G.; Kelly, Jennifer; Goldstein, Thalia R.
This study sought to assess current and future school psychologists' attitudes toward and preparedness to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in schools. Two-hundred seventy-nine school psychologists (n = 162, 58%) and school psychology graduate students (n = 117, 42%) were included in the study.…
Sherblom, Stephen A.; Bahr, Michael W.
In the United States, controversy persists regarding what it means for heterosexuality to be the norm, or more pointedly, what it means for those not strictly heterosexual to be outside the norm. It is important that consultants in schools be aware of the current state of research bearing on homosexuality. Consultation provides a viable approach…