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Sample records for school children exposed

  1. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  2. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

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    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.

  3. Mental Health in School-Aged Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Substances

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    Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child’s neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82% eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscale mean scores, total difficulties scores, and total impact scores were statistically significantly higher in the group of exposed children, compared with the reference group. In this hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol or other substances, the exposed group had an increased risk of mental health problems, compared with the reference group.

  4. Comparison of intelligence, school readiness skills, and attention in in-utero drug-exposed and nonexposed preschool children.

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    Butz, Arlene M; Pulsifer, Margaret B; Leppert, Mary; Rimrodt, Sheryl; Belcher, Harolyn

    2003-10-01

    Children with in-utero drug exposure (IUDE) may be at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the association between IQ, school readiness skills, and self-regulation behavior in IUDE children (n=103) and non IUDE-exposed children (n=33) at age 4 years. Mean IQ or school readiness scores did not significantly differ by IUDE exposure; however, both groups scored approximately 1 standard deviation below the mean for both IQ and school readiness skills. The IUDE group earned a significantly higher mean score (thereby performing poorer) than the nonexposed group on focusing and inattentive behavior. Factors associated with poor school readiness skills for all children (IUDE exposed and nonexposed) were not attending a preschool program and lower caregiver education level. Assuring high-risk children are identified and referred for early intervention services as well as treated for inattention behavior is crucial for their academic success.

  5. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

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    Lina Kalalo

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group.

  6. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

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    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  7. Social Skills and School Readiness in Young Children Exposed to Violence.

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    LeBlanc, Monique M; Cosgrove, Seandra J; David, Kimberly B

    2017-04-01

    Witnessing violence is associated with negative outcomes for preschool-aged children, including lowered school readiness; however, not all children evidence negative outcome, indicating the presence of protective factors. This study examined social skills as a moderator of the relation between violence exposure and school readiness in preschoolaged children. Seventy-eight children completed a measure of school readiness, and their caregiver completed measures of social skills, witnessed violence exposure, and direct victimization. Results revealed that social skills moderated the witnessed violence- school readiness association, controlling for direct victimization and family income. When children evidenced more appropriate social skills, witnessed violence and school readiness were inversely related. However, for children whose caregivers endorsed less appropriate social skills, there was no association between witnessed violence and school readiness.

  8. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

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    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  9. MRI findings in children with school problems who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol.

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    Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Autti, Taina; Korkman, Marit; Kettunen, Satu; Salonen, Oili; Valanne, Leena

    2002-02-01

    This study examined 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 13 years) with prenatal alcohol exposure of various durations. The aim of the study was to detect specific brain morphological alterations by means of MRI and to see if findings correlated with particular cognitive deficits. Of the 17 children, five had been exposed to heavy maternal consumption of alcohol (over 10 drinks/week) during the first trimester only; four had been exposed during the first and second trimester; and eight had been exposed throughout pregnancy. Five children had alcohol related neurobehavioural disorder, seven were diagnosed as having foetal alcohol effects and five were diagnosed as having foetal alcohol syndrome. Hypoplasia of the vermis was observed in 10 children and malformed posterior vermis in one additional child. Five children had hypoplastic cerebellar hemispheres. Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum was observed in two children. Small hippocampi were observed in three children and wide cortical sulci in six. No specific structural anomaly correlated with a particular neuropsychological deficit. In this study, deviations in the development of the vermis was the most sensitive morphological indicator of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. It was seen in every diagnostic group including children who had been exposed during only the first trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

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    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study.

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    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Boas, Malene; Jensen, Tina K; Grandjean, Philippe; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Andersen, Helle R

    2011-09-20

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203) and at 6 to 11 years of age (n = 177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to 11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during

  12. A theoretical model of continuity in anxiety and links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed school children.

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    Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Romano, Dawn M; Perry, Andre M

    2013-08-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of continuity in anxious emotion and its links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed youth. An urban school based sample of youths (n = 191; Grades 4-8) exposed to Hurricane Katrina were assessed at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) postdisaster. Academic achievement was assessed through end of the school year standardized test scores (~31 months after Katrina). The results suggest that the association of traumatic stress to academic achievement was indirect via linkages from earlier (Time 1) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that predicted later (Time 2) test anxiety. Time 2 test anxiety was then negatively associated with academic achievement. Age and gender invariance testing suggested strong consistency across gender and minor developmental variation in the age range examined. The model presented advances the developmental understanding of the expression of anxious emotion and its links to student achievement among disaster-exposed urban school children. The findings highlight the importance of identifying heterotypic continuity in anxiety and suggest potential applied and policy directions for disaster-exposed youth. Avenues for future theoretical refinement are also discussed.

  13. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

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    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  14. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11...... years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis......, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together...

  15. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI) and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI) were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p Mexico City. PMID:20003306

  16. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

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    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  17. Intellectual impairment in school-age children exposed to manganese from drinking water.

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    Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Legrand, Melissa; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Bouffard, Thérèse; Limoges, Elyse; Bellinger, David C; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Manganese is an essential nutrient, but in excess it can be a potent neurotoxicant. Despite the common occurrence of manganese in groundwater, the risks associated with this source of exposure are largely unknown. Our first aim was to assess the relations between exposure to manganese from drinking water and children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Second, we examined the relations between manganese exposures from water consumption and from the diet with children's hair manganese concentration. This cross-sectional study included 362 children 6-13 years of age living in communities supplied by groundwater. Manganese concentration was measured in home tap water (MnW) and children's hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion and the diet using a food frequency questionnaire and assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The median MnW in children's home tap water was 34 µg/L (range, 1-2,700 µg/L). MnH increased with manganese intake from water consumption, but not with dietary manganese intake. Higher MnW and MnH were significantly associated with lower IQ scores. A 10-fold increase in MnW was associated with a decrease of 2.4 IQ points (95% confidence interval: -3.9 to -0.9; p IQ between children in the lowest and highest MnW quintiles. MnW was more strongly associated with Performance IQ than Verbal IQ. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that exposure to manganese at levels common in groundwater is associated with intellectual impairment in children.

  18. Unthinkable Risk: How Children Are Exposed and Harmed When Pesticides Are Used at School.

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    Riley, Becky

    This report examines the extensive presence of pesticide contamination in the environment and its impact on children. Chapters 1 and 2 review evidence that when pesticides are used indoors or out in other comparable settings, unavoidable contamination occurs, even when products are used according to label directions. Chapter 3 explains that people…

  19. XY ANEUPLOIDY IN SPERM OF MEN EXPOSED TO DIBROMOCHLOROPROPANE (DBCP) AS SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    DBCP is a potent testicular toxicant that was used as a pesticide in the late 1970s. Adult exposure is associated with testicular atrophy, poor semen quality, infertility, and disturbed sex ratios in offspring. Effects on children have not been studied, although postnatal/puberta...

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

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    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen b...

  1. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

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    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  2. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

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    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  3. Twenty-one-month follow-up study of school-age children exposed to Hurricane Andrew.

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    Shaw, J A; Applegate, B; Schorr, C

    1996-03-01

    To explore the 21-month course of posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and psychological morbidity in 30 school-age children (7 to 13 years) after exposure to Hurricane Andrew. Pynoos' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and Achenbach's Teacher's Report Form were administered at 8 and 21 months after Hurricane Andrew. At 21 months 70% of the children endorsed moderate-severe PTSS. The reduction in PTSS was greater for boys than girls. Psychopathology as measured by the Teacher's Report Form increased over the 19-month period. Boys demonstrated significant increases in internalizing symptoms and in Withdrawn, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Attention Problems scales, and girls showed a significant increase in the Anxious/Depressed scale. Twenty-one months after exposure to Hurricane Andrew, there were continuing high levels of PTSS and evidence of increasing emotional and behavioral problems. While girls sustained higher levels of PTSS, boys demonstrated higher indices of other psychopathology. The enduring effects of disaster associated with secondary stressors and "traumatic reminders" continue to be etiologically important for continuing psychological morbidity.

  4. Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence.

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    O'Donnell, Deborah A.; Schwab-Stone, Mary E.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how parent, school, and peer support differentially affected resilience among urban sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-graders. Findings indicated that both parent and school support factors positively related to resilience in children who had been exposed to community violence; however, peer support negatively related to resilience in…

  5. Conduct Disorder Symptoms in Pre-School Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Gender Differences in Risk and Resilience

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    Bowen, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This study utilized data involving 7,743 children (51.6% boys) aged four from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Children were cross-categorized into four groups: Resilient, Non-resilient, Vulnerable and Competent. Maternal depression and life events, parenting, attachment, social development and temperament were analyzed as dependent variables, and were examined as predictors of group membership. Results showed that resilient boys were less emotional, less a...

  6. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

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    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  7. Serum copeptin in children exposed to maltreatment.

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    Coelho, Roberta; Levandowski, Mateus L; Mansur, Rodrigo B; da Cunha, Graccielle Rodrigues; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Salum, Giovanni A; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M; Rizzo, Lucas B; Manfro, Gisele; Mari, Jair J; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been related to a persistent reprograming of stress-response. Copeptin is a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation; however, few studies have examined copeptin levels in children exposed to CM. The aim of this study was to compare serum copeptin levels in children reporting child abuse and/or neglect and children with no history of CM. This study included 65 children with a positive history of moderate to severe CM, as reported by themselves and their parent(s) during a clinical interview, and 71 children with no history of CM as a comparison group. CM was considered moderate to severe based on the child-reported frequency of being exposed to events related to sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and/or physical neglect. Child psychopathology symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We measured serum copeptin concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children exposed to CM exhibited higher levels of serum copeptin compared to children without CM when controlling for sex, age, and psychiatric morbidity. The CBCL total score, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, was higher in children with CM. We found no correlation between copeptin and CBCL scores for internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. CM is associated with copeptin serum levels independently of age, sex, and symptom severity. Copeptin is a promising new biomarker for children with a history of abuse and/or neglect. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Are Primary School Students Exposed to Higher Noise Levels than Secondary School Students in Germany?

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    M Bhardwaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise, one of the major environmental nuisances, affects the learning ability of children negatively. Objective: With the assumption that in the existing German 4-type school system children are exposed to various noise levels in each type of school, we investigated the association between children's school type and environmental noise level. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 550 children—primary and secondary school students—aged 8–12 years, and who lived in 4 Bavarian cities. The environmental noise level was assessed by personal 24-h dosimeter measurements. The associations of interest were assessed by linear regression. Results: The average day noise level of 80.0 dB(A was relatively high, exceeding the threshold level of 60 dB(A. In the model adjusted for sex, socioeconomic status (SES, and place of residence, noise level was significantly higher for primary schools by almost 2.3 dB(A; however, after additional adjustments for age, this association was distorted. The mean night noise level of 43.7 dB(A was not associated with the school level. We could not find any significant differences in the noise level between different types of secondary schools. Conclusion: We found evidence that in Germany, children, especially of a younger age from primary school, are exposed to high noise levels during day in and outside the school environment. School administration and parents should work to make schools less noisy and more accomplished for learning to achieve a bright future for the children.

  9. School-Phobic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel

    1976-01-01

    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  10. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  11. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children exposed to violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorder in children exposed to violence. Karin Ensink, Brian A Aobertson, Chris Zissis,. Paul Leger. Objectives. To investigate to what extent local children exposed to community violence develop post·traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whether the symptom profile is typical or atypical, and how detection can be improved.

  13. Neurodevelopmental status of HIV-exposed but uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurodevelopmental status of HIV-exposed but uninfected children: A pilot study. P Springer, B Laughton, M Tomlinson, J Harvey, M Esser. Abstract. Introduction. HIV affects children both directly and indirectly, with evidence of increased infectious mortality and morbidity in the HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infant.

  14. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to? A cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Burgoine, Thomas; Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Jones, Andy

    2014-02-14

    The school journey may make an important contribution to children's physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. GIS modelled routes between home and school were not truly representative of accurate GPS

  15. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  16. Intellectual Function in Mexican Children Living in a Mining Area and Environmentally Exposed to Manganese

    OpenAIRE

    Riojas-Rodr?guez, Horacio; Sol?s-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Schilmann, Astrid; Montes, Sergio; Rodr?guez, Sandra; R?os, Camilo; Rodr?guez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, has been shown to be neurotoxic, especially when inhaled. Few studies have examined potential effects of Mn on cognitive functions of environmentally exposed children. Objective This study was intended to estimate environmental exposure to Mn resulting from mining and processing and to explore its association with intellectual function of school-age children. Methods Children between 7 and 11 years of age from the Mo...

  17. Predictors of incident tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the predictors of tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed children. Design: A longitudinal cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Children born to 875 HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Results: A total of 82 children ...

  18. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...

  19. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As many as ... get the help they need. When there is domestic violence between partners, there is often child abuse as well. Sometimes children get hurt accidentally. ...

  20. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Exposed to Man-Made Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manix, Mary M.

    This paper reviews the literature published in the last 10 years that focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children exposed to man-made disasters such as war, school shootings, and the Oklahoma City bombing. As mass violence continues in society, mental health professionals need to be prepared to treat child victims of such…

  2. Keeping Children in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Huisman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study household and context determinants of school dropout using data for 130,000 children in 363 regions of 30 developing countries using multi-level discrete-time event-history analysis. Most (72% of the variation in school dropout is due to household-level factors, with socioeconomic resources (parental education, father’s occupation, and wealth being most important. Household structure plays a role too. Earlier born, non-biological children and children living with one parent drop out more. Important context factors are educational resources (availability of schools and teachers and level of development of the region. Interaction analysis reveals that many effects of household-level factors depend on context characteristics, stressing the importance of a situation-specific approach. Results also indicate that the transition from primary to secondary education is a major breaking point in children’s educational careers and that extending the duration of primary education might be an effective strategy to keep children in school longer.

  3. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children exposed to violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Xhosa-speaking children aged 10 - 16 years; 30 from the Children's Home which serves Khayelitsha, and 30 from a school in a violent area of Khayelitsha. Outcome measures. A shortened version of the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence (SECV) was administered to determine exposure to violence.

  5. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  6. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring...... studies in children are a promising field, since because of evident differences in the uptake, metabolism, distribution and excretion of mutagens this population seems to be more susceptible than adults. Further, the effect of major confounders such as cigarettes smoking, occupation, life...... selected from the HUMN database. An effect of chronic and infectious diseases on MN levels has been reported by various authors. Most studies describing the effect of exposure to genotoxic agents (ionizing radiation, chemicals, drugs, environmental tobacco smoke) found an increase of MN in exposed children...

  7. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  8. A review of events that expose children to elemental mercury in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robin; Middleton, Dan; Caldwell, Kathleen; Dearwent, Steve; Jones, Steven; Lewis, Brian; Monteilh, Carolyn; Mortensen, Mary Ellen; Nickle, Richard; Orloff, Kenneth; Reger, Meghan; Risher, John; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Watters, Michelle

    2009-06-01

    Concern for children exposed to elemental mercury prompted the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to review the sources of elemental mercury exposures in children, describe the location and proportion of children affected, and make recommendations on how to prevent these exposures. In this review, we excluded mercury exposures from coal-burning facilities, dental amalgams, fish consumption, medical waste incinerators, or thimerosal-containing vaccines. We reviewed federal, state, and regional programs with information on mercury releases along with published reports of children exposed to elemental mercury in the United States. We selected all mercury-related events that were documented to expose (or potentially expose) children. We then explored event characteristics (i.e., the exposure source, location). Primary exposure locations were at home, at school, and at other locations such as industrial property not adequately remediated or medical facilities. Exposure to small spills from broken thermometers was the most common scenario; however, reports of such exposures are declining. Childhood exposures to elemental mercury often result from inappropriate handling or cleanup of spilled mercury. The information reviewed suggests that most releases do not lead to demonstrable harm if the exposure period is short and the mercury is properly cleaned up. Primary prevention should include health education and policy initiatives. For larger spills, better coordination among existing surveillance systems would assist in understanding the risk factors and in developing effective prevention efforts.

  9. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  10. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  11. SPECIAL SCHOOL FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    POTTS, ALFRED M.

    MANY CHANGES HAVE OCCURRED IN MIGRANT CHILDREN OVER THE 5 YEARS THE SPECIAL SCHOOL HAS BEEN IN OPERATION. MOST NOTABLE IS THAT THE CHILDREN ARE MUCH CLEANER AND BETTER BEHAVED. THE CHILDREN ARE ISSUED COMBS, TOOTHBRUSHES, TOWELS, AND SOAP. STUDENTS SHOWER THREE TIMES EACH WEEK AND PERFORM A DAILY ROUTINE OF BRUSHING TEETH AND COMBING HAIR. MILK…

  12. Comparative analysis of performance in reading and writing of children exposed and not exposed to high sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Feitosa dos; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de; Seligman, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationships between high sound pressure levels in the classroom and performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes in reading and writing. This consisted on a quantitative and exploratory study. The following measures were carried out: acoustic measurement, using the dosimeter, visual inspection of the external auditory canal, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition tests and acoustic immittance; instrument for evaluation of reading and writing of isolated words. The non-parametric χ² test and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. The results of acoustic measurements in 4 schools in Santa Maria divided the sample of 87 children of third and fourth years of primary school, aged 8 to 10 years, in 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to sound levels higher than 80 dB(A) (Study group) and the 2nd group at levels lower than 80 dB(A) (Control group). Higher prevalence of correct answers in reading and writing of nonwords, reading irregular words and frequency effect were observed. Predominance of correct answers in the writing of irregular words was observed in the Control group. For the Study group, a higher number of type errors neologism in reading and writing were observed, especially regarding the writing of nonwords and the extension effect; fewer errors of lexicalization type and verbal paragraphy in writing were observed. In assessing the reading and writing skills, children in the Study group exposed to high noise levels had poorer performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes, both in reading and in writing.

  13. Development of children born to mothers with cancer during pregnancy: comparing in utero chemotherapy-exposed children with nonexposed controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardonick, Elyce H; Gringlas, Marcy B; Hunter, Krystal; Greenspan, Jay

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 1 per 1000 pregnant women. Lifesaving cancer therapy given to the mother during pregnancy appears in conflict with the interest of the developing fetus. Often, termination of pregnancy is suggested but has not been proven in any type of cancer to improve maternal prognosis, while very few studies have documented the long-term effects of in utero chemotherapy exposure on child outcome. To counsel patients about the risk of continuing a pregnancy while undergoing cancer treatment, we performed developmental testing to provide more detailed follow-up on children exposed in utero to chemotherapy. Mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry, were offered developmental testing for children who were ≥18 months of age. Based on age, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, or the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test was administered. All parents or primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, a parent questionnaire to assess behavior and emotional issues. Results of children exposed to chemotherapy before delivery were compared with children whose mothers were also diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy but did not receive chemotherapy before delivery. No significant differences were noted in cognitive skills, academic achievement, or behavioral competence between the chemotherapy-exposed group and the unexposed children. Of children, 95% scored within normal limits on cognitive assessments; 71% and 79% of children demonstrated at or above age equivalency in mathematics and reading scores, respectively; and 79% of children scored within normal limits on measures of behavior. Older children had significantly higher rates of internalizing behavior problems. We could not demonstrate a significant difference in cognitive ability, school performance, or behavioral

  14. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  15. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  16. Intellectual function in Mexican children living in a mining area and environmentally exposed to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Schilmann, Astrid; Montes, Sergio; Rodríguez, Sandra; Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2010-10-01

    Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, has been shown to be neurotoxic, especially when inhaled. Few studies have examined potential effects of Mn on cognitive functions of environmentally exposed children. This study was intended to estimate environmental exposure to Mn resulting from mining and processing and to explore its association with intellectual function of school-age children. Children between 7 and 11 years of age from the Molango mining district in central Mexico (n = 79) and communities with similar socioeconomic conditions that were outside the mining district (n = 93) participated in the cross-sectional evaluation. The revised version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children adapted for the Mexican population was applied. Concentrations of Mn in blood (MnB) and hair (MnH) were used as biomarkers of exposure. Exposed children had significantly higher median values for MnH (12.6 μg/g) and MnB (9.5 μg/L) than did nonexposed children (0.6 μg/g and 8.0 μg/L, respectively). MnH was inversely associated with Verbal IQ [β = -0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.51 to -0.08], Performance IQ (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.16), and Total Scale IQ (β = -0.20; 95% CI, -0.42 to 0.02). MnB was inversely but nonsignificantly associated with Total and Verbal IQ score. Age and sex significantly modified associations of MnH, with the strongest inverse associations in young girls and little evidence of associations in boys at any age. Associations with MnB did not appear to be modified by sex but appeared to be limited to younger study participants. The findings from this study suggest that airborne Mn environmental exposure is inversely associated with intellectual function in young school-age children.

  17. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Ppregnancies, only early onset of symptoms (prior to 5 weeks gestation) was significantly linked to neurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilience among Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: The Role of Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Bogat, G. Anne; von Eye, Alexander; Levendosky, Alytia A.

    2009-01-01

    Individual and family characteristics that predict resilience among children exposed to domestic violence (DV) were examined. Mother-child dyads (n = 190) were assessed when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. DV-exposed children were 3.7 times more likely than nonexposed children to develop internalizing or externalizing problems.…

  19. Psychological therapies for children and adolescents exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; Maiocchi, Licia; Bhandari, Abhishta P; Taylor, Fiona; Gray, Carl; O'Brien, Louise

    2016-10-11

    Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's Specialised Register to 29 May 2015. This register contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We did not restrict the searches by date, language or publication status. All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared with a control such as treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents who had undergone a traumatic event. Two members of the review group independently extracted data. We calculated odds ratios for binary outcomes and standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes using a random-effects model. We analysed data as short-term (up to and including one month after therapy), medium-term (one month to one year after therapy) and long-term (one year or longer). Investigators included 6201 participants in the 51 included trials. Twenty studies included only children, two included only preschool children and ten only adolescents; all others included both children and adolescents. Participants were exposed to sexual abuse in 12 trials, to war or community violence in ten, to physical trauma and natural disaster in six each and to

  20. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Home Schooling Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Jane G.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 121 families who were home schooling children with special needs found family profiles were similar to the general home schooling population and, unlike the general home schooling population, children often spent as much time in a school setting as in a home school environment. Four case studies identified themes as needs-based…

  2. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-06

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  3. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  4. School food in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Michelle; Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Cabrera, Georgina A; Mata, Irma I; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Villa, Antonio R; James, W Philip T

    2008-09-01

    To establish the school eating habits of Mexican children, who are prone to obesity and later to high rates of adult chronic diseases. Questionnaires for students and parents with staff questionnaires and interviews. Randomly sampled schools in a socio-economically representative district of Mexico City. Subjects were 1504 adolescents aged 10-19 years attending schools in Mexico City, 27 teachers and seven headmasters, sampled from both public and private schools and from the full range of socio-economic groups. Foods brought from home were of a higher nutritional quality than those purchased at school, where purchases were dominated by crisps, soft drinks and other items with high energy density. Girls were more inclined to purchase inappropriately; those from poorer homes purchased less. Private-school students irrespective of socio-economic grade brought more food from home and purchased more expensive food at school. School policies allowed food and drink vendors to market any products within the schools, which benefited financially from these activities. Current school food policies are conducive to amplifying the current epidemic of obesity and related adult chronic diseases, and need to change.

  5. Enuresis in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)

  6. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n=290) were evaluated at birth and at 8-14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and shows a tendency of a smaller head circumference during childhood. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduced growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Brown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school really be classified by the state as "excellent" and yet still have significant "gaps" and disparities? If so, is the state's formula used to identify exemplary schools too simple, dogmatic, and institutionally flawed? Through the use of equity audits, quantitative data was collected to scan for systemic patterns of equity and inequity across multiple domains of student learning and activities within 24 elementary schools. The intent was to document and distinguish between schools that are promoting and supporting both academic excellence (small gap schools; SGS and systemic equity and schools that are not (large gap schools; LGS. Results reveal that although demographic, teacher quality, and programmatic audits all indicated a fair amount of equity between SGS and LGS, the achievement audit between both types of schools indicated great disparities. By controlling for or eliminating some of the external variables and internal factors often cited for the achievement gaps between white middle-class children and children of color or children from low-income families, the findings from this study raise more questions than answers. Results do indicate that equity audits are a practical, easy-to-apply tool that educators can use to identify inequalities objectively.

  8. MIXTECAN CHILDREN AT SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWADESH, EVANGELINA ARANA

    SINCE ONLY ONE FOURTH OF THE POPULATION SPOKE SPANISH, THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION, EDUCATION BEFORE 1955 WAS ESSENTIALLY PRECLUDED FOR 150,000 MIXTECAN INDIANS LIVING IN SOUTHERN OAXACA, MEXICO. IN 1955, 7 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WERE ESTABLISHED BY THE NATIONAL INDIAN INSTITUTE, WITH TEACHERS FROM THE LOCAL POPULATION AND INSTRUCTION IN MIXTECO, THE…

  9. Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, M P; Lonigan, C J; Finch, A J; Taylor, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the range and severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by children after exposure to a natural disaster. Three months after Hurricane Hugo struck Berkeley County, South Carolina, 5,687 school-aged children were surveyed about their experiences and reactions related to the storm. Self-reports of PTSD symptoms were obtained by use of a PTSD Reaction Index. Significant variation in the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was found across race, gender, and age groups. Self-reported symptoms were used to derive a post-traumatic stress syndrome classification according to DSM-III-R guidelines for the diagnosis of PTSD. More than 5% of the sample reported sufficient symptoms to be classified as exhibiting this post-traumatic stress syndrome. Females and younger children were more likely to receive this classification. At the symptom level, females reported more symptoms associated with emotional processing and emotional reaction to the trauma. Males were more likely to report symptoms related to cognitive and behavioral factors. Younger children were more likely to report symptoms overall. Children exposed to a high magnitude natural disaster report sufficient symptoms to establish a DSM-III-R derived classification of a PTSD syndrome. Differences between gender, age, and race groups appear to be related to differential risk of exposure, reporting biases, as well as a differential risk for developing post-traumatic symptoms.

  10. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  11. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  12. Mediators and treatment factors in intervention for children exposed to interparental violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Willemen, A.M.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in children's emotion differentiation, coping skills, parenting stress, parental psychopathology, and parent–child interaction were explored as mediators of treatment factors in two selective preventive group interventions for children exposed to interparental violence (IPV) and their

  13. Hospital admission among HIV-exposed uninfected children compared with HIV-unexposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Helleberg, Marie; Nordly, Sannie B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The main objective of this study was, on a national level, to investigate the risk of in-hospital admissions and use of antibiotics during the first 4 years of life among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children compared with a matched control group of HIV-unexposed children. DESIGN......: A nationwide register-based cohort study. METHODS: All HEU children born in Denmark from 2000 to 2012 were individually matched to five HIV-unexposed controls. Outcomes were risk of hospital admission (any, because of an infectious disease, observation/nonspecific diagnosis) and use of antibiotics during...... the first 4 years of life. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 317 HEU children and 1581 matched controls were included. HEU children had a three-fold increased risk of overall admissions {incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.49 [95% confidence interval...

  14. Urinary porphyrins in children exposed transplacentally to polyhalogenated aromatics in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladen, B.C.; Rogan, W.J.; Ragan, N.B.; Spierto, F.W.

    In 1979, there was a large (>2000 cases) outbreak of poisoning due to contaminated rice oil in central Taiwan. The causal agent was a mixture of thermally degraded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quaterphenyls, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, which had become mixed with the oil during processing. Patients remained symptomatic for several years afterward, and the chemicals persisted in their tissue. Women who became pregnant had children with high perinatal mortality and a dysmorphic syndrome. We examined urines from 75 children born to exposed mothers after the oil was confiscated, 74 controls, and 12 sibs of the exposed children. Four of the transplancentally exposed children, 2 controls, and 1 sib had a type B hepatic porphyria (i.e., uroporphyrin > coproporphyrin); total porphyrin excretion was elevated in the exposed children as a group (95 vs. 81 ..mu..g/L); and 8 of the 75 exposed children and 2 controls had total urinary porphyrin concentrations of >200 ..mu..g/L.

  15. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particu...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  16. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  17. Preparation of preschool children for school attendance

    OpenAIRE

    DRAŽANOVÁ, Judita

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of a theoretical part which describes the developmental period of preschool children between the fifth and seventh year and deals with the issue of school readiness, preparing preschool children to enter school, and with areas that are key success in school. In a practical part, skills and general knowledge of the specific research sample of children from kindergarten are tested. Consequently, practical exercises and opportunities to develop these children are proposed.

  18. 77 FR 12881 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Violence AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of the third hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence... Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of addressing...

  19. 77 FR 39264 - Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Violence AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the..., with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of addressing the...

  20. Attachment Status in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Wright, Linda L.; Smeriglio, Vincent L.; Liu, Jing

    2004-01-01

    Attachment status of children exposed in utero to cocaine, opiates, and other substances was examined at 18 months (n=860) and 36 months (n=732) corrected age. Children exposed to cocaine and opiates had slightly lower rates of attachment security (but not disorganization), and their insecurity was skewed toward ambivalent, rather than avoidant,…

  1. Comparing Early Language Development in Monolingual- and Bilingual- Exposed Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, J. Kaori; Mirenda, Pat; Marinova-Todd, Stefka; Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a group of recently diagnosed bilingual-exposed children with autism (n = 20) aged 24-2 months with a matched group of monolingual-exposed children with autism (n = 40). The groups were matched with regard to chronological age at the time of language assessment and nonverbal IQ score, then compared with…

  2. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  3. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  4. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  5. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  6. PERSONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ILL WITH RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS EXPOSED AND NOT EXPOSED TO THE SOURCE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific personal features of 296 children and adolescents exposed to tuberculosis and those with unidentified exposure were comparatively analyzed. Children with unidentified exposure demonstrated psychic tension, poor self-control, poorly developed social communication skills which determined disruptive interpersonal relations and uneasy personal growth. Children exposed to tuberculosis in their families were characterized by judging didactive position towards their neighbors which was formed by dysfunctional patterns of relations in their parental families. Adolescent with unidentified exposure manifested the contrast combination of pre-morbid personal attitudes which had certain etiologic contribution to the development of borderline neurotic states. The higher level of destructive reactions in the interpersonal communication was observed in the adolescents exposed to tuberculosis in their families. Identified personal features are considered to be psychological factors determining the hyperactivation of adaptive systems at the pre-morbid state and consequent development of structural functional disorders in various systems of the host, as well as providing impact on the course of tuberculosis.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Infants and Young Children Exposed to War-Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although millions of the world's children are growing up amidst armed conflict, little research has described the specific symptom manifestations and relational behavior in young children exposed to wartime trauma or assessed factors that chart pathways of risk and resilience. Method: Participants included 232 Israeli children 1.5 to 5…

  8. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  9. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  10. Action Schools! BC: a school-based physical activity intervention designed to decrease cardiovascular disease risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine E; Warburton, Darren E R; Macdonald, Heather M; Naylor, P J; McKay, Heather A

    2008-06-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether a novel 'active school' model--Action Schools! BC--improved the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in elementary-school children. Our secondary objective was to determine the percentage of children with elevated CVD risk factors. We undertook a cluster-randomized controlled school-based trial with 8 elementary schools across 1 school year, in British Columbia, Canada, beginning in 2003. Boys and girls (n=268, age 9-11 years) were randomly assigned (by school) to usual practice (UP, 2 schools) or intervention (INT, 6 schools) groups. We assessed change between groups in cardiovascular fitness (20-m Shuttle Run), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI, wt/ht(2)). We evaluated total cholesterol (TC), total:high-density cholesterol (TC:HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen on a subset of volunteers (n=77). INT children had a 20% greater increase in fitness and a 5.7% smaller increase in BP compared with children attending UP schools (PSchools! BC was an effective school-based physical activity model for improving the CVD risk profile of elementary-school children. Our multi-component intervention exposed children to fitness enhancing physical activity. It may be important for education stakeholders to adequately resource the delivery of the active school models if cardiovascular health benefits are to be achieved on a population basis.

  11. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-01-01

    ... from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current...

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  13. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  14. [Pulmonary function testing of 156 children exposed to automobile pollution in the municipality of Cotonou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messan, F; Lawani, M M; Marqueste, T; Lounana, J; Aimihoue, D; Metodakou, A; Decherchi, P; Grélot, L

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of disruption of distal airways in children exposed to pollutants automobiles. Study included 156 children selected assigned in groups "Most Exposed" and "Less Exposed" separated respectively 15 meters and 150 meters of road traffic. Children in both groups were subjected to lung function tests before and after an exercise test that was to perform a series of flexion / extension of the knees to the fatigue. FEV and MEF(25) were parameters selected. Change in FEV post exercise of each group is below 5%. The group "Less Exposed" presented a mean value of MEF(25) before exercise similar to that recorded after exercise. Within the group "Most Exposed", the mean value of MEF(25) post exercise is significantly lower than that observed at rest of 8.65%. The fact of living permanently near the traffic, poses serious risks of disruption of the distal airways.

  15. Posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories among children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H

    2015-02-01

    Little research has examined the developmental course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in children. The current study aimed to identify developmental trajectories of PTSS in childhood and to examine predictors of symptom presentation in 1,178 children from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) studies, a consortium of studies focusing on the causes and effects of child maltreatment. Most children had a history of documented reports with Child Protective Services (CPS) and all were identified as living in high-risk environments. Using group-based trajectory modeling, 3 unique developmental trajectories were identified: Resilient, Clinical-Improving (PTSS in the clinical range at baseline then declining over time), and Borderline-Stable (chronically subclinical PTSS). Children in the Clinical-Improving group were more likely than children in the Resilient group to have reports of physical abuse (RRR = 1.76), emotional abuse (RRR = 2.55), neglect (RRR = 1.57), and exposure to violence at home and in the community (RRR = 1.04). Children in the Borderline-Stable group were more likely than children in the Resilient group to have a CPS history of neglect (RRR = 2.44) and exposure to violence at home and in the community (RRR = 1.04). Many children living in high-risk environments exhibit resilience to PTSS, but exposure to witnessed violence and neglect appear to put children at chronic risk for poor adjustment. These children may require more intensive, integrated clinical services that attend to multiple adverse experiences. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Children who are exposed to intimate partner violence: Interviewing mothers to understand its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Children's victimization related to intimate partner violence (IPV) has damaging effects on their well-being and development. The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of IPV on children's emotional and behavioral problems through their mothers' narratives. A total of 30 Spanish mothers (mean age=41.57 years, SD=8.54 years) were individually interviewed. The results showed that many of the children directly suffered from aggression, and most of them witnessed IPV. As a result of their exposure to violence, children often develop psychological, social, and school problems. Their learning of aggressive behaviors is especially remarkable, and these behaviors are sometimes directed towards their mothers. Thus, women can suffer a twofold victimization: by their partner and by their children. These additional problems contribute to hindering the recovery process of victims. Fortunately, not all children develop problems as a result of exposure to IPV; some of them are capable of mature responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early inhibitory control and working memory abilities of children prenatally exposed to methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Woodward, Lianne J

    2018-01-01

    Methadone maintenance is the most common method of treating opioid-dependent pregnant women. However, little is known about the impact of prenatal methadone exposure on child neurocognitive development. To examine the early executive functioning of children born to methadone-maintained mothers, and to assess relations between executive functioning and later emotional and behavioral adjustment. Prospective longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 68 methadone-exposed children and 88 non-methadone-exposed children. At age 2years, children's inhibitory control and working memory were assessed using the Snack Delay and Three Boxes tasks. At 2 and 4.5years, their emotional and behavioral adjustment was assessed using the caregiver-completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Methadone-exposed children had poorer inhibitory control than non-exposed children (p<0.0001). These differences were explained by maternal education and prenatal benzodiazepine use. With respect to working memory, although both groups performed similarly on the first trial set, non-exposed children significantly improved their performance on the second trial set (p=0.002), while methadone-exposed children did not (p=0.92). Inhibitory control at age 2years was predictive of higher conduct (p=0.001), hyperactivity (p=0.0001), peer relationship (p=0.02), and total (p<0.0001) problems at 4.5years even after adjustment for behavioral problems at 2years. Methadone-exposed children demonstrate difficulties with inhibitory control and possibly sustained attention/learning. These difficulties were explained by factors correlated with maternal prenatal methadone use. Longer-term follow-up of these children is needed to understand the effects of prenatal methadone exposure and related maternal factors on executive functioning and behavioral adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development Enamel Defects in Children Prenatally Exposed to Anti-Epileptic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Haubek, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    Objective Some anti-epileptic drugs (AED) have well-known teratogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to AED and the risk of enamel defects in the primary and permanent dentition. Methods A total of 38 exposed and 129 non-exposed children, 6...

  19. The Unique School Environment of Rural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodendorf, Diane M.

    Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…

  20. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  1. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  2. [Food advertising in Mexican television: are children more exposed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salgado, Diana; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate food advertisements on broadcast television channels in Mexico City. Between July and October, 2007 programming by the 11 broadcast channels (N=11) in Mexico City was recorded during one weekday and one weekend day. The length of advertisements (N = 9178), types of products, and nutritional content of foods advertised were analyzed. The time devoted to food products advertising was greater during children's television than during programming targeted to the general audience (25.8 vs. 15.4%). The foods more frequently advertised were sweetened beverages, sweets and cereals with added sugar. Calorie, carbohydrate and fat contents were higher in foods advertised during children's shows. The two most common marketing strategies were to offer some kind of gift and to link the item to positive emotions. The findings of this research indicate the need for an effective system to regulate advertising directed towards children and adolescents.

  3. An Analogous Study of Children's Attitudes Toward School in an Open Classroom Environment as Opposed to a Conventional Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeli, Doris Conti

    A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to…

  4. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness...... performed to determine the association between PFC exposure and indicators of adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Results: There was no association between PFC exposures and adiposity or markers of glycemic control in normal-weight children. Among overweight children, an increase of 10 ng...

  5. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  6. 76 FR 67761 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Violence AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). ACTION: Notice of hearing... Children Exposed to Violence (hereafter refered to as the Task Force). The Task Force is chartered to provide the Attorney General with valuable advice in the areas of children's exposure to ] violence for...

  7. Dried Blood spot test for HIV exposed infants and children and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 138 infants and children exposed to HIV were collected from registration books and data bases from 2009 to 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Chi-squared test and p-value were computed. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. RESULT: Ninety-eight (71%) infants and children ...

  8. Language Outcomes at 12 Years for Children Exposed Prenatally to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Singer, Lynn T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 12-year-old children using a prospective design, controlling for confounding prenatal drug exposure and environmental factors. Method: Children who were exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; "n" = 183)…

  9. A Cartoon-Based Measure of PTSD Symptomatology in Children Exposed to a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Lasgaard, Mathias; Duch, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Research on childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sparse. This is partly due to the limited availability of empirically validated measures for children who are insecure readers. The present study examined the reliability and validity of a cartoon-based measure of PTSD symptoms in children exposed to a disaster. Cartoons were generated…

  10. The Legal System's Response to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Nancy K. D.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights four key areas of case law in which courts have begun to examine the effects of domestic violence on children: child custody and visitation; restraining orders; failure to protect a child from harm; and termination of parental rights. A survey of appellate court decisions since 1990 shows the ongoing need for mandatory judicial training…

  11. The Validation of a Food Label Literacy Questionnaire for Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge questionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient…

  12. Women and children exposed to domestic violence: themes in maternal interviews about their children's psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Joan A

    2010-02-01

    Twelve mothers who had experienced domestic violence and whose children had received psychiatric diagnoses before school age were interviewed. An attachment based tool, the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview, was employed as it accesses maternal representational content. Using psychodynamic and attachment based models as a theoretical framework, content analysis was performed and four thematic categories emerged from the data: intense negative emotionality and suffering; diminished cognitive coping and dysregulation; preoccupation with trauma related material; and constricted causal attributions. Thematic categories as well as inter-relationships among themes are described and discussed in terms of current literature.

  13. Variety in snack servings as determinant for acceptance in school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergamaschi, Valentina; Olsen, Annemarie; Laureati, Monica

    2016-01-01

    influence children's acceptance. A total of 132 children, aged from 9 to 11 years, were exposed to vegetables, fruits and nut snacks during mid-morning break at school. Two different sets of stimuli were used in a within subject design: Classical Variety (CV), i.e. serving of different foods and Perceived...

  14. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  15. Children, everyday numbers and school numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Maria Ignatius Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationship made by school children between “daily” numbers, or rather, numbers deployed outside the school, and numbers worked out in school under various circumstances, or rather, orally and in writing, is investigated. Analysis has been undertaken with ten six-year-old children by means of a clinical and critical method. Research results show that children interact with the environment and recognized the figures, name them, conjecture on their written mode and give coherent meaning to the figures. Analysis also demonstrates that children use numbers outside the school. They understand and exemplify the number’s different meanings in an out-class context. Since the children do not give a weighty meaning to “school” numbers, pedagogical activity with numbers fails to put into practice the recommendations of the official policy.

  16. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p homework after lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  17. Mental development of 2-year-old children exposed to alcohol in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autti-Rämö, I; Korkman, M; Hilakivi-Clarke, L; Lehtonen, M; Halmesmäki, E; Granström, M L

    1992-05-01

    In a prospective follow-up study, 60 children exposed to alcohol in utero were assessed by a psychologist (Bayley Mental scale) and a speech therapist (Reynell Verbal Comprehension scale) at a mean age of 27 months. Many mothers had been able to reduce their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, so the children could be divided into those exposed to heavy drinking during the first trimester only (group 1, n = 20), those exposed during the first and second trimesters (group 2, n = 20), and those exposed throughout pregnancy (group 3, n = 20). Forty-eight nonexposed children were examined to set the -2 SD limit for subnormal performance on the Bayley and Reynell tests. No definite effect of alcohol exposure on mental or language development was found in group 1. Children in group 3 scored significantly lower than children in group 1 both on the Bayley Mental scale and on the Reynell Verbal Comprehension scale; delay in language development was seen more often in group 2 than in group 1. The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome was made in seven children (one in group 2 and six in group 3) and the diagnosis of fetal alcohol effects in 13 children (one in group 1, three in group 2, and nine in group 3). Efforts should be made to identify and find proper treatment for women who drink alcohol early in their pregnancies.

  18. Prenatally buprenorphine-exposed children: health to 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, Kaisa; Tupola, Sarimari; Kivitie-Kallio, Satu

    2015-11-01

    Our prospective study is among the first attempts to examine the health of prenatally buprenorphine-exposed children after neonatal age and to determine the types of child maltreatment in this patient group. The study population included 102 children (61/41 Caucasian males/females) who had a positive urine screen for buprenorphine as a newborn. In addition to buprenorphine, the children were also prenatally exposed to other substances. The data were collected by pediatricians in follow-up visits until 3 years of age and from medical records. Ten prenatally buprenorphine-exposed children (10 %) had some birth defect. The study children had slightly more major anomalies than newborns on average in Finland (3.4 %). Eye disorders (nystagmus, opticus atrophy, and strabismus) occurred in 11 % of children. One child was diagnosed with hepatitis C transmission. One female died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and one male died of congenital heart disease. Pediatricians submitted altogether 70 reports to child welfare services of suspected maltreatment. Of these reports, 45 (64 %) involved medical neglect. Physical abuse was suspected in four reports. We suggest that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed children have several types of problems with their health at toddler age and that they are susceptible to child maltreatment, especially to medical neglect.

  19. A Review of Neurobehavioral Challenges in Children Exposed Prenatally to Intrauterine Opioid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaledin Alaedini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Substance abuse has remained a worldwide issue for many years and in recent decades there has been a major growth in the number of individuals consuming opioids. Several studies have discovered that young kids who have been exposed to opioids develop greater damages in overall intellectual capabilities and neurobehavioral functions than non-exposed children. Evidence Acquisition The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surviving texts on the incidence of challenging behavior among kids due to prenatal medication contact. Overall, out of 84 identified manuscripts, 18 were established to consider intellectual, psychomotor, and behavior consequences in opioid-exposed infants, precollege and college children when matched with healthy no-opioid-exposed controls. Results The results indicate that children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. Somewhat, susceptibilities seem to rise by age for girls, and the unprotected boys persist behind non exposed boys entirely through infancy and into college age. Therefore, there looks to be a constant deleterious consequence of factors associated with prenatal medication contact over time. Conclusions The results indicate children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. The natural susceptibilities of prenatally drug-exposed children can affect initial intellectual skills which yet again are extremely associated with advanced mental capabilities. It is feasible that pre- and postnatal genetic susceptibilities and ecological issues cooperate in a transactional method through the child’s lifespan.

  20. Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opree, Suzanna J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-09-01

    Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to the literature by investigating the longitudinal relation between materialism and life satisfaction. We also investigated whether their relation depended on children's level of exposure to advertising. A sample of 466 children (aged 8-11; 55% girls) participated in a 2-wave online survey with a 1-year interval. We asked children questions about material possessions, life satisfaction, and advertising. We used structural equation modeling to study the relationship between these variables. For the children in our sample, no effect of materialism on life satisfaction was observed. However, life satisfaction did have a negative effect on materialism. Exposure to advertising facilitated this effect: We only found an effect of life satisfaction on materialism for children who were frequently exposed to advertising. Among 8- to 11-year-old children, life satisfaction leads to decreased materialism and not the other way around. However, this effect only holds for children who are frequently exposed to television advertising. It is plausible that the material values portrayed in advertising teach children that material possessions are a way to cope with decreased life satisfaction. It is important to reduce this effect, because findings among adults suggest that materialistic children may become less happy later in life. Various intervention strategies are discussed.

  1. Family Functioning and Children?s Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Telman, Machteld D.; Overbeek, Mathilde M.; de Schipper, J. Clasien; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children?s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed children (53.3?% male, M age?=?9.85) and parents who were referred to community mental health centers participated in the study. Combined, IPV, child abuse and neglect, and other traumatic experiences w...

  2. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  3. School Phobic Children and Adolescents: A Challenge to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R.

    1980-01-01

    Although fearful avoidance of school is a complex and serious problem among school-age children, there are techniques available to professionals for assisting children to overcome school-related anxiety. It is important for school personnel to identify school-phobic children and to assist in planning the earliest possible intervention. (Author)

  4. Behavioral outcomes in children exposed prenatally to lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Uma; Adams, Jane; Macklin, Eric A; Dhillon, Ruby; McCarthy, Katherine D; Dworetzky, Barbara; Klein, Autumn; Holmes, Lewis B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate adaptive behavior outcomes of children prenatally exposed to lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine, and to determine if these outcomes were dose-dependent. Data were collected from women enrolled in the North American Anti epileptic Drug (AED) Pregnancy Registry who had taken lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine monotherapies throughout pregnancy to suppress seizures. The adaptive behavior of 252 exposed children (including 104 lamotrigine-exposed, 97 carbamazepine-exposed, and 51 valproate-exposed), ages 3- to 6-years-old, was measured using the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales, administered to each mother by telephone. Mean Adaptive Behavior Composite (ABC), domain standard scores for communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills, and adaptive levels were analyzed and correlated with first trimester drug dose. After adjusting for maternal age, education, folate use, cigarette and alcohol exposure, gestational age, and birth weight by propensity score analysis, the mean ABC score for valproate-exposed children was 95.6 (95% CI [91, 101]), versus 100.8 (95% CI [98, 103]) and 103.5 (95% CI [101, 106]) for carbamazepine- and lamotrigine-exposed children, respectively (ANOVA; p=0.017). Significant differences were observed among the three drug groups in the ABC (p=0.017), socialization (p=0.026), and motor (p=0.018) domains, with a trend toward significance in the communication domain (p=0.053). Valproate-exposed children scored lowest and lamotrigine-exposed children scored highest in every category. Valproate-exposed children were most likely to perform at a low or moderately low adaptive level in each category. Higher valproate dose was associated with significantly lower ABC (p=0.020), socialization (p=0.009), and motor (p=0.041) scores before adjusting for confounders. After adjusting for the above variables, increasing VPA dose was associated with decreasing Vineland scores in all domains, but the relationships were not

  5. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-03

    -slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. ... Conclusion: This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums ... This cross-sectional, descriptive survey was carried out.

  6. Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the Issues. ... work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly ... The academic records of the students were also reviewed.

  7. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  8. School Children's Emotion in Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Pecková, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Title: School Children's Emotions During the Physical Education Aims: To determine and to compare the emotional reactions of school children in the hour of physical education based on a questionnaire Demore. Focus on girls and boys aged 10 to 15 years, or more pupils sixth and ninth standard and sport classes. Statistically processed and compared results between gender and orientation and evaluate the survey data in tables and graphs. Method: Analysis of survey responses received to the quest...

  9. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets : Children's Perspectives on School Gardening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school

  10. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  11. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Enhanced respiratory responses in children exposed to air pollution. An epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerenberg PA; Nierkens S; Fischer PH, Loveren H van; Opperhuizen A; Vos JG; Amsterdam JGC van; LPI; CCM; LEO

    1999-01-01

    The association between trafficrelated air pollution and respiratory symptoms was studied using a longitudinal observational design with repeated measures in 82 children attending elementary schools in Utrecht (urban) or Bilthoven (suburban). Selection of the schools was based on yearly mean values

  13. Refractive Errors in Primary School Children in Nigeria | Faderin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...

  14. Attention orientation in parents exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M; Mandell, Donald J; Musa, George J; Britton, Jennifer C; Sankin, Lindsey S; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Hoven, Christina W

    2011-05-15

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. [School readiness survey of Montreal children starting school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Isabelle; Lavoie, Sylvie; Guay, Danielle; Boucheron, Laurence; Durand, Danielle; Goulet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to provide a picture of the school readiness of 5-year-old Montréal children starting school and to identify disparities between neighbourhoods and the socio-economic factors determining these differences. 10,513 children were assessed using the Early Development Instrument. The results show that in Montréal, one child in three is vulnerable in at least one area of school readiness. Figures range from 22% to 43% in the different territories. A significant association was found between parents' level of education and the vulnerability of children. Differences between languages are found when analyzing school readiness based on groups of children by mother tongue. A comparative analysis between Montréal and two other large Canadian cities shows that the average score of children in Montréal is higher than the average score of Vancouver children in all areas and higher than the average score of Toronto children in two areas. The differences between territories in Montréal raise questions about public policies and inequalities in access to services and resources between affluent and less affluent neighbourhoods. A comparative analysis between Montréal and two Canadian cities provides a nuanced view of the perception of child vulnerability in Montréal when compared to the rest of Canada.

  16. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  17. Rural School Children Picturing Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

  18. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3½ years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from a substantial number of symptoms 3½ years after the…

  19. Ocular disorders in children in Zaria children's school | Abah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study like the previous one was a school eye health screening conducted in Zaria children school located at the centre of Zaria, a city in northern Nigeria. Aims and Objectives: to ... The predominance of uncorrected refractive error is similar to what is obtainable in other parts of the world especially in the urban areas.

  20. Cartoons Influence towards Violence and Aggression in School Age Children in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odukomaiya, Elizabeth Ibukunoluwa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore how violence and aggression in cartoon affects school age children in Nigeria. The reason for embarking on this research is to know whether and to what extent cartoon on television makes school age children (both male and female) violent and aggressive. Children are exposed to cartoon at their tender age (4-12). Though it serves as a means of entertainment to them, children learn faster than adults, and their re-enactment of media messages is unri...

  1. Winter camp for pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Golc, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  2. Physical and psychological symptoms and learning difficulties in children of women exposed and non-exposed to violence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niclas; Lindqvist, Kent; Gådin, Katja Gillander; Bråbäck, Lennart; Danielsson, Ingela

    2011-02-01

    To analyse the association between violence against mothers and the health of their children as reported by the mothers. The data originate from a multistage sampling health-questionnaire survey, distributed to a representative sample of women in Sweden. The health of 283 children (aged 0-18 years), as reported by women who had been exposed to violence at home or outside home during the past 12 months, was compared with that of 4,664 children of non-exposed mothers. Odds ratios regarding most registered physical symptoms showed that children of violence-exposed mothers had a significant higher risk of ill health than children of non-exposed mothers. Regarding psychological symptoms and learning difficulties, the odds were raised for girls for most symptoms, but not for boys. A twofold increase in health-care utilisation and an overall general increase in the risk of pharmaceutical consumption were shown for both girls and boys of exposed mothers. This population-based study shows an increased risk of poorer health amongst boys and girls aged 0-18 years, as reported by mothers exposed to violence.

  3. A bilingual "neighborhood club": intervening with children exposed to urban violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Maltese, Kelly L; Bautista, Elida M

    2006-06-01

    Mental health practitioners have offered relatively little in response to the pervasive community violence faced by many children living in impoverished neighborhoods. The "neighborhood club" is a school-based, short-term, support group designed to assist children with the psychological impact of exposure to community violence. Ten "neighborhood clubs" were conducted in two public elementary schools in Detroit, Michigan. This paper reviews the implementation of a bilingual "neighborhood club," undertaken to better serve the Spanish-speaking Latino students in a school community. We discuss many of the rewards and challenges of conducting a bilingual, multicultural support group for children and conclude that a bilingual support group provides all children with a model that validates ethnic and cultural diversity while also building empathic bonds based on mutually-reinforcing, common experiences.

  4. Risk and resilience trajectories in war-exposed children across the first decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Vengrober, Adva; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Although the effects of early-onset trauma on susceptibility to psychopathology are well-acknowledged, no study to date has followed risk and resilience trajectories in war-exposed young children over lengthy periods and charted predictors of individual pathways. In this prospective longitudinal study, we followed 232 children, including 148 exposed to repeated wartime trauma and 84 controls, at three time points: early childhood (1.5-5 years), middle childhood (5-8 years), and late childhood (9-11 years). Children were diagnosed at each time point and four trajectories defined: children exhibiting no pathology at any time point, those displaying early pathology that later remitted, those showing initial resilience followed by late pathology, and children presenting chronic pathology across the entire first decade. Maternal behavioral containment during trauma evocation and child social engagement during free play were observed in early childhood and maternal emotional distress self-reported across time. War-exposed children showed significantly higher rates of psychopathology, with 81% exhibiting pathology at some point during childhood. In middle childhood, exposed children displayed more posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), and in late childhood more PTSD, conduct/oppositional defiant disorders, and ADHD. War-exposed children had more comorbid psychopathologies and number of comorbidities increased with age. Notably, war-exposure increased prevalence of chronic pathology by 24-fold. Maternal factors, including mother's uncontained style and emotional distress, increased risk for early and chronic psychopathology, whereas reduced child social engagement augmented risk for late pathology. Early-onset chronic stress does not heal naturally, and its effects appear to exacerbate over time, with trauma-exposed children presenting a more comorbid, chronic, and externalizing profile as they

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAILURES IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS EXPOSED IN AGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT M4 OF FALCON STATE

    OpenAIRE

    María Alice Olavarrieta; Francisco Chong; Karelia Ramones; Salvatore Garagozzo; Jesús Sánchez; Ernesto Álvarez; Ana Acero; Luis Reinoza

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educatio...

  6. 77 FR 22000 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Violence AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: This is an... Violence (the ``task force''). The task force is chartered to provide OJP, a component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of addressing...

  7. Role of NADPH oxidase-2 and oxidative stress in children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Zicari, Anna Maria; Occasi, Francesca; Perri, Ludovica; Carnevale, Roberto; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria; Martino, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; De Castro, Giovanna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Battaglia, Simona; Duse, Marzia; Violi, Francesco

    2018-02-15

    This study explored oxidative stress, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (Nox2) activity and endothelial function in children exposed or not to passive smoking. Compared with controls (n=57), Nox2 activity and isoprostanes were higher in children exposed to passive smoking (n=57); conversely, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and flow-mediated dilation were lower in children exposed to passive smoking. A bivariate analysis showed that Nox2 activity correlated with flow-mediated dilation, NO bioavailability and isoprostanes. A multivariate analysis showed that Nox2 activity was significantly associated with serum isoprostanes and cotinine levels; flow-mediated dilation was associated with isoprostanes and carotid intima-media thickness.In children exposed to passive smoking, Nox2-derived oxidative stress is upregulated and inversely associated with impaired artery dilation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. [The transgenerational reproduction of violence in children exposed to domestic abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maurice

    Many violent people were themselves exposed to scenes of domestic abuse when they were children. This reproduction is linked to the construction of a traumatic memory, to the attack on the mother as a reassuring attachment figure for the child, diminished maternal competence and cerebral impairment due to the stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Worth and Social Support of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Yuriko; Porath, Marion

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among global self-worth (GSW), competencies in various domains, discrepancy between these perceptions of competence and their ratings of importance, and perceived social support of children who were exposed to marital violence using Harter's (1985a, 1985b) theoretical model. Participants…

  10. Adaptive and Defensive Strategies in Post-Traumatic Play of Young Children Exposed to Violent Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Saralea; Cohen, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, who had been exposed to violent attacks, were videotaped in individual 40-minute play sessions. These play narratives were recorded by a student researcher trained in narrative analysis and play therapy. She then sorted these play vignettes into three patterns of post-traumatic play, defined in the…

  11. Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen M Brown

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school ...

  12. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  13. Respiratory Complications during General Anesthesia in Children Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albaalbaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Exposure to the environmental Tobacco smoke is associated with detrimental effects on pulmonary function in the children. This study investigated the relation between airway complications in children receiving general anesthesia with the passive inhalation of smoke and those who were not.Materials & Methods: 223 children scheduled to receive general anesthesia care were enrolled in this case-control study. The anesthesiologist and the residents, unaware of the smoke exposure history, recorded the occurrence of airway complications. A history of passive smoking was assessed by measuring the numbers of cigarettes smoked by their parents per day. The data was analyzed by 2statistical test.Results: Respiratory complications occurred in 54.3% of the patients who were exposed to smoke and 32.4% of those who were not and the difference was statistically significant. Respiratory complications in daughters exposed to tobacco smoke was seen in 57.5% and in boys 51.2% (P=0.012. Respiratory events in children exposed to tobacco smoke was seen in 76.7% children with mother without education, 46.5% children of mothers with low educated level, and 12.5% children of mother with high educational level (P=0.002. This correlation was seen between respiratory events and educational level of fathers (P=0.006. Moreover, our study showed positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day with respiratory complications during general anesthesia (P<0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong association between passive inhalation of tobacco smoke and respiratory complications in children receiving general anesthesia. The relationship was greatest for the daughters and those whose parents had a lower level of education. Passive smoking should be regarded as a risk factor for the children undergoing general anesthesia.

  14. School bag carriage and pain in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckree, T; Silal, S P; Lin, J

    2004-01-07

    In South Africa (SA), anecdotal evidence for the incidence of shoulder, back and neck pain in school children is alarming but no scientific studies have confirmed this impression. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between pain and school bag carriage in scholars in Durban, SA. A study was carried out at four different schools in the Verulam and Chatsworth Regions in Kwa-Zulu Natal, SA. Schools were selected by convenience. One hundred and seventy six scholars between the ages of 11 and 14 years correctly filled out a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions. Each child also had his/her body and bag weight measured. In this study, most of the scholars experienced shoulder and a combination of shoulder and other bodily pain. The majority of the children carried backpacks over two shoulders. The type of bag carried was significantly related to pain experienced (0.00). A significantly larger number of female scholars experienced pain. The shoulder and other bodily pain experienced by the sample of scholars are strongly related to the type of bag and the gender of the children. More in-depth studies into identifying risk factors for bodily pains in school children are indicated.

  15. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Health, emergency department use, and early identification of young children exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y; Crusto, Cindy A; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-05-01

    Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency departments (EDs) are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use, and health-related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health-related problems. Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory - Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health-related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro (Atlanta, GA). Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health-related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (four or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult, but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within EDs, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury, and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. School Architecture for Autism Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Khajehpasha, Sepideh; Sharifi M, Ebrahim Samin; Arezoumand, Hadi; Saeidi M, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Lately many researches have done in relation to the link between architecture and autism or the autism likely environments which show that architecture could be effective in the states of the children suffering from autism disorders. The education center for the autism children need special spaces for education and treatment. Surveys in many Asian countries show that most of the care centers of the children suffering from autism are created by the changing the use of the spaces like houses or...

  18. Protective Factors for Youth Exposed to Violence in Their Communities: A Review of Family, School, and Community Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Lavi, Iris; Douglas, Laura; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive investigation of the pattern and strength of findings in the literature regarding the environmental moderators of the relationship between exposure to community violence and mental health among children and adolescents. Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in our analysis of family, school, and community variables as moderators. Dependent variables included internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, substance use). Effect sizes for the interactions of exposure to violence and potential moderators were summarized by their patterns of protective processes. The majority of studies in the literature examined family characteristics as moderators of the exposure to violence-symptom relationship, rather than school- or community-level factors. Our results indicated more consistent patterns for (a) close family relationships and social support for internalizing symptoms and (b) close family relationships for externalizing symptoms. Overall, the most common type of protective pattern was protective-stabilizing, in which youth with higher levels of the environmental attribute demonstrate relative stability in mental health despite exposure to violence. We found no consistent evidence that parental monitoring-a dimension inversely associated with exposure to violence in prior studies-moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and symptoms. The study emphasizes the importance of strengthening family support for young people's exposure to community violence; more research is needed to provide a solid evidence base for the role of school and community-level protective factors for youth exposed to violence.

  19. School Performances among Internationally Adopted Children in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica

    2001-01-01

    Examined the school competence of internationally adopted children from Colombia and Korea and a matched sample of Norwegian-born children. Found that adopted children had lower school performance than Norwegian-born children. Most of the disparity was explained by adopted children's language skills and high frequency of hyperactive behavior.…

  20. Children's experiences of attitudes and rules for going to the toilet in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Barbro; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Berg, Marie

    2010-06-01

    School children often base their toilet habits on behavioural and social reasons. Bladder emptying problems, urinary tract infections and constipation are common health problems which are also associated with irregular toilet habits. School rules for going to the toilet have been shown to create difficulties for school children with bladder dysfunction. Aim of this study was to describe children's experiences of school rules for going to the toilet and their significance for the children. Individual open-ended questions with 19 schoolchildren aged 9-16 in elementary schools. To manage the children's toilet needs, teachers used rules designed for maintaining order in the classroom. The children saw their toilets needs as a private matter and experienced it complicated to go to the toilet during recess as time was short and the risk for violation of their integrity was at its highest. The most frustrating when to comply with rules during lessons was to be forced to, in front of all their classmates, make public the need to go to the toilet: i.e the most private was exposed to the disclosure. The rules for going to the toilet came from the teachers' need for maintaining order in the classroom and were not adapted to the children's physical and developmental needs. To violate the integrity of children can affect their willingness to go to the school toilet which in turn affects their wellbeing during school time.

  1. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  2. Hearing thresholds in children exposed to mercury in the prenatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Marilene Danieli Simões; Cavadas, Marcia; Jesus, Iracina Maura de; Santos, Elisabeth Oliveira; Silva, Evelyn Almeida da; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate hearing thresholds in children with a history of exposure to mercury during the prenatal period. Participants were 90 children of both genders with ages from 8 to 10 years, divided into two groups according to prenatal mercury exposure levels. The study group was composed by 57 children who had mercury levels in the umbilical cord equal or above 8 µg/L, and the comparison group comprised 33 children who had mercury levels in the umbilical cord below 8 µg/L. Investigation procedures included the application of a questionnaire, pure-tone audiometry, speech reception threshold, and mercury level analysis in cord blood collected at birth. The study group showed a median mercury level in the umbilical cord of 14.63 µg/L, and the median threshold for 500 Hz, 1 kHz and 2 kHz in pure-tone audiometry was 10 dB for both ears. The comparison group had a median cord blood mercury level of 4.88 µg/L, and the median threshold for 500 Hz, 1 kHz and 2 kHz in pure-tone audiometry was 10 dB for both ears. When the hearing thresholds were compared, both by the tritonal mean and by each frequency separately, there were no significant differences between groups. The children had hearing thresholds within normal limits and there was no significant difference between the hearing thresholds of children exposed and not exposed prenatally to mercury.

  3. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...... were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who...

  5. Language Impairment in Children Perinatally Infected with HIV Compared to Children Who Were HIV-Exposed and Uninfected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L.; Buchanan, Ashley L.; Siberry, George K; Malee, Kathleen M.; Zeldow, Bret; Frederick, Toni; Purswani, Murli U.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Sirois, Patricia A.; Smith, Renee; Torre, Peter; Allison, Susannah M; Williams, Paige L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk for language impairment in children perinatally infected or exposed to HIV. Methods We evaluated the prevalence of language impairment (LI) in 7–16 year old children with perinatal HIV infection (HIV+) compared to children HIV-exposed and uninfected (HEU), using a comprehensive standardized language test (CELF-4). LI was classified as primary LI (Pri-LI) (monolingual English exposure and no cognitive or hearing impairment), concurrent LI (Con-LI) (cognitive or hearing impairment), or no LI. Associations of demographic, caregiver, HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment (ART) factors with LI category were evaluated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 468 children with language assessments, 184 (39%) had LI. No difference was observed by HIV infection status for overall LI or for Pri-LI or Con-LI; mean (SD) CELF-4 scores were 88.5 (18.4) for HIV+ vs 87.5 (17.9) for HEU. After adjustment, Black children had higher odds of Pri-LI vs no LI (aOR=2.43, p=0.03). Children who were Black, Hispanic, had a caregiver with low education or low IQ, or a non-biological parent as caregiver had higher odds of Con-LI vs no LI. Among HIV+ children, viral load >400 copies/ml (aOR=3.04, p<0.001), CDC Class C (aOR=2.19, p=0.02) and ART initiation <6 months of age (aOR=2.12, p=0.02) were associated with higher odds of Con-LI vs. no LI. Conclusions Children perinatally exposed to HIV are at high risk for LI, but such risk was not increased for youth with HIV. Risk factors differed for Pri-LI and Con-LI. PMID:22179050

  6. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  7. Children's School Assessment: Implications for Family-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel-Amaya; Martinez, Rosario; Perez, M. Henar

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this chapter is to analyse parents' perceptions of children's assessment in primary school. Understanding these perceptions may shed light on their knowledge of assessment and involvement in their child's education. The sample population consisted of one hundred and eighty eight Spanish parents (N=188) of students in third grade in…

  8. Academic performance of school children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R C; Ojinnaka, N C; Iloeje, S O

    2008-04-01

    Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on effect of epilepsy on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy. This study is aimed at determining the academic performance of children with epilepsy with the hope that the findings will help in formulating policies that will be used in their educational programme. The academic performance of 50 epileptic children attending normal primary school was compared with those of non-epileptic classmates matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. The academic performance was assessed using the overall scores achieved in the terminal examination in the 2001/2002 academic years, as well as the scores in individual subjects. There were 36 males and 14 females. The most common seizure type among the epileptic children was generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Thirteen (26%) of the epileptic children had a low overall score, and therefore poor academic performance, compared to 16% of the controls. (p = 0.35). However, the mean score of the epileptic children was significantly lower than that of the controls in English (p = 0.02), Science (p = 0.02) and Social studies (p = 0.02). The overall academic performance of epileptic children without other chronic disorders attending normal schools is not different from that of normal children in the same setting, though they are under-achieving in some subjects.

  9. Geochemical Treasure Hunt for Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesmer, Maja; Frick, Daniel; Gerrits, Ruben; des GFZ-GeoWunderWerkstatt, Schülerlabor

    2017-04-01

    How can you inspire school children for geochemistry, and scientific exploratory urge? The key is to raise their curiosity and make learning new things a hands-on experience. The Fellows of the European Marie Curie Initial Training Network IsoNose designed and established a "Geochemical Treasure Hunt" to excite children for scientific investigations. This workshop explains primary school children the research and scientific methods of isotopic geochemistry, and their use to understand processes on the Earth's surface. From obtaining 'samples', performing various experiments, the school children gather clues leading them to the hidden treasure on the Telegrafenberg (campus of the GFZ Potsdam). The course was designed for school children to learn hands-on the meaning of elements, atoms and isotopes. In small groups the children conduct experiments of simplified methods being indispensable to any isotope geochemist. However, prior to working in any laboratory environment, a security briefing is necessary. For the course, two stages were implemented; firstly the use of harmful substances and dangerous equipment was minimised, and secondly children were equipped with size-matched personal protective equipment (lab coats, gloves, and safety googles). The purification of elements prior to isotopic analysis was visualised using colour chromatography. However, instead of using delicate mass spectrometers for the isotope ratio measurements, the pupils applied flame spectroscopy to analyse their dissolved and purified mineral solutions. Depending on the specific element present, a different colour was observed in the flame. The children plotted their colours of the flame spectroscopy onto a map and by interpreting the emerging colour patterns they localized the treasure on the map. In small teams they swarmed out on the Telegrafenberg to recover the hidden treasure. The project leading to this outreach activity has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie

  10. Children of imigrants in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kolednik, Urška

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of enlarged migration flows it is more and more common for children of different ethnical, religious and cultural backgrounds to meet in schools. All students must have equal conditions to learn, progress and achieve the best possible results. This thesis includes a theoretical and an empirical part. The theoretical part is divided in seven content sections dealing with various aspects of the education problem of migrant children. Theoretical part focuses on the national g...

  11. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  12. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3 years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from...... with posttraumatic stress would be associated with reductions in symptoms. The second aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the Darryl, a cartoon-based PTSD screening instrument. Methods One hundred and eight children participated in the treatment program, all of whom fulfilled at least two out of the three DSM...

  13. School readiness of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Frances E; Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-08-01

    To examine school readiness in preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) on three of five domains compared with reported norms of children with typical development (CTD). A representative population of 151 preschool-age children with CP (87 males, 64 females; 131 [87%] with spasticity, 17 [11%] dyskinesia, 3 [4%] hypotonia) were assessed at 48 or 60 months corrected age. Children were functioning in the following Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels: I, 74 (49%); II, 17 (11%); III, 14 (9%); IV, 26 (17%); V, 20 (13%). Children's motor performance, self-care, and social function were assessed using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) and communication using the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP). Results were compared with a reference sample of CTD (PEDI CTD n=412; CSBS-DP CTD n=790). Linear regression was used to compare these data by functional severity. Children with CP had significantly lower PEDI scores in all domains than CTD. Self-care scores ranged from 0.5 to more than 4SD below CTD, motor performance was 2 to >4SD below CTD, and social function between 0.5 and >4SD below CTD. Fifty-five per cent of children demonstrated significantly delayed communication skills. Non-ambulant children displayed significantly lower scores than ambulant children. Preschool-age children with CP perform significantly below their peers in three of five key readiness-to-learn skill areas including mobility, self-care, social function, and communication abilities. Broader emphasis needs to be placed on multimodal screening and intervention to prepare children with CP for school entry. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230) . Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively) . Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004) . Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  15. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  16. Specificity of school readiness assessment of children with mental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Klausová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the school readiness assessment of children with mental disability. Thesis is devoted to theoretical knowledge in relation to pre-school age and also specifically for children with mental disability. Thesis describes the school readiness of child and compares foreign and local view on it. It also includes the issue of school readiness of children with mental disability. Furthermore, the thesis focuses on the school readiness assessment and on resources and tools that...

  17. CHILDREN EXPOSED TO IPV. LEGISLATIVE CHANGES, RESEARCH AND GOOD PRACTICE IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosser Limiñana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children who live in contexts of intimate partner violence (IPV are also victims of this violence, whether they have witnessed it or they have been beaten themselves. The research has highlighted that exposure to IPV has significant repercussions on the psychosocial development of these children. This evidence demands the implementation of measures and programs aimed at intervening with them. The objective of this study is to assess the current situation of children exposed to IPV in Spain, both at a legislative level and at the level of research and intervention programs. The conclusion shows that, in recent years in Spain, we have been experiencing a significant change among researchers, governments and professionals, who are increasingly concerned about the care given to children exposed to IPV. It is also pointed out that there is a need to train professionals from different fields of intervention to tackle the challenge of working with these children, in order to improve their life conditions and to contribute to their overcoming of such difficulties.

  18. Prevalence of Refractive Error Among school children in Meseret ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes finally leading to a grave socio economic burden to the society. The study determined the prevalence of refractive error among school children of Meseret General Primary School, ...

  19. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  20. IMPRoving Outcomes for children exposed to domestic ViolencE (IMPROVE): an evidence synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Emma; Moore, Theresa HM; Welton, Nicky J.; Lewis, Natalia; Stanley, Nicky; MacMillan, Harriet; Shaw, Alison; Hester, Marianne; Bryden, Peter; Feder, Gene

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundExposure to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of negative outcomes across the lifespan.ObjectivesTo synthesise evidence on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions for children exposed to DVA, with the aim of making recommendations for further research.Design(1) A systematic review of controlled trials of interventions; (2) a systematic review of qualitative studies of participant and profes...

  1. School Zone: Learning Environments for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne P.; Vlastos, George

    Architectural solutions to some educational problems are explored and a systematic method is presented for designing schools as learning environments for children. Classroom environments and outdoor play areas are considered as functional art forms and seen as three-dimensional textbooks. The book demonstrates a way of using curriculum as a design…

  2. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-01-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was…

  3. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with hooigworms, Trichuris'trichirua and Ascaris lumbricoides infections are improved after treatment with albendazole J. Nutrition 1994, 124: 1199-1206. Nokes C. Grantham- McGregor, S.M. Sawyer A.W.. Cooper ES, Bundy, D.A.P. Parastic helminth infection and cognitive function in school children proceeding of the Royal ...

  4. Children's Sleep and School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…

  5. Acute Mercury Poisoning in a Group of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Kirik, Serkan; Dalkiran, Tahir; Güngör, Gülay; Işikay, Sedat; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Dilber, Cengiz

    2016-12-12

    Elemental mercury is a toxic liquid element that is used widely in the home, medicine, agriculture, and industry. It is readily vaporized and inhaled at room temperature. Thereby, inhalation can cause acute or chronic poisoning. Mercury can be found in environmental naturally find but some dangers sources give rise to contaminations. It can be very dangerous to all living organisms, especially children. This study presents the features of mercury poisoning in a group of pediatric cases. Data were obtained for 29 pediatric cases exposed to elemental mercury in a high school chemistry laboratory in Turkey. Patients with a blood mercury level exceeding 10 μg/L or a urine mercury level exceeding 15 μg/L were considered to have mercury poisoning. The patients were treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonic acid or D-penicillamine. Twenty-nine children with mercury poisoning were admitted to the hospital. The median duration of exposure was 58 (range, 15-120) minutes. Ten (29%) children were asymptomatic. Physical and neurological examinations were normal in 19 (65.5%) children. The most common presenting complaint was headache. The most common neurological abnormality, partly dilated/dilated pupils, was present in 9 (31%) children. Mercury levels were measured in blood samples every 5 days, and the median blood mercury level was 51.98 (range, 24.9-86.4) μg/L. There was a positive correlation between the duration of exposure and maximum blood/urine mercury levels (P = 0.001). Elemental mercury exposure is potentially toxic; its symptomatology varies, especially in children. Secure storage of mercury and other toxic substances and provision of information about this subject to individuals who might be exposed to mercury and their families might help to prevent mercury poisoning.

  6. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  7. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  8. How Can We Help Make Schools Safe for Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Chester R.; Fuller, James O.

    The primary cause of anxiety for many parents today is protecting their children from acts of violence at school. This brochure discusses what steps parents and school administrators can take to make schools safer. First, the brochure discusses what is being done to ensure children's safety in school, such as teaching prevention skills, providing…

  9. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  10. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Polat UNUTKAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as follows: Ø Does pre-school education variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does age variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does gender variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does socio-economical status variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills?

  11. Apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children exposed to arsenic and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Amador, Diana O; Calderón, Jaqueline; Carrizales, Leticia; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván Nelinho

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated apoptosis induction in human immune cells in children exposed to arsenic (As) and fluoride (F). Children living in two areas in Mexico (Soledad de Graciano Sanchez (SGS) in San Luis Potosí and Colonia 5 de Febrero in Durango) were studied. Water, urine and blood samples were collected. Approximately 90% of the water samples in 5 de Febrero had As and F levels above the World Health Organization intervention guideline (10 μg/L and 1.5mg/L, respectively). In SGS, 0% of the water samples exceeded Mexican guidelines. Urinary As and F levels in children living in 5 de Febrero were significantly higher than the levels found in children living in SGS. In addition, the level of apoptosis was higher in children from the 5 de Febrero community when compared with the level of apoptosis in children living in SGS. Thus, in a worldwide context, our study demonstrates the health risks to children living in these regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. White matter hyperintensities, systemic inflammation, brain growth, and cognitive functions in children exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Carlos, Esperanza; Solorio-López, Edelmira; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Kavanaugh, Michael; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. Forty percent of exposed children and young adults exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% have amyloid-β diffuse plaques compared to 0% in low pollution controls. In older adults, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with cognitive deficits while inflammatory markers correlate with greater atrophy than expected for age. We investigated patterns of WMH, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volume growth, blood inflammatory mediators, and cognition in matched children from two urban cohorts: one severely and one minimally exposed to air pollution. Baseline and one year follow-up measurements of cognitive abilities, brain MRI volumes, and blood were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with WMH+, and 10 without WMH-) and 10 matched controls (WMH-). MC WMH- children display the profile of classical pro-inflammatory defensive responses: high interleukin 12, production of powerful pro-inflammatory cytokines, and low concentrations of key cytokines and chemokines associated with neuroprotection. MC WMH+ children exhibit a response involved in resolution of inflammation, immunoregulation, and tissue remodeling. The MC WMH+ group responded to the air pollution-associated brain volumetric alterations with white and grey matter volume increases in temporal, parietal, and frontal regions and better cognitive performance compared to MC WMH-. We conclude that complex modulation of cytokines and chemokines influences children's central nervous system structural and volumetric responses and cognitive correlates resulting from environmental pollution exposures. Identification of biomarkers associating systemic inflammation to brain growth is critical for detecting children at higher risk for cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration, thereby warranting early implementation of neuroprotective measures.

  13. Protection against antisocial behavior in children exposed to physically abusive discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Tajima, Emiko A; Whitney, Stephen D; Huang, Bu

    2005-06-01

    The study investigated protective factors (school commitment/importance, parent/peer disapproval of antisocial behavior, positive future orientation, and religion) hypothesized to lower risk for antisocial behavior among adolescents who, as children, had been physically abused. Protective factors also were investigated for comparison, nonabused children, and for children at risk on abuse and other factors: low socioeconomic status and early antisocial behavior. Analyses used a two-step hierarchical regression approach. In step 1, age, gender, and early antisocial behavior were entered as controls. In step 2, each protective factor was entered separately as a predictor. A final regression model in each case examined the additive (combined) effect of all protective factors on a given outcome. Tests of predictor-by-group interactions were used to examine group differences. Among abused and nonabused children, having a strong commitment to school, having parents and peers who disapprove of antisocial behavior, and being involved in a religious community lowered rates of lifetime violence, delinquency, and status offenses. Having a positive future orientation appeared less powerful as a protective influence. Exposure to an increasing number of protective factors was for each outcome associated with a diminution in risk for antisocial behavior. Protective factors represent targets for preventive intervention that are viable for children as they enter adolescence. The fact that protective factors were predictive of lower antisocial behavior in both the abuse and comparison groups suggests that protective effects are more universal than they are unique to a given group of children.

  14. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children, and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular interest. Overall, parents gave their children higher school friendship ratings than the children gave themselves, and hearing children and their pare...

  15. Bed wetting in school children of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Shoaib; Zaidi, Zafar

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in Pakistani children and to examine the factors associated with it. A randomly selected cross-sectional study was conducted in five elementary schools, one in each of five districts of Karachi. The parents of 5000 children age between 3-13 years were asked to complete a questionnaire which included items about the frequency of daytime wetting and nocturnal enuresis, family history, urinary tract infection, parents and child's own concern about this problem and acquisition of treatments. Over all corrected response rate to the questionnaire was 69% (3395). Enuresis was present in 9.1% (308). There were 166 (53.9%) boys and 142 (46%) girls with a median age of 7 years. Only 54% (166) children sought help for their problem of which 26% consulted doctors, 16% visited homeopaths while 11% used hakeems and home remedies. Of the bed wetters, 30% were wet every night, 30% for more than three nights a week and 40% for less than three nights every week. Parents of 68.5% (211) children reported concern for the problem while 69.8% (215) children were also anxious about their enuresis. Among the concerned children group, 22% parents were not concerned about their child's problem. Family history of enuresis was present in 25.6% (79) children. The frequency of enuresis among the school going children in Karachi is 9.1% and is similar to that reported in European countries and other Asian countries including Korea and Taiwan. Enuresis causes concern to both parents and children, but only a small percentage of parents seek medical help for this problem.

  16. Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone's Kids. NBER Working Paper No. 14246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that between ten and twenty percent of children in the United States are exposed to domestic violence annually. While much is known about the impact of domestic violence and other family problems on children within the home, little is known regarding the extent to which these problems spill over to children outside the family. The…

  17. Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children: All Children in School by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (UIS) launched the joint Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children in 2010 to accelerate efforts towards the goal of universal primary education by 2015. The goal of the…

  18. Beyond distance: children's school travel mode choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Zhu, Xuemei; Yoon, Jeongjae; Varni, James W

    2013-02-01

    Long distance is a leading environmental barrier to walking to school and requires long-term, multilevel interventions. Meanwhile, childhood obesity remains highly prevalent, calling for more immediate solutions. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudinal and environmental correlates of walking to the elementary school, controlling for distance. Using parental survey data, 601 child pairs with matched home locations and different school travel modes (walking vs. private automobile) were examined, using conditional logistic regressions. Despite the same/similar objectively measured distance and home location, perceptions of distance, sidewalk and traffic conditions, park presence, and convenience of walking differed between walkers and automobile users. Parental attitudes and children's preferences were associated with the odds of walking. Safety concerns (traffic danger, stranger danger, and getting lost) were higher among drivers, but only significant in bivariate analyses. To promote walking to school, route/street improvements appear promising, but parallel educational and promotional efforts may be needed to address perceptual and attitudinal barriers.

  19. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public primary schools in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, E W; Makokha, A N

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition among school-age children is due to inadequacies in one or more of the three main preconditions for good nutrition: food, care and health. Children stunted at school age are likely to have been exposed to poor nutrition since early childhood. Interventions for school age children can supplement efforts to reduce levels of stunting in the preschool years. To assess the nutrition status and associated risk factors of children in selected public primary schools in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi. Descriptive cross sectional design was used. 208 students aged 4-11years of both gender were randomly selected from four public primary schools in Dagoretti Division. Data was collected from school registers and directly questioning the students, parents /guardians. Among the children surveyed, 24.5% were stunted, 14.9% underweight and 9.7% were wasted. There were more boys than girls who were stunted. Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups. Incidence of diarrhea, colds/coughs increased the risk of stunting and underweight. Consumption of food which is inadequate in required calories and from less than four varieties of food groups by the children were important predictors of malnutrition.

  20. Understanding differences between summer vs. school obesogenic behaviors of children: the structured days hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Pate, Russell R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Chandler, Jessica L; Bohnert, Amy; von Hippel, Paul T

    2017-07-26

    Although the scientific community has acknowledged modest improvements can be made to weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary/screen time, diet, and sleep) during the school year, studies suggests improvements are erased as elementary-age children are released to summer vacation. Emerging evidence shows children return to school after summer vacation displaying accelerated weight gain compared to the weight gained occurring during the school year. Understanding how summer days differ from when children are in school is, therefore, essential. There is limited evidence on the etiology of accelerated weight gain during summer, with few studies comparing obesogenic behaviors on the same children during school and summer. For many children, summer days may be analogous to weekend days throughout the school year. Weekend days are often limited in consistent and formal structure, and thus differ from school days where segmented, pre-planned, restrictive, and compulsory components exist that shape obesogenic behaviors. The authors hypothesize that obesogenic behaviors are beneficially regulated when children are exposed to a structured day (i.e., school weekday) compared to what commonly occurs during summer. This is referred to as the 'Structured Days Hypothesis' (SDH). To illustrate how the SDH operates, this study examines empirical data that compares weekend day (less-structured) versus weekday (structured) obesogenic behaviors in U.S. elementary school-aged children. From 190 studies, 155 (~80%) demonstrate elementary-aged children's obesogenic behaviors are more unfavorable during weekend days compared to weekdays. In light of the SDH, consistent evidence demonstrates the structured environment of weekdays may help to protect children by regulating obesogenic behaviors, most likely through compulsory physical activity opportunities, restricting caloric intake, reducing screen time occasions, and regulating sleep schedules. Summer is

  1. Asthma control in London secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine; Mosler, Gioia; Williams, Samson A; Whitehouse, Abigail; Raine, Rosalind; Grigg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    The asthma control test (ACT) is a validated tool for assessing control in asthmatic children aged 12 years and older. Using the ACT, we sought to assess asthma control and knowledge in London secondary school children. Secondary schools in London, UK, participated in this study. Children with doctor-diagnosed asthma were invited to complete an online questionnaire that included the ACT and questions about asthma. Suboptimal asthma control was defined as an ACT score of ≤ 19 out of a maximum score of 25. Data are summarised as median and interquartile range (IQR), and were analysed by either Mann-Whitney test, or chi-square test. A p value of asthma control was reported by 49.6% of students. Over a third (42.4%) of students prescribed a short-acting β2-agonist inhaler felt uncomfortable using it at school, and 29.2% (n = 173) reported not using this inhaler when wheezy. 56.4% (n = 220) of those with regular inhaled corticosteroids did not take them as prescribed, and 41.7% did not know what this inhaler was for. Suboptimal control was associated with a greater proportion of students reporting that they were 'somewhat', 'hardly' or 'not at all' comfortable using inhalers at school (52.7% vs 29.1%, p asthma control and poor asthma knowledge are common in London schoolchildren.

  2. Learning disability in rural primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, K N; Agarwal, D K; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, M

    1991-04-01

    In rural primary school children observed for two years, 12.97 per cent of those having IQ greater than or equal to 90 were found to have poor achievement in arithmetic test and teacher's assessment. These learning disabled children had impaired perceptual maturity and conceptual grasp as observed on MISIC (Indian modification of WISC), Bender Gestalt test and Piaget's test. On WISC Bannatyne categories learning disabled children scored highest in verbal conceptualization (similarities, vocabulary, comprehension), followed by spatial (picture completion, object assembly, block design) and sequencing (arithmetic, digit span, coding) abilities. These children on Bender Gestalt test made more errors particularly distortions (distortion of parts, incorrect number of dots, shape of design lost etc). They also showed delayed development on Piagetian tasks class inclusion, conservation (for length, substance, liquid and number) ordinal relation and one to one correspondence. These observations indicate impaired perceptual maturity, conception and information processing deficit.

  3. School performance of children in kinship care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R J; Dubowitz, H

    1994-07-01

    This study represents the first comprehensive assessment of the school performance of children placed in the care of a relative, an arrangement termed kinship care. The educational programs, academic achievement, and cognitive and language skills of the children were assessed with a teacher questionnaire and standardized tests. Compared to their peers, high rates of grade retention and participation in special and remedial education, as well as significant academic achievement, cognitive, and language deficits were found. Most teachers, however, reported that educational services were appropriate and several interventions had proven successful. Analyses of predictor variables showed that placement at a later age and fewer children in the home were associated with higher academic achievement. Results are reviewed in the context of other foster care studies, and recommendations are made regarding future research and educational needs of children in kinship care.

  4. Emergency response readiness for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2015-09-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether a 1-day basic life support (BLS) training program can significantly increase emergency response readiness for primary school children.Methods One hundred and seven children aged 11-12 years completed a program led by surf lifesaving instructors. A 50-item quiz was administered 1 week before and 1 and 8 weeks after training.Results Significant improvements were gained in knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; P school-based training that provides a general foundation for emergency response readiness.What is known about this topic? The importance and value of teaching BLS to school children is well established in the US, UK and Europe. However, in the past 20 years there has been little or no published Australian evaluation research in this area, despite thousands of training programs running each year around the country for children in first aid, CPR and water safety.What does this paper add? This paper confirms that Australian primary school children can benefit significantly from short, targeted BLS training programs that provide the basic skills and confidence for them to respond in an emergency situation.What are the implications for practitioners? The paper provides a training and evaluation framework that can be used by health educators for age-appropriate BLS programs. The study shows that making training real-world and relevant, especially having hands-on CPR practice with manikins, can address common barriers to performing first aid and CPR reported by young people.

  5. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    UNUTKAN, Ozgul Polat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as follows: Ø Does pre-school education variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills...

  6. "Stop It, It's Bad for You and Me": Experiences of and Views on Passive Smoking among Primary-School Children in Liverpool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan E.; Springett, Jane; Porcellato, Lorna; Dugdill, Lindsey

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at how children between the ages of 4 and 8 years report they feel when they are exposed to passive smoking and how they react in these situations. Data were collected annually from a cohort of 250 primary school children, which was tracked from their Reception Classes to Year 3 across six Liverpool schools. Quantitative and…

  7. Discrepancies in racial designations of school children in Minneapolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillum, R F; Gomez-Marin, O; Prineas, R J

    1988-01-01

    To determine the frequency of inaccuracies in racial designations of school children in a health survey, racial designations were examined for a sample of 1,509 children in Minneapolis public schools who participated in the first home interview of the Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. The data were obtained from three sources: the school enrollment data based on parentally supplied information and teachers' visual judgments, school survey interviewers participating in a research pr...

  8. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  9. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  10. Assent of school-age bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, Bonnie; Gonzales, Orlando; Mills, Debra

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of assent of school-age bilingual children to participate in a research study. The article reviews cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors influencing verbal and nonverbal concept formation in bilingual children. At the applied level, the focus of the article is on methodological considerations in using this information to obtain assent from a child who is bilingual and speaks English as a second language. Recommendations for the assessment of the child's language dominance, language proficiency, and the development of the assent form are provided. Language diversity and its potential effects on the assent process need to be formally acknowledged and appropriately addressed.

  11. Long Term Impact Of The Non Formal Pre School Education Component Of Icds On The Mental Status Of School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachar R K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the long term impact of non formal pre-school education component of ICDS on the mental status of school children? Objective: To assess and compare the long-term impact of the preschool education component of ICDS on the mental development in rural and urban children in the school going age group (6-12 yrs. Study design: With and without non-formal education exposure. Setting: Two ICDS blocks one urban and one rural in Ludhiana district. Participants: School going children in age group 6-12 yrs. Sample Size: 360 children, (180 each from urban and rural school going children from 30 schools. Study Variables: Age, Sex. Place of residence, previous ICDS attendance. Outcome Variable: present mental status by Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard Error of difference between means. Results: The children exposed to non-formal pre-school education through ICDS in younger life had better mental status than those who did not receive such stimulation. Urban children of higher age groups i.e, 8-10yrs, had better mental status than similar group of rural children. No sex difference was noted in between similar groups. Recommendation: Non-formal pre-school education component of ICDS is highly cost-effective measure in promoting mental development and serves very useful purpose in our present situation.

  12. Social Skills and Satisfaction with Social Relationships in Home-Schooled, Private-Schooled, and Public-Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Marcia J.; Asaro, Jesika N.; Bergin, Jamie; D'Auria, Nicole; Gagnon, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that 1.5 to 2.1 million children are home-schooled, there is limited research on the impact of home-schooling on children's social skills. This study compares 53 home-schooled, 49 private-schooled, and 48 public-schooled children between the ages of 8 and 12 on social skills, as measured by the Parent and Student Forms of the…

  13. Differences in Speech Recognition Between Children with Attention Deficits and Typically Developed Children Disappear When Exposed to 65 dB of Auditory Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Jobs, Elisabeth Nilsson

    2016-01-01

    The most common neuropsychiatric condition in the in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting ∼6-9% of the population. ADHD is distinguished by inattention and hyperactive, impulsive behaviors as well as poor performance in various cognitive tasks often leading to failures at school. Sensory and perceptual dysfunctions have also been noticed. Prior research has mainly focused on limitations in executive functioning where differences are often explained by deficits in pre-frontal cortex activation. Less notice has been given to sensory perception and subcortical functioning in ADHD. Recent research has shown that children with ADHD diagnosis have a deviant auditory brain stem response compared to healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the speech recognition threshold differs between attentive and children with ADHD symptoms in two environmental sound conditions, with and without external noise. Previous research has namely shown that children with attention deficits can benefit from white noise exposure during cognitive tasks and here we investigate if noise benefit is present during an auditory perceptual task. For this purpose we used a modified Hagerman's speech recognition test where children with and without attention deficits performed a binaural speech recognition task to assess the speech recognition threshold in no noise and noise conditions (65 dB). Results showed that the inattentive group displayed a higher speech recognition threshold than typically developed children and that the difference in speech recognition threshold disappeared when exposed to noise at supra threshold level. From this we conclude that inattention can partly be explained by sensory perceptual limitations that can possibly be ameliorated through noise exposure.

  14. Differences in Speech Recognition Between Children with Attention Deficits and Typically Developed Children Disappear when Exposed to 65 dB of Auditory Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran B W Söderlund

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuropsychiatric condition in the in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, affecting approximately 6-9 % of the population. ADHD is distinguished by inattention and hyperactive, impulsive behaviors as well as poor performance in various cognitive tasks often leading to failures at school. Sensory and perceptual dysfunctions have also been noticed. Prior research has mainly focused on limitations in executive functioning where differences are often explained by deficits in pre-frontal cortex activation. Less notice has been given to sensory perception and subcortical functioning in ADHD. Recent research has shown that children with ADHD diagnosis have a deviant auditory brain stem response compared to healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the speech recognition threshold differs between attentive and children with ADHD symptoms in two environmental sound conditions, with and without external noise. Previous research has namely shown that children with attention deficits can benefit from white noise exposure during cognitive tasks and here we investigate if noise benefit is present during an auditory perceptual task. For this purpose we used a modified Hagerman’s speech recognition test where children with and without attention deficits performed a binaural speech recognition task to assess the speech recognition threshold in no noise and noise conditions (65 dB. Results showed that the inattentive group displayed a higher speech recognition threshold than typically developed children (TDC and that the difference in speech recognition threshold disappeared when exposed to noise at supra threshold level. From this we conclude that inattention can partly be explained by sensory perceptual limitations that can possibly be ameliorated through noise exposure.

  15. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various

  16. Children exposed to a natural disaster: psychological consequences eight years after 2004 tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebäck, Petra; Schulman, Abbe; Nilsson, Doris

    2017-10-09

    There is a need for studies that follow up children and adolescents for many years post disaster since earlier studies have shown that exposure during natural disasters constitutes a risk factor for poor psychological health. The main aim was to examine whether there was an association between severity of exposures during a natural disaster experienced in childhood or adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, self-rated health, diagnosis of depression, anxiety or worry, thoughts about or attempted suicide, physical symptoms or daily functioning eight years later in young adulthood. A second aim was to compare psychological distress and self-rated health of exposed young adults with a matched population-based sample. Young adults, who experienced the 2004 tsunami as children between 10 and 15 years of age, responded to a questionnaire eight years post disaster. The results were compared to a matched population sample. The results showed that the likelihood for negative psychological outcomes was higher for those who had been exposed to several types of exposures during this natural disaster. The negative psychological impact on children and adolescents can still be present eight years post-disaster and seems to have association with the type of exposure; loss, physical presence and subjective experience. It is important for clinicians, who meet young adults seeking help, to be conscious about the impact as long as eight years post disaster and to be aware of possible clinical implications associated with severity of exposures.

  17. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  18. Mediators and Treatment Factors in Intervention for Children Exposed to Interparental Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Mathilde M; De Schipper, J Clasien; Willemen, Agnes M; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Changes in children's emotion differentiation, coping skills, parenting stress, parental psychopathology, and parent-child interaction were explored as mediators of treatment factors in two selective preventive group interventions for children exposed to interparental violence (IPV) and their parents. One hundred thirty-four IPV-exposed children (ages 6-12 years, 52% boys) and their parents were randomized to an IPV-focused or common factors community-based group intervention and completed baseline, posttest, and follow-up assessments for posttraumatic stress (PTS). A multilevel model tested mediators that included children's ability to differentiate emotions and coping skills, parenting stress, parental psychopathology, and parent-child interactions. In both conditions, exposure to nonspecific factors, specific factors unrelated to IPV and trauma-specific intervention factors was coded from videotaped child and parent sessions. Improved parental mental health mediated the link between greater exposure to nonspecific treatment factors and decreases in PTS symptoms. In addition, an increase in emotion differentiation and a decrease in parenting stress were associated with a decrease in PTS symptoms. Greater exposure to trauma-specific factors in child sessions was associated with a small decrease in emotion differentiation, an increase in coping skills, and a decrease in PTS symptoms over time. Greater exposure to nonspecific treatment factors in child and parent sessions was associated with more positive parent-child interaction. Parental mental health appears to be an important mechanism of change that can be promoted through exposure to nonspecific factors in parent intervention. For children, the effect of greater exposure to trauma-specific factors in intervention is less clear and may not have clear benefits.

  19. 77 FR 42334 - Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (Correction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Violence (Correction) AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the ``task force...

  20. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  1. Illness Symptoms Experienced by Children Exposed to Benzene After a Flaring Incident at the BP Refinery Facility in Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2016-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the illness symptoms experienced by children who were exposed to benzene following a flaring incident at the BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. Methods A total of 641 children, aged 5 year (P = .04). Conversely, urinary phenol levels were significantly lower in children 5 years (P = .00). Conclusion Together, these findings reveal that children exposed to benzene experience a range of illness symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol indicating their vulnerability to potentially increased health complications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG URBAN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF KOCHI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shiji K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of obesity and overweight among urban school children in Kochi. SETTING AND DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of a school - based cross sectional study of an urban school of K ochi . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross - sectional study was conducted in a private school in Kochi, India. A total of 1 178 school children in the age group of 6 - 15 years were studied. Weight and he...

  3. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    of 13,556 children were exposed to maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA. Children exposed to maternal RA (n = 2,101) had approximately similar length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference at birth compared with children of mothers without RA. Birth weight was 87 gm lower (mean difference...... -87.04 gm [95% CI -111.23, -62.84]) and placenta weight was 14 gm lower (-13.45 gm [95% CI -21.46, -5.43]) than those in children of mothers without RA. Rather similar results were found in children exposed to maternal preclinical RA (n = 11,455). Compared with unexposed children, a higher risk...... of preterm birth was found in children exposed to maternal RA (OR 1.48 [95% CI 1.20, 1.84]) and preclinical RA (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.07, 1.64]). No associations were found with paternal RA. CONCLUSION: Children exposed to either maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA are more often born preterm. However...

  4. Stress indicators influencing children at school

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánková, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis follows stress factors impact on a child at primary school, on his health and mental conditions and then the implication of the learning process and integrating the child into a children's collective. The theoretical part contains information dealing with forms of stress in general, potential stressors for the child, the consequences of stress on the human organism. The practical part investigates the experiences with stress factors of pupils that are somehow connected with the...

  5. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  6. The use of Museum Based Science Centres to Expose Primary School Students in Developing Countries to Abstract and Complex Concepts of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Trust; Sigauke, Esther

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology, and it is regarded as the basis for the next industrial revolution. In developing countries, nanotechnology promises to solve everyday challenges, such as the provision of potable water, reliable energy sources and effective medication. However, there are several challenges in the exploitation of nanotechnology. One of the notable challenges is the lack of adequate knowledge about how materials behave at the nanoscale. As nanotechnology is relatively new, the current generation of scientists have not had the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of the technology at an early stage. Young students who are at the primary school level may follow the same trajectory if they are not exposed to the technology. There is a need to lay a strong foundation by introducing nanoscience and nanotechnology to students at the primary school level. It is during the early stages of child development that students master basic concepts for life long learning. Nevertheless, many primary school children, particularly those in developing countries are missing the chance of learning about nanoscience and nanotechnology because it is regarded as being abstract and complex. In this paper, we argue that despite the complexity of nanoscience and nanotechnology, science centres can be used as one of the platforms for exposing young students to the discipline. We use a case study of a museum-based science centre as an example to illustrate that young students can be exposed to nanoscience and nanotechnology using tactile and hands-on experience. The early engagement of primary school children with nanoscience and nanotechnology is important in raising the next generation of scientists who are firmly grounded in the discipline.

  7. Neurophysiological anomalies in brainstem responses of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen

    2003-01-01

    The health hazards of occupational exposure to Mercury (Hg) in adult gold miners are well known, but little attention has been given to the effects of Hg exposure in the children of gold miners. Children who assist their parents in gold mining operations or live in mining enclaves may be exposed to elemental Hg vapors or methylmercury-contaminated food, both of which may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) were measured as biomarkers of subtle mercury-induced neurological impairment in Andean children of gold miners living in the Ecuadorian gold mining settlement of Nambija, where Hg exposure is prevalent. Thirty-one children (19 boys and 12 girls, aged 4-14 years, mean age: 10 years) in the study group were found to have a mean blood mercury (HgB) level of 23.0 micrograms/L (SD: 19, range: 2.0-89.0 micrograms/L; median: 20 micrograms/L), which was significantly higher than the mean HgB level of a reference group of 21 Ecuadorian children (4.5 micrograms/L, SD: 2.3; t = 4.39, P = 0.0001), and in excess of the health-based biological limits for the U.S. (10 micrograms/L). The BAER measures indicated statistically significant differences in interpeak III-V (P = 0.03) and I-V (P = 0.008) neural conduction times for children with HgB levels above the median. BAERs at the conventional click stimulus rate of 10/second showed statistically significant positive correlations between HgB level and the absolute latency of wave V (P = 0.03), and the neural conduction times of the eighth nerve to midbrain I-V interval (P = 0.02). BAER at 50/second revealed statistically significant relationships between HgB and the latency of wave VI (P = 0.03), and the I-VI interpeak interval (P = 0.02). Brainstem neural conduction times suggested that some of the Hg-intoxicated children in the study group have subtle neurophysiological anomalies that may be more manifest at higher BAER stimulus rates, and that the Hg-exposed children of gold

  8. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  9. 77 FR 6822 - Second Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... to Violence AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY... Exposed to Violence (the ``Task Force''). The Task Force is chartered to provide OJP, a component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of...

  10. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  11. 'We are never invited': School children using collage to envision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... theory was used to frame how rural school children understand and envision care and support in a rural school context, explaining their ideas of transforming school care and support provided for vulnerable children. The findings point to the need for strengthened competencies and agency, improved collaboration and ...

  12. The pattern of deviant behaviour among urban primary school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children sometimes exhibit a range of deviant behaviour which could serve as a source of stress to the families and society. Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of deviant behavour in urban school children in Enugu and factors that may be associated with it. Methods: Two schools were ...

  13. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school hours alleviate short term hunger, increase attention span, facilitate learning and obviate the need for children to leave school in search of food.[4] Healthier and better nourished children stay in school longer, learn more and later become healthier and more productive adults. Content of lunch pack should supply a ...

  14. School Readiness for Gifted Children: Considering the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relevant to gifted children's readiness for school. It raises a number of questions that challenge thinking about what is meant by school readiness. Gifted children can often be ready for school entrance before the age traditionally considered appropriate. Their complex developmental profiles challenge accepted notions…

  15. Screening for refractive error among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Background: Vision screening study in primary school children has not been done in Bayelsa State. This study aims to screen for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa State and use the data to plan for school Eye Health Program. Methods: A cross sectional study on screening for refractive ...

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Empathy, Altruism, and Moral Development in Home Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Skylar T.; Medlin, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare empathy, altruism, moral reasoning, and prosocial behavior in home schooled children and children attending public schools, and to assess attitudes toward religion and values in their parents. Homeschooling parents were more concerned with teaching their children their values and religious beliefs,…

  18. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school‑age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, ...

  19. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis In Secondary School Children: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was on gender behaviour descriptive analysis of primary nocturnal enuresis in adolescent children using secondary school children. The participants included 50 secondary school children (26 males and 24 females) with M age of 14.89 and SD secondary age of 2.68. A questionnaire instrument designed by the ...

  20. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  1. Dietary adequacy of rural school children among bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 12% of the children reported consuming animal source foods. Most of the school children were eating three times or less in a day with lunch and supper as the major meals. The diet of the school children did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for energy (69%), fat (21%), vitamin A (24%), iron (65%) and ...

  2. Working Memory Profiles in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected and HIV-Infected Children: A Comparison with Neurotypical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Robyn; Cockcroft, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing. Verbal working memory has not been commonly investigated in this population, while it is unknown how the working memory profiles of HIV-EU children compare to their HIV-I and HIV-UU peers. Of interest was whether the working memory profiles of the HIV-EU children would be more similar to the HIV-I group or to the uninfected control group. The results revealed no significant differences in working memory performance between the HIV-I and HIV-EU groups. However, this does not mean that the etiology of the working memory deficits is the same in the two groups, as these groups showed important differences when compared to the control group. In comparison to the controls, the HIV-I group experienced difficulties with processing tasks irrespective of whether they drew on a verbal or visuospatial modality. This appears to stem from a generalized executive function deficit that also interferes with working memory. In the HIV-EU group, difficulties occurred with verbally based tasks, irrespective of whether they required storage or processing. For this group, the dual demands of complex processing and using a second language seem to result in demand exceeding capacity on verbal tasks. Both groups experienced the greatest difficulties with verbal processing tasks for these different reasons. Thus, disruption of different cognitive abilities could result in similar working memory profiles, as evidenced in this

  3. Working Memory Profiles in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected and HIV-Infected Children: A Comparison with Neurotypical Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Milligan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95, HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86 and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92 neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing. Verbal working memory has not been commonly investigated in this population, while it is unknown how the working memory profiles of HIV-EU children compare to their HIV-I and HIV-UU peers. Of interest was whether the working memory profiles of the HIV-EU children would be more similar to the HIV-I group or to the uninfected control group. The results revealed no significant differences in working memory performance between the HIV-I and HIV-EU groups. However, this does not mean that the etiology of the working memory deficits is the same in the two groups, as these groups showed important differences when compared to the control group. In comparison to the controls, the HIV-I group experienced difficulties with processing tasks irrespective of whether they drew on a verbal or visuospatial modality. This appears to stem from a generalized executive function deficit that also interferes with working memory. In the HIV-EU group, difficulties occurred with verbally based tasks, irrespective of whether they required storage or processing. For this group, the dual demands of complex processing and using a second language seem to result in demand exceeding capacity on verbal tasks. Both groups experienced the greatest difficulties with verbal processing tasks for these different reasons. Thus, disruption of different cognitive abilities could result in similar working memory profiles, as

  4. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  5. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAILURES IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS EXPOSED IN AGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT M4 OF FALCON STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alice Olavarrieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educational units, in which planimetric surveys were carried out, the collection of fault symptoms, tests in some structural members and finally a general evaluation of damages that allowed identifying their durability and particular recommendations for each school building. As a result, these units of different construction ages were in a better state of conservation, when compared directly to the sample evaluated in 2006 in private multifamily buildings, which were even younger than this sample. It was recommended for all cases that they apply a programmed and technical continuous maintenance system, which goes beyond the systems of paints whose substrate is not properly prepared, resulting in a process of superficial repair and aesthetic ineffective.

  7. Nutritional status and metabolic disorders in HIV-exposed uninfected prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Cristiane Chiantelli; Patin, Rose Vega; Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Machado, Daisy Maria; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status and metabolic alterations in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children compared with HIV-unexposed (HIVn) children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 76 children distributed into two groups: HIVe (n = 31) and HIVn (n = 45). Biochemical data (hematologic test, lipid profile, insulin resistance, hepatic profile, and C-reactive protein) were evaluated. Anthropometric parameters and body composition analyses were performed. The groups were similar regarding body mass index-for-age z-scores (P = 0.297) and height-for-age z-scores (P = 0.666). HIVe had a higher dyslipidemia prevalence (38.7% versus 11.1%; P = 0.010), altered total cholesterol (TC) values (19.4% versus 2.2%; P = 0.016) higher LDL-C mean levels (97.8 mg/dl versus 86 mg/dl; P = 0.028), borderline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (40% versus 14%; P = 0.011) and TC (41.9% versus 20%; P = 0.038) compared with HIVn. Despite the similar nutritional status between groups, our data clearly demonstrated a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, altered TC, higher LDL-C levels and also LDL-C and TC borderline values in HIVe children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. Methods We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 ± 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O3 levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chronic exposure of children to PM2.5 is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:17687455

  9. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Orderly Schools that Serve All Children; A Review of Successful Schools in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Susan C.

    Large numbers of school age youth in Ohio are not in school, sometimes because they lack motivation, in other cases because of misbehavior or attendance problems. This report examines school motivation and discipline problems and describes how a small sample of Ohio schools have worked to create orderly schools where children are motivated,…

  11. The integration (mainstreaming) of spina bifida children into ordinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonton, A P

    1981-12-01

    In 1976, an aggressive policy of integrating spina bifida children into ordinary schools was mounted in Sheffield. Analysis of the school placement pattern of 1235 patients, aged 2-29 years, showed an increase from 25% to 64% integrated for children born in 1968 and 1976, respectively. However, about a half of this 39% increase was attributable to selective non-treatment. The major deterrents to integration were found to be low intelligence and wheelchair dependency. Only 4% of children with IQs below 70 were in ordinary schools. 91% of children with IQs below 45 were in mentally handicapped schools. 88% of children with IQs between 46 and 70 were in physically handicapped schools. 18% of children with wheelchairs only were integrated, and this reduced to 8% if they also had valves and were incontinent. On the other hand, neither incontinence nor valve dependency on their own were major problems with respect to ordinary schooling.

  12. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  13. Modification of Depression by COMT val[superscript 158]Met Polymorphism in Children Exposed to Early Severe Psychosocial Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Theall, Katherine P.; Smyke, Anna T.; Keats, Bronya J. B.; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val[superscript 158]met allele on depressive symptoms in young children exposed to early severe social deprivation as a result of being raised in institutions. Methods: One hundred thirty six children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were randomized…

  14. Whole Blood Omega 3 Fatty Acid Levels of HIV Exposed and HIV Unexposed 7 - 10 Years Old Children from a Low Income Country with High Burden of Under-Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kuona, Patience; Mashavave, Grace; Dzangare, Janet; Munjoma, Marshall; Nathoo, Kusum; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential macronutrients that have several benefits which have been described for children’s health. Omega 3 LCPUFA metabolism has been reported to be altered in under-nourished and in HIV infected children. Therefore, we describe Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid levels of HIV infected, HIV exposed uninfected and HIV unexposed uninfected school aged children from a low income country with a high burden of HIV infe...

  15. Soil transmitted Helminthiasis and associated risk factors among elementary school children in ambo town, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikreslasie Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by different exposing risk factors. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors of STHs infection in school children living in Ambo town, west Shoa Ethiopia. Methods In 2014/15, among 375 school children planed to be included in this study, only 321 school children were recruited in the study. Data onto school children from different schools were collected, including stool samples for qualitative STHs analysis. Questionnaire data on various demographic, housing and lifestyle variables were also available. Results Prevalence of any STHs infection was 12.6%. The respective prevalence of major soil-transmitted helminths is Ascaris (7.8%, Hookworm (2.8% and Trichuris (2.2%. This study result shows STHs prevalence varies regards to age, sex, latrine use, family size and nail trimming. Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that the percentage of positive finding for STHs in Ambo area is low. Besides, Large Family size, not nail trimming and unavailability of improved latrine were identified as predisposing factor for STHs infections. All school children enrolled and not enrolled in this study should be treated twice a year until the prevalence falls below the level of public health importance.

  16. Beach safety education for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Childhood drowning remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The Australian Water Safety Council has set as one of its highest priorities the reduction of drowning deaths in children aged 0-14 years. However, concerns have recently been raised that many students completing primary school still lack the ability to recognize potential aquatic risks, cope with emergencies or assist someone else in danger. In this study, 107 primary school children aged 11-12 completed a one day training programme led by surf lifesaving instructors. Pre, post and eight week follow-up measures showed statistically significant improvements in recognition of the red 'beach closed' flag, aquatic safety signs, how to identify a rip current and choosing the safest place to swim at a beach that included a rip current in the picture. Following training students were more willing to provide first aid assistance to family members and friends in an emergency situation. Findings reinforce the value of school-based training that provides a general foundation for aquatic safety, with the caveat that current programmes must be evaluated to ensure their content has a robust prevention focus.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF ANXIETY AMONG CHILDREN IN SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, BEEMAN N.

    THE BASIC PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ATTEMPT TO FIND OUT WHETHER ANXIETY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WAS TO A SIGNIFICANT DEGREE THE RESULT OF SCHOOL EXPERIENCES AND CONDITIONS. THE ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY WERE ALSO TO BE ANALYZED. THE METHOD OF STUDY INVOLVED OBTAINING MEASURES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY AT THE BEGINNING AND END…

  18. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  19. Role of biomarkers in predicting the occurrence of thyroid neoplasms in radiation-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulan, Joseph; Vydro, Leonid; Schneider, Arthur B; Mihailescu, Dan

    2018-02-16

    With increasing numbers of childhood cancer survivors who were treated with radiation, there is a need to evaluate potential biomarkers that could signal an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. We aimed to examine the relationships between thyrotropin and thyroglobulin levels and the risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer in a cohort of radiation exposed children. 806 subjects who were irradiated in the neck area as children were examined and followed for up to 25 years. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, measurements of thyrotropin, thyroglobulin levels and thyroid imaging. At baseline, 216 subjects had thyroid nodules and 548 did not. Of those with nodules, 176 underwent surgery with 55 confirmed thyroid cancers. During the follow-up, 147 subjects developed thyroid nodules including 22 with thyroid cancer. Thyroglobulin levels were higher in subjects with prevalent thyroid nodules (26.1 ng/mL vs 9.37 ng/mL; p <0.001) and in those who had an initial normal exam but later developed thyroid nodules (11.2 ng/mL vs 8.87 ng/mL; p=0.017). There was no relationship between baseline thyrotropin levels and the prevalent presence or absence of thyroid nodules, whether a prevalent neoplasm was benign or malignant, subsequent development of thyroid nodules during follow-up, or whether an incident nodule was benign or malignant. In conclusion, in radiation exposed children, higher thyroglobulin levels indicated an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules but did not differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms. There was no association between the baseline thyrotropin level and the risk of developing thyroid nodules or cancer.

  20. DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in children exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Lantz, Robert Clark; Chau, Binh T

    2017-08-15

    Several novel mechanistic findings regarding to arsenic's pathogenesis has been reported and some of them suggest that the etiology of some arsenic induced diseases are due in part to heritable changes to the genome via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone maintenance, and mRNA expression. Recently, we reported that arsenic exposure during in utero and early life was associated with impairment in the lung function and abnormal receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) sputum levels. Based on our results and the reported arsenic impacts on DNA methylation, we designed this study in our cohort of children exposed in utero and early childhood to arsenic with the aim to associate DNA methylation of MMP9, TIMP1 and RAGE genes with its protein sputum levels and with urinary and toenail arsenic levels. The results disclosed hypermethylation in MMP9 promotor region in the most exposed children; and an increase in the RAGE sputum levels among children with the mid methylation level; there were also positive associations between MMP9 DNA methylation with arsenic toenail concentrations; RAGE DNA methylation with iAs, and %DMA; and finally between TIMP1 DNA methylation with the first arsenic methylation. A negative correlation between MMP9 sputum levels with its DNA methylation was registered. In conclusion, arsenic levels were positive associated with the DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes;, which in turn could modifies the biological process in which they are involved causing or predisposing to lung diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-10-22

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciated public health burden. School age children harbour the heaviest burden. Infected children experience growth stunting and diminished physical fitness as well as impaired memory and cognition. These adverse health consequences ...

  3. Children's school performance: impact of general and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenshine, Stephanie L; Vann, William F; Gizlice, Ziya; Lee, Jessica Y

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: a) the sociodemographic and health factors associated with poor school performance among North Carolina children; and b) the impact of poor oral health status on school performance while controlling for other health and sociodemographic factors. We used data from the 2005 Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program, a follow-back telephone survey to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System involving parents/guardians of children 0 to 17. This project includes sections on oral health and school performance. Our principal outcome variable was school performance and our major explanatory variable was children's oral health status, based upon parental report. Our sample consisted of 2,871 school children, weighted to reflect the North Carolina census. Bivariate analysis revealed that sex, race, parental education, low socioeconomic status, poor general health, poor oral health, and the interaction of poor oral health and general health were significantly related to school performance (P effects of poor oral health and general health on school performance. Children with both poor oral health and general health were 2.3 times more likely to report poor school performance. Children with either poor oral health or general health were only 1.4 times more likely to report poor school performance. Our results show that children who have both poor oral health and general health are more likely to have poor school performance. Our findings suggest that the improvement of children's oral health may be a vehicle to improve their educational experience.

  4. Clinical outcomes of HIV-exposed, HIV-uninfected children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Stanzi M; Abrams, Elaine J; Nguyen, Kelly; Myer, Landon

    2016-07-01

    HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected (HEU) children are widely considered at increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Recent advances in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) strategies, incorporating life-long universal maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART, "Option B+") with extended breastfeeding, may improve HEU child health substantially. We critically reviewed reports of mortality/morbidity among HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) children in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, Global Health & Psychosocial Instruments databases, conference abstracts, and reference lists for longitudinal studies from sub-Saharan Africa reporting mortality and clinical morbidity among HIV-uninfected children aged ≤10 years, by maternal HIV status. Studies were appraised by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and ACROBAT-NRSI. Due to substantial heterogeneity of study designs, populations and results (I(2) = 75%), data were not synthesised. We included 37 reports (28 studies, 11 164 HEU children); methodological and reporting quality were variable. Most reports came from settings without universal access to maternal ART (n = 35). Results were conflicting, with some studies indicating increased risk of mortality, hospitalisation and/or under-nutrition among HEU children, while others found no evidence of increased risk. In subanalyses, improved maternal health, ART use and breastfeeding were strongly protective for all outcomes. Only 39% (11/28) of studies adjusted for major confounders. Reports from settings using universal maternal ART with breastfeeding (n = 2) found no differences in growth or development but did not report mortality or infectious morbidity. The existing literature provides little insight into HEU child health under recently adopted PMTCT strategies. There is a need for robust comparative data on HEU and HIV-unexposed child health outcomes under Option B+; optimising breastfeeding practices and increasing

  5. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  6. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  7. Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress With Children Exposed to Violence: Factors Associated With Treatment Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Campion, Karen

    2016-03-01

    In the past 15 years, there have been a substantial number of rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of various treatments for child trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although a number of review articles exist, many have focused on randomized controlled trials or specific treatment methodologies, both of which limit the ability to draw conclusions across studies and the statistical power to test the effect of particular treatment characteristics on treatment outcomes. The current study is a review and meta-analysis of 74 studies examining treatments for children exposed to violence. After reviewing the literature, we examined the relationship of a variety of treatment characteristics (e.g., group or individual treatments) and sample characteristics (e.g., average age) on treatment effect sizes. Results indicated that individual therapies and those with exposure paradigms within a cognitive-behavioral therapy or skills-building framework show the most promise, but treatment is somewhat less effective for those with more severe symptomology and for younger children. Future treatments should consider the developmental and social contexts that may impede treatment progress for young children and consider how best to develop the effectiveness of group interventions that can be readily delivered in settings of mass trauma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Experience of family members providing care for HIV-exposed children: beginning of the trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga

    Full Text Available During and after pregnancy, mothers with HIV can undergo treatment that is capable of preventing vertical transmission (VT to their babies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experience of family members that provide care for children whose mothers have HIV, to reduce the risk of VT, with emphasis on the beginning of this trajectory. This study was based on the qualitative approach and Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical framework. A total of 36 family members participated in the study, all of whom were carers of children aged up to 18 months and waiting for confirmation of the HIV diagnosis. Data were collected in a hospital in north-eastern Brazil, between December 2012 and February 2013, and examined by means of content analysis. Child care began during pregnancy, when the possibility of the child having HIV was expected. Some had previous experience in providing care for exposed children. Understanding the early trajectory of care will help find ways to provide better support for carers during the trajectory of diagnosis confirmation.

  9. RELATION OVER TIME BETWEEN FACIAL MEASUREMENTS AND COGNITIVE OUTCOMES IN FETAL ALCOHOL EXPOSED CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; Moore, Elizabeth S.; Ward, Richard E.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of individuals exposed prenatally to alcohol can be challenging, with only those having the characteristic pattern of facial features, CNS abnormality, and growth retardation receiving a clinical diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Methods 17 anthropometric measurements were obtained at 5 and 9 years from 125 Cape Town, South African children, studied since birth. The children were divided into 3 groups: FAS or partial FAS (PFAS), heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and non-alcohol exposed controls (C). Anthropometric measurements were evaluated for mean group differences. Logistic regression models were used to identify the subset of anthropometric measures that best predicted group membership. Anthropometric measurements were examined at the two ages in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure obtained prospectively from the mothers during pregnancy. Correlation of these facial measurements with key neurobehavioral outcomes including WISC-IV IQ and eyeblink conditioning was used to assess their utility as indicators of alcohol-related central nervous system impairment. Results Significant group differences were found for the majority of the anthropometric measures, with means of these measures smaller in the FAS/PFAS compared with HE or C. Upper facial widths, ear length, lower facial depth, and eye widths were consistent predictors distinguishing those exposed to alcohol from those who were not. Using longitudinal data, unique measures were identified that predicted facial anomalies at one age but not the other, suggesting the face changes as the individual matures. 41% of the FAS/PFAS group met criteria for microtia at both ages. Three of the predictive anthropometric measures were negatively related to measures of prenatal alcohol consumption, and all were positively related to at least one neurobehavioral outcome. Conclusions The analysis of longitudinal data identified a common set of predictors, as well as some that are

  10. School Functioning and Use of School-Based Accommodations by Treatment-Seeking Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S.; Donaldson, Aberdine R.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Nadeau, Meredith S.; Reid, Gerald; Pincus, Donna B.

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring among children and are associated with increased risk for poor educational outcomes. However, little is known about the specific supports and accommodations provided to anxious children in schools. This study examines reports of school functioning and school-based supports and accommodations among a sample…

  11. The School Entry Gap: Socioeconomic, Family, and Health Factors Associated with Children's School Readiness to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Notwithstanding the constant debate in the scientific and policy literature on the precise meaning of school readiness, research consistently demonstrates a wide variation between groups of children resulting in a gap at school entry. Recently, the teacher-completed Early Development Instrument (EDI), a new measure of children's school readiness…

  12. Attitudes to Mathematics in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives......, it is found that children build friendships, assist, inspire, and imitate one another in their collaborative encounters in paedagogical activities. In order to better support children’s learning and engaged participation in paedagogical activities, an increased attention to the institutional demands...

  14. Depression, suicide ideation, and thyroid tumors among ukrainian adolescents exposed as children to chernobyl radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine's seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents' CDI responses. Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants' depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group had an increased prevalence of thyroid cancer

  15. Growth and development of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignerová, J; Bláha, P; Kobzová, J; Krejcovský, L; Paulová, M; Riedlová, J

    2000-02-01

    With the support of the Internal Grant Agency of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic in 1997-1999 work proceeded on the grant "Semi-longitudinal study of the somatic growth of school children in the Czech Republic". The objective of this project is to assess the growth rate of the basic bodily characteristics in children and youth aged 6 to 14 years, to confirm the positive secular trend in height and body weight or its slowing or stagnation, and also to evaluate the growth and development of children under the new socio-economic conditions. In addition to thirty somatic characteristics which are assessed repeatedly every six months, in 1,925 children some supplementary data were obtained from parents. From hitherto assembled data ensues that there was no significant change of the mean length at birth nor of the birth weight as compared with 1989. The increase in height up to adolescence continues, in the higher age groups probably stagnation occurs. Despite a slight increase of mean body weight values since 1981, a gradual decline of the BMI values was observed. In boys this tendency is less marked than in girls, in particular in the oldest age groups. This trend was confirmed also by the results of the present investigation. As compared with the results of the 5th Nationwide Anthropological Survey in 1991 the group of overweight children, i.e. those above the 90th percentile of BMI comprises 6.9% boys and 8.9% girls from a total of almost 2,000 children, as compared with the expected 10%.

  16. Active and Passive Commuting to School: Influences on Affect in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Angela; Bentley, Nick; Clough, Catherine; Fishlock, Adelle; Morrell, Frances; O'Brien, James; Radmore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Active commuting among school children is being encouraged for physical and environmental reasons, but little is known about its influence on affect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children who walk further to school experience increased arousal and affective valence compared with children who walk a short distance. This was…

  17. Effect of School System and Gender on Moral Values and Forgiveness in Pakistani School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Anam; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khan, Nashi

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to compare children studying in private and public schools in Pakistan on forgiveness and moral values. It was hypothesized that the type of school and gender of the child are likely to affect forgiveness and moral values in children. A sample of 100 children with equal number of girls and boys was recruited from…

  18. Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

  19. Prevalence of refractive errors in pre-school and school children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes and finally leads to the formation of grave social consequences. As it is seen from hospital reports, quite a considerable number of school children are suffering from some ...

  20. Functional pain in hospitalised and school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, M; Maggio, M C; Campisi, F; Manzo, V; Costa, A; Montalbano, G; Mosa, C; Navarra, F; Manzoni, D; Licastro, G; Corsello, G

    2012-10-01

    Aim of the study was to recognise the role of psychological disagreement in children and adolescents suffering from functional pain. Two groups of children, adolescents and their parents were interviewed: group H (hospitalized patients), group S (students, at school). Suitable investigations excluded organic lesions. The following data were analysed: 1) presence of pain in relation with: i) sex and age; ii) relation with parents, brothers, other relatives, schoolfellows; 2) efficacy of possible treatments. Group H: 194 patients, median age 10 years; 134 referred pain: 62 out of 92 males and 72 out of 102 females; location of pain: abdomen, limbs, head, back. Family disagreements: 36, functional pain 32; schoolfellows disagreements 114, functional pain 79. Correlations of pain with sex, increasing age, family and schoolfellows disagreements: non statistically significant. Group S: 246 students, median age: 13 years; 188 referred pain: 78 out of 118 males and 110 out of 128 females; pain was statistically more frequent in females, it increased with age. Location of pain: limbs, abdomen, head, back. Family disagreements: 31, functional pain 28, schoolfellows disagreements 140, functional pain 114. Correlations of pain with family and schoolfellows disagreements: non-statistically significant. Several parents gave answers which were different from their children's. Pharmacological and dietary interventions failed to obtain regression of pain. In both groups, the referred disagreements were not statistically different among children with functional pain and those without pain; such psychological distress was not the only factor causing functional pain. The empiric treatment adopted was inefficacious.

  1. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta

  2. Factors associated with coverage of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-exposed children in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhayendre Moodley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme in 2006 reaffirmed the earlier recommendation of 2000 that all HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries should commence cotrimoxazole (CTX prophylaxis at 6-weeks of life. CTX prophylaxis should be continued until the child is confirmed HIV-uninfected and there is no further exposure to breastmilk transmission. We determined CTX coverage and explored factors associated with CTX administration in HIV-exposed infants at a primary health clinic in South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of HIV-exposed infants 6-18 months of age attending a child immunisation clinic, data from the current visit and previous visits related to CTX prophylaxis, feeding practice and infant HIV testing were extracted from the child's immunisation record. Further information related to the administration of CTX prophylaxis was obtained from an interview with the child's mother. RESULTS: One-third (33.0% HIV-exposed infants had not initiated CTX at all and breastfed infants were more likely to have commenced CTX prophylaxis as compared to their non-breastfed counterparts (78.7% vs 63.4% (p = 0.008. Availability of infant's HIV status was strongly associated with continuation or discontinuation of CTX after 6 months of age or after breastfeeding cessation. Maternal self-reports indicated that only 52.5% (95%CI 47.5-57.5 understood the reason for CTX prophylaxis, 126 (47% did not dose during weekends; 55 (21% dosed their infants 3 times a day and 70 (26% dosed their infants twice daily. CONCLUSION: A third of HIV-exposed children attending a primary health care facility in this South African setting did not receive CTX prophylaxis. Not commencing CTX prophylaxis was strongly associated with infants not breastfeeding and unnecessary continued exposure to CTX in this paediatric population was due to limited availability of early infant diagnosis. Attendance at immunization

  3. Effect of a School-Based Test Anxiety Intervention in Ethnic Minority Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Costa, Natalie M.; Marks, Allison B.; Romano, Dawn M.; Verrett, Shannon L.; Brown, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a school-based test anxiety intervention among ethnic minority youth. The study used a prospective intervention design with a sample of (N = 94) ninth graders from New Orleans exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Thirty youth with elevated test anxiety completed a primarily behavioral (e.g., relaxation…

  4. Trauma exposure in elementary school children: Description of screening procedures, level of exposure, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Monzon, Nicholas; Solis, Diana; Jaycox, Lisa; Langley, Audra K

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic childhood events can have a significant impact on overall child functioning. Early identification and intervention could offer significant benefits for children's mental health and educational trajectories, but how to effectively identify young children is a challenge. In this paper, we describe screening for exposure to traumatic events and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and examine differences by child gender and grade level. A total of 402 elementary school children in grades 1-5 participated across four elementary schools. We describe modified administration procedures of screening instruments for these young children. Children who endorsed exposure to one or more traumatic events were individually assessed for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Thirty-four percent (n=138) of children screened experienced one or more traumatic events, and 75.4% of those exposed to at least one traumatic event endorsed moderate levels or higher of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Internal consistency of the symptom self-report instrument was adequate for children of all grade levels. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity increased for children exposed to more types of events. No gender/grade differences were found in symptom severity. Findings suggest that young children are impacted by traumatic events in relatively high numbers, that they can reliably report their posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that a large portion of those exposed to trauma experience significant distress. These results highlight the importance of early screening and identification of these children to curtail potential risk for future academic, social, and psychological maladjustment.

  5. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  6. Differential Recruitment of Brain Regions During Response Inhibition in Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vikas N; Jacobson, Joseph L; Lindinger, Nadine M; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-02-01

    Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls. Letters were projected sequentially, with Go and NoGo trials randomly interspersed across the task. BOLD signal in the whole brain was contrasted for the correct NoGo minus correct Go trials between the FAS/PFAS and control groups. Compared to the FAS/PFAS group, controls showed greater activation of the inferior frontal and anterior cingulate network linked to response inhibition in typically developing children. By contrast, the FAS/PFAS group showed greater BOLD response in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and other middle prefrontal regions, suggesting compensation for inefficient function of pathways that normally mediate inhibitory processing. All group differences were significant after control for potential confounding variables. None of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on activation of the regions associated with response inhibition were attributable to the effects of this exposure on IQ. This is the first FASD GNG study in which all participants in the exposed group met criteria for a diagnosis of full FAS or PFAS. Although FASD is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the pattern of brain activation seen in these disorders differs, suggesting that different neural pathways mediate response inhibition in FASD and that different interventions for FASD are, therefore, warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-09-10

    It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Caregiver experience in preventive treatment for children exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the experience of caregivers of children vertically exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework. It is a qualitative research with data collection carried out in a reference clinic in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, from November 2012 to August 2013 through semi-structured interviews with 12 mothers and a grandmother. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method. The caregivers administered antiretroviral to child to prevent virus infection and perceived good acceptance of medication. The child was considered healthy and waiting for the test results generated suffering. Family support and public health services were highlighted as an aid to go through this route pervaded by prejudice, lack of direction, fear and inability to breastfeed. It was noted that the public health service in the city studied tried to follow the protocol requirements established, however, improvements in the quality of counselling is needed.

  10. Neurodevelopment of children prenatally exposed to selective reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Toronto sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne; Barrera, Maru; Streiner, David L; Feldman, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    The reproductive safety of selective reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants needs to be established to provide optimal control of maternal depression while protecting the fetus. To define a child's neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure to SRIs and to account for genetic and environmental confounders in a sibling design using the Toronto Motherisk prospective database. Intelligence and behavior of siblings prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs were assessed by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, and Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and subsequently compared. Mothers, diagnosed with depression using DSM-IV, were assessed for intelligence quotient (IQ) and for severity of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Prenatal drug doses and durations of exposure, child's age, child's sex, birth order, severity of maternal depression symptoms, and Full Scale IQ, the primary outcome measure, of both the mother and the child were considered in the analyses. Forty-five sibling pairs (ages 3 years to 6 years 11 months, prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs) did not differ in their mean ± SD Full Scale IQs (103 ± 13 vs 106 ± 12; P = .30; 95% CI, -7.06 to 2.21) or rates of problematic behaviors. Significant predictor of children's intelligence was maternal IQ (P = .043, β = 0.306). Severity of maternal depression was a significant predictor of Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing (P = .019, β = 0.366), Externalizing (P = .003, β = 0.457), and Total scores (P = .001, β = 0.494). Drug doses and durations of exposure during pregnancy did not predict any outcomes of interest in the exposed siblings. SRI antidepressants were not found to be neurotoxic. Maternal depression may risk the child's future psychopathology. The sibling design in behavioral teratology aids in separating the effects of maternal depression from those of SRIs, providing stronger

  11. Sex differences in nutritional status of HIV-exposed children in Rwanda: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condo, Jeanine U; Gage, Anastasia; Mock, Nancy; Rice, Janet; Greiner, Ted

    2015-01-01

    To examine sex differences in nutritional status in relation to feeding practices over time in a cohort of HIV-exposed children participating in a complementary feeding programme in Rwanda. We applied a longitudinal design with three measurements 2-3 months apart among infants participating in a complementary feeding programme who were 6-12 months old at baseline. Using early feeding practices and a composite infant and child feeding index (ICFI) as indicators of dietary patterns, we conducted a multivariate analysis using a cross-sectional time series to assess sex differences in nutritional status and to determine whether there was a link to discrepancies in dietary patterns. Among 222 boys and 258 girls, the mean (±SD) Z-score of stunting, wasting and underweight was -2.01 (±1.59), -0.15 (±1.46), -1.19 (±1.29) for boys; for girls they were -1.46 (±1.56), 0.22 (±1.29), -0.63 (±1.19); all sex differences in all three indicators were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, there were only minor differences in early feeding practices and none in the ICFI by sex. HIV-exposed male children may be at higher risk of malnutrition in low-resource setting countries than their female counterparts. However, at least in a setting where complementary foods are being provided, explanations may lie outside the sphere of dietary patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experience of taking care of children exposed to HIV: a trajectory of expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to learn about the experience of caregivers/mothers providing care to infants exposed to HIV through vertical transmission.METHODS: this qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical framework. A total of 39 caregivers of children exposed to HIV in follow-up at a specialized service were interviewed. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis.RESULTS: four categories were identified that report on the lonely experience of handling the child's antiretroviral therapy, mainly due to a lack of information or incomplete information; being attentive to required care, such as the use of prophylaxis for pneumonia, vaccines, and other practices restricted to the mother-child interaction; the desire to omit the HIV out of fear of prejudice and fear of the disease, considering future prospects.CONCLUSION: the HIV and the threat this infection may affect the child cause apprehension and feelings such as fear, guilt and anxiety in the caregivers. Healthcare workers need to work together with mothers so they are able to cope with demands and distress. Only then will the treatment to avoid vertical transmission be efficient and will mother and child be supported during the process, despite apprehension with the outcome.

  13. Experience of taking care of children exposed to HIV: a trajectory of expectations 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Willyane de Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to learn about the experience of caregivers/mothers providing care to infants exposed to HIV through vertical transmission. METHODS: this qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical framework. A total of 39 caregivers of children exposed to HIV in follow-up at a specialized service were interviewed. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. RESULTS: four categories were identified that report on the lonely experience of handling the child's antiretroviral therapy, mainly due to a lack of information or incomplete information; being attentive to required care, such as the use of prophylaxis for pneumonia, vaccines, and other practices restricted to the mother-child interaction; the desire to omit the HIV out of fear of prejudice and fear of the disease, considering future prospects. CONCLUSION: the HIV and the threat this infection may affect the child cause apprehension and feelings such as fear, guilt and anxiety in the caregivers. Healthcare workers need to work together with mothers so they are able to cope with demands and distress. Only then will the treatment to avoid vertical transmission be efficient and will mother and child be supported during the process, despite apprehension with the outcome. PMID:25493682

  14. Parent Emotional Expressiveness and Children's Self-Regulation: Associations with Abused Children's School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused…

  15. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    OpenAIRE

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city...

  16. A study of ways home schooling families in southwest Virginia believe public schools can better interface and assist families who choose to home school their children

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, Patricia Surratt

    1995-01-01

    As more and more families opt to home school their children, public schools are being faced with the need to know more about the families that home school their children within their division because many of these children will later enroll in public school. The purpose of this study was to determine ways that home schooling parents believe public schools can better interface and assist families who choose to home school their children. In light of the i...

  17. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  18. Supporting the moral development of pre-school aged[sic] children at nursery schools

    OpenAIRE

    Batistová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my dissertation was to describe the responsibilities of teachers in institutional pre-school education and how they bolster the moral development of pre-school age children, which takes place in the context of the children's mental progress and the formation of moral values gained from their families. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part describes the moral progress of pre-school age children, educational and institutional strategies to develop the moral consc...

  19. School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (Pchildren (Pchildren. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (Pchildren (Pchildren's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack

  20. Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Thyroid Tumors Among Ukrainian Adolescents Exposed as Children to Chernobyl Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine’s seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Methods Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents’ CDI responses. Results Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants’ depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. Conclusions The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group

  1. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  2. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  3. Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Psychological Problems in Junior School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…

  4. The Structure and Implications of Children's Attitudes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Paul; Attwood, Gaynor; Fuller, Carol; Last, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports a study of children's attitudes to school based on a questionnaire survey of 845 pupils in their first year of secondary school in England, together with interviews with a sample of the children. A clearly structured set of attitudes emerged from a factor analysis which showed a distinction between instrumental and affective…

  5. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…

  6. Level of Depression in Intellectually Gifted Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Salman; Begume, Nasreen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the difference in depression between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children. After a detailed review of literature the following hypothesis was formulated; there would be a significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children on…

  7. Correlation between caries experience in Sudanese school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between caries experience in Sudanese school children and dietary habits, according to a food frequency questionnaire and a modified 24-hr recall ... school children is accepted in the higher caries experience group in that the high consumption of soft drinks was found to be a risk indicator for dental caries.

  8. New School Blues: Helping Children Adjust After a Family Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for parents to help their children make the adjustment to a new school, focusing on: understanding how moving affects children, teens, and in-betweens; meeting the school counselor or psychologist; looking for warning signs (e.g., prolonged anxiety, depression, or interrupted sleeping); and providing reassurance. A sidebar…

  9. The Effect of Preschool on Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…

  10. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major factors that affect optimal performance in sport. The prevalence of EIA is reported to be on the increase among school children worldwide. The aim of this study was to indicate EIA prevalence among primary-school children in South Africa. A field study determined the ...

  11. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  12. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  13. Musculoskeletal pain and backpack usage among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children travel to and from school on daily basis. Active transportation such as walking, running and cycling contribute significantly to the increase in physical activity, health, and wellbeing in children. However, there has been a growing concern on the effect of carrying heavy backpack on the health of ...

  14. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the experiences of six grade six vulnerable children (aged between 11 -15 years) in one rural school, in Swaziland. Guided by Multiple Worlds theory, the paper elicited narratives of spaces and places depicting these children's schooling experiences. The study adopted a qualitative narrative approach ...

  15. Impact of school lunch programmes on nutritional status of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SLP had a positive significant effect on the nutritional status of participating children. More schools and parents in similar environments should therefore be encouraged to venture into the SLP because of their positive outcome on nutritional status as well as the diet quality of participating children. Key words: School Lunch ...

  16. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association between socioeconomic status and the occurrence of wax impaction among these ...

  17. Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... A total of 441 school children, 229 males and 212 females of mean age 13.52 years ± 1.83 who had no previous history of orthodontic treatment were assessed for occlusal, space and dental ...

  18. Assessment of Gross Malnutrition among Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Body mass index, obesity, overweight, primary school children, socioeconomic class, underweight. Assessment of Gross Malnutrition among Primary School Children. Using Body Mass Index as an Assessment Tool in Abakaliki Metropolis of Ebonyi State, South-East Nigeria. UV Asiegbu, OG ...

  19. The prevalence of anaemia in rural primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anaemia in rural primary school children in Ekwusigo Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... would be of benefit in improving the haemoglobin concentration of these rural school children. Keywords: Haemoglobin concentration, hookworm infection, iron deficiency, maternal education ...

  20. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  1. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  2. Our Children, Our Schools: Seeking Solutions for Improving the Climate in Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Ronald A.; Harrington, Sonja Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative study the researchers examined perceptions regarding school climate of parents with children who attend urban schools, based on several dimensions: quality of the instructional program, support for learning, school climate/environment for learning, parent/school relationships, and resource management. Of the 150 administered…

  3. Does a smoking prevention program in elementary schools prepare children for secondary school?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Spruijt, R.; Dijkstra, N.S.; Willemsen, M.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    A smoking prevention program was developed to prepare children in elementary school for secondary school. This study assessed the effects on smoking in secondary school. Methods: In 2002, 121 schools in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention

  4. Differences in adaptation to water between school and pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Gašperič, Urška

    2013-01-01

    With this research we wanted to determine whether there are differences in speed in adaptation to water during school and pre-school children and the influence of fear in adapting to water. The sample included 30 children, 15 children of 3. class of elementary school of Tone Pavček, aged 8-9 years, who were attending swimming lessons in Spa Šmarješke, and 15 children from kindergarten Pedenjped, unit Videk, aged 5-6 years, who were attending swimming lessons in elementary school Grm. Kids...

  5. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  6. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  7. Biological monitoring involving children exposed to mercury from a barometer in a private residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Ballegooij-Gevers, Marieke; Jans, Henk

    2014-12-15

    A small spill of approximately 3 mL of mercury from a broken barometer in a residential setting resulted in blood values of 32 μg/L in a boy of 9 months and 26 μg/L in a girl of 2.5 years in samples collected within 6h after the start of the incident. A nanny who attempted to remove the spill had a blood mercury value of 20 μg/L at the same time point. These elevated blood values were attributed to inhalation rather than dermal uptake or ingestion. Exposure was aggravated by the use of a vacuum cleaner in an early attempt to remove the spill and incomplete decontamination of involved persons, leading to a continuation of exposure. Over a period of three months general cleaning was followed by targeted cleaning of hot spots until the indoor air mercury levels reached a median value of 0.090 μg/m(3) with a range of 0.032-0.140 μg/m(3). Meanwhile the family was staying in a shelter home. Human biological monitoring (HBM) was motivated by the complex exposure situation and the involvement of young children. Initially high blood values triggered alertness for clinical signs of intoxication, that (as it turned out) were not observed in any of the exposed individuals. Despite continued exposure from hair and clothes, within six weeks after the incident, blood levels returned to a background level normally seen in children. HBM contributed to reassurance of the parents of the young children that quick elimination of the mercury did not require medical treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Hemoglobin levels and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses in Lead-Exposed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Decreased blood hemoglobin (HbB) levels and anemia have been associated with abnormal brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Lead (Pb) exposure has also been associated with anemia and aberrant BAER. This study investigated the relationship between HbB level and BAER wave latency and amplitude in Pb-exposed Andean children. Design and methods Sixty-six children aged 2 to 15 years (mean age: 9.1; SD: 3.3) living in Pb-contaminated villages were screened for HbB levels, blood Pb (PbB) levels and BAER latencies and amplitudes. Results The mean HbB level observed in the study group was 11.9 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 8.6–14.8 g/dL). The mean HbB level corrected for altitude was 10.3 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 6.9–13.1 g/dL), and suggestive of anemia. The mean PbB level was 49.3 μg/dL (SD: 30.1; range: 4.4–119.1 μg/dL) and indicative of Pb poisoning. Spearman Rho correlation analyses revealed significant associations between the BAER absolute latencies and HbB level, indicating that as the HbB level decreased, the BAER wave latency increased. Children with low HbB levels (≤11 g/dL) showed significantly prolonged absolute latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and V compared to the children with normal HbB levels. Although a significant relationship between HbB and BAER waves was observed, no significant associations between PbB level and BAER parameters were found. Conclusion Low hemoglobin levels may diminish auditory sensory-neural function, and is therefore an important variable to consider when assessing BAER in children with anemia and/or Pb exposure. PMID:22735387

  9. Cardiac autonomic activity and blood pressure among Inuit children exposed to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Beatriz; Muckle, Gina; Poirier, Paul; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Dewailly, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Studies conducted in the Faeroe Islands and Japan suggest a negative impact of mercury on heart rate variability (HRV) among children while the results regarding blood pressure (BP) are less consistent. To assess the impact of mercury on HRV and BP among Nunavik Inuit children. A cohort of 226 children was followed from birth to 11 years old. Mercury concentration in cord blood and in blood and hair at 11 years old were used as markers of prenatal and childhood exposure, respectively. HRV was measured using ambulatory 2 h-Holter monitoring while BP was measured through a standardized protocol. Simple regression was used to assess the relationship of mercury to BP and HRV parameters. Multiple linear regressions were performed adjusting for covariates such as age, sex, birth weight, body mass index (BMI), height, total n-3 fatty acids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 153), lead, selenium and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Median cord blood mercury and blood mercury levels at 11 years old were 81.5 nmoL/L (IQR:45.0–140.0) and 14.5 nmol/L (IQR: 7.5–28.0), respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, child blood mercury was associated with low frequency (LF) (b = 0.21, p = 0.05), the standard deviation of R–R intervals (SDNN) (b = 0.26, p = 0.02), the standard deviation of R–R intervals measured over 5 min periods (SDANN) (b = 0.31, p = 0.01) and the coefficient of variation of R–R intervals (CVRR) (b = 0.06,p = 0.02). No significant association was observed with BP. Mercury exposure during childhood seems to affect HRV among Nunavik Inuit children at school age.

  10. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  11. School inclusion for children with mental health difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Holttum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight research on the exclusion from school of children with disabilities, and especially those identified as experiencing emotional disturbance. Two studies of schools that are inclusive are then described in order to examine how they achieve good results.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Three papers are summarized. The first examines things that predict children with disabilities being excluded from school, including characteristics of chil...

  12. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Nadia M.; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and...

  13. Excretion of arsenic (As) in urine of children, 7--11 years, exposed to elevated levels of As in the city water supply in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, C.J.; Quiroga, V.L.; Acosta, R.T.O.; Mendez, R.O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is a common element in the environment with many industrial uses, but it also can be a contaminant in drinking water and present serious health concerns. Earlier studies on the quality of drinking water in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, showed high levels of As in water from wells located in the northern part of the city. Additionally a high positive correlation between the levels of Fluoride (F) and As in the same wells was found. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the excretion of As in children, 7--11 years of age, that had been exposed to elevated levels of As in their drinking water. Twenty-four-hour urine samples and a water sample taken directly in the home were collected from school age children living in two different areas with known high levels of As in their drinking water. A control group with normal levels of As in their water was also included.

  14. Prevalence of geohelminth in soil and primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...

  15. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  16. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  17. For Professors' Children, the Case for Home Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannapacker, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The number of families who home school their children is growing between five and 15% per year and it is believed that home schoolers outperform their public-educated peers, though critics believe that home schooling is a form of religious fanaticism and a means of avoiding diversity. A professor explains how he and his wife, home school their…

  18. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  19. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  20. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  1. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  2. Distribution of refractive errors among school children in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual screening in pre-school and school children has long been a tradition in developed nations of the world. And the significance of this cannot be overemphasized especially with the already established correlation between school performance and visual status. This study, which was carried our in Abia State of Nigeria ...

  3. Screening for Eye Disease in Nigeria School Children | Abubakar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They can also play a vital role in promoting ocular health of school children especially in developing countries where there is little or no provision for school health services in schools attended by those from a poor background. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology Vol. 9, No.1 (August 2001): pp6-9. KEY WORDS: screening ...

  4. Determinants of childhood obesity among basic school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obesity and its associ-ation with type of school (private vs. public), parental education and other lifestyle factors among school-aged children (6–12 years) in the Tamale Metropolis. This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted from ...

  5. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  6. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  7. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  8. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  9. Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A

    2005-11-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pschools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

  10. Impact of early childhood air pollution on respiratory status of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câra, Alexandra C; Degryse, Jan; van den Akker, Marjan; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Manolovici, Carmen; Buntinx, Frank

    2010-09-01

    In previous papers we analysed the incidence of wheezing in young children living near the iron and steel factory in Călăraşi, and in a control region (Roseţi) without industrial air pollution. Is industrial air pollution exposure during the first years of life a risk factor for the presence of asthmatic symptoms in children at school age? We assessed the prevalence of asthma symptoms using the ISAAC short form questionnaire for children aged 6-7 years, and measured the FEV1 and PEF in the children of both municipalities (297 children in Călăraşi, i.e. the exposed cohort, and 237 in Roseţi, i.e. the non-exposed cohort). We found an OR of 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6-14.3) for affirmative answers to at least one of ISAAC questions for children living in Călăraşi compared to the children in Roseţi. The numbers of affirmative answers to all but one of the ISAAC questions were significantly higher in Călăraşi. The main result remained robust after adjusting for a series of co-variables using multiple logistic regression analysis (OR 14.8; 95% CI: 4.8-46.1). There was a strong relation between early life wheezing and asthma symptoms at school age (OR 9.0; 95%CI: 3.4-23.5). Children, who had been living near an iron and steel factory during their early years, are still at increased risk for asthma symptoms at school age.

  11. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine profiles in children exposed to or infected with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, B. N.; Lu, J. G.; Kline, M.W.; Paul, M.; Doyle, M; Kozinetz, C; Shearer, W T; Reuben, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, cytokine production profiles switch from predominantly type 1 (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon [IFN-gamma]) to type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines with disease progression. To test this hypothesis in vertically HIV-infected children, we measured cytokine transcription and production in rapid progressors (RPs), seroreverters (SRs), and those children exposed to HIV in utero (P0s). Production of type 1 and type 2 cytokines was measu...

  12. England's legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michelle; Bauld, Linda; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-11-01

    To examine whether English legislation to make virtually all indoor public places and work-places smoke-free on 1 July 2007 displaced smoking into the home and hence increased the proportion of children exposed to levels of second-hand smoke known to be detrimental to health. Repeated cross-sectional study with data from 10 annual surveys undertaken from 1996 to 2008. England. Nationally representative samples of non-smoking children aged 4-15 years old living in private households. Salivary cotinine, parental smoking status, whether smoking is allowed within the house, socio-demographic variables. The proportion of children exposed to damaging levels of second-hand smoke (defined as those with cotinine levels >1.7 ng/ml) has fallen over time, from 23.5% in 1996 to 12.6% in 2008. The legislation was not associated with further changes in the proportion of children above this threshold-the odds of having cotinine >1.7 ng/ml did not change after adjustment for the pre-legislative trend and confounders (odds ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 1.4). Non-significant associations were also found when examining children by parental or household smoking status. Legislation to prohibit smoking in indoor public places and work-places does not increase the proportion of children exposed to damaging levels of second-hand smoke. Even in a country with a strong tobacco control climate, a significant proportion of children remain highly exposed to second-hand smoke and future policies need to include interventions to reduce exposure among these children. © 2012 University of Bath.

  13. Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children. METHODS: A descriptive, community-based, cross-sectional study of self-reported parental smoking patterns and children's salivary cotinine concentrations in 245 children aged 5-11 years attending 10

  14. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  15. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  16. Factors associated with enuresis among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arousal difficulty and positive family history of enuresis were significantly more frequent in the enuretic group (p<0.05). Enuresis was associated with family stressors in 45 (21.0%) of the children. The enuretic children had higher rates of poor school performance compared with nonenuretic children (p < 0.001) however;

  17. Quantile peer effects of immigrant children at primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational performance of native Dutch children in primary schools. Using quantile regressions, our paper studies these peer effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native children. After accounting for

  18. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  19. Exposure of Japanese school children to smoking-related environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, T

    2000-05-01

    Japan has no legal restrictions on cigarette advertising and vending machines. This lack of smoking control measures is a possible contributor to smoking initiation by adolescents. This study was conducted to provide primary data on environmental factors related to smoking, such as cigarette advertising and candy cigarettes, that influence elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire at two elementary schools in Kitakyushu City, Japan in 1995. Questionnaire sheets were anonymously filled out by 282 elementary school children at school. The effective response rate was 91.5% (128 boys and 130 girls). Over 90% of respondents had seen cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes and cigarette vending machines. Over 75% had at least one smoker in their family. Fewer female children expressed an intent to smoke in the future despite the fact that there were no significant sex differences in smoking-related experiences. Children were higher exposed to cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes, vending machines and family members' smoking. Control of such smoking-related factors in the environment would be crucial to keeping children from initiating smoking behavior.

  20. Trauma in Children: A Call to Action in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for children or adolescents to be exposed to traumatic events. Experiences such as sexual or physical abuse, severe accidents, cancer or other life threatening illness, natural or man-made disasters, or the sudden death of a relative or peer can all result in maladaptive responses. As all children are in…

  1. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-04-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  2. Decreased vaccine antibody titers following exposure to multiple metals and metalloids in e-waste-exposed preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Xinjiang; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Long; Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia

    We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg),

  3. Relationships between Maternal Emotion Regulation, Parenting, and Children's Executive Functioning in Families Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Krueger, Casey E.; Wilson, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun to explore the extent to which children's cognitive development is influenced by experiences in the family environment. Assessing mother-child dyads exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), a population at risk for emotional and neurocognitive problems, we examined relationships between maternal emotional…

  4. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    -school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  5. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Firehiwot; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was children (5-11 yrs) and anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044-1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044-1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022-1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children.

  6. Frequent Visitors: Somatization in School-Age Children and Implications for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin Adair; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Matthews, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in the nursing literature regarding children who frequently visit school nurses' offices with recurrent unexplained physical symptoms. A review of the scientific health literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation, associated variables, and implications for school nurses regarding children who are frequent school…

  7. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  8. A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unutkan, Ozgul Polat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as…

  9. Schools and Emotional and Behavioral Problems: A Comparison of School-Going and Homeschooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on the deepening crisis in the education system. Researchers have attributed these problems to the school environment. One method for examining this claim is to compare specific emotional and behavior problems among children who attend schools and children who do not. This study examined three aspects of…

  10. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: influences of parenting, family distress, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.

  12. School and community physical activity characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Chinese school-aged children: A multilevel path model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: School support for PA and community PA resources are associated with MVPA among Chinese school children. School PA facilities appear underutilized among urban schools as evidenced by low levels of MVPA among school children.

  13. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children, and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular interest. Overall, parents gave their children higher school friendship ratings than the children gave themselves, and hearing children and their parents were more positive about children's friendships than were deaf children and their parents. Both children and parents also saw deaf children as less successful in reading than hearing children. However, deaf children's having deaf parents, attending a school for the deaf, and using sign language at home all were associated with more positive perceptions of social success. Use of cochlear implants was not associated with perceptions of greater academic or social success. These and related findings are discussed in the context of parent and child perspectives on social and academic functioning and particular challenges confronted by deaf children in regular school settings.

  14. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  15. Online schools and children with special health and educational needs: comparison with performance in traditional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik

    2012-04-30

    In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a

  16. Memory B cells are a more reliable archive for historical antimalarial responses than plasma antibodies in no-longer exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Francis Maina; Olotu, Ally; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Nyonda, Mary; Apfeld, Jordan; Mramba, Lazarus K; Fegan, Gregory W; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Kevin

    2012-05-22

    Humans respond to foreign antigen by generating plasma Abs and memory B cells (MBCs). The Ab response then declines, sometimes to below the limit of detection. In contrast, MBCs are generally thought to be long-lived. We tested and compared Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-specific Ab and MBC responses in two populations of children: (i) previously exposed children who had documented Pf infections several years ago, but minimal exposure since then; and (ii) persistently exposed children living in a separate but nearby endemic area. We found that although Pf-specific plasma Abs were lower in previously exposed children compared with persistently exposed children, their cognate MBCs were maintained at similar frequencies. We conclude that serological analysis by itself would greatly underestimate the true memory of Pf-specific Ab responses in previously exposed children living in areas where Pf transmission has been reduced or eliminated.

  17. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Increased memory T cell populations in Pb-exposed children from an e-waste-recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhijun; Hylkema, Machteld N; Huo, Xia

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines (IL-2/IL-7/IL-15), relevant to generation and homeostasis of memory T cells were evaluated in preschool children from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). The correlations between blood Pb levels and percentages of memory T cell subpopulations were also evaluated. Guiyu children had higher blood Pb levels and increased percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells and CD8 + central memory T cells than in the Haojiang group. Moreover, blood Pb levels were positively associated with the percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells. In contrast, Pb exposure contributed marginally in the change of percentages of CD8 + central memory T cells in children. There was no significant difference in the serum cytokine levels between the e-waste-exposed and reference children. Taken together, preschool children from an e-waste recycling area suffer from relatively higher levels of Pb exposure, which might facilitate the development of CD4 + central memory T cells in these children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Family Functioning and Children's Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Machteld D; Overbeek, Mathilde M; de Schipper, J Clasien; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed children (53.3 % male, M age = 9.85) and parents who were referred to community mental health centers participated in the study. Combined, IPV, child abuse and neglect, and other traumatic experiences were associated with PTS symptoms. For family functioning, higher levels of parenting stress were associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms. No moderating effects were found. To understand the variability in PTS symptoms among children exposed to IPV, other traumatic and stressful experiences need to be taken into account.

  20. Mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed children in a PMTCT cohort in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Landes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity among HIV-exposed children are thought to be high in Malawi. We sought to determine mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants within a PMTCT program. METHOD: Data were collected as part of a retrospective cohort study in Zomba District, Malawi. HIV-infected mothers were identified via antenatal, delivery and postpartum records with a delivery date 18-20 months prior; the next registered HIV-uninfected mother was identified as a control. By interview and health record review, data on socio-demographic characteristics, service uptake, and health outcomes were collected. HIV-testing was offered to all exposed children. RESULTS: 173 HIV-infected and 214 uninfected mothers were included. 4 stillbirths (1.0% occurred; among the 383 livebirths, 41 (10.7% children died by 20 months (32 (18.7% HIV-exposed and 9 unexposed children (4.3%; p<0.0001. Risk factors for child death included: HIV-exposure [adjOR2.9(95%CI 1.1-7.2], low birthweight [adjOR2.5(1.0-6.3], previous child death (adjOR25.1(6.5-97.5] and maternal death [adjOR5.3(11.4-20.5]. At 20 months, HIV-infected children had significantly poorer health outcomes than HIV-unexposed children and HIV-exposed but uninfected children (HIV-EU, including: hospital admissions, delayed development, undernutrition and restrictions in function (Lansky scale; no significant differences were seen between HIV-EU and HIV-unexposed children. Overall, no difference was seen at 20 months among HIV-infected, HIV-EU and HIV-unexposed groups in Z-scores (%<-2.0 for weight, height and BMI. Risk factors for poor functional health status at 20 months included: HIV-infection [adjOR8.9(2.4-32.6], maternal illness [adjOR2.8(1.5-5.0] and low birthweight [adjOR2.0(1.0-4.1]. CONCLUSION: Child mortality remains high within this context and could be reduced through more effective PMTCT including prioritizing the treatment of maternal HIV infection to address the effect of

  1. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Maria da Gl?ria; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the...

  2. A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, John P; Riggins, Tracy; Black, Maureen M

    2010-03-01

    Studies through 6 years have shown no long-term direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on children's physical growth, developmental test scores, or language outcomes. Little is known about the effects of PCE among school-aged children aged 6 years and older. We reviewed articles from studies that examined the effects of PCE on growth, cognitive ability, academic functioning, and brain structure and function among school-aged children. Articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Medline, TOXNET, and PsycInfo databases from January 1980 to December 2008 with the terms "prenatal cocaine exposure," "cocaine," "drug exposure," "substance exposure," "maternal drug use," "polysubstance," "children," "adolescent," "in utero," "pregnancy," "development," and "behavior." Criteria for inclusion were (1) empirical research on children aged 6 years and older prenatally exposed to cocaine, (2) peer-reviewed English-language journal, (3) comparison group, (4) longitudinal follow-up or historical prospective design, (5) masked assessment, (6) exclusion of subjects with serious medical disabilities, and (7) studies that reported nonredundant findings for samples used in multiple investigations. Thirty-two unique studies met the criteria. Each article was independently abstracted by 2 authors to obtain sample composition, methods of PCE assessment, study design, comparison groups, dependent variables, covariates, and results. Associations between PCE and growth, cognitive ability, academic achievement, and language functioning were small and attenuated by environmental variables. PCE had significant negative associations with sustained attention and behavioral self-regulation, even with covariate control. Although emerging evidence suggests PCE-related alterations in brain structure and function, interpretation is limited by methodologic inconsistencies. Consistent with findings among preschool-aged children, environmental variables play a key role in moderating and

  3. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  4. Families, Schools, and Children's School Achievement: A Study Based on Rural Regions in China Gansu Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijun, Sun; Zeyun, Liu; Baicai, Sun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of school factors on student achievement due to differences in family backgrounds. Based on the principle of diminishing effects of school investment in children's achievement, this study built a model that includes individual characteristics, family characteristics, and school characteristics. Family and school…

  5. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  6. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population…

  7. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  8. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  9. Strategies for retaining adolescent foster children in school

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is facing a high rate of children in need of care due to high escalation of the HIV/AIDS related illness. The children are being left without biological parents, and they are eventually placed in the foster care custody of their extended families. Sometimes there are challenges that are experienced by the foster parents and the adolescents’ foster children, as a result the adolescents’ foster children end up leaving school. Foster care learners who stay away from school o...

  10. Toolkit for Adapting Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) or Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) for Implementation with Youth in Foster Care. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Chandra, Anita; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Maher, Erin; Pecora, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) was developed for use by school-based mental health professionals for any student with symptoms of distress following exposure to trauma. The Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) was adapted from CBITS for use by any school personnel with the time and interest to work with…

  11. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  12. Parental environmental tobacco smoking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghir, Oana Cristina; Danteş, Elena; Stoicescu, Ramona; Baicu, Irina; Halichidis, Stela; Ciobotaru, Camelia; Man, Milena Adina; Cambrea, Simona Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The inhaling tobacco smoke to which a child is exposed, in a home environmental area, could affect respiratory system. The aim of the study consists in detecting the prevalence of respiratory diseases in home exposure to secondhand smoke among primary school children. A 6-month prospective case-control study based on questionnaire survey was carried out among school children of "Spiru Haret" Primary School, Medgidia, Romania, with absences for respiratory diseases, related to exposure to parental passive smoking, in their home environmental. 136 school children and their families informed, consented to complete the questionnaire and were surveyed for respiratory diseases and domestic environmental tobacco smoking, from the 1st of October, 2011 to the 31st March, 2012. The method consists in collecting data about any respiratory illness events, correlating them with the questionnaire --reports of parental smoking in home environmental. Participants were divided in 88 cases exposed to SHS (E) and 48 controls without exposure (NE). The most sick children with more than one episode of respiratory illness were among cases (n = 61/88; 69.31% vs 19/48; 39.58%; OR = 3.45; RR = 1.62; chi2 = 12.25; p smoking is the father (n = 67/88; 76.13%), being a single parent in most of the cases (n = 46/88; 57.95%). The prevalence of bronchial asthma was 0.34% in cases, being related with prenatal maternal smoking exposure (1.11%). The prevalence of respiratory diseases is higher among children with environmental parental tobacco exposure, in particular, smoking father.

  13. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  14. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  15. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  16. The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Catherine S; O'Reilly, Amanda Lr; Matone, Meredith; Long, Jin; Watts, Caroline L; Rubin, David

    2013-05-01

    Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied. This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools. A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience. Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements. The

  17. [Air quality and respiratory health of school children in Pancevo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić-Tanasković, Mica; Nikolovski, Dubravka; Belojević, Goran

    2006-10-01

    Air pollution is the leading environmental problem in Pancevo. Sources are traffic, home heating, industry, land fields, and street dust. Air pollution has harmful effect on population health, particularly the health of children. To estimate school-children's respiratory health in Pancevo. The air quality in Pancevo and Vrsac was measured by standard methods. The health condition was tested by anthropometric, clinical examination and spirometric measures in school children of II-V classes of three primary schools in Pancevo and one in Vrsac, in 2002. Data from 1136 children were analyzed: 796 in Pancevo, and 340 in Vrsac. Parents answered the questions in questionnaires: non standardized questionnaire about children's health, social status and smoking in the family, questionnaire about pregnancy, physical activity and standardized ISAAC questionnaire about asthma and eczema. During the 2002/2003 heating season in Vrsac, concentrations of SO2 and soot were less than limit concentrations of emission and significantly less than in Pancevo air. Results showed that the asthma, wheezing during physical activity (p Morning cough (p < 0.05) and wheezing (p < 0.01) was significantly more frequent in boys from Pancevo than boys from Vrsac. Children from Pancevo were much higher than children in Vrsac. Less vital capacity (p < 0.05) and mild restriction (p < 0.001) were more often in children from Pancevo than children in Vrsac. Our investigation confirmed that children from Pancevo had problems with respiratory health more often than children in Vrsac.

  18. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  19. Socioeconomic disparities in elementary school practices and children's physical activity during school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Mignano, Alexandra M; Norman, Gregory J; McKenzie, Thomas L; Kerr, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Cain, Kelli L; Elder, John P; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    To examine school socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to school physical activity-related practices and children's physical activity. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. The study was set in 97 elementary schools (63% response rate) in two U.S. regions. Of the children taking part in this study, 172 were aged 10.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 1.5) years; 51.7% were girls, and 69.2% were White non-Hispanic. School physical education (PE) teachers or principals responded to 15 yes/no questions on school physical activity-supportive practices. School SES (low, moderate, high) was derived from the percent of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. Children's moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school was measured with accelerometers. School level analyses involved linear and logistic regression; children's MVPA analyses used mixed effects regression. Low-SES schools were less likely to have a PE teacher and had fewer physical activity-supportive PE practices than did high-SES schools (p active travel to school were more favorable at low-SES schools (p schools had 4.4 minutes per day more of MVPA during school than did those at low-SES schools, but this finding was not statistically significant (p = .124). These findings suggest that more low- and moderate-SES elementary schools need PE teachers in order to reduce disparities in school physical activity opportunities and that PE time needs to be supplemented by classroom teachers or other staff to meet guidelines.

  20. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  1. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... normally.5 Furthermore, research has shown that dietary habits in childhood impact ... implemented globally, focusing mainly on obesity, the importance of ... the same group of 10 randomly selected primary school children.

  2. Physical growth and nutritional status assessment of school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical growth and nutritional status assessment of school children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Background: Physical growth of a child is a reflection of its state of nutrition. ... have normal growth with the remainder in both extremes of malnutrition.

  3. Daytime sleepiness and associated factors in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alexandru; Sekine, Michikazu; Hamanishi, Shimako; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Hongbing; Yamagami, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2007-11-01

    To examine daytime sleepiness and sleepiness interrelationship with sleep-wake patterns, eating habits, physical activity, and TV/video game time. A cross-sectional survey with 9,261 school children (mean age of 12.8 years) from 93 junior high schools in Toyama prefecture, Japan. The main outcome measures were daytime sleepiness during schooldays and sleepiness interrelationship with sleep-wake patterns, eating habits, physical activity, and visual media use. A total of 2,328 children (25.2%) reported sleepiness almost always and 4,401 (47.6%) sleepiness often. Regarding sex difference, a higher proportion of girls reported sleepiness in comparison to boys (79% vs 66%, P media use time. Sleep insufficiency represents a main cause for daytime sleepiness in Japanese junior high school children. Proper sleep habits, high physical activity level, and limited TV viewing time should be promoted among school children.

  4. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  5. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  6. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  7. Dental Occlusion among School Going Children of Maharashtra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Mukesh; Banerjee, Prasenjit; Gondhalekar, Rajesh; Gondhalekar, Rajeshri; Lall, Rajeev; Parwani, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    A dental survey was conducted among the school going children of age group 6-13 yrs, focused to find out incidence of malocclusion so as to predict the probable time at which preventive measures can be taken...

  8. Intelligence and school readiness in preschool children with prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B; Radonovich, Krestin; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Butz, Arlene M

    2004-06-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined factors affecting intelligence and school readiness in children 4-5 years of age with prenatal cocaine/opiate exposure. Intelligence and school readiness scores were not significantly different for the drug-exposed group (N = 104) than for unexposed, demographically matched controls (N = 35), although both groups scored slightly below average. Caregivers of drug-exposed children scored significantly lower in intelligence and reading achievement than caregivers of controls; both were below average. Caregiver reading scores accounted for the largest variance in both child intelligence and school readiness; for school readiness, birth weight also contributed but was less important in the model. Neither prenatal drug exposure nor continuing caregiver drug use was significant in the regression analyses. The relationship between child scores and caregiver reading achievement is consistent with studies showing the importance of a stimulating, supportive home environment, and suggests interventions to foster caregiver literacy skills and facilitate caregiver-child cognitive interactions such as reading to the child.

  9. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  10. Hearing Loss in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J.; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K.; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A.; Williams, Paige L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these to the percentage with hearing loss in the general population, and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Methods Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any pre-specified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥20 dB hearing level (HL). The associations of demographic, parent/caregiver, HIV disease, and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–4.76, p=0.07]. Among HIV+ children, those with a CDC Class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (aOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.04–5.87, p=0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with NHANES III children. Conclusions Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in healthy children. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children. PMID:22549437

  11. Effects of the National School Lunch Program on Bone Growth in Japanese Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Toshiyuki; Kaba, Naoko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese school lunch program with milk was designed to supply 33-50% of the necessary nutrients per day and 50% of the recommended dietary allowance for calcium, which is difficult to obtain from Japanese meals. Although this program contributes to the mental and physical development of children, the effect of these meals on the bone growth in children remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the effect of school lunch with milk on bone growth between elementary school children attending schools that did not enforce the school lunch with milk program (box-lunch group) and those attending schools that did enforce the program (school-lunch group). The study subjects included fourth-grade children during the 2009-2013 school years, of whom 329 children were in the school-lunch group and 484 children in the box-lunch group. The bone area ratio of the right calcaneus was evaluated using quantitative ultrasound (Benus III). Dietary intakes were assessed using brief self-administered diet history questionnaires. The subjects were asked to record their activities for 3 d so that the mean physical activity intensity and the time spent sleeping could be estimated. The bone area ratios (%) were significantly higher in the school-lunch group than in the box-lunch group (males 31.0±0.3 vs. 30.3±0.2; females 30.6±0.2 vs. 29.7±0.2). This tendency did not change even after adjustment for confounding factors associated with bone growth. The results suggest that nutrients supplied by the Japanese school lunch program contributed to increased bone growth in elementary school children.

  12. Psychopathology among New York city public school children 6 months after September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Lucas, Christopher P; Wu, Ping; Mandell, Donald J; Goodwin, Renee D; Cohen, Michael; Balaban, Victor; Woodruff, Bradley A; Bin, Fan; Musa, George J; Mei, Lori; Cantor, Pamela A; Aber, J Lawrence; Cohen, Patricia; Susser, Ezra

    2005-05-01

    Children exposed to a traumatic event may be at higher risk for developing mental disorders. The prevalence of child psychopathology, however, has not been assessed in a population-based sample exposed to different levels of mass trauma or across a range of disorders. To determine prevalence and correlates of probable mental disorders among New York City, NY, public school students 6 months following the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center attack. Survey. New York City public schools. A citywide, random, representative sample of 8236 students in grades 4 through 12, including oversampling in closest proximity to the World Trade Center site (ground zero) and other high-risk areas. Children were screened for probable mental disorders with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. One or more of 6 probable anxiety/depressive disorders were identified in 28.6% of all children. The most prevalent were probable agoraphobia (14.8%), probable separation anxiety (12.3%), and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (10.6%). Higher levels of exposure correspond to higher prevalence for all probable anxiety/depressive disorders. Girls and children in grades 4 and 5 were the most affected. In logistic regression analyses, child's exposure (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62), exposure of a child's family member (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80), and the child's prior trauma (adjusted odds ratio, 2.01) were related to increased likelihood of probable anxiety/depressive disorders. Results were adjusted for different types of exposure, sociodemographic characteristics, and child mental health service use. A high proportion of New York City public school children had a probable mental disorder 6 months after September 11, 2001. The data suggest that there is a relationship between level of exposure to trauma and likelihood of child anxiety/depressive disorders in the community. The results support the need to apply wide-area epidemiological approaches to mental health

  13. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P .05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Work specifics with children at the hospital school

    OpenAIRE

    Čonková, Klára

    2008-01-01

    This graduation theses consider a children theme, whose health requires hospitalization and solving their education problem. The hospital school taking care of education and training process assurance, but work with children individualize certain specifics, which is target the graduation theses. Differentness of education coming out from psychology of sick child, family members and the hospital environment. This graduation theses presents operation basic school in the hospital and introduce e...

  15. Evaluation of speech in noise abilities in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nádia Giulian; Novelli, Carolina Verônica Lino; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the perception of speech in noise in children with poor school performance and to compare them with children with good school performance, considering gender, age and ear side as variables. The intelligibility of speech was evaluated in school children utilizing the Brazilian Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in the situations of quiet (Q), Left ear competitive noise (NL), Right Ear Competitive Noise (NR), as well as the global average of other hearing situations, denominated Noise Composite (NC). Ninety seven school children between the ages of 8 and 10 were recruited in five schools of São Paulo-Brazil; the control group (CG) consisted of 54 students (23 male/ 31 female) without language and/or speech difficulties and good school performance, and the study group (SG) consisted of 43 students (28 male/ 15 female) identified by their teachers as having poor school performance. The variables gender and ear side did not interfere in speech perception. The age variable influenced only the CG. The SG had worse performance than the CG in the Q, NF and NC conditions. NF was the most difficult for both groups. The perception of speech in noise was the worst in children with poor school performance. The variables gender and ear side did not interfere in speech perception. The age group variable influenced the performance of the group of children with good school performance, demonstrating a better ability in older children. The speech perception in noise ability is more difficult for both groups when the noise affects both ears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5s, but also to children of school age group. Programmes at reducing vitamin A deficiency in this country should therefore incorporate children in this age group. Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency, School aged children, Prevalence ...

  17. Stress reactivity in war-exposed young children with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: relations to maternal stress hormones, parenting, and child emotionality and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva; Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2013-11-01

    The current study examined biomarkers of stress in war-exposed young children and addressed maternal and child factors that may correlate with children's stress response. Participants were 232 Israeli children aged 1.5-5 years, including 148 children exposed to continuous war. Similarly, 56 were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 92 were defined as exposed-no-PTSD. Child cortisol (CT) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary arms of the stress response, were measured at baseline, following challenge, and at recovery. Maternal CT and sAA, PTSD symptoms, and reciprocal parenting, and child negative emotionality and regulatory strategies were assessed. Differences between war-exposed children and controls emerged, but these were related to child PTSD status. Children with PTSD exhibited consistently low CT and sAA, exposed-no-PTSD displayed consistently high CT and sAA, and controls showed increase in CT following challenge and decrease at recovery and low sAA. Exposed children showed higher negative emotionality; however, whereas exposed-no-PTSD children employed comfort-seeking strategies, children with PTSD used withdrawal. Predictors of child CT included maternal CT, PTSD symptoms, low reciprocity, and negative emotionality. Findings suggest that high physiological arousal combined with approach strategies may be associated with greater resilience in the context of early trauma.

  18. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School readiness among children insured by Medicaid, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, William B; Hulsey, Thomas C; Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a schedule of age-specific well-child visits through age 21 years. For children insured by Medicaid, these visits are called Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT). These visits are designed to promote physical, emotional, and cognitive health. Six visits are recommended for the first year of life, 3 for the second year. We hypothesized that children with the recommended visits in the first 2 years of life would be more likely than others to be ready for school when they finish kindergarten. We studied children insured by Medicaid in South Carolina, born during 2000 through 2002 (n = 21,998). Measures included the number of EPSDT visits in the first 2 years of life and an assessment of school readiness conducted at the end of kindergarten. We used logistic regression to examine the adjusted association between having the recommended visits and school readiness, controlling for characteristics of mothers, infants, prenatal care and delivery, and residence area. Children with the recommended visits had 23% higher adjusted odds of being ready for school than those with fewer visits. EPSDT may contribute to school readiness for children insured by Medicaid. Children having fewer than the recommended EPSDT visits may benefit from school readiness programs.

  20. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  1. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  2. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  3. School-Based Mental Health Intervention for Adolescents Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marleen; Rosemond, Michelle E.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Nadeem, Erum

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence can result in unidentified trauma and a variety of psychological, behavioral, and school related problems. This article reviews this relationship, then highlights the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools, an evidence-based intervention program which addresses the trauma related to violence…

  4. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy....... The effects were associated with the maternal exposure levels, so that high-exposed boys had smaller genitals than medium-exposed boys, who had smaller genitals than those who were unexposed. Boys of mothers in the high exposure group (n = 23) had 24.7% smaller testes (95% CI: -62.2; -10.1) and 9.4% shorter...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  5. Discrepancies in racial designations of school children in Minneapolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R F; Gomez-Marin, O; Prineas, R J

    1988-01-01

    To determine the frequency of inaccuracies in racial designations of school children in a health survey, racial designations were examined for a sample of 1,509 children in Minneapolis public schools who participated in the first home interview of the Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. The data were obtained from three sources: the school enrollment data based on parentally supplied information and teachers' visual judgments, school survey interviewers participating in a research project, and the parents themselves, at home interviews. Assuming the correctness of the information obtained from the parent in the home interview, cross tabulation comparisons were made of the accuracy of the information obtained from the other sources, and within sources. Results show a high degree of agreement between the parents' or teachers' designations at enrollment, and survey interviewers' sight judgments. Furthermore, sight judgments of interviewers show high repeatability. There was a significant degree of disagreement between the designations by teachers' and screeners' visual judgments, obtained in school, and the interviews with the parents. Misidentification occurred for up to 20 percent of Native American children, a rate which, if prevalent, may significantly affect public health studies which are based on racial identifications of school children. When possible, researchers studying Native American or mixed race populations should verify racial designations from school documents or sight judgments. Questionnaires to be answered by parents need to have sufficiently detailed categories to enable parents of different racial groups to identify different racial groups accurately.

  6. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  7. Awareness of dengue fever among school children: a comparison between private and government schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral disease spreading its tentacles all over the world. Dengue constitutes for major cause of deaths in children. According to WHO, globally it was estimated that approximately 70-100 million people were infected every year. Therefore, the study has been conducted with the aim to assess knowledge regarding dengue fever among school children. Methodology: Total of 500 children were selected from 9th and 10th class of private and government schools using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire method. After assessing knowledge classes were taken by investigators focusing on prevention of dengue fever. Results: Finding of study revealed that among Private schools excellent knowledge was found in 06 (01.2% children, good in 123 (24.6% children, average 112 (22.4% children and poor in 02 (00.41 whereas in Government schools none of students had excellent knowledge, 76(15.2% children were having good knowledge, 178(35.6% children were having average knowledge & 03 (00.6 children were having poor knowledge. The mean knowledge scores were higher in students of Private schools i.e. 31.45 ± 6.41 as compared to students of Government schools i.e. 28.17 ± 5.39 at t=6.19 (p=0.00. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of school students of private and government schools were having average knowledge regarding prevention of dengue fever. Therefore, there is need for further information, education and communication programs regarding prevention of dengue fever and this can be achieved by organizing health education campaigns in community involving schools.

  8. Gender Differences In Pretend Play Amongst School Children In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus explores gender differences in pretend play in children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, in the pre-school section of a local primary school in Durban, KwazuluNatal, regarding gender influences on pretend play. The paper further examines the implications of the findings for child-care and gender role socialization

  9. A Neighborhood Watch Program for Inner-City School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Ramon M.; Ornelas, Vincent; Garcia, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a multimethod study of a neighborhood watch program designed to protect inner city school children from violence while traveling from home and school. Analysis indicated that in addition to contributing to perceptions of enhanced safety, the program also served to improve the quality of neighborhood interaction. Discusses implications…

  10. Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

  11. Student/Patient: The School Perceptions of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Jessika C.; Winsor, Denise L.; Mandrell, Belinda; Gattuso, Jami; West, Nancy; Leigh, Laurie; Grissom, Shawna M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer incidence is rising, affecting a growing proportion of elementary school students. For most of these children, school attendance can be limited by hospitalisations, treatments and side effects. However, little is yet known about the educational needs and experiences of this population. This phenomenological study explored the…

  12. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  13. Handicapped Children in Schools: Administrators and the Courts. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Robert C.; Sayler, Mary R.

    School principals perform a crucial role in discharging a school system's legal obligations toward the handicapped. Since principals are unable to supply money damages, they are rarely primary targets of lawsuits involving handicapped children, but their role in representing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) to parents is critical. Thus,…

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 252 school children (121 boys and 131 girls) of grades 4 and 5 from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas participated in the present study and their fresh fecal specimens were examined for the presence of any parasites using the merthiolate- iodine-formaldehyde concentration method as ...

  15. School children's accessibility to insecticide-treated bednets in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology and the Parents' School. Association. Verbal consent was obtained from the school children who participated in the study. Results. Demographic characteristics. There were 454 study participants of whom 253. (55.7%) were male and 201 (44.3%) female. The mean age was 14 years, range 10-19 years,.

  16. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.

    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of

  17. Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their children (P = 0.08; P > 0.05). This study thus advocates routine periodic screening even of the healthy pupils for intestinal parasitosis to minimize morbidity and mortality and improve infrastructure in our school especially the public ones. Key Words: intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, School, ...

  18. Oral health status of school children in Mbarara, Uganda | Batwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to ...

  19. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  20. Rural school children picturing family life | de Lange | Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there ...

  1. Chronic suppurative otitis media in Tanzanian school children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare different treatment regimens of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children, in regard to their consequence in hearing and discharge from the ear drum perforation. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Randomly selected primary schools within Dar es Salaam. Subjects: Three ...

  2. Mathematics as Language for Involving Secondary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined Mathematics as Language for involving secondary schools Children in Science and Technology in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a correlational survey, it examined the relationship between Mathematics and other science subjects in schools' curriculum. The study population comprised all the 257 secondary ...

  3. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  4. Breakfast Habits among School Children in Selected Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the ...

  5. Predicting Children's Liking of School from Their Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J.; Don, Jacqui; Boulton, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have established that children's peer relationships and school adjustment are associated. The main aims of the current study were to test if four measures of peer relationships (Peer Acceptance, Presence/Absence of Best Friend, Number of Friends, and Perceived Peer Support) could predict School Liking concurrently and longitudinally…

  6. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  7. Exposed versus buried wires for fixation of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children: a comparison of safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Siow, Hua Ming

    2011-10-01

    Displaced fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus are usually treated with open reduction and fixation with smooth Kirschner wires. These may be passed through the skin and left exposed or buried subcutaneously. Exposed wires may be removed in the outpatient clinic, whereas buried wires require a formal procedure under anaesthesia. This advantage may be offset if there is a higher rate of complications with exposed wires. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of exposed and buried wires. Retrospective cohort. Children with lateral condyle fractures of the humerus who had undergone surgery were identified from our departmental database. Case records and X-rays of 75 patients were reviewed. Forty-two patients had buried wires and 33 had exposed wires. There were no serious complications in either group. In the exposed wires group, 1 patient had a superficial wound infection that was treated effectively with 1 week of oral antibiotics, while 2 patients had hypergranulation of pin tracts treated with topical silver nitrate. None of the patients showed loss of reduction, deep infection, or any other complications requiring additional procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the buried and exposed groups. We conclude that open reduction and exposed wiring is a safe and effective option for lateral condyle fractures, and recommend a period of 4 weeks of K-wire fixation followed by 2 weeks of backslab immobilisation as adequate for union with minimal risk of infection.

  8. breakfast habits among school children in selected communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain information on the children's ...

  9. Changes in the Nutritional Status of School Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...

  10. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  11. Early School Performance of Hmong Children in Comparative Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel P.; And Others

    This study compared the academic performance and classroom behavior of Hmong-refugee first and second graders to those of classmates from other ethnic backgrounds. Two cohorts of children and families from six inner-city Saint Paul (Minnesota) elementary schools participated in this ongoing longitudinal study, for a total of 528 children entering…

  12. Should Children with Auditory Processing Disorders Receive Services in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Many children with problems learning in school can have educational deficits due to underlying auditory processing disorders (APD). For these children, they can be identified as having auditory learning disabilities. Furthermore, auditory learning disabilities is identified as a specific learning disability (SLD) in the IDEA. Educators and…

  13. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2017-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  14. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  15. Prioritising Student Voice: "Tween" Children's Perspectives on School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Jonathon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study of the perspectives of Australian, English and New Zealand "tweens" in response to one question, "what makes people muck up at school?" Arguing for the increased prioritisation of children's voices in educational planning and provision, this paper provides, in children's own words,…

  16. Prevalence of enuresis among primary school children in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enuresis is a common problem among children and adolescents. It can lead to important psychosocial disturbances. Knowledge of the prevalence and types of enuresis in a community would guide early intervention. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of enuresis among primary school children aged ...

  17. Seroepidemiology of pertussis among elementary school children in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Kuo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Currently, almost one-third of elementary school children in Taiwan were seropositive for pertussis, a rate lower than expected. Seroprevalence declined with increasing class grades except for Grade 6. The current national immunization program may not provide adequate protection for children against pertussis.

  18. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  19. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  20. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First ... first grade (6-7 years old) in Assiut City and study its pattern and risk factors. ... Marked enuresis (every night) affected 53.7% of the total number of enuretic children.

  1. 'My journey to school': photovoice accounts of rural children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicate that children travelled long distances, crossing flooded rivers and dense forests in pursuit of access to education. They also denote how children attached complex emotions (of fear and admiration) to school journey spaces in ways that indicate both the negative psychological trauma that the harsh ...

  2. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  3. Children and Learning Climate at Home and at School: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that most of the children had serious financial and sociological problems at home which had effects on their academic progress. There was a positive correlation between alcoholic fathers on the one hand and family quarrels and poor academic performance of children in school on the other. It was also ...

  4. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Studies 34 elementary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. Concludes that the children had good prior awareness of some behaviors that save energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on everyday intuitive ideas that involved…

  5. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  6. Health-related knowledge and behaviour of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...

  7. Anti-typhoid agglutinins in School aged African children | Ibadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine baseline antibody responses to H and O antigens of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi (A, B and C) in school aged Nigerian children. Design: Cross-sectional study involving 175 children. Using both rapid slide and tube agglutination techniques in dilutions of sera (1:20 to 1:320), ...

  8. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  9. Amblyopia in rural Nigerian school children | Alarepe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Globally, amblyopia remains a common cause of visual impairment in children. Early screening and treatment is necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors, and characteristics of amblyopia among rural, public primary school children in Ijebu East ...

  10. Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children in Jimma Town. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... RESULTS: Majority (80.0%) of the studied children encountered some form of physical punishment of which 21.0% had abusive punishment as evidenced by bruises, lacerations or swelling reported as a result ...

  11. Atopic eczema in school children | Melaku | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on Atopic eczema is sparse in Ethiopia. This survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of eczema among school children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 1995. A standardized self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) was used.

  12. Academic Performance of School Children With Epilepsy | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.

  13. Ramifications of Absent Parenting on School-going Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to explore the psycho-educational implications of parental migration on school going children in Masvingo, urban. The study further explored how these children adjust to parental migration. This study used a mixed methods approach to collect data, particularly employing the descriptive case study. A total ...

  14. Too Cool for School?: Gifted Children and Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Homeschooling can be a last resort for frustrated families where gifted children are not having their complex needs met through mainstream schooling. Unlike many other groups of homeschoolers, parents of highly able children take this option for pragmatic reasons rather than as a kind of moral stance. This article explores some of the ways that…

  15. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  16. Caries experience in the primary dentition of nursery school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To measure the prevalence and pattern of distribution of dental caries in suburban Nigerian children attending nursery school in Ile – Ife, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional survey of 423 children (225 boys, 198 girls) aged 3 – 6 years using dmft index. WHO recommendations for oral health survey were used for ...

  17. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6 - 12 years. Results: A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight ...

  18. Emergent Technological Literacy: What Do Children Bring to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been very little research into children's technological practice in early childhood settings. This article describes four typical examples of the technological activity that occurs on a daily basis in New Zealand early childhood settings. It is suggested that children come to compulsory schooling with well-developed technological…

  19. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  20. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  1. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  2. Palliative care needs of HIV exposed and infected children admitted to the inpatient paediatric unit in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawesi, Jane; Kasirye, Ivy; Kavuma, David; Muziru, Benjamin; Businge, Alice; Naluwooza, Jackie; Kabunga, Grace; Karamagi, Yvonne; Akankwasa, Edith; Odiit, Mary; Mukasa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric palliative care is an emerging subspecialty that focuses on achieving the best possible quality of life for children with life-limiting conditions and also for their families. It is a response to the suffering and unique needs of such children. Globally there is limited documented data available on the palliative care needs of children with HIV. A retrospective review of data of all the HIV exposed and positive children who were admitted to the ward from January to December 2012 was done to document their palliative care needs. A total of 243 children were admitted to the ward during the stated period. Of these, 139 (57.2%) were female and 104 (42.8%) were male. Among them 131 (54%) were aged five years and below whereas 112 (46%) were above five years. Some of the identified palliative care needs documented included physical needs: pneumonia 46 (19%), severe acute malnutrition 38 (16%), mild and moderate acute malnutrition 23 (9.6%), and respiratory tract infections 22 (9.3%). Social needs: poor social support 21 (41%), financial instability 16 (31%), and child neglect 4 (8%). Psychological needs: antiretroviral treatment (ART) counselling 127 (36%), HIV counselling and testing for the child and family 63 (18%), adherence support 53 (15%), and others 11 (3%). Spiritual needs: discontinuing ART because of belief in spiritual healing 18 (81%), loss of hope because of severe ill health 1 (5%), and others 3 (14%). These results emphasise the need for palliative care in children with HIV even in the era of ART. The needs identified are in keeping with studies done elsewhere and are similar to the palliative care needs of children with other life-limiting illnesses such as cancer. HIV positive and exposed children plus their families have vast palliative care needs and a holistic approach is the key in their management.

  3. Parental psychopathology in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sarojini M; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Thakur, Geeta A; Bhat, Venkat; Grizenko, Natalie; Joober, Ridha

    2015-02-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We had previously suggested that exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) may be a valid basis for delineating a distinct subtype of ADHD, where children exposed to MSDP present with a more severe clinical picture. Here, we examine the psychopathology of parents in this group, to better understand the etiology of ADHD. Using the Family Interview for Genetic Studies in a sample of 514 families of children with ADHD, we collected data pertaining to lifetime parental psychopathology. Families were stratified based on maternal smoking during the complete gestational period. The frequency of different disorders was compared using the χ2 statistic. In the group where mothers smoked during pregnancy, both parents were significantly more likely to have antisocial personality disorder, and problems with alcohol and drug abuse. Mothers had a significantly higher frequency of major depressive disorder (MDD), while fathers showed a trend for both MDD and bipolar disorder. Based on the pattern of psychopathology in parents of children exposed to MSDP, as well as earlier reports of the severe clinical, behavioral, and cognitive phenotype in these children, combined with the large body of epidemiological evidence, we propose that these children present a distinct subtype of ADHD with comorbid conduct disorder. Furthermore, we propose that MSDP may be a proxy measure to help delineate this subtype. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; de Jongh, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Children (n=52, aged 4-18) were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26) or EMDR (n=26) in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4-8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures) were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children.

  5. School wellbeing among children in grades 1 - 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løhre Audhild

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of children's school wellbeing have not been extensively studied. In this cross-sectional study of school children we assessed how factors assumed to promote wellbeing and factors assumed to adversely influence wellbeing were associated with self-reported wellbeing in school. Methods Children from five schools, 230 boys and 189 girls in grades 1-10, responded to the same set of questions. We used proportional odds logistic regression to assess the associations of promoting and restraining factors with school wellbeing. Results In a multivariable analysis, degree of school wellbeing in boys was strongly and positively related to enjoying school work (odds ratio, 3.84, 95% CI 2.38 to 6.22 and receiving necessary help (odds ratio, 3.55, 95% CI 2.17 to 5.80 from teachers. In girls, being bothered during lessons was strongly and negatively associated with school wellbeing (odds ratio, 0.43, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.85. Conclusions Different factors may determine school wellbeing in boys and girls, but for both genders, factors relevant for lessons may be more important than factors related to recess. Especially in boys, the student-teacher relationship may be of particular importance.

  6. Phobia of animals in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kralertová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor's thesis is animal phobias in pre-school children. In the theoretical part, general information about the topic is provided, including theoretical findings about phobias, the way animals influence children and children's estrangement from nature. The theoretical part also focuses on types of education available to prevent this problem. The practical part describes activities focusing on prevention of animal phobias (and fear) as well as on their identification and t...

  7. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç; Aysun İdil; Hüban Atilla; Ayşen Topalkara; Cem Alay

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination inc...

  8. Mental Health Service Use among High School Students Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Johnson, Renee M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Lindsey, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence-exposed youth rarely receive mental health services, even though exposure increases risk for academic and psychosocial problems. This study examines the association between violence exposure and mental health service contact. The 4 forms of violence exposure were peer, family, sexual, and witnessing. Methods: Data are from…

  9. Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignores...... that uncertainty about future returns results in a need for risk diversification, that children function as old-age security providers when there are no available pension systems, that the human capital investment decision of one child is likely to be influenced by that of his/her siblings, and that rural parents...

  10. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. The results from the research implies that if the children’s perspectives could rule practice, the professional cooperation within the transition from preschool to school would focus on helping children - in concrete ways in lessons...

  11. Preparation of early school age children in fire sport

    OpenAIRE

    Jermanová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on preparation of early school age children in fire sport. This sport is known as adult sport and only marginally. In theoretical part I want to bring near ideas of this sport. I deal with history of fire departments and children in these departments, next I am focused on fire game "Plamen"(Flame) and also trainer personality. Research is focused on searching and evaluation of informations about preparation early school age children in fire sport in Benešov district.

  12. Music therapy with children and adolescents in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required.  There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...

  13. The dental status of asthmatic British school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDerra, E J; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental disease in British school children with asthma. A convenience sample of 100 asthmatic children (aged 4-16 years) was examined for dental caries, periodontal condition, and tooth surface loss. School children, equated for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were chosen for comparison. Children were divided into two age ranges; 4-10 and 11-16 years. A significant difference was found in DMFT (0.96 vs. 0.31) and DMFS (1.37 vs. 0.37) between the 4-10-year-old asthmatic children compared with healthy control children. In the 11-16-year age range, the asthmatic children had a DMFT and DMFS of 2.48 and 3.39 compared with the control children who had a DMFT and DMFS of 1.11 and 1.97 respectively. Asthmatic children had significantly more plaque, gingivitis, and calculus compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the severity and number of teeth affected by tooth surface loss affecting labial surfaces of the anterior teeth and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth of asthmatic children. It was concluded that asthmatic children have more decay affecting their permanent teeth, poorer periodontal status, and more tooth surface loss than healthy controls.

  14. Impact of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis on School Children in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, Hatem M; Mandour, Sameh S; El Morsy, Osama A; Farahat, Hassan G; Shokry, Shaimaa M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and its impact on school children in Egypt. A total of 3,706 students from six randomly selected schools of Menoufia were included where 126 had symptoms according to the VKC related symptoms questionnaire. Selected children were referred to a hospital for further assessment. The mean age of included children was 8.79±31.87 years, with a VKC prevalence of 3.3%, and male-to-female ratio of 2.3:1. The most frequently reported symptoms were ocular itching, followed by burning sensation, tearing, red eye, discharge, and photophobia. Signs vary between mild and severe cases; however, all cases had a negative impact on school attendance and performance. The prevalence of VKC differs according to the age group of included cases and the local temperature of the study area. School attendance, performance, lifestyle, and social activities were negatively affected by VKC.

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders among primary school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelal, Basanta; Chaudhari, Rajendra K; Nepal, Ashwini K; Sah, Gauri S; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    To assess the iodine status among primary school children of Dhankuta and Dharan in eastern Nepal. A population based cross sectional study was conducted on schools of Dhankuta and Dharan from January-March 2008. 385 samples of both urine and salt were collected from school children aged 6-11 yrs. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in casual urine samples by the ammonium-persulphate digestion microplate (APDM) method and salt iodine content by using a semi quantitative rapid test kit. The median UIEs of school children of Dhankuta and Dharan were 157.1 μg/L and 180.3 μg/L respectively. The percentage of iodine deficient (UIE Nepal is continuously progressing towards the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disease as illustrated by a normal median UIE and the majority of households consuming adequately iodized packet salt. It is necessary to maintain the program continuously to ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the population.

  16. Trauma-Informed Care for Children Exposed to Violence: "Tips for Teachers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Children are very resilient--but they are not unbreakable. No matter what their age, children are deeply hurt when they are physically, sexually, or emotionally abused or when they see or hear violence in their homes and communities. When children see and hear too much that is frightening, their world feels unsafe and insecure. This brief report…

  17. School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: the role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas R; Iachan, Ronaldo; Overpeck, Mary; Ross, James G; Gross, Lori A

    2006-09-01

    School connectedness includes liking school and positive relations with teachers and peers. School connectedness is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods that are related to school connectedness. In the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, school connectedness was reported by 13,207 students (grades 6-10) in 340 schools. HBSC measured a variety of student characteristics. Characteristics of schools were culled from data maintained by Quality Education Data, and school neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2000 decennial census. Associations between connectedness and student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics were estimated using hierarchical linear models. Characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods were associated with school connectedness. Connectedness was greater among younger students, females, students with better academic performance and greater extracurricular involvement, students with greater self-rated physical attractiveness, students with more friends, students from 2-parent families, and students whose parents were more involved with school. Connectedness was greater in smaller schools, more racially homogeneous schools, and schools with more students from relatively wealthy households. School connectedness was higher in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of non-US citizens. As the percent of renters in the neighborhood increased beyond 20%, school connectedness tended to decrease. The findings point to possible strategies for fostering school connectedness.

  18. School air quality related to dry cough, rhinitis and nasal patency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Sigsgaard, T; Norback, D; Wieslander, G; Nystad, W; Canciani, M; Sestini, P; Viegi, G

    2010-04-01

    Controls for indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools are not usually performed throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of IAQ on respiratory health of schoolchildren living in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. In the cross-sectional European Union-funded HESE (Health Effects of School Environment) Study, particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM(10)) and CO(2) levels in a day of normal activity (full classroom) were related to wheezing, dry cough at night and rhinitis in 654 children (10 yrs) and to acoustic rhinometry in 193 children. Schoolchildren exposed to PM(10) >50 microg x m( -3) and CO(2) >1,000 ppm (standards for good IAQ) were 78% and 66%, respectively. All disorders were more prevalent in children from poorly ventilated classrooms. Schoolchildren exposed to CO(2) levels >1,000 ppm showed a significantly higher risk for dry cough (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.65-5.44) and rhinitis (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.73). By two-level (child, classroom) hierarchical analyses, CO(2) was significantly associated with dry cough (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.13 per 100 ppm increment) and rhinitis (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.11). Nasal patency was significantly lower in schoolchildren exposed to PM( 10) >50 microg x m(-3) than in those exposed to lower levels. A poor IAQ is frequent in European classrooms; it is related to respiratory disturbances and affects nasal patency.

  19. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  20. Factors affecting the school placement of children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, C M; Bannister, C M; Ward, G S

    1992-12-01

    Integrating children with disabilities into mainstream schools has been an active policy in Britain since the 1981 Education Act. 26 children with spina bifida, 13 of whom were educated in mainstream schools, and 13 in special schools were assessed to clarify the relative importance of the following factors 1) IQ, 2) Mobility, 3) Hand function, 4) Bladder and bowel function, and 5) Behaviour. A marked difference was found between those attending mainstream and special schools. 11/13 of the former attained scores within the normal range as compared to only 2/13 of the latter. Neither mobility nor hand function alone were found to influence school placement and a marked correlation was found between the two. Whilst those educated in special schools had more marked problems, all children functioned poorly compared with the norms for able-bodied peers. Neither bladder nor bowel incontinence hindered attendance at mainstream school, but faecal soiling was considered the more serious problem. The frequency of behavioural problems showed a similar distribution amongst the two groups. Comments from parents highlighted their reservations about both special and mainstream schooling which indicates the policy for integration needs considerably more commitment from Government and Education Authorities in order to succeed.