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Sample records for school age results

  1. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  2. A Catalogue of Dutch Protestant Primary Schools in the Secular Age: Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebren Miedema; dr. Ina ter Avest; Gerdien Bertram-Troost; Cees Kom

    2013-01-01

    The ways schools shape their (religious) identity may change over time. Due to developments in society and individualization of religion the formal identity of schools in the pillarized educational system of the Netherlands is not completely representing the religious identity of teachers anymore,

  3. A Catalogue of Dutch Protestant Primary Schools in the Secular age: Empirical Results. (online early publication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram-Troost, G.D.; Miedema, S.; Kom, K; ter Avest, I.

    2013-01-01

    The ways schools shape their (religious) identity may change over time. Because of developments in society and individualization of religion, the formal identity of schools in the pillarized educational system of the Netherlands is not completely representing the religious identity of teachers

  4. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  5. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  6. Aging and operation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The correlation between the different accelerated aging methods and operation reality has to be done with solid and representative elements in matter of tests as well as in operating experience. In 1990 in France, the first unit will be 13 years operating, there will be 34 units of 900 MW PWR and 18 units of 1300 MW PWR in operation. The total of experience will be equivalent to 400 reactor-years. Only computerised means permit to collect all corresponding events, to manage them and to draw a lot of conclusions. One describes these computerised applications explaining the different events collected, data input and interrogating possibilities. The first application, called ''events file'', records all important events in nuclear plants. For each of these events, an event reporting format is set up as soon as first informations are known and then is put into the file. An updating is performed when the event is better known and analyzed. Interrogating programs allow no specialist to access easily to this data bank. So it is possible to collect events of the same nature, of the same equipments or of the same systems. The second application called S.R.D.F. (fiability data bank system) collects all maintenance operations on certain mechanical and electrical equipment. These two computerized applications complete on another in the way they allow to do fiability and availability studies for some equipments or for some elements of a nuclear plant [fr

  7. A simple method for identification of misreporting of energy intake from infancy to school age: Results from a longitudinal study.

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    Gomes, Delphina; Luque, Veronica; Xhonneux, Annick; Verduci, Elvira; Socha, Piotr; Koletzko, Berthold; Berger, Ursula; Grote, Veit

    2017-06-01

    Misreporting is a major source of reporting bias in nutritional surveys. It can affect the analysis of associations between diet and disease. Although various methods have been proposed to identify misreporting, their application to infants and young children is difficult. We identify misreporting of energy intake in infants and young children and propose a simplified approach. 1199 children were enrolled in the Childhood Obesity Programme (CHOP) based in 5 European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain) with repeated measurements of 3-day weighed food protocol and anthropometric indices at 10 time points between ages 1-96 months. Individual cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were calculated to identify misreporters. Misreporting was studied according to age, gender, BMI z-scores and country. We identified a higher proportion of over-reporters (18.9%) as compared to under-reporters (10.6%). The proportion of over-reporting was higher among infants while under-reporting was more prevalent in school-aged children. Under-reporting was higher in boys (12.0%) and in obese/over-weight children (36.3%). Mean values for upper and lower cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement in children ≤12 months were 0.80 and 1.20, and 0.75 and 1.25 for children >12 months, respectively. Using these fixed (mean) values, 90.4% (kappa statistic: 0.78) of all misreporters could be identified. Despite intensive measures to obtain habitual intake of children, an essential proportion of nutritional reports were found to be implausible. Both over- and under-reporting should be carefully analysed, even in studies on infants. Fixed cut-offs can be applied to identify misreporting if no individual variation in energy intake can be calculated. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00338689. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  8. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

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    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  9. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

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    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  10. Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development.

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    Cahan, S; Cohen, N

    1989-10-01

    The effect of formal education, as opposed to chronological age, on intelligence development has suffered from inadequate empirical investigation. Most studies of this issue have relied on natural variation in exposure to school among children of the same age, thus confounding differences in schooling with differences in other intelligence-related variables. This difficulty can be overcome by a quasi-experimental paradigm involving comparison between children who differ in both chronological age and schooling. The present study applies this paradigm to the estimation of the independent effects of age and schooling in grades 5 and 6 on raw scores obtained on a variety of general ability tests. The sample included all students in Jerusalem's Hebrew-language, state-controlled elementary schools. The results unambiguously point to schooling as the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age and to the larger effect schooling has on verbal than nonverbal tests. These results contribute to our understanding of the causal model underlying intelligence development and call for reconsideration of the conceptual basis underlying the definition of deviation-IQ scores. Some implications of these results concerning the distinction between intelligence and scholastic achievement, the causal model underlying the development of "crystallized" and "fluid" abilities, and the notion of "culture-fair" tests are discussed.

  11. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

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    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  12. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  13. School-age children development

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    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  14. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

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    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  15. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  16. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

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    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  17. Aging Education in the Public Schools--Coming of Age?

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    Hoot, James L.; Lumsden, D. Barry

    A statewide survey of elementary and secondary teachers in Texas indicates that little attention is currently given to direct teaching about aging or to integrating this content area into the school curriculum. The following questions were asked: (1) To what extent is aging incorporated into the public school curricula? (2) Would increased…

  18. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Landerso, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting...

  19. Direct and self-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours by weight status in school-aged children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya.

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    Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.

  20. Overweight in school-aged children and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, E; Rasmussen, Mette; Samdal, O

    2009-01-01

    samples in 41 countries (n=204,534). RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was highest in USA (28.8 %) and lowest in Latvia (7.6 %). In most countries, overweight was more prevalent in boys than girls. Overweight was consistently negatively associated with breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical......OBJECTIVES: To examine overweight prevalence and its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in 11-15 year olds in the HBSC 2005-2006 survey. METHODS: Self-reports of height, weight, eating patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviours were obtained from nationally representative...... activity; OR range: 0.48-0.79 and 0.50-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overweight prevalence in youth remained high across the countries examined. The primary factors linked to overweight were breakfast consumption and physical activity. These data should contribute to formulating preventive programs...

  1. Families with School-Age Children

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    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  2. Maltreatment and the School-Aged Child: School Performance Consequences.

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    Kurtz, P. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the school performance of 139 school-age and adolescent children, 22 of whom had been physically abused and 47 neglected. The abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems, while neglected children displayed academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on…

  3. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  4. The Middle School Concept Meets the Age of Assessments: How One Middle School Has Adapted to the New Age

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    Seed, Allen H.; Watts, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    The Middle School Concept brings together good teaching practices with the unique needs of pre-adolescent students. Since the passing of the NCLB, more and more attention has been generated on the results of high stakes testing. The question of what happens to the middle school concept when it confronts the demands of this new age of testing is…

  5. Active aging promotion: results from the vital aging program.

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    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  6. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

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    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  7. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

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    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  8. Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    3D/International, Houston, TX.

    Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…

  9. School-Age NOTES, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Richard T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter providing support and information for providers of child care for school-age children. The featured articles for each month are: (1) "Re-Evaluating Praise" (September); (2) "Making the Season Brighter: Tips To Create More Inclusive Holiday Programs" (October);…

  10. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status. Regarding the different health-related behaviours, gender differences were less pronounced than racial differences. Black school-aged children had a significantly higher ...

  11. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R

    2009-10-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.

  12. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

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    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  13. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

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    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  14. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  15. Infant wheeze, comorbidities and school age asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Asa; Bergström, Anna; Gustafsson, Per; Thunqvist, Per; Andersson, Niklas; Nordvall, Lennart; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    Factors associated with early onset of wheeze have been described, but there is limited knowledge on which of these infant wheezers who will have developed asthma in school age. The aim was to identify clinical risk factors for asthma in the 8-yr-old children that wheezed during infancy in a population-based setting. Three thousand two hundred and fifty-one children from a population-based birth cohort followed prospectively from infancy until age 8 yr were included in the study. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Parents reported any wheeze episode before age 2 yr in 823 subjects (25%). Infant wheezers had an almost fourfold risk of asthma at age 8 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.68, 95% CI 2.74-4.96], equivalent to an asthma prevalence of 14% compared with 4% among non-wheezers (p < 0.001). After adjustments for sex, exposure to tobacco smoke and indoor dampness/mould, allergic heredity (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30), increased frequency of wheeze (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.09-5.56 for children with ≥3 episodes compared with ≤2 episodes during the first 2 yr of life), infant eczema (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.52-3.49), and recurrent abdominal pain (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.30-4.16) remained risk factors for school age asthma in the infant wheezing group. Among infant wheezers, allergic heredity, increased severity of wheeze, infant eczema, and recurrent abdominal pain were independent risk factors for asthma at age 8 yr. Among children with three or four of these risk factors, 38% had asthma at school age. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Werry, E.V.; Blahnik, D.E.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations

  17. Schooling, marriage, and age at first birth in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E

    2015-01-01

    The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.

  18. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  19. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    OpenAIRE

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, where by aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual activ...

  20. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  1. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  3. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider p...

  4. School Communication in the Age of Google

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Kitty; Carnes, Meg

    2012-01-01

    The debate about social media in schools--about should we or should we not--is already over. Social media is here to stay. The only relevant question now is how long it will take school leaders to adopt new ways and adapt the new technologies to support teaching, learning, and communication among the adults in schools. For schools to pretend that…

  5. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  6. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  7. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  8. The Gift of Time? School Starting Age and Mental Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; S. Dee, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    influences student outcomes by relying on linked Danish survey and register data that include several distinct, widely used, and validated measures of mental health that are reported out-of-school among similarly aged children. We estimate the causal effects of delayed school enrollment using a "fuzzy.......7), a measure of self regulation with strong negative links to student achievement. We also find that this large and targeted effect persists at age 11. However, the estimated effects of school starting age on other mental-health constructs, which have weaker links to subsequent student achievement, are smaller......In many developed countries, children now begin their formal schooling at an older age. However, a growing body of empirical studies provides little evidence that such schooling delays improve educational and economic outcomes. This study presents new evidence on whether school starting age...

  9. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  10. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  11. Academic Achievement, Employment, Age and Gender and Students' Experience of Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…

  12. How Can Gender Affect Psychopathology in Lebanese School-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…

  13. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  14. Prevalence and severity of gingivitis in school students aged 6-11 years in Tafelah Governorate, South Jordan: results of the survey executed by National Woman's Health Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Rania; Khlaifat, Feryal; Smadi, Leena; Azab, Reem; Abdalmohdi, Asma

    2015-11-09

    A cross-sectional census was conducted on 994 public school students aged 6-11 years living in 3 different parts of Tafeleh Governorate-South of Jordan, to determine the prevalence, and severity of gingivitis and to evaluate the oral hygiene habits among them as a part a survey executed by National Woman's Health Care Center. All students were examined for gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI), information about oral hygiene habits was recorded. Only 29.8 % had healthy gingiva, 38.5 % had mild gingivitis, 31.4 % had moderate gingivitis, and 0.3 % had severe gingivitis. The difference between both genders was not statistically significant P > 0.05. 36.8 % of the examined students never brushed their teeth. Average gingival index (GI) and average plaque index (PI) were 0.77 and 0.61 respectively. Fair oral hygiene with mild to moderate gingivitis is highly prevalent among Tafelah school children. This study indicated that oral health status among schoolchildren in Tafelah is poor and needs to be improved. Long-term school based oral health education programme is highly recommended.

  15. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  16. Money and age in schools: Bullying and power imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Castellanos, Melisa

    2015-05-01

    School bullying continues to be a serious problem around the world. Thus, it seems crucial to clearly identify the risk factors associated with being a victim or a bully. The current study focused in particular on the role that age and socio-economic differences between classmates could play on bullying. Logistic and multilevel analyses were conducted using data from 53,316 5th and 9th grade students from a representative sample of public and private Colombian schools. Higher age and better family socio-economic conditions than classmates were risk factors associated with being a bully, while younger age and poorer socio-economic conditions than classmates were associated with being a victim of bullying. Coming from authoritarian families or violent neighborhoods, and supporting beliefs legitimizing aggression, were also associated with bullying and victimization. Empathy was negatively associated with being a bully, and in some cases positively associated with being a victim. The results highlight the need to take into account possible sources of power imbalances, such as age and socio-economic differences among classmates, when seeking to prevent bullying. In particular, interventions focused on peer group dynamics might contribute to avoid power imbalances or to prevent power imbalances from becoming power abuse. Aggr. Behav. 41:280-293, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  18. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  19. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  20. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  1. Improving asthma-related health outcomes among low-income, multiethnic, school-aged children: results of a demonstration project that combined continuous quality improvement and community health worker strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patrick; Porter, Patricia G; Lob, Sibylle H; Boer, Jennifer Holloman; Rocha, David A; Adelson, Joel W

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve asthma-related health outcomes in an ethnically and geographically disparate population of economically disadvantaged school-aged children by using a team-based approach using continuous quality improvement and community health workers. A demonstration project was conducted with 7 community clinics treating approximately 3000 children with asthma 5 to 18 years of age. The overall clinic population with asthma was assessed for care-process changes through random cross-sectional chart reviews at baseline and 24 months (N = 560). A subset of patients with either moderate or severe persistent asthma or poorly controlled asthma (N = 405) was followed longitudinally for specific asthma-related clinical outcomes, satisfaction with care, and confidence managing asthma by family interview at baseline and at 12 or 24 months. Patient-centered and care-process outcomes included patient/parent assessment of quality of care and confidence in self-management, asthma action plan review, and documentation of guideline-based indicators of quality of care. Direct clinical outcomes included daytime and nighttime symptoms, use of rescue medications, acute care and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Each clinic site's degree of adherence to the intervention model was evaluated and ranked to examine the correlation between model adherence and outcomes. Cross-sectional data showed clinic-wide improvements in the documentation of asthma severity, review of action plans, health services use, and asthma symptoms. At follow-up in the longitudinal sample, fewer patients reported acute visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, frequent daytime and nighttime symptoms, and missed school days compared with baseline. More patients reported excellent or very good quality of care and confidence in asthma self-management. Linear regression analysis of the clinical sites' model adherence ranks against site

  2. Does the Early Bird Catch the Worm? Instrumental Variable Estimates of Educational Effects of Age of School Entry in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Puhani, Patrick A.; Weber, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the effect of age of school entry on educational outcomes using two different data sets for Germany, sampling pupils at the end of primary school and in the middle of secondary school. Results are obtained based on instrumental variable estimation exploiting the exogenous variation in month of birth. We find robust and significant positive effects on educational outcomes for pupils who enter school at seven instead of six years of age: Test scores at the end of primary school incr...

  3. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  4. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  5. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  6. Aging Mistress: The Law School in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    1970-01-01

    With the increasing uncertainty about the validity of assumptions upon which legal education has long relied, students and professors show a sense of frustration and feel the necessity to try something new. Fundamental re-evaluation of legal education is suggested, and four institutional models are proposed: law schools that would continue to…

  7. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  8. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  9. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  10. School age test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child with books, bubbles, games, hand-held video games, or other activities. PLAY PREPARATION Children often avoid ... using this type of communication. Older children may benefit from videos that show children of the same age explaining, ...

  11. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  12. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  13. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  14. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    standard sample IAEA NN and NN-1 (hair homogenate) as well as comparative method. Accuracy of analysis results of the applied method made up from 7 to 30% depended on concentration and nuclear-physical characteristics. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that microelemental contents in hairs and other liquids in children of school age somehow differed from that of in adults. So, contents of iron in children's hair are significantly higher (three times - 81.38±8.55 mkg/g). In erythrocytes of 22 examined sound children the contents of the iron equaled to 2964±52 mg/l, in saliva - 584 351.7 mg/l. In the study of Zn contents in blood of healthy children it was equal to 59 mkg/g, in formed elements of blood it was equal to 32.3 mkg/g which was much less than similar index in adults [3]. According to our data the contents of Zn in blood made up 39.25±4.30 mkg/g which was significantly low compared with similar index in adults (according to V.V.Nasolodin, 1987 the contents of zinc in plasma varies from 86 to 106 mkg/g). In 20 examined children the contents of Zn in erythrocytes equaled to 32.3±1.5 mkg/g. The contents of Zn in saliva of sound children of school age was 518.0±54.17 mkg/g and in urine 386±18.24 mkg/g. In practically sound school children of Zarafshan valley the contents of Zn in hair made up 182.9±6.6 mkg/g. It was established that the contents of Zn in sound school children of Zarafshan valley is in middle position amongst similar data referred in scientific articles [2]. The contents of Cu in hairs of practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley was 9.24±0.84 mkg/g which was low (two times) compared with adults. We found out that the contents of Cu in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshan valley was lower compared with the data presented by other authors [2] and other regions respectively. A low content of Cu in hairs probably depends on the food-stuff ingredients and peculiarities of the natural condition in biogeochemical

  15. Why teaching English in junior school age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery I. Calvet Valdés

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the historical antecedents of English teaching in Cuba and the world, as well as elements of the periodical study of six to ten years all student's development which justify the teaching of English at this age.

  16. DISABILITY OF 'STUDENT IN SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERROTTA Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools should play a significant role in spreading the message understanding and acceptance of disability rights, helping to dispel fears, myths and prejudices, supporting the efforts of the whole community.Should develop and disseminate educational resources to support students to develop an awareness individual's disability or that of others, helping them to consider in a positive diversity. It is necessary to achieve the goal of 'education for all in compliance the principles of full participation and equality. Education has a roleinstrumental in building from future for all, both for the individual, both for the person as members of society and the world of work. The education system must therefore be the central place that will ensure personal development and social inclusion, that allows children and young people to be as independent as possible. Theeducation system is the first step toward a society of 'integration. [the Declaration of Madrid, Non-discrimination as affirmative action equal social integration, Madrid, 2002

  17. Teaching Basic Programming Concepts to Young Primary School Students Using Tablets: Results of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the results of a project in which tablets and a ready-made application were used for teaching basic programming concepts to young primary school students (ages 7-9). A total of 135 students participated in the study, attending primary schools in Athens, Greece, divided into three groups. The first was taught conventionally. The…

  18. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  19. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  20. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ACTUAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL MEALS, AGE APPROPRIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current state of school meals, determination of ways of optimization for food, biological values and balanced school meals relevant age-related physiological needs. The greatest contribution to the optimization of school meals can make enriched products of mass consumption, first of necessity, the need and favorite products to children. In this regard, the fol-lowing tasks were defined: analysis of normative documents on creation of school meals , the relevant age-related physiological needs for nutrients and energy for protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and organic acids; definition of the balance of the products of the school menu categories for children aged 7-11 years, 11 - 17; study of the composition of food school menu; comparison of total deviation calorie Breakfast, lunch and development of measures on optimization of the system of school nutrition. In the structure of nutrition of children and adolescents major role bread, drinks, confectionery products as are the sources of energy and nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, macro - and microelements, organic acids, including polyunsaturated fatty CI slot, Therefore one of the ways of solving of optimization problems of preschool and school meals are of great TRANS-perspective bakery and confectionery products, drinks of high food and biological value and coordination and composition, as on the basic structural elements and micronutrients obtained innovative technology complex processing of raw sources with maximum preservation of their original nutritional value. TA-thus, the performed literature analysis found that rational nutrition of schoolchildren aimed at prevention of alimentary (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, allergic diseases that meet energy, plastic and other needs of the body, provides the necessary level of metabolism.

  2. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  3. The use of research results for effective aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the degradation of structures, components, and systems due to aging is an important ongoing area of research in the nuclear industry. Efforts by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the utility industry, through organizations such as the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have produced substantial research results that can be used by inspectors and operators to effectively understand and manage the aging of nuclear power plants. One of the primary objectives of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program is to determine how aging affects the safety of nuclear power plants. This program uses operating experience, testing, and engineering analysis to identify failures caused by age-related degradation. Useful information on aging has also resulted from research being performed by the industry to support plant-life extension (PLEX). The EPRI program, for instance, is directed toward the resolution of issues related to materials and components. Degradation of equipment and systems due to aging can occur which, if unmitigated, could result in reduction of the nuclear power plant safety margin as the plant ages. This paper describes how aging research results may be used by plant operating management to effectively address the aging issue and by inspectors responsible for monitoring plant activities and programs

  4. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  5. Utilization of aging program results in plant inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Fullwood, R.

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large data base of component and system operating experience. This data base has been used to determine equipment aging susceptibility and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and reliability. Methods of detecting and mitigating component and system aging have also been identified. This paper discusses how the NPAR results could be used to focus inspection activities on age-sensitive components and systems and on the specific modes and mechanisms of age degradation. These activities range from the regular inspections conducted by resident inspectors to extensive special inspections such as the Safety System Functional Inspection typically conducted by a team of inspectors. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Utilization of aging program results in plant inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Fullwood, R.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large data base of component and system operating experience. This data base has been used to determine equipment aging susceptibility and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and reliability. Methods of detecting and mitigating component and system aging have also been identified. This paper discusses how the NPAR results could be used to focus inspection activities on age-sensitive components and systems and on the specific modes and mechanisms of age degradation. These activities range from the regular inspections conducted by resident inspectors to extensive special inspections such as the Safety System Functional Inspection typically conducted by a team of inspectors. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  8. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  9. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  10. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  11. Career counselling with secondary school-aged youth: Directions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can ...

  12. Peer Dynamics among Marquesan School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…

  13. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  14. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...

  15. School Communities That Work for Results and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Annenberg Inst. for School Reform.

    The primary organizational structure for a city's schools is the district. Its critics, however, consider that dysfunction was designed into school districts structure by virtue of their history. District structure was built on the notions that intelligence was innate, that the "scientific management" model produced optimal results, and that…

  16. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite boys and girls tennis groups in the older school age. METHODOLOGY: The data from groups of 13 year old boys and girls (13 years and 0 months to 13 years and 11 months were included into the analysis. These players were registered in the first one hundred ranking of International Tennis Federation (ITF according to the total number of ranking points in each year during the period 2007-2011 (500 boys, 500 girls. An ANOVA was used for analysis with a total ranking score as an indicator of competitive success with the age factor (12 levels = 12 months of birth (α = .05. The same analysis was used in sub-groups of boys, respectively girls, registered in ITF separately for each year of the period 2007-2011. Dates of birth of children were obtained from official sources of ITF. In the event of the significance factor of age we performed a simple regression analysis depending on the number of ITF points on the month of birth (p < .05. Analyses were processed in SPSS 21 software (IBM, USA. RESULTS: The analysis showed no significance of age, respective of the month of birth on the total number of points in a boys group (n = 500 (p = .624 and girls group (n = 500 (p = .152 from ITF ranking during five-year period. No significance was found in the boys' groups (n = 100, respective girls' groups (n = 100 registered in ITF ranking in each year of the five-year period. The exception was found only in a boys group in 2007 (p = .021, and significant regression relationship

  17. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  18. Intermittent exotropia surgery: results in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaho, Dayane Cristine; Wang, Serena Xiaohong; Weakley, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (groups. One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (page, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.

  19. Preterm birth, age at school entry and educational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if the lack of gestational age correction may explain some of the school failure seen in ex-preterm infants. A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The primary outcome was a low Key Stage 1 score (KS1) score at age 7 or having special educational needs (SEN). Exposure groups were defined as preterm (birth (DOB), expected date of delivery (EDD) or expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing covariate data. When matching for DOB, infants born preterm had an increased odds of a low KS1 score (OR 1.73 (1.45-2.06)) and this association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.57 (1.25-1.97)). The association persisted in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.53 (1.21-1.94)) but attenuated substantially after additionally restricting to those infants who entered school at the same time as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.25 (0.98-1.60)). A compatible reduction in the population attributable risk fraction was seen from 4.60% to 2.12%, and year of school entry appeared to modify the association between gestational age and the risk of a poor KS1 score (p = 0.029). This study provides evidence that the school year placement and assessment of ex-preterm infants based on their actual birthday (rather than their EDD) may increase their risk of learning difficulties with corresponding school failure.

  20. Factors associated with school nurses' HPV vaccine attitudes for school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K

    2017-06-01

    School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.

  1. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  2. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  3. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  4. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  6. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  7. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  8. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  10. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  11. Radon in Irish schools: the results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H; Hanley, O; Fenton, D; Colgan, P A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of radon concentrations in Irish primary and post-primary schools. The objective of this survey was to assess the distribution of radon in Irish schools and to identify those requiring remedial work to reduce radon exposure to children and staff. All primary and post-primary schools were invited to participate in the survey. Indoor radon concentrations were measured during the academic year using integrating passive alpha track-etch detectors with a measurement period from three to nine months. The survey was carried out on a phased basis from 1998 to 2004 and is one of the most comprehensive of its kind undertaken in Europe. Measurements were completed in 38 531 ground floor classrooms and offices in 3826 schools, representing over 95% of the approximate 4000 primary and post-primary schools in Ireland. Of these, 984 schools had radon concentrations greater than 200 Bq m -3 in 3028 rooms and 329 schools had radon concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 in 800 rooms. The average radon concentration in schools was 93 Bq m -3 . This results in an annual average effective dose to an Irish child from exposure to radon of 0.3 mSv per year, assuming that the long-term radon concentration is equal to the radon concentration present during the working hours and that the annual average occupancy is 1000 h per year. A programme of remediation of schools with radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 has been put in place

  12. Neurocognitive profiles in MSUD school-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau, Juliette; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie; Pichard, Samia; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barbier, Valérie; Brassier, Anaïs; Broué, Pierre; Cano, Aline; Chabrol, Brigitte; Damon, Gilles; Gay, Claire; Guillain, Isabelle; Habarou, Florence; Lamireau, Delphine; Ottolenghi, Chris; Paermentier, Laetitia; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; de Lonlay, Pascale; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse neurocognitive profiles of French MSUD patients. This was a multicentre retrospective study on MSUD patients who underwent neurocognitive evaluation at primary school age. Twenty-one patients with classical neonatal onset MSUD were included. The patients' mean age at the time of evaluation was 8.7 years. The mean intellectual quotient (IQ) score was in the normal range (95.1 ± 12.6). In a subset of eight patients, a consistent developmental pattern of higher verbal than performance IQ was observed (mean of the difference 25.7 ± 8.7, p < 0.0001). No correlation could be established between this pattern and long-term metabolic balance (BCAA blood levels), or severity of acute metabolic imbalances, or leucine blood levels at diagnosis and time to toxin removal procedure. These data show that some MSUD patients may exhibit an abnormal neurocognitive profile with higher verbal than performance abilities. This might suggest an executive dysfunction disorder that would need to be further investigated by specialized testing. This pattern is important to detect in MSUD, as appropriate neuropsychological treatment strategies should be proposed.

  13. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  14. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uptake and impact of a new live attenuated influenza vaccine programme in England: early results of a pilot in primary school-age children, 2013/14 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, R G; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Zhao, H; Boddington, N; Bawa, Z; Durnall, H; Singh, N; Sunderland, A; Letley, L; Ellis, J; Elliot, A J; Donati, M; Smith, G E; de Lusignan, S; Zambon, M

    2014-06-05

    As part of the introduction and roll-out of a universal childhood live-attenuated influenza vaccination programme, 4–11 year-olds were vaccinated in seven pilot areas in England in the 2013/14 influenza season. This paper presents the uptake and impact of the programme for a range of disease indicators. End-of-season uptake was defined as the number of children in the target population who received at least one dose of influenza vaccine. Between week 40 2013 and week 15 2014, cumulative disease incidence per 100,000 population (general practitioner consultations for influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisations), cumulative influenza swab positivity in primary and secondary care and cumulative proportion of emergency department respiratory attendances were calculated. Indicators were compared overall and by age group between pilot and non-pilot areas. Direct impact was defined as reduction in cumulative incidence based on residence in pilot relative to non-pilot areas in 4–11 year-olds. Indirect impact was reduction between pilot and non-pilot areas in 11 year-olds. Overall vaccine uptake of 52.5% (104,792/199,475) was achieved. Although influenza activity was low, a consistent, though not statistically significant, decrease in cumulative disease incidence and influenza positivity across different indicators was seen in pilot relative to non-pilot areas in both targeted and non-targeted age groups, except in older age groups, where no difference was observed for secondary care indicators.

  17. Thugs, Hooligans and Snotty Noses: The Implications of Leading and Managing an All-Age School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidenbank, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    While there has been a tradition of all-age schooling within the private sector it has not, until recently, been typical in state schools. However, there appears to be a growing trend in which all-age schools, i.e. schools that comprise multiple phases (usually primary and secondary) are becoming more popular. This article summarises the main…

  18. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  19. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  20. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  2. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  3. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  4. Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.

  5. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged

  6. [Hearing screening at nursery schools: results of an evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Rohrer, Monika; Winkler, Cornelia; Welzl-Müller, Kunigunde

    2004-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the hearing screening of pre-school children at nursery schools in Tyrol, Austria. 47 nursery schools with a total of 2199 enrolled children participated in the study. At the screening, the children were presented a series of tones at frequencies 0.5 kHz (25dB), 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, and 4 kHz (20 dB each) from portable audiometers. The tones were presented over headphones for each ear separately and at irregular intervals. Failure to respond to any of the frequencies was considered failure of the screening. Parents were then advised in written form to have the child examined by an ENT-specialist. 1832 individuals were screened (coverage: 83% of nursery school children; corresponding to at least 63% of all Tyrolean children aged 3 to 5 years). Of these, 390 failed the test (referral rate: 21% of all screened). Examination through an ENT-specialist occurred with 217 children, and this confirmed the positive test in 139 children (hit rate: 64%). In most cases, a temporary conductive hearing loss due to external or middle ear problems (glue ear, tube dysfunction, cerumen, otitis media) was diagnosed. A sensorineural hearing loss was found in 4 children (in 3 of them bilateral). The need for therapy was recognized in 81 children (4% of all screened). Pre-school hearing screening identifies children with ear and hearing problems that need therapeutical intervention. Although the hearing problems are mostly of a temporary nature, some may require monitoring over some period. Also some children with permanent sensorineural hearing loss may be detected through this measure. Hearing screening is an efficient means of assessing ear and hearing problems in pre-school children. However, the follow-up rate needs to be improved for optimizing the efficacy.

  7. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue.

  8. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  9. Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a

  10. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  11. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  12. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

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    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  13. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  14. Ambiguous Loss and Posttraumatic Stress in School-Age Children of Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika London; Sanderson, Jessica; Britner, Preston A., IV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a sample of school-age children of incarcerated parents enrolled in a federally funded mentoring program. A mixed methods approach was applied to discern key themes related to caregiver incarceration. Results demonstrated a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress as well as high rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.…

  15. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  16. Integenerational radio in the school: a proposal to active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Abarrategui Amado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Schools must generate answers to social challenge that the ageing population raises. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the benefits that could involve the implementation of a intergenerational program, focused on radio, in educational centers.These benefits keep relation with intergenerational learning, active ageing and the safeguard of intangible cultural heritage. In order to develope this investigation, we have approached the design, development and evaluation of a intergenerational program mediated by radio. It took place in a classroom of primary education from CPI Virxe da Cela de Monfero (A Coruña. According with it, we have selected a program evaluation methodology. In addition, we have used interviews and participant observation as a method. This labour has allowed us to show how the synergy between intergenerational programs and radio can increase benefits related to the breaking of stereotypes, the betting on lifelong learning or social inclusion. All of them aspects enable us to establish a debate about responsibility and the way in which the school can contribute to the generation of a society for all ages.

  17. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  18. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity o...... can identify a group of children with highly increased risk of later being diagnosed and/or treated for ADHD in school age....... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... regression analyses estimated the risk of later ADHD diagnosis for screen-positive children. A total of 2.94% of the study population were clinically diagnosed and/or were treated with central stimulants for ADHD before age 11-12. Children with possible/probable disorder according to the SDQ hyperactivity...

  19. Digital Educational Games and Mathematics. Results of a Case Study in Primary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the results of a project in which a series of digital games were used for teaching Mathematics to first, fourth, and sixth-grade primary school students (ages 6-7, 8-9, and 11-12). Mathematics was selected as the teaching subject because of the difficulties students face in understanding basic math concepts. Although digital…

  20. Household responses to school closure resulting from outbreak of influenza B, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, April J; Moore, Zack S; Edelson, Paul J; Kinnane, Lynda; Davies, Megan; Shay, David K; Balish, Amanda; McCarron, Meg; Blanton, Lenee; Finelli, Lyn; Averhoff, Francisco; Bresee, Joseph; Engel, Jeffrey; Fiore, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    School closure is a proposed strategy for reducing influenza transmission during a pandemic. Few studies have assessed how families respond to closures, or whether other interactions during closure could reduce this strategy's effect. Questionnaires were administered to 220 households (438 adults and 355 children) with school-age children in a North Carolina county during an influenza B virus outbreak that resulted in school closure. Closure was considered appropriate by 201 (91%) households. No adults missed work to solely provide childcare, and only 22 (10%) households required special childcare arrangements; 2 households incurred additional costs. Eighty-nine percent of children visited at least 1 public location during the closure despite county recommendations to avoid large gatherings. Although behavior and attitudes might differ during a pandemic, these results suggest short-term closure did not cause substantial hardship for parents. Pandemic planning guidance should address the potential for transmission in public areas during school closure.

  1. School results and access test results as indicators of first-year performance at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bothma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals set by the National Plan for Higher Education, the fact that many schools are still severely disadvantaged as well as far-reaching changes in the school system demand that South African universities urgently reconsider their admission procedures. Redesigning admission procedures calls for a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between school marks, results in existing access tests and first-year university performance. These interrelationships were statistically investigated in the case of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 intake groups, who were compelled to write access tests before being admitted to Stellenbosch University. The results of this investigation confirm an alarming degree of unpreparedness among many prospective students regarding what is expected of them at university. This is aggravated by school marks creating a totally unrealistic expectation of performance in the first year at university. It is emphasised that schools and authorities dealing with admission of prospective students at universities should be cognisant of the findings reported here. Furthermore, the statistical analyses demonstrate several novel techniques for investigating the interrelationship between school marks, access test results and university performance.

  2. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  4. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  5. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  6. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  7. Intelligence test at preschool-age predicts reading difficulty among school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Ogino, Tatsuya; Koeda, Tatsuya; Oka, Makio; Yorifuji, Takashi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuo; Sugino, Noriko; Bonno, Motoki; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao

    2018-05-21

    To elucidate whether the results of an intelligence test at preschool age are predictive of reading difficulty (RD) at school age among very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Subjects were 48 Japanese children whose birth weight was Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) during the last grade of kindergarten, and four reading tasks during the second to fourth grade of elementary school. All participants had a full-scale intelligence quotient score of 85 or higher. Subjects with a standard deviation reading time score greater than 2.0 in two or more tasks were considered to have RD. We evaluated the associations between each WISC-III score and RD using logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine a cutoff WISC-III score predictive of RD. In the mutually-adjusted model, the adjusted odds ratio per 1 score increase of freedom from distractibility (FD) was 0.832 (95% confidence interval: 0.720-0.962). In the ROC analysis, an FD score of memory and attention, is a risk factor for RD at school age among Japanese VLBWI. Further investigation is desired to clarify the cognitive deficits underlying RD in Japanese-speaking preterm children, and to establish appropriate interventions for these children. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.OBJETIVO: Documentar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar (5 a 11 años de edad obtenidas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición en 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El sobrepeso y la obesidad (definida como un exceso de tejido adiposo en el organismo se evaluaron a través del Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC en 10 901 niños, tomando como patrón de referencia el propuesto por el International Obesity Task Force. Las variables sociodemográficas se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario aplicado a la madre del niño. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 19

  9. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  10. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  11. CHANGES IN COPING STRATEGY IN THE SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alieva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study: to investigate the changes in preferable coping-strategies during treatment of the school-age children in a TB sanatorium. 77 patients (children and adolescents were enrolled into the study, they all had rehabilitation due to respiratory tuberculosis. All patients were divided into two groups: 8-12 years old (17 boys and 13 girls and 13-17 years old (24 boys and 23 girls. Coping strategies in the school-age children were investigated twice: at admission and discharge from the sanatorium, using a questionnaire adapted by N.A. Sirota and V.N. Yaltonsky and modified by R. M. Granovskaya and I.M. Nikolskaya. Analysis of the structure of the responses identified a group of patients who were oriented in the direction from the problem. This group presented a lower number of scores of the problem solution scale and a higher number of scores in the scales of avoidance, denial, fantasy formation. The other group of patients, focused in the direction towards the problem, characterized by a higher number of scores of the scales of problem solution and communication and a lower number of scores for the scales of denial and fantasy formation. Statistically significant changes were observed in the scale assessing communication (p = 0.03; there was a statistically significant reduction in the scores reflecting avoidance and denial (p < 0.001. There were no significant changes in the other scores. 

  12. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

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    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  14. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

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    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  15. Ambient Assisted Living and ageing: preliminary results of RITA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilano, Michela; Cavallo, Filippo; Bonaccorsi, Manuele; Esposito, Raffaele; Rovini, Erika; Filippi, Massimo; Esposito, Dario; Dario, Paolo; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The ageing of population is a social phenomenon that most of worldwide countries are facing. They are, and will be even more in the future, indeed trying to find solutions for improving quality of life of their elderly citizens. The project RITA wants to demonstrate that an update of the current socio-medical services with an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) approach could improve the service efficiency and the quality of life of both elderly and caregiver. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained in RITA.

  16. Predictors of Language Gains Among School-Age Children With Language Impairment in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-06-10

    This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. The sample included 272 kindergartners and first-graders with language impairment who participated in a larger study titled "Speech-Therapy Experiences in the Public Schools." Multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the extent to which select child-level characteristics, including age, nonverbal cognition, memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, behavior problems, and self-regulation, predicted children's language gains over an academic year. Pratt indices were computed to establish the relative importance of the predictors of interest. Phonological awareness and vocabulary skill related to greater gains in language skills, and together they accounted for nearly 70% of the explained variance, or 10% of total variance at child level. Externalizing behavior, nonverbal cognition, and age were also potentially important predictors of language gains. This study significantly advances our understanding of the characteristics of children that may contribute to their language gains while receiving therapy in the public schools. Researchers can explore how these characteristics may serve to moderate treatment outcomes, whereas clinicians can assess how these characteristics may factor into understanding treatment responses.

  17. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: Quantitative Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice K. Tucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011 that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology.  Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs.

  18. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  19. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  20. [Effects of strontium in drinking water on the growth of school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Cao, S; Xu, F; Li, J

    1999-09-30

    An epidemiological study on the effect of strontium in drinking water on body shape development, bone age, prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis was carried out. The results show: there is a certain promotion on the development of bone age of school-age children, especially of girls, and there is no obvious impact on body shape developing when the concentration of strontium in drinking water is only 10 mg/L. The correlation between strontium in drinking water and the prevalence of caries in children could not get a conclusive evidence in this paper. A further epidemiological investigation is necessary if the role of strontium against caries should be proved.

  1. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  2. Influence of family and school-level factors on age of sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Candace N; Warner, Lynn A

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association of individual, family, and school-level characteristics with age of sexual initiation (ASI) and focused specifically on school context as a moderator of known predictors of ASI. Data are from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,596). Predictors include grade point average, physical development, attitudes about sex, likelihood of higher education, alcohol use, delinquency, family structure, parents' education level, childhood abuse, maternal approval of sex, parental monitoring, and parent-child relationship quality. School-level predictors are averages of adolescents' attitudes about sex and likelihood of higher education and parents' education. Hierarchical linear models run separately by sex were used to predict ASI. When school-level attitudes about sex are more favorable, both boys and girls report younger ASI, and school mean parental education attainment moderates the influence of individual adolescents' attitudes about sex on ASI. More of the predictors are significant for girls than boys, whereas perception of maternal and peer approval of sexual activity are the most salient predictors of younger ASI for boys. Results highlight the importance of school context for understanding adolescents' motivations for early ASI. Findings support the need for school-wide prevention interventions that engage adolescents, peers, and parents in addressing attitudes about early sex. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The persistence to slaughter age of scars resulting from damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cut wounds were persistent to slaughter as were scratch marks, with only a small percentage of scratch wounds incurred at a young age not persisting to slaughter age. Mean scar size at slaughter became smaller with an increase in age at which the wounds were inflicted, except at 13 months of age where it was assumed ...

  4. School Security: For Whom and with What Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Timothy J.; Finn, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized school-level data from several combined national databases to address two questions regarding school security policy: (1) What are the school characteristics related to levels of security? (2) How does security relate to school suspension, dropout, and college attendance rates? Among the predictors of school security, having a…

  5. Retirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease: results from the ICTUS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Grotz

    Full Text Available To test whether deferred retirement is associated with delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and, if so, to determine whether retirement age still predicts the age at onset of AD when two potential biases are considered.The study sample was gathered from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use/Data Sharing Alzheimer cohort (ICTUS/DSA, a European study of 1,380 AD patients. Information regarding retirement age, onset of symptoms and covariates was collected at baseline whereas age at diagnosis was gathered from the patient's medical record prior to study entry. Linear mixed models, adjusted for gender, education, occupation, center, country, household income, depression and cardiovascular risk factors were conducted on 815 patients.(1 The global analyses (n = 815 revealed that later age at retirement was associated with later age at diagnosis (β = 0.31, p < 0.0001; (2 once the selection bias was considered (n = 637, results showed that this association was weaker but remained significant (β = 0.15, p = 0.004; (3 once the bias of the reverse causality (i.e., the possibility that subjects may have left the workforce due to prior cognitive impairment was considered (n = 447, the effect was no longer significant (β = 0.06, p = 0.18.The present study supports that there is an association between retirement age and age at onset of AD. However, the strength of this association appears to be overestimated due to the selection bias. Moreover, the causality issue remains unresolved. Further prospective investigations are mandatory in order to correctly address this question.

  6. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  7. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  8. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  9. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  10. Age dynamic of physical condition changes in pre-school age girls, schoolgirls and students, living in conditions of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Lebedinskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of physical condition, considering sex (females and age of the tested, living in region with unfavorable ecology. Material: we studied pre school age girls (n=1580, age 4-7 years. In the research we did not include children with chronic diseases, who were under observation. We tested schoolgirls (n=3211, age 7-17 years and girl students (n=5827, age 17-21 years, 1-4 years of study. Girl students were divided into five age groups: from 17 to 21 years. All participants lived in conditions of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk. This region is characterized by unfavorable ecology and climate geographic characteristics. Results: in dynamic of physical condition of pre-school girls, schoolgirls and students we marked out three substantial periods of it characteristics' changes. Age 7-8 years is critical (transition from 1st to 2nd stage. The least values of these characteristics are found in older (after 17-18 years ages. In students we observed relative stabilization of these indicators. Conclusions: the received results shall be considered in building physical education training process in pre-school educational establishments, secondary comprehensive schools and higher educational establishments.

  11. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of integration', and as such act on behalf of the imagined collective good (Larsen 2012). This educational optimism is understood in terms of the development of the universal welfare state (Sandin 2012) and its rational engineering of social life (Petersen 1997). Petersen (1997) argues that the government...... of the collective good in the modern welfare nation-state becomes highly dependent on "the acceptance of expert knowledge as the foundation of a good life" (p. 367, my translation). The paper argues that the act of and desire for professionalization of teachers encountering the immigrant of school age should...... for the perceived threat to the collective good and as signifiers of the appropriate solutions to this threat. The proposition of problem construction to be the inner logic of professionalization of teachers feeds into the analytical framework of the paper, where relations of power/knowledge make up the history...

  12. Parental involvement in elementary school-aged child’s creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparmi; Suardiman, S. P.; Kumara, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the parental involvement in cultivating elementary school-aged child’s creativity. The qualitative research was designed with multidisciplinary study approach. Eight students and some parents from public elementary schools of Ngawen 4th of Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, and 4 students from an elementary school in Sleman, Yogyakarta were involved in the process of collecting the data. In-depth interview, observation, and documentation were used simultaneously to collect the data. The results showed that: 1) the subject had a level of intelligence quotient; the intelligence of verbal creativity above the average level, and creative behaviour on average, 2) interaction of parents and child-related discussions, experiences, and plans, academic problems in school were needed to boost the students’ creativity, 3) interactions of parents and school-related participations in school were also encouraged to implant students’ social awareness, 4) interaction among parents communicated each other to have a better result of academic awareness, and 5) Parents should install family norms to cultivate children’s intelligence quotient.

  13. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  14. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  15. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  16. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.

  17. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  18. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bulygina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background: The aim is to study the influence of a dysfunctional family system on the identity formation of primary school-aged children. Methods: There were examined seven-year-old children, secondary school pupils from families with signs of dysfunctionality (n =42. To assess interfamilial relations there were used proprietary methodologies and standardized tests diagnosing a role structure of the family, emotional sphere of children, peculiarities of the child identification with family members, signs of the family dysfunctionality. Results: It is revealed that the process of identity formation in primary school-aged children in dysfunctional families is characterized by expressed difficulties in identifying himself with family members. In 33% of cases the low hierarchical position and the typical female role characteristics are ascribed to father. To the contrary, the male social role position in 47% of cases is attributed to mother. The ambivalence of the child’s self-relation and his relation to family members is revealed. Therewith, 38% of girls’ profiles coincide either with the set of characteristics of fathers, or equally with sets of characteristics of both parents. The negative emotional state is diagnosed in 62% of children. Conclusion: It is established that in dysfunctional families the interfamilial relations and role structure have specific features, negatively influencing on the child development and the formation of his personality.Key words: children, primary school age, dysfunctional family, identity formation.

  19. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  20. Application of means of health-improving fitness for correction of weight of girls of the senior school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Pavlenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out the theoretical analysis of the problem of application of health-improving fitness for the correction of weight of girls of the senior school age. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature. Results: it is established that the problem of excess weight at girls of the senior school age is one of the most urgent in modern science. The reasons of obesity of teenagers are defined and the main directions of the solution of this problem are characterized. Conclusions: it is defined that application of means of health-improving fitness promotes the correction of weight at girls of the senior school age. It causes the necessity of development and deployment of innovative technology of correction of weight at girls of the senior school age on the basis of primary use of means of health-improving fitness.

  1. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

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    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  2. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

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    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  3. Age at Menarche and its Related Factors among School Girls, in Zanjan, Iran

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    Parisa Khoshnevisasl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are differences in the age at menarche in different countries and it seems that in recent decades gradually the age of puberty is declining. The aim of the present study was to determine the age at menarche and its related factors in school girls in Zanjan city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,500 healthy school girls between 6-17 years old who were selected on the basis of a multistage probability sampling. Age at menarche, birth weight, family size, Body Mass Index (BMI, fast food consumption, and physical activity, were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.ResultsOut of 1,500 students, 273 girls (18.2% had experienced menarche with a mean age of 12.6±1.6 (95% confidence interval [C]: 12.4-12.8, and a median age of 13 years. The prevalence of early menarche, was 10.3%, (95% CI: 6.6%-14.1%. A significant association between menarche and BMI, frequency of fast food consumption and birth rank was observed; however, we didn’t find a significant association between physical activity (P>0.05 and birth weight (P>0.05 with menarche. ConclusionThe mean age of menarche in our study was 12.6±1.6 years old, similar to other studies in Iran, and it was significantly associated with higher BMI.

  4. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  5. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  6. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

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    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  7. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engles, Rutger C.; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY). This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8) and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12). It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”), and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244) to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496) (p < 0.001). There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244) at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496) (p < 0.001). Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant improvements

  8. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Silverstone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY. This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8 and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12. It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”, and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244 to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496 (p < 0.001. There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244 at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496 (p < 0.001. Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant

  9. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Rockett, Fernanda C; Billo, Maira; Oliveira, Gabriela T; Klein, Luciana S; Parizotti, Cristiane S; Perla, Alexandre S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2013-01-01

    Headache has been described as a factor with significant negative impact on the quality of life of school-aged children with a high risk of developing in chronic and persistent form in adulthood. Among other headache associated triggers or aggravating factors, lifestyle and obesity has been investigated, but results are still conflicting. To evaluate the prevalence of headache in school-aged children and its relationship to anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools located in two cities in southern Brazil, involving 750 students aged 7 to 14 years. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables (presence of headache and menarche), anthropometric data, lifestyle, and quality of life. A total of 185 (24.7%) students reported having headache crises in the last 3 months. Among students aged 10 to 14 years, presence of headache was associated with female sex, affecting 32.2% of girls vs. 23.3% of boys (p = 0.042, chi-square test). Anthropometric parameters (data on overweight/obesity) were consistent with national prevalence rates, and there was no association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and headache. Regarding lifestyle, 2.0% of students reported smoking and 1.6% consuming alcohol occasionally, and neither was associated with headache. Quality of life, especially aspects of social life, appeared to be affected by the presence of headache. This study found a high prevalence of headache in school-aged children, which was associated with female students aged 10-14 years and quality of life. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

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    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  11. Did the 18 Drinking Age Promote High School Dropout? Implications for Current Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Agrawal, Arpana; Tate, William F; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18). We used MLDA changes during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate how underage exposure to permissive MLDA affected high school dropout. MLDA exposure was added to two data sets: (a) the 5% public use microdata samples of the 1990 and 2000 censuses (n = 3,671,075), and (b) a combined data set based on the 1991-1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 16,331). We used logistic regression to model different thresholds of MLDA on high school dropout. We also estimated models conditioned on demographic variables and familial risk of developing alcohol problems. Only the MLDA of 18 predicted high school dropout. Exposure was associated with 4% and 13% higher odds of high school dropout for the census and NLAES/NESARC samples, respectively. We noted greater impact on women (5%-18%), Blacks (5%-19%), and Hispanics (6%). Self-report of parental alcohol problems was associated with 40% higher odds, which equals a 4.14-point increase in dropout rate for that population. The MLDA of 18 likely had a large impact on high school dropout rates, suggesting that the presence of legal-aged peers in a high school setting increased access to alcohol for younger students. Our results also suggest that policy can promote less dangerous drinking behavior even when familial risk of alcohol use disorders is high.

  12. Can coverage of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis control programmes targeting school-aged children be improved? New approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, K; Olsen, A; Sheshe, A; Ntakamulenga, R; Ndawi, B; Magnussen, P

    2009-11-01

    Control programmes generally use a school-based strategy of mass drug administration to reduce morbidity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in school-aged populations. The success of school-based programmes depends on treatment coverage. The community-directed treatment (ComDT) approach has been implemented in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa and improves treatment coverage. This study compared the treatment coverage between the ComDT approach and the school-based treatment approach, where non-enrolled school-aged children were invited for treatment, in the control of schistosomiasis and STH among enrolled and non-enrolled school-aged children. Coverage during the first treatment round among enrolled children was similar for the two approaches (ComDT: 80.3% versus school: 82.1%, P=0.072). However, for the non-enrolled children the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage than the school-based approach (80.0 versus 59.2%, P<0.001). Similar treatment coverage levels were attained at the second treatment round. Again, equal levels of treatment coverage were found between the two approaches for the enrolled school-aged children, while the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage in the non-enrolled children. The results of this study showed that the ComDT approach can obtain significantly higher treatment coverage among the non-enrolled school-aged children compared to the school-based treatment approach for the control of schistosomiasis and STH.

  13. A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childress Ann C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children 6 to 12 years of age and in adults. In a previous laboratory school study, LDX demonstrated efficacy 2 hours postdose with duration of efficacy through 12 hours. The current study further characterizes the time course of effect of LDX. Methods Children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD were enrolled in a laboratory school study. The multicenter study consisted of open-label, dose-optimization of LDX (30, 50, 70 mg/d, 4 weeks followed by a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover phase (1 week each. Efficacy measures included the SKAMP (deportment [primary] and attention [secondary] and PERMP (attempted/correct scales (secondary measured at predose and at 1.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12, and 13 hours postdose. Safety measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs, physical examination, vital signs, and ECGs. Results A total of 117 subjects were randomized and 111 completed the study. Compared with placebo, LDX demonstrated significantly greater efficacy at each postdose time point (1.5 hours to 13.0 hours, as measured by SKAMP deportment and attention scales and PERMP (P Conclusion In school-aged children (6 to 12 years with ADHD, efficacy of LDX was maintained from the first time point (1.5 hours up to the last time point assessed (13.0 hours. LDX was generally well tolerated, resulting in typical stimulant AEs. Trial registration Official Title: A Phase IIIb, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Optimization, Cross-Over, Analog Classroom Study to Assess the Time of Onset of Vyvanse (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Pediatric Subjects Aged 6–12 With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00500149 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00500149

  14. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  15. The influence of age, gender and other information technology use on young people's computer use at school and home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C; Straker, L; Pollock, C

    2013-01-01

    Young people are exposed to a range of information technologies (IT) in different environments, including home and school, however the factors influencing IT use at home and school are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate young people's computer exposure patterns at home and school, and related factors such as age, gender and the types of IT used. 1351 children in Years 1, 6, 9 and 11 from 10 schools in metropolitan Western Australia were surveyed. Most children had access to computers at home and school, with computer exposures comparable to TV, reading and writing. Total computer exposure was greater at home than school, and increased with age. Computer activities varied with age and gender and became more social with increased age, at the same time parental involvement reduced. Bedroom computer use was found to result in higher exposure patterns. High use of home and school computers were associated with each other. Associations varied depending on the type of IT exposure measure (frequency, mean weekly hours, usual and longest duration). The frequency and duration of children's computer exposure were associated with a complex interplay of the environment of use, the participant's age and gender and other IT activities.

  16. Increases in Academic Connectedness and Self-Esteem among High School Students Who Serve as Cross-Age Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cross-age mentoring programs are peer helping programs in which high school students serve as mentors to younger children. The study in this article compared fall-to-spring changes on connectedness, attachment, and self-esteem between 46 teen mentors and 45 comparison classmates. Results revealed an association between serving as a cross-age peer…

  17. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  18. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  19. Helminthiasis among School Age Children in Osogbo Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infections were school dependent, public schools have significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) than the private school studied. After a single dose of Levamisole treatment, (21%) of the subjects with intestinal helminthes voided and submitted A. lumbricoides adult worms. This study shows low standard of sanitation ...

  20. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Anmol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.

  1. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability

  4. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  5. The Use of School Self-Evaluation Results in the Netherlands and Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Vanhoof, Jan; van Petegem, Peter; Visscher, Adrie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies on the use of school self-evaluation in the Netherlands and Flanders. It focuses on which forms of instrumental use of school self-evaluation results can be found in schools, and how differences in self-evaluation use between schools can be explained. Results show that the instrumental use of…

  6. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  7. Role of school librarian in the digital age in Nigeria | Ogunniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the role of school librarian in the digital age in Nigeria. School librarian has a vital role to play in the school library most especially with the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) in library services world-wide in order to meet the changing needs of students and staff in the ...

  8. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  9. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  10. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  11. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  12. Age at treatment and long-term performance results in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.W.; Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is highly radioresponsive, and recent treatment results have improved greatly since the introduction of megavoltage machine in 1960s. There is increasing evidence for the potential cure of medulloblastoma if properly treated in its early stages. The curable group represents approximately 75% of diagnosed patients. Long-term treatment effects were examined in this study. The study reveals age-dependent late effects in learning ability; the patients less than 4-years-old at treatment had major learning problems; patients of 5 to 7 years old performed at satisfactory-to-low passing levels in school work; patients older than 8 years old had no major intellectual impairment. Short stature was common when growth potential was present at the time of therapy, but endocrine tests were generally negative. These observations indicate special educational requirement needs, especially for children treated at a young age

  13. Educating Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: Results from Two Schools in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Reginard Milinga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for equal access, participation and success in education for persons with disabilities is paramount in today’s global education context, and Tanzania is no exception. Since the ages of “denial” to “full inclusion”, educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms has had been responded differently by teachers and students alike across countries. Confronted by different challenges in their education, students with disabilities are to devise mechanisms to excel in such restrictive learning environments. Informed by interpretive research traditions with 59 purposefully selected participants, this paper explores challenges that students with disabilities are faced with and coping strategies used by these students in their schooling in two inclusive secondary schools in Tanzania. The findings indicate that, students with disabilities are faced with challenges which are teacher and environment-related. Consequently, the students with disabilities use complaints, assistance seeking, self-initiatives, isolation and despair, and assertiveness to cope with the challenges. The study concludes that; educational stakeholders should work collaboratively in order to lessen the impact of the restrictive nature of learning environments for students with disabilities. The paper recommends on improved teacher preparation and continued professional development in order to cater for the learning needs of students with disabilities in inclusive schools.

  14. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  15. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  16. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  17. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  18. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  19. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  20. The Effects of Early Language on Age at Diagnosis and Functioning at School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Anthony; Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that toddlers with no language delay (NLD) should have better outcomes than those with language delay (LD). However, the predictive utility of language milestones relative to co-varying factors such as age at diagnosis, IQ, and ASD symptomatology is unclear. This study compared school-aged children with ASD and NLD (n = 59) to a…

  1. Brain Volumes at Term-Equivalent Age in Preterm Infants : Imaging Biomarkers for Neurodevelopmental Outcome through Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin; Išgum, Ivana; van Kooij, Britt J M; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; van Stam, Petronella C; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between brain volumes at term and neurodevelopmental outcome through early school age in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred twelve preterm infants (born mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.7 weeks) were studied prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging

  2. A Framework for School Safety and Risk Management: Results from a Study of 18 Targeted School Shooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Ann Marie C.; Graham, Lemuel W.; Farrell, Melissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Targeted violence continues to pose a threat to school safety. Reported here are the results of a study of 18 cases of school shooters from 1996 to 2012. Variables examined are individual factors and behaviors, family dynamics, and triggering events. Results indicate the need for expanded school-based mental health services, threat assessment, and…

  3. Portuguese School Libraries Evaluation Model: An Analysis of Primary Schools' Results for the "Reading and Literacy" Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge Tiago; Martins, Rosa Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation results of the Portuguese School Libraries Evaluation Model, more specifically the results of primary schools self-evaluation of their libraries' reading promotion and information literacy development activities. School libraries that rated their performance as either "Excellent" or "Poor"…

  4. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  5. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  6. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  7. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  8. Age of Menarche among basic level school girls in Madina, Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to determine the age at which menarche occurs among school girls in Madina, Accra. A survey was conducted among 529 girls selected using multi-stage sampling from basic schools in Madina, Accra. Respondents completed a questionnaire that recorded age-at-first menstruation by recall, ...

  9. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  10. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  11. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  12. Limited access to special education services for school-aged children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, Erica; Smit, Ellen; Hatfield, Bridget; Odden, Michelle C; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; MacDonald, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Current policy in Oregon limits eligibility of children diagnosed with developmental delay for school-based services. Due to eligibility definitions, children with developmental delay may face additional barriers transitioning from early intervention/early childhood special education into school-based special education services. Examine the relationship between enrollment in school-based special education programs given a change in primary disability diagnosis. Logistic regression models were fit for children who enrolled in early intervention/early childhood special education services with a primary disability diagnosis of developmental delay and changed primary disability diagnosis before third grade (n=5076). Odds of enrollment in future special education were greater in children with a change in primary disability diagnosis after the age of five in comparison to children that had a change in primary disability diagnosis before the age of five, while adjusting for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37, 95% CI 1.92, 2.92). Results suggest that children who are diagnosed with a developmental delay and exit early childhood special education due to maximum age of eligibility are more likely to enroll in special education compared to children without a gap in service access. Gaps in service access during early development are associated with the need for supportive services later on in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  14. The Impact of Poverty and School Size on the 2015-16 Kansas State Assessment Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Schools with higher percentages of students in poverty have lower student assessment results on the 2015-16 Kansas Math and ELA assessments, and larger schools have lower student achievement results than smaller schools. In addition, higher poverty schools are likely to have larger gaps in performance based on special education status and possibly…

  15. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  16. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

  17. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorovich, M.V.; Loban, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  18. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  19. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Menshikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes . Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicators - heart rate at rest and after 20 squats, lung capacity, breath-hold inspiration and expiration. Physical development factor was calculated by taking into account actual and average population indices. Results . Found that the volume of short-term visual memory, the boys and girls high school age does not depend on the level of their physical development. Despite the fact that the trend towards higher performance memory in groups of persons with a high level of physical development compared to their same age with medium and low levels, significant differences between the mean values for the most part have been identified. No significant differences between the values of the investigated cognitive function in groups by sex. Conclusions . Growth pattern memory with age in this period of ontogenesis preserved that coincides with the data presented in the scientific works of scientists.

  20. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data—A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies

  1. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  2. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research...

  3. High School Psychology: A Coming of Age Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Kenneth D.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost; Blair-Broeker, Charles T.; Ernst, Randal M.

    2013-01-01

    Although institutional recognition of high school psychology is fairly recent, psychology and psychological subject matters have a history dating to at least the 1830s. By the middle of the twentieth century, high school psychology courses existed in nearly all U.S. states, and enrollments grew throughout the second half of the century. However,…

  4. GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S DIVERGENT THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Roue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.

  5. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  6. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools: A Comparison of Trainee Satisfaction among Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shingo; Suzuki, Masaru; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Aikawa, Naoki; Yamazaki, Hajime

    2016-09-25

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has recently been added to the school curriculum worldwide and is currently taught to students between the ages of 10 and 16 years. The effect of the age of trainees on their satisfaction with CPR training has yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the satisfaction of trainees of different ages who participated in CPR training in schools in Japan. In total, 392 primary school students (10-11 years old), 1798 junior high school students (12-13 years old), and 4162 high schools students (15-16 years old) underwent the same 3-h course of CPR training, according to the guidelines of 2000 for Emergency Cardiovascular Care and CPR. The course was evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the participants. Primary school students responded most positively to all questions, including those reflecting enjoyment and the confidence of participants to apply CPR (Jonckheere-Terpstra test: P CPR training was strongly related to their age. Primary school students enjoyed CPR training more and were more confident in their ability to perform CPR than junior high and high school students were. Therefore, children aged 10-11 years may be the most appropriate candidates for the introduction of CPR training in schools.

  8. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  9. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...

  10. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    OpenAIRE

    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age) participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qua...

  12. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  13. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  14. Association of Sleep Groups and Sleep Survey Results of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen A.; MacDonald, Lawrence; Frost, Frederica C.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2003 the High School Late Start Committee of the Northville Public Schools sent surveys to all families, faculty, and middle and high school students. The descriptive results of this survey can be found at www.northville.k12.mi.us/hr/late_start_committee_surveysummary.htm. This study focuses on the responses of the high school students,…

  15. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  16. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  17. Tobacco smoking prevalence among in-school adolescents aged 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia ... Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death in the world. ... were stratified by gender. Percents and .... The success of the.

  18. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  19. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  20. The Analysis of Nutritional Predictors of Anemia Combined with Obesity in Primary School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulic Marija R.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and amounts of a variety of food products used in a diet affect the incidence of anemia and different levels of nutritional status among school-age children. The prevalence of food intake comprised of fats, carbohydrates and sodium (salt is a significant contributing factor to the incidence of excessive weight. Apart from nutrition, a leisure-time physical activity and the time spent in front of the TV or computer may contribute to an increase in anemia and obesity rates. The objective of this paper was to examine nutritional status, dietary habits and anemia among school-age children in the central Serbia region (the city of Kragujevac. It was established that 47.3% of the surveyed children fell into the normal weight group, 24.5% of the children are considered to be at risk of being overweight, 21.4 % of the children are considered as obese, whereas 6.8% of the children fell into the under-weight group. The incidence of anemia was noted in 10.8% of the cases, whereas anemia in obese children was observed in 21.6% of the cases (n=114; during the school year of 2014-2015. The obtained results show a statistically significant correlation between an increase in the consumption of fast food and anemia in children, whereas the amount of time children spend in front of the TV is also associated with the higher percentage of anemia and obesity.

  1. False memory in aging resulting from self-referential processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-11-01

    Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self.

  2. Strategies for addressing bullying with the school-age child who stutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William P; Quesal, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    This article outlines basic principles for helping school-age children who stutter to deal with bullying. Bullying may affect children's school performance and feelings of self-worth and lead to depression and feelings of helplessness and loneliness. Bullying can also exacerbate stuttering behavior, increase negative emotions and negative thoughts, and reduce therapy progress. A variety of techniques can be implemented as part of the overall treatment process to help children deal with bullying. These techniques can improve children's overall success in treatment by helping them develop socially appropriate responses to bullying, reduce or prevent negative emotion that may result from stuttering, and feel more comfortable in applying speech management skills learned in treatment.

  3. Social distance and stereotypes of Roma at the primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceško Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample of the research presented in this paper consisted of 575 children age 10 and 11 from four of Novi Sad`s primary school. 58 of them were Roma and the rest were Serbs, Hungarians, Croats, etc. The paper deals with the social distance toward the six ethnic groups (Roma, Serbs, Croats Hungarians, Slovaks and Ruthenians, as well as stereotypes of Roma both in Roma and non-Roma children. Sample has also been divided in two by the criteria of Roma children attending the same classes as the children in the sample or not. The results show that social distance toward the Roma is higher than any other social distance in this sample. Also, we were not able to find any significant differences in this social distance between children who attend the school with the Roma children and those who do not. As could be expected, the auto stereotypes were more positive than the hetero stereotypes.

  4. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  5. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  6. Processing of prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö, T; Makkonen, T; Kujala, T

    2012-12-01

    Speech prosody conveys information about important aspects of communication: the meaning of the sentence and the emotional state or intention of the speaker. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children (mean age 10 years) by recording the electroencephalogram, facial electromyography, and behavioral responses. The stimulus was a semantically neutral Finnish word uttered with four different emotional connotations: neutral, commanding, sad, and scornful. In the behavioral sound-discrimination task the reaction times were fastest for the commanding stimulus and longest for the scornful stimulus, and faster for the neutral than for the sad stimulus. EEG and EMG responses were measured during non-attentive oddball paradigm. Prosodic changes elicited a negative-going, fronto-centrally distributed neural response peaking at about 500 ms from the onset of the stimulus, followed by a fronto-central positive deflection, peaking at about 740 ms. For the commanding stimulus also a rapid negative deflection peaking at about 290 ms from stimulus onset was elicited. No reliable stimulus type specific rapid facial reactions were found. The results show that prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli activate pre-attentive neural change-detection mechanisms in school-age children. However, the results do not support the suggestion of automaticity of emotion specific facial muscle responses to non-attended emotional speech stimuli in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Communication attitudes of Japanese school-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. School-age outcomes of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Young, Gregory S; Hill, Monique; Phelps Hanzel, Elise; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Ozonoff, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities. After adjusting for covariates, the high-risk group had increased odds of any clinically elevated/impaired score across measures relative to the low-risk group (43% vs. 12%, respectively). The high-risk group also had increased odds of examiner-rated Clinical Concerns (CC) outcomes (e.g., ADHD concerns, broader autism phenotype, speech-language difficulties, anxiety/mood problems, learning problems) relative to the low-risk group (38% vs. 13%, respectively). The high-risk group with CC outcomes had higher parent-reported psychopathology and autism symptoms, and lower directly-assessed language skills, than the Low-Risk Typically Developing (TD) and High-Risk TD groups, which did not differ. There were no differences in nonverbal cognitive skills. For some in the high-risk group, clinical concerns persisted from early childhood, whereas for others clinical concerns were first evident at school-age. Results suggest continued vulnerability in at least a subgroup of school-age children with a family history of ASD and suggest that this population may benefit from continued screening and monitoring into the school-age years. Autism Res 2016, 9: 632-642. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals

  9. TANNED LEATHERS PROPERTIES MODIFICATION AS A RESULT OF ARTIFICIAL AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Dan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a high tech material with different application fields, such as automotive, manufacturing of leatherwear articles or clothing and footwear. Leather is a biomaterial obtained by processing animal skins. Unfortunately, raw animal hides are practically inutilizable, due to their microbiological instability and are affected by rotting. Microbiological stability is achieved by tanning, when the protein is crosslinked, followed by drying. After crosslinking and drying, the new material shows the required properties of sustainability, availability and an esthetically pleasing aspect to the touch, making it available across its entire range of applications. From a structural point of view the animal skins are constituted of collagen, which is a fibrilar protein with a high degree of supramolecular organization in triple helix form that endows softness, elasticity and mechanical strength. High quality standards and lack of toxicity are required in all cases. Leather colour changes during exposure to light radiations are considered a consequence of the presence of some products with weak photochemical resistance during fabrication. The study aims to compare changes in properties of leathers obtained using mineral tanning agents such as Cr III salts and those obtained with the more environment-friendly technology using acid hydrolysis. Accelerated aging studies were conducted on tanned leathers by exposing the samples to UV radiation with different irradiation doses and two wavelengths (254 and 365 nm under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. Structural changes caused by irradiation were studied by FTIR. Colour changes on the sample surfaces were assessed during irradiation with the CIEL a*b* system. The colour parameters variation (L*, a*, b* and colour differences have been discussed in correlation with structural changes, tanning method and irradiation conditions.

  10. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.

  11. FEATURES OF INTERCONNECTION OF SELF-ESTEEM AND ANXIETY IN THE YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Калюжна, Євгенія; Шевергіна, Марія

    2015-01-01

     The article is devoted the phenomenology of anxiety and self-esteem of personality and the nature their interconnection in the younger school age. Is emphasized that self-esteem and anxiety are complex personal formations, which belong to basic personality traits. The importance of self-esteem as a component of core of personality and the important regulator of social activity. Substantiated the thesis that self-esteem is the result of comparing the person’s qualities with social relevant st...

  12. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  13. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  14. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  15. Age at Menarche Among In-School Adolescents in Sawla Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... low menarche age was comparable with reports from developed countries. Inactive adolescents were more likely to see menarche earlier than average age. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and nutrition education need to be promoted among school children. Keywords: adolescent, cross sectional, menarche age, ...

  16. The effect of age at school entry on college admission and earnings: a regression-discontinuity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Matta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides evidence of the effect of age at school entry on college admission and earnings. It does so by exploiting a number of features in the application process to one of the major flagship universities in Brazil. By comparing applicants with different ages at school entry depending on whether they were born on December 31 or on January 1, our estimates show that applicants who delayed first-grade enrollment present higher aptitude test scores and probability of admission. Our results further suggest that advantaged applicants also earn more early in their careers. JEL Classification: I21, J24

  17. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  18. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  19. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  20. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  1. Role of Starting School Age in the Academic Performance at the Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether starting school earlier than four years of age gave any academic benefit to the students in the long run. This research aimed to find out whether the students who started schooling earlier than four years of age are able to achieve better grades and are better at self-regulation at the tertiary level. For this purpose, a sample of 108 students from a private business school comprising both early and late school starters were made to fill in questionnaires reporting their school starting age, their CGPA and answering questions that showed their level of self-regulation. The findings of this study suggest that there is no difference in the academic performance of the two groups, both in terms of their CGPA and their self-regulation skills.

  2. The Effect of Gender on Sprint Performance of 10-13 Aged Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Turan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gender on the 30 m sprint performance of middle school students (10-13 ages. The study included 25 male and 25 female total 50 middle school students. The mean age of female students was found as 12,36 ± 0,48 (year, the mean body weight as 42,03 ± 3,63 (kg, and the mean height as 151,11 ±5,61 (cm, and the mean age of male students was found as 12,28 ± 0,45 (year, the mean height as 152,28 ± 5,04 (cm, and the mean body weight as 43,35 ± 1,88 (kg. The mean sprint performance of female students was calculated as 6,33 ± 0,53 seconds, and the mean sprint performance of the male students was 6,17 ± 0,47 seconds. As a result the effect of gender on sprint performance was found to be insignificant between the groups (p>0,05.

  3. Sexual behavior of school-aged adolescents in the city of Goiânia, Goiás.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reinaldo Satoru Azevedo; de Souza, Márcia Maria; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of sexual behavior in school-aged adolescents and possible differences regarding sex and type of school. Cross-sectional study using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, carried out by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, in partnership with the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The sample consisted of 3,099 9th graders living in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, mostly aged between 13 to 15 years old, who answered a self-applicable questionnaire on risk and protective health factors. The Rao-Scott test was used in the statistical analysis, considering the complex sample design. The prevalence of sexual intercourse was of 26.5% (95%CI 23.8 - 29.4) at least once in life and of 18.5% (95%CI 16.5 - 20.8) in the last year. Both behaviors were more frequent among male students and among those attending public schools. Most of the respondents had their first intercourse at the age of 13 or younger, with up to 3 partners. They had also used a pregnancy prevention method in the last intercourse, and received guidance on prevention at school. The age of the first intercourse was earlier and the number of partners was higher among male students. More females and those attending public schools reported having received information on pregnancy prevention. Guidance on STD/AIDS was also more frequent in public schools. Results showed a need for health education measures involving education and health professionals, as well as parents, to reduce the discrepancies found regarding sex and type of school.

  4. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  5. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  6. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Suzette; Buffum, Austin G.; Barth, Roland S.

    2007-01-01

    Today's workforce comprises distinct generational cohorts-Veterans, Baby Boomers, Gen-Xers, and Millennials. "Generations at School" provides educators with the knowledge and tools to create and sustain true collaboration, teamwork, and consensus. Suzette Lovely and Austin G. Buffum introduce the traits and tipping points of these diverse age…

  8. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Suzette

    2010-01-01

    In schools around the country, Gen Xers, Millennials, Baby Boomers, and even a Veteran or two are working side by side. While anyone holding a job in this shaky economy is grateful, gratitude does not make generational clashes less difficult. Adding to the mix, many Baby Boomers initially poised for a mass exodus by 2010 are holding on for dear…

  9. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  10. Evaluating School Library Information Services in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses criteria for evaluating school library information services. Highlights include types of services; physical facilities; library usage; circulation statistics; changes due to technology; fill rate, or the percentage of successful searches for library materials; OPAC (online public access catalog) reports; observation; and examining…

  11. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  12. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  13. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  14. Results of Ageing Tests on the Forward MSGC 'BANANA' Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Capéans-Garrido, M; Claes, S; Hoch, Michael; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shekhtman, L I; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Lancker, Luc

    1996-01-01

    The forward tracker of the CMS experiment at CERN will consist of a large number of MicroStrip Gas Chambers ( MSGCs), expected to operate for several years in the high luminosity environment of LHC with an accumulated dose rate of ~ 10 mC/yr per cm of strip. They are planned to be arranged around the interaction point in modular wheels which contain several MSGCs. The 'open'option of a forward CMS 'banana' module includes the electronics inside the gas volume. Long term tests of one such prototype containing two plates, one with gold and the other with chromium strips on diamond-like coated D263 glass with representative electronics and surface mount components inside the gas volume have been performed; the satisfactory results are reported here. A first test has been made with a gas flow rate of 60 cc/min in the prototype ( corresponding to 5 gas renewals per hour) and has shown no gain drop up to 85 mC/cm of accumulated charge per strip. A second test has been performed with a gas flow rate of 6 cc/min corr...

  15. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  16. Too Young to Leave the Nest: The Effects of School Starting Age. NBER Working Paper No. 13969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2008-01-01

    Does it matter when a child starts school? While the popular press seems to suggest it does, there is limited evidence of a long-run effect of school starting age on student outcomes. This paper uses data on the population of Norway to examine the role of school starting age on longer-run outcomes such as IQ scores at age 18, educational…

  17. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofi Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health

  18. Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…

  19. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  20. Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie

    2006-01-01

    School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…

  1. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  2. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  3. Health-related quality of life in school-age children with speech-language-impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Van Den Heuvel, M.

    Speech-language-impairment (SLI) as well as behavioral-dysfunction and school-type might influence health-related-quality-of-life. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study in 124 children aged 5-8 years with SLI, in 4 special education (SE) and 7 mainstream ambulatory care (AC) schools, and 35

  4. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  5. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  6. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  7. Smoking in school-aged adolescents: design of a social network survey in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Alves, Joana; Federico, Bruno; Kinnunen, Jaana; Kuipers, Mirte; Moor, Irene; Perelman, Julian; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Roscillo, Gaetano; Kunst, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, smoking accounts for a large share of socio-economic inequalities in health. As smoking initiation occurs around the age of 13, it is likely that school context and social networks at school play a role in the origin of such inequalities. So far, there has been little generic

  8. Youth as Design Partners: Age-Appropriate Websites for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…

  9. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study examines anthropometric indices of school-age children in five .... was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using standard medical techniques with a tape ..... Bundy DA, Drake LJ and C Burbano School food, politics and child health.

  10. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 1/2 years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public, and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL test. Methods: Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results: Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. Conclusion: In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  11. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  12. Rethinking School Safety in the Age of Empire: Militarization, Mental Health, and State Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jordan Jaffee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calls for stricter gun control and mental health screening often come on the heels of school shootings, which have raised national concerns about school safety. The implication is that people with psychiatric disabilities are dangerous or threatening, and that preventing them from owning guns will make schools safer. This paper challenges this assumption by considering dominant discourses about school safety and mental health alongside the increasing militarization of U.S. schools. Advocating reducing violence by identifying individuals with psychiatric disabilities—or those labelled with mental illnesses presumed to render them dangerous—erases the profound state violence schools engender in the service of empire while perpetuating ableist assumptions about people with psychiatric disabilities. In the age of empire and endless imperialist war, we need to challenge prevailing conceptions of both school safety and mental health.

  13. [Nursing care of a school-age child with asthma: an ecological system theory approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2012-02-01

    This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols.

  14. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Ko?, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected acc...

  15. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  16. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  18. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...

  19. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  20. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Handwriting, Visuomotor Integration, and Neurological Condition at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Peters, Lieke H. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study investigated the relationships between handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition. We paid particular attention to the presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND). Method : Participants were 200 children (131 males, 69 females; age range 8-13y) of whom 118 received mainstream education (mean age 10y 5mo, SD…

  2. Effects of Age and Schooling on Intellectual Performance: Estimates Obtained from Analysis of Continuous Variation in Age and Length of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffordson, Christina; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age and schooling on different aspects of intellectual performance, taking track of study into account, are investigated. The analyses were based on military enlistment test scores, obtained by 48,269 males, measuring Fluid ability (Gf), Crystallized intelligence (Gc), and General visualization (Gv) ability. A regression method,…

  3. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  4. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  5. Y2K Survey Results: Counties, Cities, School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Jim

    Survey data obtained in recent audits updated Ohio's local government units' assessment of Year 2000 (Y2K) readiness. The survey was developed with three intended objectives: (1) to provide an accurate assessment of the efforts to remediate the Y2K problem in Ohio's school districts, cities and counties; (2) to identify issues that could affect…

  6. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P.; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a…

  7. Is hypertension in adult age related to unemployment at a young age? Results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Karina; Gong, Weidan; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between early unemployment (ages 16-21 years) and adult hypertension after controlling for earlier hypertension, unemployment in adult life, risk factors for hypertension and confounders. A cohort of 927 (86.6% of the original cohort) 9th grade school-leavers was followed from 1981 until 2008. Data were collected through questionnaires, health examinations, and national registers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used as primary statistical methods. At ages 21 and 43, hypertension was significantly more prevalent among men than women (p Unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21 was related to hypertension at age 43 among women but not men. The odds ratio (OR) was persistently high (OR 3.16 [95% confidence interval 1.45-6.89]) after controlling for late unemployment, hypertension at age 16, risk factors for hypertension and confounders. There was no significant relationship between exposure to early unemployment and hypertension at age 21 for women or men. From a public health perspective, youth unemployment is a societal problem in need of more attention and intervention in order to prevent long-term adverse health outcomes. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking. Keywords: Psychology, Education

  9. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  10. Methodology and results of a space station education pilot programme in the primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, G.; Mirra, C.

    Potential users of the Space Station Freedom are now still in the Primary School. Subject studies 1 have shown that a robust familiarization programme has to be developed in order to increase public awareness on the microgravity environment and its capabilities to perform unique science. At the same time, several surveys 2 have demonstrated that elementary school students are showing the greatest interest and enthusiasm in space related activities among all school students. With these boundary conditions, a pilot programme, aimed at verifying the capabilities of young primary school pupils (aged between 10 and 12) in understanding why one performs research in space, has been conceived. In order to overcome the lack of space training of school teachers, an expert in space operations joined a group of elementary teachers to activate this program: merging the necessary didactic and technical capabilities. Consequently, the aim of the program becomes two folded: •generate critical thinking and problem solving capacities as well as inventiveness in children making them aware on the use of space to improve life on Earth. •identify the key issues for the definition of a robust space utilization educational programme. The programme has been managed by MARS Center. the Italian User Support Center for the Space Station utilization, and the institute "Speranzas" in the nearby of Naples, Italy. MARS Center, in particular, is responsible towards the national agency ASI, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, of the execution of the promotional activity towards all the possible target groups: young students are among these groups. This programme started in late 1992 and is currently ongoing. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the methodology and the reasons of such a programme with a snapshot on the preliminary results and future trends. Means used as supporting tools, such as films, posters and role plays are herein depicted as well as statistics on the pupils

  11. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  12. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...

  13. The Recreational Activities of Hearing-impaired Children of a Young School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Šrámková, Markéta

    2007-01-01

    In my diploma work I would like to focus on theme of spending free time in school for hearing impaired children (age 6-12) . The work has two parts. In the first one - theoretical- literary - I will describe types of spending free time of deaf and hard of hearing children different enviroments : family, school, out of school. In the second one -practical research - I will focus on the profile of school for hearing impaired children. I would like to touch the problem of activities (during the ...

  14. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 ½ years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Nassif, Elaine Pacheco; Levy, Angela Maria; Leite, Wellington Borges; Fuentes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public), and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL) test. Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  15. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  16. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

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    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  17. Teen responses when a younger school-age sibling has been bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bullying among children, and the sometimes tragic consequences as a result, has become a major concern in schools. The larger research for this study reported on in-depth interviews with 28 elementary and middle school-age boys and girls (7–12 years) who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, mostly on school grounds, and the responses of their parents and teachers. Responses of the children's teen siblings to the younger child's revelations of being bullied are the focus of this report. In-depth interviews with each teen sibling (n = 28) and with each bullied child revealed how the children viewed the teen siblings' supportive strategies. Almost all the children (89%) reported that their older siblings talked with them and offered advice. The teen siblings shared with the younger ones that they too (71%) had been bullied, or they knew someone who had been bullied (18%). Teens gave the advice to ‘bully back’ to 11% and advice to ‘tell someone’ to 32% of the younger children. The children felt quite positive about their older siblings' advice (89%), which did differ depending on the bullied child's gender. Teen siblings gave advice to ‘avoid bullies’ to 77% of female and to 27% of male younger children. PMID:25931644

  18. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  19. Friendships and social interactions of school-aged children with migraine.

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    Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D

    2008-07-01

    We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.

  20. Methods of Strength Development in Boys of Primary School Age Using Active Games

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    С. І. Марченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze the effect of games on the dynamics of strength development in boys of the second-fourth grades. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, method of control testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper addresses the feasibility of further scientific substantiation for the effect of the number of games, the number of repetitions, the intervals of rest and their interrelation on the change in the strength indicators for boys of primary school age. The study has revealed that strength development requires that the pupils of the second and the third grades perform four games, while the pupils of the fourth grade — five games. The number of repetitions for the pupils of the second grade is one and two, for the pupils of the third grade — two, and for the boys of the fourth grade — three, with 40-second intervals for rest. The most effective development manifests in the second and the fourth grades during 20 classes, and in the third grade —during 30 classes. After that, it is advisable to use other means. The game duration varies from two to five minutes. Conclusions. The results obtained during the experiment give reason to recommend that primary school teachers, coaches and parents use active games in physical education, sports training and individual motor activity of boys of primary school age. These games should aim at developing strength abilities, both purposefully and in complex with regard to the duration and pace (intensity of their performance.

  1. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

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    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  2. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

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    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  3. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

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    Wróblewska I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Wróblewska,1 Piotr Oleśniewicz,2 Donata Kurpas,3 Mariusz Sołtysik,2 Jerzy Błaszczuk41Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Institute of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, 3Department of Family Medicine, 4Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Lower Silesia, PolandIntroduction and objective: The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged ≥65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders.Material and methods: In the research, 217 (100% patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied.Results: The majority of the patients (59.4% were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%. The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive

  4. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

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    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

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    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  7. What is "appropriate" for school-aged children with autism?

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    Conroy, Tim; Conroy, Terrye

    2006-10-01

    Compliance with the IDEA and S.C. Board of Education procedures is only the first step toward providing a student with autism with an IEP that is reasonably calculated to enable that student to receive educational benefits--a FAPE. At the heart of the IEP process is instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs, talents, and experiences of each child. While disagreements over the appropriateness of the IEP, including the methodologies used to provide such instruction, may arise, it is through the successful collaboration of parents, health care providers, and school professionals that a child with autism will develop into an adult with a life of community and meaning.

  8. Improving the Management Style of School Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial

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    Lassibille, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Using information from a randomized experiment carried out over the course of two school years in Madagascar, this paper evaluates the impact of specific actions designed to streamline and tighten the work processes of public primary school directors. The results show that interventions at the school level, reinforced by interventions at the…

  9. School-Based Approaches to Affect Adolescents' Diets: Results from the TEENS Study

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    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Varnell, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) study, a 2-year intervention study conducted in 16 middle schools with a goal of increasing students' intakes of fruits, vegetables, and lower fat foods. Despite positive interim results for students randomized to intervention schools, the positive…

  10. Influence of physical activity on the posture of school age children

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    Laštro Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper posture is an indicator of good health, proper growth and development, which is why it is important to start learning about posture from the earliest age using various forms of physical activity. To establish the impact of physical activity on aspects of posture components of children of school age. The study included 120 subjects aged 10-16 years who were grouped into three groups, which was stratified equal number of boys and girls. The first group consisted of 40 children who are actively practice sports. The second group consisted of 40 children who are not actively practice sport a third group of 40 children with deformity of the spine. For research purposes, we used: test for assessing the degree of physical activity and test for the assessment of body posture. By applying multiple regression analysis, we found that there is an influence of different predictors on the dependent variables in all three categorically defined pattern. The strongest positive correlation was found in the first sample categorically defined between predictors warming up exercises in the training and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = 0.43. The strongest negative correlations were established also at first categorically defined pattern between predictors time spent at the computer and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = -0.35. It was found that there is a difference in the level of physical activity between the three categorically defined sample (F = 95.687, p = 0.01, and also the difference in posture between the three categorically defined sample (F = 10.93, p = 0.01. The results show the necessity of promotion of various forms of physical activity of children school age in order of their proper growth and development.

  11. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

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    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  12. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

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    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  13. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

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    Kierla Ireland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13 with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130 and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83. We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for

  14. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability.

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    Ireland, Kierla; Parker, Averil; Foster, Nicholas; Penhune, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers

  15. Racial Residential Segregation of School-Age Children and Adults: The Role of Schooling as a Segregating Force

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    Ann Owens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods are critical contexts for children’s well-being, but differences in neighborhood inequality among children and adults are understudied. I document racial segregation between neighborhoods among school-age children and adults in 2000 and 2010 and find that though the racial composition of children’s and adults’ neighborhoods is similar, exposure to own-age neighbors varies. Compared with adults’ exposure to other adults, children are exposed to fewer white and more minority, particularly Hispanic, children. This is due in part to compositional differences, but children are also more unevenly sorted across neighborhoods by race than adults. One explanation for higher segregation among children is that parents consider school options when making residential choices. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find that school district boundaries account for a larger proportion of neighborhood segregation among children than among adults. Future research on spatial inequality must consider the multiple contexts differentially contributing to inequality among children and adults.

  16. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

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    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  17. Differentiated correction of junior school age children’s posture at physical culture trainings

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    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to show peculiarities of differentiated correction of junior school age children’s posture, considering tonic vibration reflex. Material: the research was conducted with participation of 62 junior school age children (7-10 years old boys and girls. All children have no sport training experience. All children were preliminary examined by qualified medical doctors. Tonic vibration reflex of lumbar spine was registered. Children fulfilled test exercises, which characterized power endurance of abdomen muscles, side of torso and back muscles. Results: external signs of posture disorders were absent in frontal plane. In 35 persons (65.8% we registered one-side increased reflex excitability of nervous centers: from right side of backbone - in 28 children (72%; from the left side in 17 children (28%. Correction of posture with the help of correcting exercises can give steady effect only with simultaneous formation of correct posture habit. For this purpose it is necessary to create muscular-joint sense of separate body parts’ position. Conclusions: for determination of functional potentials of in-born muscular corset it is recommended to fulfill special test exercises. For local influence on lumbar spine muscles it is recommended to use exercise of asymmetric character.

  18. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

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    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for ametropia in school-age children

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    Zhe Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for children ametropia. METHODS: Totally 217 school-age children were selected, included 94 first-grade students(6~8 years oldand 123 fourth-grade students(9~12 years old. Refractive diopter was measured with automatic refractor RM-8000 to evaluate the accuracy of micocoria optometry in screening ametropia. RESULTS: After cycloplegia, both the mean sphere diopter and cylinder diopter in grade one students changed significantly(PPP>0.05in grade four students. Different refractive type: before and after mydriasis spherical myopia, spherical equivalent difference was 0.263±0.618 and 0.216±0.653D, with statistical significance(PP=0.000. The lenticular difference between the two groups were not statistically different(P>0.05. Choosing small pupil computer optometry for ≤-1.00D, ≥-0.50D child myopia or hyperopia could get more accurate value of diagnostic cutoffs, Youden index was 0.672 and 0.580.CONCLUSION: Microcoria optometry can be as a effective method of screening of children with ametropia, but if for optometry, school-age children must accept mydriasis.

  20. Management strategies of mothers of school-age children with autism: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Safe, Anneleise P

    2014-08-01

    Mothering children with autism results in mothers spending more time on daily tasks as well as managing the disorder. The need for mothers to self-manage often increases when the child is school aged. Mothers develop strategies, and occupational therapists and other health professional rely on or expect mothers to be involved in meeting the extra needs of their children with autism and other family members. Little is known about the strategies adopted by the mothers. The aim of this study was to explore the strategies mothers used to manage their roles and emotions, and their child's behaviours. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with seven mothers and data were analysed in this qualitative study using phenomenological analysis. Findings revealed that the mothers had adopted strategies to manage their roles, their emotions and their child's behaviour. However, the strategies were often shaped by the expectations of others or circumstances beyond their control and at times added further to their stress. Mothers of children with autism developed strategies to self-manage their lives and their child's disorder. However, even when these strategies were effective, they sometimes placed further stress on the mothers. The mothers provided insights to how they coped but need help to consider the support they require and therapists need to consider the pressures of expecting mothers to self-manage their child's disorder, their own lives and their family. Family-centred practice emphasising collaboration with mothers needs to be maintained with school-aged children. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Examining 12-14 Age Secondary School Students’ Tendency to Violence doing Active Sport or not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ tendency to violence, doing active sport or not. The sampling group of the study was consisted of 101 girls and 99 boys in the total 200 secondary school students in Kütahya city center of whose ages differs between of 12-14. In the study tendency to violence scale, developed by Göka and colleagues, was used as data gathering tool. In the evaluation of the data SPSS package program for Windows was used and after reliability of the scale was assessed One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for if the obtained data was showing normal distribution and also as hypotheses tests Independent Samples t Test was applied for pairwise comparisons and One Way ANOVA test was applied for triple or more comparisons. As a result of the study there were no significant differences between students’ tendency to violence according to their ages and sport participation situations, on the other hand there were significant differences according to their class and perceived success in class. This study showed that class and perceived success in class are predictors of tendency to violence.

  2. Maternal coping with the prospect of liver transplant among their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Nobue; Sato, Naho

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the following: maternal coping with the prospect of becoming the living-donor liver transplant for their child; the daily lives of school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver; and to explore the relationship between these individuals. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver and their mothers. The interviews were conducted from June to August 2014, and a qualitative content analysis was used. Results showed that mothers realized a possible need for transplantation in the future, which contributes to emotional and practical uncertainties. The mothers coexisted with this uncertainty and preferred to use a buffering strategy. In contrast, the children did not consider their illness and future and did not adhere to a therapeutic regimen. It is suggested that living with uncertainty about the health and survival of their children is advantageous for mothers. However, problems related to the psychosocial aspect and child's adherence may occur in the future. In addition, problem-solving coping strategies for mothers and the independence of chronically ill children with liver disease should be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Determination of permanent premolars eruption ages among public school children in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, A.L.; Soomro, S.H.; Khuhawar, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean eruption age, range and sequence of permanent maxillary and mandibular premolars in public schools of Lahore, Pakistan so as to provide a reference for planning orthodontic treatment and in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study consisting of multistage random sampling and included 4000 children, with ages in between 9-14 years of different public schools in Lahore. Participants were examined and tooth numbering was noted by two-digit system of FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale). Emergence was divided into three stages depending on eruption level. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 4000 children, 1960 were boys and 2031 were girls. In both genders maxillary premolars erupted before mandibular counterparts. All premolars erupted earlier in females than the males. The sequence of emergence for both genders was P1, P2 in upper as well as in lower arch. Conclusion: Eruption of premolar in females was earlier than males but delayed in both genders while compared with Western standard. (author)

  4. Overweight and obesity in school-age children and teenagers of a urban area of Riobamba city, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio David Ramos-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.

  5. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  6. The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Predictors of Language Gains among School-Age Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…

  8. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  9. Urban Neighbourhood Quality and School Leaving Age: Gender Differences and Some Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine the role of neighbourhood quality, assessed when cohort members were aged five, in boys' and girls' school leaving age. It was expected that, since context is in general more strongly predictive of boys' rather than girls' behaviour, neighbourhood quality would…

  10. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netelenbos, J.B.; de Rooij, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain

  11. Parents' perception about their preterm child's social interaction reaching school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laansma, Frederike; Smidt, Eva; Crajé, Céline; Luinge, Margreet

    2017-01-01

    A key element in social development is interaction with others. Preterm infants have an increased risk for problems in this aspect. We aimed to gain insight into parents’ perception about their preterm child’s social interaction upon reaching school age. Twelve caregivers of preterm infants aged

  12. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  13. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  14. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  15. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  16. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  17. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  18. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  19. Results of a multibehavioral health-promoting school pilot intervention in a Dutch secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Rob J J; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies increasingly show adolescent health-related behaviors to be interrelated, interacting synergistically and sharing several common determinants. Therefore, research increasingly focuses on studying interventions that target a range of health behaviors simultaneously. This report describes the results of a pilot study of a secondary school-based, health-promoting intervention that simultaneously targets a range of adolescent health behaviors via a whole-school approach. We collected self-reported behavioral data via an annual online questionnaire to 336 students. We collected data before the intervention implementation and after the intervention's first completed, 3-year curriculum cycle on the fourth-grade students (15- to 16-year-olds). We analyzed differences between pre- and postintervention groups. Significant behavioral changes were reported for extreme alcohol use, smoking, sedentary time, and bullying behaviors. Certain behaviors were significantly different only in girls: namely, weekly alcohol use, ever having used cannabis, compulsive Internet or computer use score, compulsive gaming score, and recent bully victimization. Differences in several sedentary time behaviors (television watching and Internet or computer use) were significant only in boys. No changes were reported regarding body mass index; physical activity; or the time spent on, or the compulsiveness of, video game playing. In addition, the postintervention group showed significantly fewer psychosocial problems. The intervention successfully changed student health behaviors on many accounts. It remains largely unclear as to what causes the different effects for boys and girls. Further studies regarding multiple health behavior targeting interventions for adolescents are required. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach.

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    Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Full Text Available Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan.We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics.We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates.Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.

  1. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary habits and lifestyle in school-aged children from Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pantea Stoian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life. Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits. Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9 than girls (67.46±9.91 (p=0.004. Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences were also seen between the two groups in terms of main meals and snacks and following a rhythm of meals: a statistically significant percentage of girls (36.3% skip breakfast, while most boys (63.8% take a food package to school. A total of 23.8% of the boys and 24% of the girls state that they eat while sitting in front of the computer or TV. Conclusions. We found that boys are more overweight or obese than girls. Obesity in the pediatric population of Romania could be explained by the country’s emergence from communism 25 years ago, pattern typical of all Eastern European countries and which currently involve an overexposure of people to fast food, fizzy drinks and sweets, as well as to a high consumption of salt and food additives. Unbalanced and highly caloric food had been preferable to healthy food in the last period. Leisure time is rather spent in front of the TV, tablet, detrimental to rational physical exercise, recreational sports or hiking. The family environment is very important and all our actions should be focused on continuous education about the risks of unhealthy food and a sedentary lifestyle.

  3. Hungarian Dimensions of Physical Activity Based on Studies at School Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cselik Bence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is an old pursuit to find the balance between nature and society (within the individual and the sum of people. In order to talk about a healthy society, it is necessarry to have the people making up the society healthy too. The health condition of the individuals affects the society, creating a close connection amoing individuals and society. Health, mental and physical well-beings of members of society affects the economy, since a healthy workforce leads to developing economy, which hence can provide the requirements and conditions that ensure a mentally and physically healthy way of living for the society. Sport, everyday exercise, therefore regular training can also play an important social role, and can greatly contribute to social well-being. Decreased physical activity, sitting lifestyle are both specific traits of economically developed countres, and turns into a more and more threatening public health problem world-wide, which contribute to the development or aggravation of such chronic diseases and health damages, like morbid obesity, heart diseases, diabetes, hypertension, locomotor diseases, malignant tumors, depression. The topic of our research is related to mainly the subject of primary school healthcare programs. The measurements have been taken in 12 different educational institutions, which included primary, secondary, vocational schools, and a 6-grade school. The actuality of the topic is proven by the increased obesity appearing at more younger ages, and we intend to shed some light on the fact, that with a good healhcare strategy and short-term goals we can achieve positive results shortly on the fields of school healthcare.

  4. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Coker, Tumaini R.; Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Chung, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. METHODS: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. RESULTS: Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor’s degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. CONCLUSIONS: Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. PMID:27432845

  5. Predictors for Asthma Formation in School-Age Children in Ternopil Region

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    E.I. Burbela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Algorithm of screening diagnostics for bronchial asthma (BA to identify asthma susceptibility forces doctors of a first contact to a differentiated approach to the compilation of forecasting, individual treatment and rehabilitation programs. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. 121 children with asthma treated at Ternopil region children hospital during 2012–2016 were studied. The control group consisted of 226 adolescents, of which 76.55 % (n  =  173 apparently healthy children at the time of examination were secondary school urban students and 2.45 % (n  =  53 — rural students. The average age of patients investigated was 12.98 ± 2.80 years old and 12.36 ± 2.80 years old in the control group. The study was conducted with regard to the basic principles of the Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research and provisions GCH ICH, compliance with ethical principles and guidelines involving people as subjects set out in Belmont Report. Results and discussion. Based on a simple ranking value %AR factors playinbg a major role in causing asthma were considered as a level above 50 %. These predictors were: maintenance of diathesis manifestations after the first year of life, оbstructive bronchitis, passive smoking, burdened heredity for atopy, atopic dermatitis, high personal anxiety, high and medium situational anxiety, general school anxiety, social stress, frustration at needs to succeed, fear expression and fear of knowledge test, fear not to match to the expectations of others, low resistance to physiological stress, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, high (70 cu Robinson index. Seven contributing factors in the formation of BA level above 25 % were determined: atopic manifestations on the skin up to a year, the presence of phlegmatic temperament, and eutonia and vagotony according to the Kerdem index, Robinson index above average (71–75 cu. Conclusions

  6. Learning and Schooling in the Age of Mobilism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Speeding past the Steve Jobs Post-PC Era into the Age of Mobilism, the authors foresee how, by 2015, each and every student in America's K-12 classrooms will be using their own mobile computing device, with those devices engendering the most disruptive transformation in education in 150 years. Classrooms will move from today's "I Teach"…

  7. Menarcheal age and nutritional status among school girls' in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is a significant indicator of maturity and puberty in adolescent girls. There has been a decline in menarcheal ago over the years with many factors including nutrition having an influence on it. The aim of this study is to determine the age at menarche and its relationship with anthropometric ...

  8. The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the dental clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife. A total of 100 carious samples were collected from children of varying age and sexes. The bacteria isolated were S. mutans: 45.6%, Lactobacillus spp: 41.2% and S. aureus: 13.2%. Out of the 100 samples, 88(5) ...

  9. Handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Peters, Lieke H. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim The study investigated the relationships between handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition. We paid particular attention to the presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND). Method Participants were 200 children (131 males, 69 females; age range 8-13y) of whom 118

  10. Neurocognitive functioning in school-aged cystinosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M. T. P.; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, G. M.; van der Rijken, R. E. A.; van Dael, C. M.; Vande Walle, J.; Lilien, M. R.; Levtchenko, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to intralysosomal cystine accumulation in various tissues. It causes renal Fanconi syndrome and end stage renal failure around the age of 10 years if not treated with cysteamine. Children with cystinosis seem to have a normal

  11. Neurocognitive functioning in school-aged cystinosis patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, G.M.; Rijken, R.E.A. van der; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Dael, C.M. van; Walle, J. van der; Lilien, M.R.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to intralysosomal cystine accumulation in various tissues. It causes renal Fanconi syndrome and end stage renal failure around the age of 10 years if not treated with cysteamine. Children with cystinosis seem to have a normal

  12. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  13. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  14. Intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit value and worm density in subjects were determined to rate level of infectivity in the individual. The study shows that there are three common intestinal worms in the area Ascaris lumbricoides has the highest prevalence rate of 40.7% followed by Tribchuris trichiura (4.8%) and hookworm (4.4%). Age and sex ...

  15. Physical activity among Chinese school-aged children: National prevalence estimates from the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—The Youth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fan

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the average MVPA minutes per day among Chinese school-aged children is low, and less than one-third of them meet MVPA recommendations. These results were most evident among junior middle and junior high school children and those living rural areas.

  16. Baseline results of the first healthy schools evaluation among a community of young, Irish, urban disadvantaged children and a comparison of outcomes with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-11-01

    In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood depression and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The Healthy Schools Programme evaluation was a 3-year longitudinal outcome study among urban disadvantaged children aged 4 to 12 years. Physical and psychological health outcomes were measured using validated, international instruments at baseline. Outcomes at baseline were compared with international norms and where differences were found, results were statistically modeled to determine factors predicting poor outcomes. A total of 552 children responded at baseline, representing over 50% of all eligible children available to participate from 7 schools. Findings at baseline revealed that in general, children did not differ significantly from international norms. However, detailed analysis of the childhood depression scores revealed that in order of importance, psychological well-being, the school environment, social support, and peer relations and age were statistically significant predictors of increased childhood depression in children under 12 years of age. Future health and well-being studies in schools among urban disadvantaged children need to broaden their scope to include measures of depression in children under 12 years of age and be cognisant of the impact of the school environment on the mental and emotional health of the very young. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  17. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  18. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  19. Cardiovascular health awareness and the effect of an educational intervention on school-aged children in a rural district of India

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    Madhab Ray

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Awareness of CVD and its risk factors was far from optimal among the adolescent school-aged children in this study. A school-based educational program may help improve awareness of CVD and reduce the future disease burden in the community. The results of this study may be useful in formulating a nationwide school health program to deal with the emerging epidemic of CVD in countries such as India.

  20. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

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    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  1. Alterações cognitivas em escolares de classe socio-econômica desfavorecida: resultados de intervenção psicopedagógica Cognitive function evaluation in school-age children from economically impoverished community: results of enriched education program

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    Célia Sperandéo Macedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o resultado de intervenções psicopedagógicas no desempenho intelectual e em algumas funções cognitivas específicas em crianças provenientes de famílias de baixa renda, expostas a fatores pessoais e sociais adversos, como desnutrição, stress familiar, ambientes doméstico e de estimulação empobrecidos. Foram examinadas 63 crianças, alunas de escola, gratuita e em regime de semi-internato, que recebe crianças consideradas sob risco pessoal e social. Quarenta e três crianças receberam atividades que objetivam ativação cognitiva, durante período mínimo de 1 ano. Vinte crianças eram recém-admitidas. As técnicas da ativação escolhidas foram: método de aprendizagem ativa, com base em Piaget e método de ativação cognitiva para, através de exercícios psicomotores, desenvolver os pré-requisitos para aprendizagem e prevenção de dificuldades escolares, segundo Lambert. A avaliação das funções cognitivas mostrou: nível intelectual insatisfatório em 30% e médio ou superior em 70% e deficiências cognitivas específicas (noção do esquema corporal, percepção viso-motora, percepção de forma e perseveração em 74%. Maior prevalência de crianças com inteligência superior (p Sixty-three school-age children of low socioeconomic status and exposed to adverse environmental factors (malnutrition, familiar distress and low familiar incomes were submitted to neuropsychological tests to investigate possible cognitive impairments. Classical neuropsychological test battery was employed (Raven test, Bender Gestalt copy of complex figures, draw-a-man Goodenough test. Low intellectual level was found on 30% and 74% showed higher cognitive disorders (visuoperceptual skills and/or perseverations and/or global shapes perception and/or draw-a-man disturbances. These children attended to a school with semi-boarding regimen which receives children under personnel and social adverse factors. School

  2. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a rigorous assessment of SWPs in the bi-state region. SWPs were collected from 46 school districts. The Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) was used to assess comprehensiveness and strength. Additionally, focus group discussions and an online survey were conducted with school personnel to identify barriers and supports needed. Assessment of the SWPs indicated that most school districts failed to provide strong and specific language. Due to these deficiencies, districts reported lack of enforcement of policies. Several barriers to implementing the policies were reported by school personnel; supports needed for effective implementation were identified. To promote a healthful school environment, significant improvements are warranted in the strength and comprehensiveness of the SWPs. The focus group discussions provided insight as to where we need to bridge the gap between the current state of policies and the desired beneficial practices to support a healthy school environment. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  3. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  4. Kazan archaeological school: research results and development prospects

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    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic stages of Kazan archaeological school development are traced from its origin, which was connected to the Society of Archaeology, History and Ethnology with Kazan University (1878 – early 1930s. The establishment of Kazan Institute of Language, Literature and History in 1939 (from 1945 as part of Kazan Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences started the formation of Kazan archaeological school. At the beginning, its representatives worked in the sector of History, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Kazan branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (until 1962, and then joined the sector of Archaeology and Ethnography (1962–1986. Later on, the Department of Archaeology (1986–1995 was created, subsequently (in 1995 transformed into the National Center of Archaeological Research with the Institute of History named after Sh. Marjani of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. In July, 2013, the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences was established on the basis of the Center. The archaeology of Tatarstan was developing in the framework of three basic directions: 1 entire investigation prospecting of the region aimed at creating the most exhaustive list of archaeological monuments of the Middle Volga River region; 2 stationary investigations the prehistoric and medieval sites, first of all historically known Volga Bulgaria towns, rural settlements and necropolises; 3 studies in the sphere of ethnogenesis and ethnic history, interaction between the cultures of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the region. For the next 5 years (2014–2018 the researchers of the Institute plan to develop the following trends: I. the medieval Turkic-Tatar civilization of Eurasia; II. prehistorical archaeology of the Volga-Kama region: genesis and interaction of cultures; III. GIS technologies in archaeology; IV. natural science research methods in archaeology; V. conservation and systematization of archaeological

  5. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  6. [Relationship between family functioning and lifestyle in school-age adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    Risk behaviors in adolescents can lead to serious disorders, therefore the objectives of this work are to characterize the lifestyles of teenagers about substance use, sex, and road safety, and to meet socio-demographic factors associated with these. A cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study was conducted with 204 school-age-children from 12 to 17 years, in 2013. They were given a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic, family functioning, and lifestyles such as substance abuse, sexual intercourse and road safety. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed by using multiple linear regression in the case of quantitative dependent variables, and binary logistic regression models in the case of binary categories. Data analysis was based on SPSS 20.0, with a significance level of p<0.05. 32.4% of students had smoked, and 61.3% had drunk alcohol. 26% of adolescent between 14-17 years had sexual intercourse; the average age of the first sexual intercourse was 14.9 years. 85.2% used condoms. 94.6% respected traffic signs, 77.5% used to wear a seat belt and 81.9% a helmet. Family functioning, as protective factor, was the variable more frequently associated to risk behaviour: smoking (OR=7.06, p=.000), alcohol drinking (OR=3.97, p=.008), sexual intercourse (OR=3.67, p=.041), and road safety (β=1.82, p=.000). According the results, age, gender and family functioning are the main factors associated with the adoption of risk behaviors. This information is important for the development of public health policies, for instance health promotion at schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  8. Suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children: Implications for health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for

  9. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  10. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Siminska; Weronika Bukowska; Dorota Ratuszek–Sadowska; Krystyna Nowacka; Wojciech Hagner

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages...

  11. A Comparison of body mass index and daily step numbers of secondary school and high school students according to age and gender

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    Özcan Saygın

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179

  12. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  13. Health Effects of Digital Textbooks on School-Age Children: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seomun, GA; Lee, JA; Kim, EY; Im, MY; Kim, M; Park, SA; Lee, Y

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "p...

  14. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  15. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

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    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  16. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

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    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  17. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, D A; Babishangire, B B; Omiat, S; Bagarukayo, H

    1999-06-01

    A school health education programme in primary schools aimed at AIDS prevention in Soroti district of Uganda emphasized improved access to information, improved peer interaction and improved quality of performance of the existing school health education system. A cross-sectional sample of students, average age 14 years, in their final year of primary school was surveyed before and after 2 years of interventions. The percentage of students who stated they had been sexually active fell from 42.9% (123 of 287) to 11.1% (31 of 280) in the intervention group, while no significant change was recorded in a control group. The changes remained significant when segregated by gender or rural and urban location. Students in the intervention group tended to speak to peers and teachers more often about sexual matters. Increases in reasons given by students for abstaining from sex over the study period occurred in those reasons associated with a rational decision-making model rather than a punishment model. A primary school health education programme which emphasizes social interaction methods can be effective in increasing sexual abstinence among school-going adolescents in Uganda. The programme does not have to be expensive and can be implemented with staff present in most districts in the region.

  18. [Comparison of polysomnographic characteristics in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanfeng; Lei, Fei; Du, Lina; Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui

    2016-03-01

    To compare the characteristics of polysomnography in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The clinical data were collected from October 2009 to October 2013 among children monitored in Sleep Medical Center of West China Hospital. Among them, 189 preschool aged (aged 3-5 years) and 211 school aged (aged 6-13 years) children with sleep breathing disorder, and 33 children complained with sleep talking as controls were enrolled and underwent polysomnography. According to apnea hyponea index (AHI), they were classified as primary snoring (AHIstage and N2 stage among groups (P>0.05). In preschool aged children, the percentage of N1 stage in the moderate/severe group was more than other three groups (moderate/severe group vs control group, primary snoring group, mild group: 24.7%±13.7% vs 17.0%±8.7%, 21.7%±12.4%, 20.9%±11.6%, all Pstage in the moderate/severe group was more than the control group (moderate/severe group vs control group: 18.0%±10.4% vs 12.0%±4.8%, Pstage in the moderate/severe group and the mild group were less than the control group (moderate/severe group, mild group vs control group: 28.3%±9.6%, 28.8%±8.8% vs 33.9%±13.0%, both Ppreschool and school aged children group, the arouse index in the moderate/severe group was higher than other three groups, the mean oxygen saturation and the lowest oxygen saturation in the moderate/severe group were lower than those of the other three groups, the differences were statistically significant (all Ppreschool children (r=-0.02, P>0.05). However, there was significance in school aged children (r=0.26, Ppreschool and school aged (r=0.42, 0.55, both Ppreschool children than in school aged children. The severity is mainly related to enlarged tonsils and adenoids. School aged children with OSAHS may be more susceptible to sleep structure disorder and the severity is mainly related to BMI.

  19. Factors associated with bed and room sharing in Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jin, X; Yan, C; Wu, S; Jiang, F; Shen, X

    2009-03-01

    Co-sleeping (bed or room sharing) has potential implications for children's development. Previous studies showed that co-sleeping was more prevalent in non-Western countries than in Western countries, which demonstrated that co-sleeping was marked with ethnic and socio-cultural background characteristics. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence of bed and room sharing and to examine related factors among school-aged children in an Asian country - China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 districts of Shanghai, China from November to December 2005. A total of 4108 elementary school children, 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls with a mean age of 8.79 years, participated. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information about children's sleeping arrangements and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of routine bed sharing, room sharing and sleeping alone in Chinese school-aged children was 21.0%, 19.1% and 47.7%, respectively. Bed and room sharing didn't show significant gender difference but gradually decreased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic regression identified those factors associated with bed and room sharing: younger age, large family, children without their own bedroom and parents' approval of a co-sleeping arrangement. Co-sleeping arrangement was a common practice in Chinese school-aged children. Associated factors were characterized by intrinsic socio-cultural values and socio-economic status in China.

  20. Impact of sleep on executive functioning in school-age children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K

    2018-06-01

    Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS. Thirty school-age children with DS wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Children completed a neuropsychology assessment of their inhibitory control, ability to shift and working memory. Their parents and teachers completed rating scales to assess these same constructs of executive functioning. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), but not actigraph-measured sleep period or efficiency, were predictive of parent reports of concerns with inhibitory control, shifting and working memory, and of teacher reports of inhibitory control. No measure of sleep was predictive of executive functioning as measured by the neuropsychology assessment. The study findings corroborate the preliminary literature that parent-reported sleep problems are related to executive functioning in school-age children with DS, particularly in the area of inhibitory control across home and school. These findings have implications for understanding contributing factors to academic performance and school behaviour in school-age children with DS. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Risk factors and possibilities of preventing gastroesophageal reflux disease in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Belousova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article presents the main problems of early diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in school-age children, which leads to late detection and initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to identify the main risk factors that may predispose the development of this disease, as well as triggers that provoke GERD in school-age children. Knowledge of risk factors can help prevent the formation of GERD in children, and, with timely diagnosis of therapy, reduce the severity of the disease and improve quality of life. Materials and methods. Open comparative study included 98 school-age children (31 girls, 67 boys aged 6 to 18 years (mean age 14.2 years. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated January 29, 2013, No. 59 “On Approval of Unified Clinical Protocols for Medical Care of Children with Digestive Disorders”. During the comprehensive examination, the identification of possible risk factors was made, for which a detailed history collection was performed: the nature of the child’s nutrition and the regularity of the meal were evaluated, as well as the mode of the day, the presence and intensity of physical activity, the presence of chronic stress (psycho-traumatic situations, sleep duration, bad habits, false eating habits. Past medical history also revealed the duration of breastfeeding and the time of supplementary food introduction. Physical examination was also aimed at the detection of so-called symptoms of anxiety — “red flags” that may indicate the presence of complications or organic pathology. Results. In both age groups, boys were dominant; besides, there were significantly more children aged 13–17 years in the group with GERD. Early administration of supplements was revealed in both groups, as well as early artificial/mixed feeding. More than 85 % of children had signs of autonomic dysregulation and

  2. Influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system at girls of the younger school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena Potapova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system of girls of the younger school age in the groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old. Material & Methods: the problem of functional condition of external breath at girls of the younger school age (in the age groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old, who were divided into the control group (CG in number of 32persons (CS No. 58 and the experimental (EG in number of 29 persons (OTEC No. 109 of Zaporozhe, is considered. Results: it is defined that the studied girls of both groups at the beginning of the research had mainly below average and average levels of functional condition of the system of external breath. Conclusions: the effective impact of outdoor games on functional condition of the whole organism in general and on the system of external breath, in particular, at girls of the experimental group in comparison with the studied girls of the same age of the control group is proved experimentally. Application of the large number of various outdoor games allowed diversifying the program of training at physical education classes emotionally and physically, than promoted the activation of functions of the whole organism of girls of the younger school age.

  3. Appropriate school starting age: A focus on the cognitive and social development of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The early years are the most important in the emotional, social, physical and cognitive development of a child.. A child’s early experiences have an immense impact on the development of his/ her physical, emotional and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is very important to understand the kind of environment children need in the early years for their healthy development and also to understand when it is appropriate to begin their schooling in order to optimize their social, cognitive and emotional well-being. It is observed that the number of formal pre-schools have increased drastically in the past few years. Children between the ages of one to five are attending these pre-schools. This paper attempts to look into the various researches conducted to find out how early childhood experiences affect children; how their emotional and cognitive development occurs; and most importantly, whether or not starting school at an age earlier than seven years, benefits their academic achievement in the long run. The findings of the various researches indicate that children in the early years need to spend time in free play rather than in structured and scheduled school environments. This will also help them in their future academic success. Thus, starting school earlier than seven years of age is not beneficial socially or academically in the long run.

  4. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  5. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  6. Contribution of free play towards physical activity guidelines for New Zealand primary school children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGall, S E; McGuigan, M R; Nottle, C

    2011-02-01

    the objectives of this study were to investigate children's physical activity patterns to gain comparisons between home and school and to determine whether the current physical activity guidelines of 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily were being met. participants were recruited from two New Zealand primary schools (60 children, mean age (SD) 8.3 (0.7) years). Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. Total activity and average counts were determined for school playtime, after school and weekends. Differences between average counts for these intervals were compared using the t statistic. Time and percentage of time spent were categorised into the activity thresholds: sedentary (5200). Total activity for each day was also determined. no child met the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily during the investigation. Compared to school playtime, activity counts were lower by 36% (CI 25% to 45.5%, p<0.001, effect size (ES)=-1.29) after school, 50.1% (CI 37% to 60.5%, p<0.001, ES=-2.01) on Saturday and 57.4% (CI 46.3% to 66.3%, p<0.001, ES=-2.47) on Sunday. Mean results showed children spent 91-96% of their time engaged in light or sedentary activities. Even during school playtime, where the children were most active, only 8 of 80 min were spent engaged in MVPA. this study found activity levels were considerably lower than the recommended guidelines, and children were more active during school playtime compared to after school and weekends.

  7. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Features of Formation of Personality Traits of School-Age Children in the Use of Measures for Psychohygienic Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Mostova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the formation of personality traits of school-age chidren in the use of diagnostic and preventive programs psychohygienic correction for disorders of psychophysiological and psychological adaptation and changes in the health of 14–17-year-old students. To assess personality characteristics of students we used personality questionnaires of Eysenck, Spielberg and Phillips. The results determine the positive impact of measures for psychohygienic correction on the state of criterion parameters of anxious-neurotic personality traits of students of school age. Implementation of the developed program provide the appearance of the positive changes in the structure of indicators that display characteristics of neuroticism (p < 0.05, situational (p < 0.001 and personal (p < 0.01 anxiety both among girls and boys, and in the structure of indicators of school anxiety, determining the existence of problems in relationships with teachers (p < 0.05 among girls. Changes recorded during the analysis of the other components of school anxiety, i.e. personality traits of anxiety, adverse changes in the structure of which are directly related to the impact of such stressor as a modern school, had to be recognized as less significant, but in this case revealed changes should be interpreted as favorable.

  9. The effects of aging on electrical and I ampersand C components: Results of US Nuclear Plant Aging Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gunther, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The US NRC's hardware oriented engineering research program for plant aging and degradation monitoring has achieved results in the area of electrical, control, and instrumentation (ECI) components used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The principal goals of the program, known as the Nuclear Power Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, are to understand the effects of age-related degradation in NPPs and how to manage and mitigate them effectively. This paper describes how these goals have been achieved for key ECI components used in the safety systems of NPPs. The status of relevant on-going and planned research projects is also provided

  10. The effects of aging on electrical and I ampersand C components: Results of US nuclear plant aging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gunther, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The US NRC's hardware oriented engineering research program for plant aging and degradation monitoring has achieved results in the area of electrical, control, and instrumentation (ECI) components used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The principal goals of the program, known as the Nuclear Power Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, are to understand the effects of age-related degradation in NPPs and how to manage and mitigate them effectively. This paper describes how these goals have been achieved for key ECI components used in the safety systems of NPPs. The status of relevant on-going and planned research projects is also provided

  11. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (plunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals.

  12. Life habits of school-aged children with specific language impairment as perceived by their parents and by school professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Claire; McMahon-Morin, Paméla; Morin, Claudia; Jutras, Benoît; Trudeau, Natacha; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2015-01-01

    Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. 26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged from 5 to 13 years old of the Assessment of Life Habits (Fougeyrollas et al., 2001). The questionnaire encompasses 196 life habits, grouped in 12 dimensions: nutrition, fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, education, work and recreation (Fougeyrollas, 2010). According to their parents and school professionals, children in this study carried out without difficulty life habits related to housing and mobility. However, they experienced difficulty with life habits related to interpersonal relationships, recreation and responsibilities, in addition to communication and education. Children with SLI are perceived by their parents and school professionals as having reduced social participation in many aspects of their daily life. Social participation should be considered as a major outcome when offering services in school to these children. This study proposes specific ways to help children with SLI. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does asthma affect school performance in adolescents? Results from the Swedish population-based birth cohort BAMSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sara; Ödling, Maria; Andersson, Niklas; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger

    2018-03-01

    Asthma is common among schoolchildren and may influence quality of life and school attendance. However, it is unclear if asthma affects school performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether different phenotypes of asthma affect school performance during adolescence. The study population consisted of 1715 adolescents from a population-based birth cohort, followed up to age 16 with questionnaires and clinical examinations. Asthma was defined as at least 4 wheeze episodes or at least 1 wheeze episode in combination with inhaled steroids in the last 12 months. School grades were obtained from Statistics Sweden, and logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the final overall grade from secondary school and asthma phenotypes. Among the adolescents, 20.8% have had ever asthma; 24.2% early transient, 47.2% school-age onset, and 24.2% persistent asthma. At 16 years, 7.8% had asthma; 71.7% multimorbidity and 73.9% allergic asthma. A statistically significant association for performing less well was seen for ever asthma (OR adj  = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09-1.88). In analyses of asthma onset, an association was seen for school-age onset (OR adj  = 1.49, CI = 1.02-2.16) and a tendency for persistent asthma (OR adj  = 1.61, CI = 0.98-2.66), although with overlapping confidence intervals. Further, adolescents with uncontrolled asthma tended to perform less well (OR adj  = 2.60, CI = 0.87-7.80) compared to adolescents with partly controlled (OR adj  = 1.12, CI = 0.68-1.83) and fully controlled (OR adj  = 1.29, CI = 0.55-3.01) asthma. Our results indicate that asthma impairs school performance in adolescence. Moreover, some evidence suggests the adolescents with asthma during school age and with poorer asthma control to be more likely to perform less well. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. [Medicine in the digital age : Telemedicine in medical school education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, S; Jungmann, F

    2018-03-01

    The increasing digitization of our lives and work has also reached medicine and is changing the profession of medical doctors. The modern forms of communication and cooperation in everyday medical practice demand new skills and qualifications. To enable future doctors to comply with this digitally competent profile, an innovative blended learning curriculum was developed and first implemented at the University Medical Center Mainz in summer semester 2017-Medicine in the Digital Age. The teaching concept encompasses five modules, each consisting of an e‑learning unit and a 3-hour classroom course. This publication presents the teaching concept, the initial implementation and evaluation of the module "Telemedicine". The competency development in the field of telemedicine showed a significant increase for the subcomponents "knowledge" and "skills". The neutral attitude towards telemedicine at the beginning of the module could be changed to a positive opinion after the session. The teaching of digital skills is a relevant component of future curriculum development in medical studies and also a challenge for continuing medical education.

  15. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. [The influence of healthy lifestyle habits on weight status in school aged children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; García de Angulo, Belén; Bodega, Patricia; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; García, Nuria; Fajardo, Diana; Garicano, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity has high prevalence in children and adolescents in Spain. To determine the degree of influence of four modifiable factors (dietary habits, physical activity, sedentary and sleep) jointly on the weight status of a group of school children and adolescents in Madrid. 189 schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years, who underwent an anthropometric study. To exercise the IPAQ questionnaire was used, establishing a minimum of one hour of exercise a day, as a recommendation, and two hours per day in case of sedentary, which took into account the hours of computer, consoles and TV. Sleep quality was assessed by collecting sleeping hours weekdays and weekend nap. Stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. The KIDMED Index was used for the diet quality, the score can be accessed from 0-12 and classified into 3 categories, it was regrouped for statistical measure. The first two results (0-7) as "Bad adherence" and ≥ 8 value as "Good adherence". 27.6% of students had excess weight. No significant differences were reported analyzing the four factors studied versus weight status among those who keep recommendations and excess weight, either individually or multifactor analysis was observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Ghana and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda. The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 10.4% among girls and 3.2% among boys, and 0.9% and 0.5% obesity only among girls and boys, respectively. Among girls smoking cigarettes and loneliness and among boys smoking cigarettes were found to be associated with overweight or obesity in multivariable analysis. Overweight status was not associated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and sedentary behavior. Low prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were found in Ghana and Uganda. Smoking cessation and social programs could be integrated into strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in youth.

  19. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  20. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  1. Perinatal brain injury, visual motor function and poor school outcome of regional low birth weight survivors at age nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Mahoney, Ashley Darcy; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relationship between perinatal brain injury, visual motor function (VMF) and poor school outcome. Little is known about the status and underlying mechanism of poor school outcome as experienced by low birth weight survivors. This is a secondary data analysis. The parental study recruited 1104 low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing ≤ 2000 g from three medical centres of Central New Jersey between 1984 and 1987. Seven hundred and seventy-seven infants survived the neonatal period, and their developmental outcomes had been following up regularly until now. The development data of the survivors were used to achieve the research aims. Initial school outcome assessment was carried out in 9-year-old, using the Woodcock-Johnson Academic Achievement Scale. The severity and range of perinatal brain injury was determined by repeated neonatal cranial ultrasound results obtained at 4 hours, 24 hours and 7 days of life. Seventeen and a half per cent of the sample experienced poor school performance at age 9 as defined by lower than one standard deviation (SD) of average performance score. Children with the most severe injury, PL/VE, had the lowest mathematics (F = 14·54, p = 0·000) and reading (anova results: F = 11·56, p = 0·000) performances. Visual motor function had a significant effect on children's overall school performance (Hotelling's trace value was 0·028, F = 3·414, p = 0·018), as well as subtest scores for reading (p = 0·006) and mathematics (p = 0·036). However, visual motor function was not a mediator in the association of perinatal brain injury and school outcome. Perinatal brain injury had a significant long-term effect on school outcome. Low birth weight infants with history of perinatal brain injury need be closely monitored to substantially reduce the rates of poor school outcome and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Association of Meat Intake with Overweight and Obesity among School-aged Children and Adolescents

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    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with red and white meat intake among children and adolescents using secondary survey data (n=16,261 from in-school Student Health Examination conducted in 2006 and 2007. Methods : Descriptive statistics was conducted to investigate the frequency of meat intake per week. The body mass index (BMI grades for obesity in boys and girls were classified using the standards from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. The association of meat intake with overweight and obesity was analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results : The proportion of subjects with no intake/week vs. daily meat intake/week was 5.9% and 5.5%, respectively. No intake of meat was more frequent in those who were female and in middle school, whereas daily meat intake was more frequent in those who were male and in high school. The proportions of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group and daily meat intake/week group were 12.3% and 11.1% vs. 8.1% and 9.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, including age; consumption of instant noodles, soft drinks and fast foods, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables; and skipping breakfast, the odds ratios of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group were 1.41 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.85 than those in the daily meat intake/week group. Conclusion : It is important to consider correcting the perception about meat intake and obesity and avoid restricting meat intake to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.

  3. Impact of Coordinated-Bilateral Physical Activities on Attention and Concentration in School-Aged Children

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    Heidi Buchele Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the effects of 4-week, daily 6-minute coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA breaks in classroom on attention and concentration in school-aged children. Methods. Participants (n=116 in fifth grade from two elementary schools were assigned to three groups: two intervention groups (n= 60 and one control group (n = 56. All three groups were pre- and post-tested with the d2 Test of Attention (d2 test. One intervention group (n = 31 took part in six minutes of daily classroom-based coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA break for four weeks. Another intervention group (n = 29, the Fitbit Only (Fitbit-O, wore Fitbits per day during a school, five days per week for four weeks without CBPA breaks. A 2 × 3 ANOVA was conducted, followed by the post hoc comparisons. Results. The CBPA showed significant increases in processing speed (F1 = 6.876, p = .010, focused attention (F1 = 10.688, p = .002, concentration performance (F1 = 26.46, p = .000, and attention span (F1 = 14.090, p = .000 over the control, but not in accuracy (Error %. The CBPA showed significant improvement in concentration performance (F1 = 24.162, p = .000 and attention span (F1 = 6.891, p = .011, compared to the Fitbit-O. No significant changes in all five attention parameters were found between the Fitbit-O and the control. Conclusion. It was concluded that daily brief coordinated-bilateral activities can improve attention and concentration in fifth-grade students over the course of four weeks.

  4. Self-reported physical activity and food intake patterns in schoolchildren aged 7-10 from public and private schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ferreira da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity and diet are related to several health outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA and diet patterns among Brazilian schoolchildren attending private or public schools. A cross-sectional, school-based study of elementary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old (n = 2,936 was carried out in Florianopolis (southern Brazil. Self-reported food consumption and PA patterns were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher percentage of girls than boys met the rec­ommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and limited their consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Boys reported higher PA levels than girls (P < 0.001. Children attending private schools were more likely to be in the highest tertile of PA (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.14-2.05 and 80% less likely to be active in commuting to school compared to public school students. Private schoolchildren were more likely to meet recommendations for fruits and vegetables, limit sweet consumption, report adequate meal frequency and no consumption of fast food or soft drinks. In summary, girls and private schoolchildren reported better eating patterns, while boys and private schoolchildren reported higher PA levels. Such results highlight the public school setting as a target for health promotion initiatives, along with other strategies, in developing countries.

  5. Negative ageing stereotypes in students and faculty members from three health science schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Soraya; Correa-Beltrán, Gloria; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-01

    To explore the ageing stereotypes held by health students and faculty members in three health science schools in Chile. This cross-sectional study surveyed 284 students and faculty members from the dental, physical therapy and speech therapy schools of the University of Talca, Chile. A validated 15-question questionnaire about negative stereotypes was used (CENVE). The questions were divided into three categories: (i) health, (ii) social factors and motivation and (iii) character and personality. The scores for each category were grouped into the following categories: (i) positive, (ii) neutral and (iii) negative. Negative stereotypes were compared across genders, socio-economic status levels, classes, positions (student or faculty member) and schools. The majority of the participants held neutral stereotypes towards ageing, followed by positive perceptions. No differences were detected between the genders, schools or classes. While most of the students had neutral perceptions about ageing, the faculty's perceptions were rather positive (p = 0.0182). In addition, people of lower-middle socio-economic status held more positive stereotypes about ageing than the participants of high and middle status (p = 0.0496). Stereotypes about ageing held by health-related students and faculty members appear to be rather neutral. The stereotypes seem to be better among students with some clinical experience, students of lower socio-economic status and faculty members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association between parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care and myopia risk in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Lihua; Lu, Benlin; Wang, Hexin; Xu, Ting; Du, Dandan; Wu, Shiqing; Li, Xiuxiu; Lu, Meixia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the association of parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care with myopia risk in school-aged children.A total of 894 parents of school-aged children were investigated in primary and middle schools in the central and noncentral urban area in Wuhan through stratified cluster random sampling on July, 2015. We analyzed the association by the generalized linear mixed model.The results indicated that children with parents' high expectations of 1.5 or higher on their vision exhibited a decreased risk of myopia compared with 1.0 and 0.5 or lower (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.36-0.67). Children whose parents only paid attention to their vision in junior and senior school and in primary school had an increased myopia risk than that in preschool (OR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.01-4.45, and OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.28-7.58, respectively). Children whose parents ensured for their sufficient sleep had a decreased myopia risk (OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.24-0.85). Compared with children whose parents who never adjusted electronic devices' parameters, the odds ratio of sometimes was 0.49 (95%CI = 0.31-0.79), often 0.53 (95%CI = 0.33-0.85), and always 0.44 (95%CI = 0.26-0.75), respectively.Parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care are significantly associated with the myopia risk in school-aged children. Consequently, efforts should be made to educate parents on how they protect children's vision and reduce their risk of myopia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the school performance variable used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study reflect students' school grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and grading systems, has contained an item assessing perceived school performance (PSP) since 1986. Whereas the test-retest reliability of this item has been reported previously, we determined its convergent and discriminant validity. This cross-sectional study used anonymous self-report data from Austrian (N = 266), Norwegian (N = 240), and Canadian (N = 9,717) samples. Students were between 10 and 17 years old. PSP responses were compared to the self-reported average school grades in 6 subjects (Austria) or 8 subjects (Norway), respectively, or to a general, 5-category-based appraisal of most recent school grades (Canada). Correlations between PSP and self-reported average school grade scores were between 0.51 and 0.65, representing large effect sizes. Differences between the median school grades in the 4 categories of the PSP item were statistically significant in all 3 samples. The PSP item showed predominantly small associations with some randomly selected HBSC items or scales designed to measure different concepts. The PSP item seems to be a valid and useful question that can distinguish groups of respondents that get good grades at school from those that do not. The meaning of PSP may be context-specific and may have different connotations across student populations from different countries with different school systems. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  8. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  9. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  10. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  11. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between attention deficit hyperactive disorder symptoms and perceived parenting practices of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yoo, Il Young

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the perception on parenting practices and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-age children. Psychosocial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention approaches emphasise environmental risk factors at the individual, family and community level. Parenting variables are strongly related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 747 children and their parents in two elementary schools. The instruments used were Korean Conners Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire and Korean version Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (measuring four dimensions of parenting practices: affection, autonomy, rejection, control). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. The rejective parenting practice was statistically significant in logistic regression controlling gender and age of children, family structure, maternal education level and socio-economic status. The rejection parenting is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children (OR=1.356). These results suggest the importance of specific parenting educational programmes for parents to prevent and decrease attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. It would be more effective rather than focusing only on the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, developing educational programmes for parents to prevent rejection parenting practice and improve parenting skills in the family system. When developing a treatment programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, healthcare providers should consider not only the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but also the parenting practices. Comprehensive interventions designed to prevent rejection and improve parenting skills may be helpful in mitigating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell

  13. School vending machine purchasing behavior: results from the 2005 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-05-01

    Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.

  14. Leaving school without qualifications and mental health problems to age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; Horwood, L John

    2015-03-01

    To examine the associations between leaving school without qualifications and subsequent mental health to age 30, using data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study. Data were gathered over the course of a 30-year study (Christchurch Health and Development Study) of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977. This cohort has been studied on 22 occasions from birth to age 30. As part of this study, information was gathered on: (a) school leaving qualifications, (b) mental health problems from 18 to 30; and (c) prospectively assessed childhood and adolescent factors including: child and family background; family violence and child abuse; and adolescent mental health problems. Leaving school without qualifications was associated with increased risks of subsequent: major depression (OR = 1.37 at 95 % CI 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019); anxiety disorder (OR = 1.99 at 95 % CI 1.55-2.57, p mental health problems) reduced these associations substantially and to the point of statistical non-significance. The findings of this study suggest that there was no direct causal association between leaving school without qualifications and subsequent mental health problems. Associations were explained by the linkages between leaving school without qualifications and: child and family social background; and mental health around the point of school leaving.

  15. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  16. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  17. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Morales-Ruan, María del Carmen; Moreno-Macías, Lidia B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.

  18. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  19. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... sensitization in school-aged children suggesting systemic low-grade inflammation as a phenotypic characteristic of this early-onset NCD....

  20. [Gene-gene interaction on central obesity in school-aged children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Zhang, M X; Wu, L J; Gao, L W; Mi, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells using the salt fractionation method. A total of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, PCSK1 rs6235, SH2B1 rs4788102, and CSK rs1378942) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays with the GeneAmp 7900 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between 6 SNPs and central obesity. Gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci were analyzed by using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, and then logistic regression model was constructed to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. Results: After adjusting gender, age, Tanner stage, physical activity and family history of obesity, the FTO rs9939609-A, MC4R rs17782313-C and BDNF rs6265-G alleles were associated with central obesity under additive genetic model ( OR =1.24, 95 %CI : 1.06-1.45, P =0.008; OR =1.26, 95 %CI : 1.11-1.43, P =2.98×10(-4); OR =1.18, 95 % CI : 1.06-1.32, P =0.003). GMDR analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between MC4R rs17782313 and BDNF rs6265 ( P =0.001). The best two-locus combination showed the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing accuracy of 0.539. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the

  1. Executive and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Marika A; Nieminen, Pirkko E; Helminen, Mika T; Kleemola, Leenamaija

    2017-03-01

    Earlier research and clinical practice show that specific language impairment (SLI) is often associated with nonverbal cognitive deficits and weakened skills in executive functions (EFs). Executive deficits may have a remarkable influence on a child's everyday activities in the home and school environments. However, research information is still limited on EFs in school-aged children with SLI, mostly conducted among English- and Dutch-speaking children. To study whether there are differences in EFs between Finnish-speaking children with SLI and typically developing (TD) peers at school age. EFs are compared between the groups with and without controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Parents and teachers of children with SLI (n = 22) and age- and gender-matched TD peers (n = 22) completed The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). The mean age of the children was 8,2 years. BRIEF ratings of parents and teachers were compared between the children with SLI and with TD peers by paired analysis using conditional logistic regression models with and without controlling for nonverbal IQ. Intellectual functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with SLI had weaker scores in all parent and teacher BRIEF scales compared with TD peers. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in BRIEF scales Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Monitor. Differences between the groups were statistically significant also in intellectual functioning. On BRIEF scales some group differences remained statistically significant after controlling for nonverbal IQ. This study provides additional evidence that also Finnish-speaking school-aged children with SLI are at risk of having deficits in EFs in daily life. EFs have been proposed to have an impact on developmental outcomes later in life. In clinical practice it is important to pay attention to EFs in school-aged children with SLI

  2. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  3. Sonographic biometry of liver size among Igbo school age children of South east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Ezeasor, Daniel Nwagbo; Aronu, Ann Ebele

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endemic diseases in the locality which are associated with changes in liver size necessitate sonographic biometry of this organ. Objectives: To establish by ultrasonography the normal limits and variations of the liver size according to age, sex, height, weight, body surface area and body mass index among school age children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study done at university of Nigeria medical center, Nsukka between January 2011 and June 2011. Participants included 947 apparently healthy subjects comprising 496 boys and 451 girls aged 6–17 years. The intra- and inter rater reliability of sonographic measurement of the liver size was determined. The sonographic examination was performed on Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. The longitudinal dimension of the liver was obtained in the midclavicular plane with the subject in deep inspiration. The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of liver length was reliable within and between sonographers. The mean of the liver length was 116.3 ± 10.6 mm. Dimension of the liver was not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). Height correlated best with the liver dimension followed by age, body surface area, weight, body mass index, and sex. The percentile curves, normal limits and prediction model of the liver dimension were defined according to height of the subjects. Conclusion: Determination of pathologic changes in the size of the liver necessitates knowing the normal ranges of dimension for the liver especially with respect to height in this population

  4. Phonological complexity in school-aged children who stutter and exhibit a language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings

  5. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  6. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  7. Exploring the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ attitude towards reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Lever–Chain

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: British children enter school younger than their European counterparts. Research suggests that this disadvantages boys who may be unready for formal literacy instruction.This longitudinal study explores the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ reading development, focussing on attitudes and beliefs. Data from 60 summer-born boys, divided into two cohorts, was collected on three occasions: before entry to Year One, end of Year One and end of Year Two. Comparisons were drawn between 31 boys with part-time nursery education before Year One, and 29 with full-time Reception class experience. This paper presents data collected at Time One. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies the study explores how beliefs about and attitudes towards reading emerge in the context of these contrasting early years settings. Implications of the findings are considered in the context of policies and trends in age of entry to school.

  8. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  9. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  10. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  11. Growth and development in school-age children from Rostov region, Russia: Comparison between urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynov, V B; Kulba, S N; Arapova, Yu Yu

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to describe growth and physical development and establish norms for schoolchildren from Rostov region in Russia; (2) to compare major characteristics of development between urban and rural children by sex and age. Nearly 200,000 children (198,712) aged between 7 and 17 years from 232 urban and rural schools of Rostov region (Southern Federal District of Russia) participated in the study. School age is a period of intensive growth and physiological and psychological development. Irregularities of personal development are caused by a multitude of factors, such as sex differences, heredity, socio-economic status of a family, standard of living, particular environmental conditions, and lifestyle. It has been established that children from the Southern Federal District of Russia had body mass index values higher than age-appropriate norms for all Russians (Total Russian, Rudnev et al., 2014) and World Health Organization charts. Children from urban settings were taller and heavier than children from rural settings. Sex is one of the most influential factors which play key role in determining specific characteristics of growth and personal development. According to our results, boys and girls both had similar age-related changes in weight and height, but their respective dynamics differed. Girls' height and weight values accelerated at the age 10 to 12 years and plateaued after the age fourteen, whereas in boys height and weight steadily increased with age, showing slight acceleration at the age 12 to 13 years, and reached a plateau by the age of seventeen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  13. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  14. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  15. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  16. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  17. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Treatment on the Cardiovascular Stress Response of Children at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karemaker, Rosa; Karemaker, John M.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke; Baerts, Wim; Veen, Sylvia; Samsom, Jannie F.; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal was to investigate cardiovascular responses to a psychosocial stressor in school-aged, formerly premature boys and girls who had been treated neonatally with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone because of chronic lung disease. METHODS. We compared corticosteroid-treated, formerly

  18. An Analysis of Educational Policies for School-Aged Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…

  19. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  20. School Age Center Connections: Site-Based Management Strategies for Implementation of Quality Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Dahna R.

    This paper describes the outcomes of a practicum that initiated site-based-management strategies to support the consistent implementation of a quality school-age child-care program. Implemented at a multisite child-care center, the program sought to enhance staff members' job satisfaction and maximize their opportunities for professional growth…

  1. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty two children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected from10 out of 33 public primary schools in a Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, to assess their plasma Vitamin A levels. Bessey's spectrophotometric method of ultraviolet destruction of vitamin A was used for determination of their ...

  2. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  3. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  4. Early lexical development and risk of verbal and nonverbal cognitive delay at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Rescorla, L.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise the relationship between preschool lexical delay and language comprehension and nonverbal intelligence at school age. Methods The mothers of 2724 children completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory when their child reached 1.5 years and the Language Development

  5. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  6. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  7. Development of daily activities in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J.W.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Jongmans, M.J.; Lindeman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n= 116; 76 males,

  8. Growing Musicians in English Secondary Schools at Key Stage 3 (Age 11-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalladay, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The National Curriculum for Music in England at Key Stage 3 (KS3; age 11-14) declares its purpose that pupils should be inspired to "develop a love of music and their talent as musicians" (DfE, 2013: KS3 Music). The Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) have criticised secondary schools for a lack of progress in the musical…

  9. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  10. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  11. Career Counselling with Secondary School-Aged Youth: Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can advance a social…

  12. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  13. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  14. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  15. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  16. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  17. Effect of Hearing Loss on Peer Victimization in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Pourchot, Hannah; White, Trissan; Cokely, Elika

    2018-01-01

    Nearly one third of school-age children report being bullied, primarily enduring teasing or rumors. Children with hearing loss (HL) are at increased risk of victimization due to being "different" from the general population. This project assesses effects of auditory status on bullying by comparing incidence and type of bullying in 87…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  19. Quality of general movements and the development of minor neurological dysfunction at toddler and school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, AMC; Stremmelaar, EF; Martijn, A; Butcher, PR; Groen, S.E

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of assessing infants' general movements (GMs) using a new classification and its validity in predicting complex minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at toddler and at school age. Design: Prospective study of two groups of infants, each consisting of a mix of

  20. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...