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Sample records for school ability test

  1. Development of the Spatial Ability Test for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…

  2. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  3. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  4. Metacognitive Ability Relationship with Test Result of Senior High School of Biology Teacher Competence in Sijunjung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, A.; Fadilah, M.; Ichsani, W.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to reveal how the relationship between metacognitive ability and the test result of biology teacher competence in Sijunjung District. The population of this descriptive research were all high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District, and sample is all teachers who are members of the population, which is 23 biology teachers. The instrument used in this research are a questionnaire of research on teacher's metacognitive ability and document about teacher competence test result. The questionnaire was validated first by two lecturers of biology and one lecturer of English. Data analysis using Pearson Product Moment's. Based on the results of research and discussion that have been described, it can generally be concluded that there is a low relationship between metacognitive ability with competence test results of high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District. Partially, the relationship of metacognitive ability with the test result of professional competence of biology teacher showed significant result, with correlation coefficient 0,46 and t table 1,72 while titung 2,37. The contribution of metacognitive ability to the competence test result of the teacher is 21.6%, while the other 78.4% have not been revealed in this research.

  5. Students' Attitude toward and Acceptability of Computerized Adaptive Testing in Medical School and their Effect on the Examinees' Ability

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    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An examinee's ability can be evaluated precisely using computerized adaptive testing (CAT, which is shorter than written tests and more efficient in terms of the duration of the examination. We used CAT for the second General Examination of 98 senior students in medical college on November 27, 2004. We prepared 1,050 pre-calibrated test items according to item response theory, which had been used for the General Examination administered to senior students in 2003. The computer was programmed to pose questions until the standard error of the ability estimate was smaller than 0.01. To determine the students' attitude toward and evaluation of CAT, we conducted surveys before and after the examination, via the Web. The mean of the students' ability estimates was 0.3513 and its standard deviation was 0.9097 (range -2.4680 to +2.5310. There was no significant difference in the ability estimates according to the responses of students to items concerning their experience with CAT, their ability to use a computer, or their anxiety before and after the examination (p>0.05. Many students were unhappy that they could not recheck their responses (49%, and some stated that there were too few examination items (24%. Of the students, 79 % had no complaints concerning using a computer and 63% wanted to expand the use of CAT. These results indicate that CAT can be implemented in medical schools without causing difficulties for users.

  6. Prepharmacy predictors of success in pharmacy school: grade point averages, pharmacy college admissions test, communication abilities, and critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D D; Bond, C A

    2001-07-01

    Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters have been shown to have predictive power for academic success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses have been suggested as academic performance indicators. However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated. We evaluated the connection between academic success and each of the following predictive parameters: the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) score, PCAT score, interview score, overall academic performance prior to admission at a pharmacy school, and performance in specific prepharmacy courses. We confirmed previous reports but demonstrated intriguing results in predicting practice-based skills. Critical thinking skills predict practice-based course success. Also, the CCTST and PCAT scores (Pearson correlation [pc] = 0.448, p critical thinking skills in pharmacy practice courses and clerkships. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and determine which PCAT components predict critical thinking abilities.

  7. Test del PWC 170 adaptado para determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares / Adapted PWC 170 test to determine special work abilities in school baseball players

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    Sadiel López-Leal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se adaptó el test de PWC 170, según el método de Karpman modificado para el bateo, con el propósito de determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial durante este ejercicio en beisbolistas de la categoría 9-10 años del área deportiva Julio Antonio Mella, ciudad de Camagüey, Cuba. Se estudiaron 15 atletas. Como métodos se emplearon la revisión bibliográfica sobre el proceso de control de preparación del deportista y el control médico deportivo, además se realizó la entrevista a entrenadores y la observación de clases. De su aplicación se obtuvo como resultado una alta correlación entre ambas experiencias y buena estabilidad, además de positivas valoraciones de todos los indicadores por parte de los entrenadores; de ahí que consideren efectiva esta prueba para evaluar objetivamente la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares de Camagüey. Abstract The PWC 170 test was adapted, according to Karpman’s model modified for batting, with the purpose of determining special work abilities during the game in 9-10 years old baseball players of Julio Antonio Mella sports area, Camagüey city, Cuba. The sample was of 15 athletes. Some of the scientific methods used were bibliographic revision on the control process of the athletes training, coach interviews and class observation. As a result the author detected a high correlation of experiences, good stability and positive coach assessment on every indicator. Therefore, this test was considered effective to objectively evaluate special work abilities in school baseball players from Camagüey.

  8. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  9. High School Students' Performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test: Art Ability, Gender, Activities, Academic Performance, Strategies, and Ease of Taking the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurny, Helen Graham

    This study tested whether mental rotation performance of 186 high school students (80 males and 106 females) in grades 9 through 12 in art and nonart classes on Vandenbergs Mental Rotations test (S. Vandenberg and Kuse, 1978) was affected by gender, visual-spatial activities, strategies used while performing the test, and the ease of test taking.…

  10. Ability Grouping in Schools: An Analysis of Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan; Mortimore, Peter; Hack, Sarah; Clark, Helen

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a large-scale study of ability grouping in English secondary schools. Forty-five secondary schools representing three levels of grouping took part in the research. Within these schools, data have been collected from a cohort of Year 9 pupils, aged 13-14 years. All these pupils took tests in English,…

  11. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 ½ years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test.

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    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Nassif, Elaine Pacheco; Levy, Angela Maria; Leite, Wellington Borges; Fuentes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public), and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL) test. Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  12. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 1/2 years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public, and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL test. Methods: Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results: Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. Conclusion: In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  13. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  14. Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Geum-Hee Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of ea...

  15. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Spatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…

  16. Development of Reasoning Test Instruments Based on TIMSS Framework for Measuring Reasoning Ability of Senior High School Student on the Physics Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim; Suhandi, A.; Nugraha, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine the quality of reasoning test instruments that follow the framework of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as a development results and to analyse the profile of reasoning skill of senior high school students on physics materials. This research used research and development method (R&D), furthermore the subject were 104 students at three senior high schools in Bandung selected by random sampling technique. Reasoning test instruments are constructed following the TIMSS framework in multiple choice forms in 30 questions that cover five subject matters i.e. parabolic motion and circular motion, Newton’s law of gravity, work and energy, harmonic oscillation, as well as the momentum and impulse. The quality of reasoning tests were analysed using the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and classic test analysis include the validity of item, level of difficulty, discriminating power, reliability and Ferguson’s delta. As for the students’ reasoning skills profiles were analysed by the average score of achievements on eight aspects of the reasoning TIMSS framework. The results showed that reasoning test have a good quality as instruments to measure reasoning skills of senior high school students on five matters physics which developed and able to explore the reasoning of students on all aspects of reasoning based on TIMSS framework.

  17. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

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    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  18. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  19. Testing and Inclusive Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Anne; Hamre, Bjørn; Ydesen, Christian

    Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, Thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating...

  20. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

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    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  1. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  2. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  3. The elementary school teachers’ ability in the length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the elementary school teachers' mathematical ability (1) to develop students’ activities which constructed longer than, shorter than, and as long as concepts, (2) to develop students’ activities which constructed standard unit on the length measurement, and (3) to develop a problem which used by student to construct why a conversion activity on the unit of the length was useful in the daily life after they have participated in the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) workshops. Curry and Outhread said if teachers knew more about the growth of students’ conceptual understanding of the length, they would be better able to teach that topic [4]. Therefore, in the workshop, teachers were asked to learn more on the stages of the measurement teaching and learning process and why each stage was important. This capability was described by the results of a test which was content of four problems given to teachers after they have attended the workshop. Research subjects in this study were 14 elementary school teachers at Yogyakarta. The results of the study were as follows: (1) only four of 14 teachers who had the first ability; (2) all teachers had the second ability; and (3) all the teachers did not have the third ability.

  4. Secondary school teachers' attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping.

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    Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith

    2003-09-01

    Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.

  5. Discriminant analysis of essay, mathematics/science type of essay, college scholastic ability test, and grade point average as predictors of acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Geum-Hee

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; Pgrade point average (10.66; P=0.0014). The analysis of regular admission data revealed the following F values: 28.81 (Pgrade point average, 27.47 (P<0.0001) for college scholastic ability test, 10.67 (P=0.0012) for the essay, and 216.74 (P<0.0001) for the mathematics/science type of essay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.

  6. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

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    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  7. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

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    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  8. [Effects of mental workload on work ability in primary and secondary school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the change pattern of primary and secondary school teachers' work ability with the changes in their mental workload. A total of 901 primary and secondary school teachers were selected by random cluster sampling, and then their mental workload and work ability were assessed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires, whose reliability and validity had been tested. The effects of their mental workload on the work ability were analyzed. Primary and secondary school teachers' work ability reached the highest level at a certain level of mental workload (55.73work ability had a positive correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability increased or maintained stable with the increasing mental workload. Moreover, the percentage of teachers with good work ability increased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability decreased. But when their mental workload was higher than the level, their work ability had a negative correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability significantly decreased with the increasing mental workload (P work ability decreased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability increased (P work ability. Moderate mental workload (55.73∼64.10) will benefit the maintaining and stabilization of their work ability.

  9. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  10. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  11. Item selection and ability estimation adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashley, Peter J.; van der Linden, Wim J.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The last century saw a tremendous progression in the refinement and use of standardized linear tests. The first administered College Board exam occurred in 1901 and the first Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) was given in 1926. Since then, progressively more sophisticated standardized linear tests

  12. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  13. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

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    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.

  14. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculate...

  15. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  16. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  17. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  18. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  19. Reasoning Abilities and Potential Correlates Among Jordanian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fidaa; Al-Momani, Murad O; Alsheyab, Nihayah; Al Mhdawi, Khader

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To investigate factors related to reasoning skills in 434 school children aged 5-9 years. Methods The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised was used to assess reasoning skills. Demographic, work and family income data, information on child's daily behavior and school academic achievement were provided by the participating children's parents. Results Reasoning scores increased by 4.56 points with increasing subject's age, 1.71 points with increasing level of father's occupation, 1.86 points with each increase in the subject's GPA, 1.13 points with consumption of breakfast at home and 1.81 points when child slept more hours. Having a father who smoked and living in a rural area decreased scores in reasoning. Conclusions for Practice Screening of reasoning and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Understanding the child's reasoning abilities is critical for establishing intervention goals and planning therapeutic activities.

  20. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  1. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  2. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  3. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  4. Investigating Primary School Mathematics Teachers’ Deductive Reasoning Ability through Varignon’s Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The responsibility to promote the growth of deductive reasoning ability of school students through learning mathematics is in the hand of mathematics teachers and particularly primary school mathematics teachers. However, how we can make sure whether teachers are able to do so. To investigate this issue, we conducted a three-step of an exploratory survey study. First, we designed tasks from the Varignon’s theorem. Second, we administered an individual written test involving twenty master students of primary education program, in which they are prospective of and primary school mathematics teachers. Finally, we address the results in the light of Van Hiele theory. The results showed that participated students lack of deductive reasoning ability in the context of geometry. For further research, we wonder whether the designed tasks are also applicable to assess student deductive reasoning ability if the students have acquired appropriate teaching.

  5. Job applicants’ attitudes towards cognitive ability and personality testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Visser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Growing research has shown that not only test validity considerations but also the test-taking attitudes of job applicants are important in the choice of selection instruments as these can contribute to test performance and the perceived fairness of the selection process. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the test-taking attitudes of a diverse group of job applicants towards personality and cognitive ability tests administered conjointly online as part of employee selection in a financial services company in South Africa. Motivation for the study: If users understand how job applicants view specific test types, they will know which assessments are perceived more negatively and how this situation can potentially be rectified. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental and cross-sectional survey design was used. An adapted version of the Test Attitude Survey was used to determine job applicants’ attitudes towards tests administered online as part of an employee selection process. The sample consisted of a group of job applicants (N = 160 who were diverse in terms of ethnicity and age and the educational level applicable for sales and supervisory positions. Main findings: On average, the job applicants responded equally positively to the cognitive ability and personality tests. The African job applicants had a statistically significantly more positive attitude towards the tests than the other groups, and candidates applying for the sales position viewed the cognitive ability tests significantly less positively than the personality test. Practical and managerial implications: The choice of selection tests used in combination as well as the testing conditions that are applicable should be considered carefully as they are the factors that can potentially influence the test-taking motivation and general test-taking attitudes of job applicants. Contribution: This study consolidated the

  6. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  7. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    M Asghari Jafarabadi; A Bahram; F Khodaverdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL).Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT).Body mass index was calculated to ...

  8. Statistical tests for equal predictive ability across multiple forecasting methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Daniel; Thyrsgaard, Martin

    We develop a multivariate generalization of the Giacomini-White tests for equal conditional predictive ability. The tests are applicable to a mixture of nested and non-nested models, incorporate estimation uncertainty explicitly, and allow for misspecification of the forecasting model as well as ...

  9. Ability Group Configuration for the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Scott

    This research project looks to investigate the effectiveness of different ability grouping arrangements for the high school physics classroom. Students were first organized based on their academic aptitude in physics into three general groups of high, medium, and low achieving students. They were then divided into both groups of four and dyads that were constructed in one of four arrangements, namely: random, homogeneous, heterogeneous, or student choice. Data was collected based on their academic performance as well as survey responses regarding the group and dyad performance. Students worked in a rotation of these groups and dyads for a unit to measure student preference and introduce collaborative work formally to the classes. At this point it was evident that students preferred the student choice arrangement based on survey responses, yet the student choice survey responses also resulted in the lowest level of reliability when compared to all other grouping methods. For the next unit students were kept in either the random, homogeneous, or heterogeneous grouping arrangement for the entirety of the unit. At the conclusion of the second unit student achievement as well as survey responses were analyzed. As a result of this research there appears to be a slight student preference as well as academic benefit to homogeneous group and dyad arrangements for each of the three ability groups of students in the high school physics classroom when compared to random and heterogeneous grouping methods of academic group arrangement.

  10. Logical Reasoning Abilities of Junior High School Students in the Province of Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul John B. Ongcoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning abilities of the learners and its development was well-discussed in the world of education. The higher the ability of the person to reason abstractly, the higher the probability that a person will effectively function in the society. Thus, it is the main goal of the K-12 Curriculum of the Department of Education to improve the reasoning abilities and formal reasoning among students in the country. The higher the reasoning ability of a person, the more productive he is. The ability of logical reasoning has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts. This study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities of 150 randomly selected junior high school students. Specifically, this study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities namely combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlation reasoning, probabilistic reasoning and proportional reasoning among the grade 10 junior high school students and determine whether there is a significant difference in students’ logical reasoning abilities according to their gender. The respondents answered the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT. Thirty respondents were interviewed to verify their answers. The findings of the study led to the following conclusions: most students correctly answered problems in probabilistic reasoning and least number of students correctly answered problems in proportional reasoning and combinatorial reasoning and, male and female respondents have equal performances in problems pertaining to combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlational reasoning and probabilistic reasoning but female respondents are better in proportional reasoning than the male respondents.

  11. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  12. Differences in Motor Abilities of Younger School Children based on their Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine whether there is any statistically signifi cant diff erence in motor abilities of boys and girls of younger school age. The sample includes 76 examinees with 37 males and 39 females. All are 5th and 6 th graders of primary school. The evaluation of motor abilitied is based on 5 tests. Multivariant analysis of variance is applied for determination of diff erences within the whole system of motor tests, whereas univariant analysis of variance is used for determining diff erences in each motor test. According to the fi ndings, statistically signifi cant diff erences in motor abilities between boys and girls at the studied age can be noticed in the test 20 m running from fl ying start, which is in favour of boys and in the test sit and reach, in favour of girls, while the diff erences in other tests are not statistically signifi cant. Considering the evaluation of motor abilities, boys have statistically much better results in the speed of alternative movements and explosive strenth, whereas girls have achieved much better results in the test for fl exibility. It has also been concluded that 5th and 6th graders have statistically better results in the space of coordination and explosive strenght, whereas girls are much better in the fi eld of fl exibility and suppleness.

  13. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  15. Analysis on the science literacy ability of vocational school physics teacher using NOSLiT indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, P. P.; Masykuri, M.; Soeparmi

    2018-04-01

    Professional Physics teacher must be able to manage science learning process by associating science itself with the daily life. At first the teacher must have competency in the ability of science literacy. The target of this research is vocational school Physics teachers for the purpose to describe their ability on science literacy. This research is a survey research using test method. The test instrument is The NOSLiT by Wenning.Research results are: 1) Scientific Nomenclature : 38.46 %, 2) Basic experimental and observational abilities : 38.46 %, 3) Rules of scientific evidence : 0%, 4) Postulate science: 15.38%, 5) scientific disposition: 7. 69%.Conclusion: The result of each indicator shows that the ability of science literacy of vocational school Physics teachers has not met the expectations yet. It’s can be used as the reflection for education experts to improve their science literacy ability so that can be applied to the learning process that directly or indirectly will have an impact on improving the students’ science literacy.

  16. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  17. Preschool acuity of the approximate number system correlates with school math ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-11-01

    Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. [Reading ability of junior high school students in relation to self-evaluation and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis of reading disorders in elementary school students were published recently in Japan. On the basis of these guidelines, we administrated reading test batteries to 43 Japanese junior high-school students from grade two. The reading test consisted of single sounds, single words, and single sentences. We evaluated the reading speed and the number of reading errors made by the test takers; their performance was compared with the normal value for elementary school students in grade six, as stated in the guidelines. The reading ability of the junior high-school students was not higher than that of the elementary school students. Seven students (16.3%) were found to have reading difficulties (RD group) and they met the criterion for diagnosis of reading disorder as per the guidelines. Three students had difficulties in reading single sounds and single words, but they faced no problems when reading single sentences. It was supposed that the strategies used by the students for reading sentences may have differed from those used for reading single sounds or single words. No significant differences were found between the RD and non-RD group students on scores of scholastic self-evaluation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Therefore, reading difficulty did not directly influence the level of self-evaluation or depression.

  19. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  20. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared.

  1. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6-8-year-old children. The study included 16 children from the 1(st) grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach - Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom' teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development.

  2. Predicting Bobsled Pushing Ability from Various Combine Testing Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevicz, Curtis L; Ransone, Jack W; Bach, Christopher W

    2018-03-12

    The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013). These variables were sprints of 15-, 30-, and 60 m, a flying 30 m sprint, a standing broad jump, a shot toss, squat, power clean, body mass, and dry-land brake and side bobsled pushes. Discriminant Analysis (DA) in addition to Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate two cases (Case 1: Olympians vs. non-Olympians; Case 2: National Team vs. non-National Team). Using these 11 variables, DA led to a classification rule that proved capable of identifying Olympians from non-Olympians and National Team members from non-National Team members with 9.33% and 14.67% misclassification rates, respectively. The PCA was used to find similar test variables within the combine that provided redundant or useless data. After eliminating the unnecessary variables, DA on the new combinations showed that 8 (Case 1) and 20 (Case 2) other combinations with fewer performance variables yielded misclassification rates as low as 6.67% and 13.33% respectively. Utilizing fewer performance variables can allow governing bodies in many other sports to create more appropriate combine testing that maximize accuracy, while minimizing irrelevant and redundant strategies.

  3. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  4. Parental background, early scholastic ability, the allocation into secondary school tracks and language skills at the age of 15 years in a highly differentiated system: a test of the contradictions between a two- or three-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Dunne (2010) and Dronkers, van der Velden & Dunne (2011) introduced a three-level model: countries, schools, and students. They showed that school characteristics like socioeconomic composition and ethnic diversity have substantial effects on achievement levels and also affect the relation

  5. The geometry ability of junior high school students in Karanganyar based on the Hoffer’s theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry ability is the aspect which underlay students to solve the geometry problems. However, some studies suggests the difficulty students when learning geometry. This leads to the ability of the geometri students difficult to develop. There are five the geometry ability based the Hoffer’s theory, namely visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and applied. These five aspects are basic geometry ability to be mastered by Junior High School students level. This study aimed to describe the students’ geometry ability according to the Hoffer’s theory. The participants of this study are six students from 9th grade in State Junior High School 1 Jaten at Karanganyar that consisted of three categories, namely higher ability, moderate ability, and lower ability students. The data collection methods used are geometry test and in-depth interview and than analyzed using triangulation. The result of the study showed that the ability of those three categories is different. Each of the students' geometry ability can be described as follows. (1) On visual skill, higher ability and moderate ability students could mention the elements of the geometrical shapes correctly based on its shapes obtained. However, lower ability students were unable to mention it specifically; (2) On verbal skill, moderate ability students were able to link the relationship among shapes based on the characteristics correctly, despite that the higher ability and lower ability seemed to have difficulty; (3) On drawing skill, higher ability students could construct the shapes based on the relationship among shapes well, but moderate ability and lower ability students continually faced difficulty; (4) On logical skill, both higher ability, and moderate ability students were able to determine the formula of a particular geometrical shape based on the relationship among the elements of the shape well, while the lower ability students were unable to; (5) On applied skill, higher ability, and moderate ability

  6. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of playing mathematics computer games on primary school students' multiplicative reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marjoke; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study used a large-scale cluster randomized longitudinal experiment (N=719; 35schools) to investigate the effects of online mathematics mini-games on primary school students' multiplicative reasoning ability. The experiment included four conditions: playing at school, integrated in a lesson

  8. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  9. Increasing Senior High School Students’ Ability In Speaking English Through Contextual Storytelling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyke Machrita Mamahit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed (1 to increase the ability of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English through contextual storytelling method, (2 to increase the motivation and interest of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English through contextual storytelling method. This research is Classroom Action Research. The population was 325 students and the sample was 30 students. The research data was collected using performance test of cycle 1, 2, 3 and questionnaire. The research results indicated that the use of contextual storytelling method in learning English significantly increased the ability, interest and motivation of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English. The percentage of students who achieved the minimum score increased from 60 % in the first cycle became 70 % in the second cycle, and it increased 90 % in the third cycle. The students’ interest and motivation in speaking English increased from 70 % in first cycle became 80 % in the second cycle and it became 90 % in the third cycle.

  10. The Enhancement of Mathematical Reasoning Ability of Junior High School Students by Applying Mind Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Carolina S.; Kusuma, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi Afgan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical reasoning ability, are component that must be governable by the student. Mathematical reasoning plays an important role, both in solving problems and in conveying ideas when learning mathematics. In fact there ability are not still developed well, even in middle school. The importance of mathematical reasoning ability (KPM are…

  11. Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement among Secondary School Students in Trivandrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning ability is the 'problem solving skills' or 'analytical ability' or 'deductive and inductive reasoning'. Academic achievement is the total score one achieved at school, college, or university from class, laboratory, library, or field work. The objectives of the study were to explore the relationship between reasoning ability and academic…

  12. Pre-service primary school teachers’ abilities in explaining water and air pollution scientifically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmannudin; Sopandi, W.; Sujana, A.; Sukardi, R.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of pre-service primary school teachers (PSPST) in explaining the phenomenon of water and air pollution scientifically. The research method used descriptive method of analysis with qualitative approach. The respondents were PSPTP at 4th semester. This study used a four-tier instrument diagnostic test. The number of subjects was 84 PSPTP at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Kampus Daerah Sumedang. The results demonstrate the ability of PSPST in explaining water and air pollution scientifically. The results show that only 6% of PSPST who are able to explain the phenomenon of water pollution and only 4% of PSPST who are able to explain the phenomenon of air pollution. The fact should be attention for PSPST because these understanding are crucial in the process of learning activities in the classroom.

  13. Validating a test to assess early childhood learners’ ability to perceive, express and appreciate emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Mestre Navas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Education, regardless of the school level, has an important mission in the goal of any educational project: socialising younger generations. However, it is also important to assess implemented programs by means of a valid, reliable measure of the progression of children’s’ cognitive and emotional development. Using a sample of 138 early childhood learners (aged from 3 to 6 this paper tested an instrument for assessing the ability to perceive, appreciate and express emotions (as defined by Mayer & Salovey’s model, 1997; 2007. Also, external criteria were developed by teachers on several issues related to children’s social and personal adaptation (school rules, achievement, impulsiveness, social acceptance of peers and hostility. Findings suggest that children from 3 to 6 years who obtain best scores in the perception and assessment of basic emotions are considered by their teachers to better adjust to school rules, to better control impulses, to achieve better academic performance and to be less problematic. It is also important to note that the study is at its initial stages and presents some limitations, as certain important variables such as personality and verbal ability are not controlled. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that children showed great enthusiasm in taking the test.

  14. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  15. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  16. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  17. Improving Elementary and Middle School Students' Abilities To Manage Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karneboge, Lynn; Smith, Stacia B.; VandeSchraaf, Cary; Wiegardt, Craig G.; Wormer, Gail

    This action research project evaluated the effectiveness of a program to enhance students' social skills with peers. The targeted population was comprised of elementary and junior high school students in an economically diverse, predominantly blue collar community in central Illinois. The problem of inability to problem solve, listen actively,…

  18. The relation between musical abilities and the phonological awareness in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Božič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school period plays a very important role in the language development. One of the significant indicators of this development is the phonological awareness. Some of the previous studies reported the presence of the relation between the phonological awareness and musical abilities. Our main goal was to examine this relation with the Test of the phonological awareness and the Test of musical abilities on 67 Slovene preschool children, aged from 5 to 6. We also wanted to investigate the differences between boys (N = 36 and girls (N = 31 and the differences between two age groups (aged from 5 to 5.5 years, N = 32, and from 5.5 to 6 years, N = 35. The results confirmed the connection between musical abilities and the phonological awareness. They also indicated that the recognition of the first and the last phoneme is related to melodic awareness and that phoneme merging is mainly related to rhythm awareness. No significant differences were found between male and female children or between the groups of the children of different ages.

  19. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students' Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  20. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students’ Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life.Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students’oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  1. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  2. Improving Junior High School Students' Mathematical Analogical Ability Using Discovery Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, Samsul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the influence of discovery learning method towards the mathematical analogical ability of junior high school's students. This is a research using factorial design 2x2 with ANOVA-Two ways. The population of this research included the entire students of SMPN 13 Jakarta (State Junior High School 13 of Jakarta)…

  3. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  4. Youth Citizenship at the End of Primary School: The Role of Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidhof, Bram B. F.; ten Dam, Geert T. M.; Dijkstra, A. B.; van de Werfhorst, H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Schools are expected to fulfil different types of goals, including citizenship development. An important question is to what extent schools can simultaneously promote different learning outcomes. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between language ability and youth citizenship. Using a representative sample of 2429 grade 6 pupils (age…

  5. AN INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRAM OF THE UNIVERSAL SPORTS SCHOOL DUBROVNIK ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES DEVELOPMENT OF SIXTH YEAR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the effects of the diverse kinesiology program on the motor abilities development on a random sample of an unselected population of six-year old boys and girls, i.e. 34 regular attendants of the Universal Sports School Dubrovnik, within the period of 8 months (initial and final state. The variable sample consisted of 8 motor ability evaluation tests. Seriously changes positively established of tests of explosive and repetitive strength, coordination and frequency of movement hand.

  6. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  7. Assessing Auditory Processing Abilities in Typically Developing School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Erin E; Smart, Jennifer L; Boiano, Julie A; Bragg, Lisa E; Colon, Tiffany N; Hanson, Elizabeth M; Emanuel, Diana C; Kelly, Andrea S

    2016-02-01

    Large discrepancies exist in the literature regarding definition, diagnostic criteria, and appropriate assessment for auditory processing disorder (APD). Therefore, a battery of tests with normative data is needed. The purpose of this study is to collect normative data on a variety of tests for APD on children aged 7-12 yr, and to examine effects of outside factors on test performance. Children aged 7-12 yr with normal hearing, speech and language abilities, cognition, and attention were recruited for participation in this normative data collection. One hundred and forty-seven children were recruited using flyers and word of mouth. Of the participants recruited, 137 children qualified for the study. Participants attended schools located in areas that varied in terms of socioeconomic status, and resided in six different states. Audiological testing included a hearing screening (15 dB HL from 250 to 8000 Hz), word recognition testing, tympanometry, ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The language, nonverbal IQ, phonological processing, and attention skills of each participant were screened using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Screener, Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, and Integrated Visual and Auditory-Continuous Performance Test, respectively. The behavioral APD battery included the following tests: Dichotic Digits Test, Frequency Pattern Test, Duration Pattern Test, Random Gap Detection Test, Compressed and Reverberated Words Test, Auditory Figure Ground (signal-to-noise ratio of +8 and +0), and Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test. Mean scores and standard deviations of each test were calculated, and analysis of variance tests were used to determine effects of factors such as gender, handedness, and birth history on each test. Normative data tables for the test battery were created for the following age groups: 7- and 8-yr-olds (n = 49), 9

  8. Academic Reading ability of first-year students: what's high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups were administered a pre-test and post-test of academic reading ability. The dependent variable was academic reading ability and the independent variables were matric grade and prior exposure. Two measures of reading ability were used, namely a reading comprehension and a cloze passage. An analysis of ...

  9. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  10. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  11. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  12. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

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    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS, which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1, that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994. These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  13. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  14. An analysis of primary school students’ representational ability in mathematics based on gender perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowiyah; Mulyawati, I.

    2018-01-01

    Mathematic representation is one of the basic mathematic skills that allows students to communicate their mathematic ideas through visual realities such as pictures, tables, mathematic expressions and mathematic equities. The present research aims at: 1) analysing students’ mathematic representation ability in solving mathematic problems and 2) examining the difference of students’ mathematic ability based on their gender. A total of sixty primary school students participated in this study comprising of thirty males and thirty females. Data required in this study were collected through mathematic representation tests, interviews and test evaluation rubric. Findings of this study showed that students’ mathematic representation of visual realities (image and tables) was reported higher at 62.3% than at in the form of description (or statement) at 8.6%. From gender perspective, male students performed better than the females at action planning stage. The percentage of males was reported at 68% (the highest), 33% (medium) and 21.3% (the lowest) while the females were at 36% (the highest), 37.7% (medium) and 32.6% (the lowest).

  15. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods: In a sample of 196 subjects average age of 12.45 ± 0.03 years, made a comparison of motor abilities. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC "Red Star" from Belgrade and the other 114 primary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of 9 tests of motor abilities were: long jump from the place, running 20 m, 60 m running, bend straddle the gray, endurance in pull-ups, polygon backwards, slalom with three balls, hand tapping and lifting troops. Comparison of motor abilities of young players and pupils of primary schools was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: An analysis of motor abilities between young players and primary school pupils were found statistically significant differences in all tested variables. Discussion: The research has shown that speed, endurance, coordination and muscle strength of the lower leg predominantly responsible for the success of matching the target foot at a distance, which is an integral part of the training process (Smajic and Molnar, 2007. It is also proven that there is a statistically significant correlation between the explosive and repetitive strength as a predictor of outcome-success rate for jumping in the air at youth players (Stankovic, 2011. References: Kuleš, B., Jerkovic, S. Maric, J. (1991. Influence of running different intentiteta to success in football. Kinesiology, 23 (1-2, 60-65. Malacko, J. (2000. Fundamentals of sports training - a quarter-supplemented and

  16. The role of picture of process (pp) on senior high school students’ collision concept learning activities and multirepresentation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarto; Indrawati; Wicaksono, I.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to describe the effect of PP collision concepts to high school students’ learning activities and multirepresentation abilities. This study was a quasi experimental with non- equivalent post-test only control group design. The population of this study were students who will learn the concept of collision in three state Senior High Schools in Indonesia, with a sample of each school 70 students, 35 students as an experimental group and 35 students as a control group. Technique of data collection were observation and test. The data were analized by descriptive and inferensial statistic. Student learning activities were: group discussions, describing vectors of collision events, and formulating problem-related issues of impact. Multirepresentation capabilities were student ability on image representation, verbal, mathematics, and graph. The results showed that the learning activities in the three aspects for the three high school average categorized good. The impact of using PP on students’ ability on image and graph representation were a significant impact, but for verbal and mathematical skills there are differences but not significant.

  17. Pupils' liking for school: ability grouping, self-concept and perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that affective aspects of development provide a basis for autonomous learning. Pupils' liking for school may be a useful indicator of their relationships with teachers and the school. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to establish the properties of a measure of pupils' liking for school and to examine associations between this measure, pupils' experiences in lessons, their self-concepts and the amount of setting implemented in school. A stratified sample of 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools was selected for the research. Schools represented a variety of ability-grouping practices in the lower school (Years 7-9), from completely mixed-ability to setting in all academic subjects. All Year 9 pupils were included in the sample. Pupils completed a questionnaire containing items on their self-concept, liking for school, and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science. Data on pupils' gender, ethnic origin, social disadvantage and attainment was also collected. The properties and correlates of scales indicating pupils' liking for school and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science are established. Liking for school is greater among girls, pupils with higher academic self-concepts, and those with more positive perceptions of teaching. Pupils are more positive about teaching they experience in English than in mathematics or science. When other variables are statistically controlled, there is no significant effect of the extent of ability grouping in the school as a whole. Affective aspects of learning should not be neglected in the drive to raise standards.

  18. Relationship between Reading/Writing Skills and Cognitive Abilities among Japanese Primary-School Children: Normal Readers versus Poor Readers (Dyslexics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N.; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Shinya, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-five Japanese primary-school children aged from 8 (Grade-2) to 12 (Grade-6) were tested for their abilities to read/write in Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji, for their size of vocabulary and for other cognitive abilities including arithmetic, visuo-spatial and phonological processing. Percentages of the children whose…

  19. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty students from the fourth grade of High School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  1. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  2. Narrative and orthographic writing abilities in Elementary School students: characteristics and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigarelli, Juliana Faleiros Paolucci; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-09-01

    To characterize, according to the school grade and the type of school (private or public), the performance on orthographic and narrative text production in the writing of Elementary School students with good academic performance, and to investigate the relationships between these variables. Participants were 160 children with ages between 8 and 12 years, enrolled in 4th to 7th grades Elementary School. Their written production was assessed using words and pseudowords dictation, and autonomous writing of a narrative text. Public school students had a higher number of errors in the words and pseudowords dictation, improving with education level. The occurrence of complete and incomplete utterances was similar in both public and private schools. However, 4th graders presented more incomplete statements than the other students. A higher number of overall microstructure and macrostructure productions occurred among private school students. The essential macrostructures were most frequently found in the later school grades. The higher the total number of words in the autonomous written production, the higher the occurrence of linguistic variables and the better the narrative competence. There was a weak negative correlation between the number of wrong words and the total of events in text production. Positive and negative correlations (from weak to good) were observed between different orthographic, linguistic and narrative production variables in both private and public schools. Private school students present better orthographic and narrative performance than public school students. Schooling progression influences the performance in tasks of words' writing and text production, and the orthographic abilities influence the quality of textual production. Different writing abilities, such as orthographic performance and use of linguistic elements and narrative structures, are mutually influenced in writing production.

  3. The importance of measurement invariance in neurocognitive ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive test batteries such as recent editions of the Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III/WAIS-IV) typically use nation-level population-based norms. The question is whether these batteries function in the same manner across different subgroups based on gender, age,

  4. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Folleto, J?lia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each sessi...

  5. Factors Influencing Secretary’s Communication Ability and Efficiency in Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiprono Lelei Rutto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most secondary school secretaries do management of school offices. The routine work include, arranging meeting schedules for the principal and managing school correspondences within the secondary schools. All this calls for efficiency and effectiveness in performance and to achieve so, one of the fundamental processes for almost all activities is communication. During duty performance, technologies, trainings, and appropriate communication gadgets increase the efficiency of performance of not only secondary schools staff, but achievement of school mission and plans. The objective was to establish factors that affect secondary schools secretarial staff communication ability and efficiency. The study specifically looked at how technology, school structure and channels of communication affect secretarial staff. The target population was 50 respondents and sample size of 30 secondary schools secretaries. The study used stratified random sampling and randomly picked one secretary per school by survey questionnaire. Results showed that secretarial staffs were all female, majority of them (71% were at age between 30-55 years and (77% of them had 6-17 years experience. Training showed that (60% were at least college level though most of them (87% were not trained on communication and over half (57% of them said school needed more communication technological equipment and training for them. Communication challenges were faced by 74% with only 22% using the communication gadgets, and 80% said there were no communication policies in place. On technology, 54% have 1-3 computers in school. It was concluded that there was need to have the necessary skills and equipment for the secretarial staff to perform effectively and efficiently. It was recommended that schools buy communication technology equipment, train secretaries on them, have flexible secondary schools structure to stimulate faster flow of information and develop communication policies to guide the

  6. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....

  7. Improvement of The Ability of Junior High School Students Thinking Through Visual Learning Assisted Geo gbra Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvi, M.; Nurjanah

    2017-02-01

    This research is distributed on the issue of the lack of visual thinking ability is a must-have basic ability of students in learning geometry. The purpose of this research is to investigate and elucide: 1) the enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted with geogebra tutorial learning: 2) the increase in visual thinking ability of students who obtained a model of learning assisted with geogebra and students who obtained a regular study of KAM (high, medium, and low). This research population is grade VII in Bandung Junior High School. The instruments used to collect data in this study consisted of instruments of the test and the observation sheet. The data obtained were analyzed using the test average difference i.e. Test-t and ANOVA Test one line to two lines. The results showed that: 1) the attainment and enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted geogebra tutorial better than students who acquire learning; 2) there may be differences of visual upgrade thinking students who acquire the learning model assisted with geogebra tutorial earn regular learning of KAM (high, medium and low).

  8. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

  10. Approximate number and approximate time discrimination each correlate with school math abilities in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. Copyright

  11. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  12. The Relationship Between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Motamedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage and the Newton and Bristol spatial ability questionnaire with reliability value of .85. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and spatial ability (r = .59 and p = 00.00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and the spatial perceived ability (r = .60 and p = .00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and mental rotation ability (r = .48 and p = .00 and there was a meaningful relationship between computer game use and spatial visualization ability (r = .48 and p = .00. In general, the findings showed there was a positive and a significant relationship between the use of computer games and spatial abilities in students.

  13. Ability, Parental Valuation of Education and the High School Dropout Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David

    of the factor model set out in Carneiro, Hansen, and Heckman (2003). Specically, we consider the impact of cognitive and non-cognitive ability and the value that parents place on education. Our results support three main conclusions. First, cognitive ability at age 15 has a substantial impact on dropping out....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education......We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...

  14. Developing geogebra-assisted reciprocal teaching strategy to improve junior high school students’ abstraction ability, lateral thinking and mathematical persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatna, N.; Martadiputra, B. A. P.; Wibisono, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The development of science and technology requires reform in the utilization of various resources for mathematics teaching and learning process. One of the efforts that can be made is the implementation of GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in mathematics instruction as an effective strategy in improving students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities. This research is intended to implement GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in improving abstraction ability, lateral thinking, and mathematical persistence of junior high school students. It employed quasi-experimental method with non-random pre-test and post-test control design. More specifically, it used the 2x3 factorial design, namely the learning factors that included GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching and conventional teaching learning, and levels of early mathematical ability (high, middle, and low). The subjects in this research were the eighth grade students of junior high school, taken with purposive sampling. The results of this research show: Abstraction and lateral abilities of students who were taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy were significantly higher than those of students who received conventional learning. Mathematical persistence of students taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy was also significantly higher than of those taught with conventional learning.

  15. The Impact of Active Visualisation of High School Students on the Ability to Memorise Verbal Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajdek, Anamarija; Selan, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    The era of visual communication influences the cognitive strategies of the individual. Education, too, must adjust to these changes, which raises questions regarding the use of visualisation in teaching. In the present study, we examine the impact of visualisation on the ability of high school students to memorise text. In the theoretical part of…

  16. Profile of Secondary School Students with High Mathematics Ability in Solving Shape and Space Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…

  17. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  18. Differential ability and attainment in language and arithmetic of Dutch primary school pupils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. In pre-school and primary education pupils differ in many abilities and competences (‘giftedness’). Yet mainstream educational practice seems rather homogeneous in providing age-based or grade-class subject matter approaches. Aims. To clarify whether pupils scoring initially at high

  19. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  20. Development of an Instrument to Evaluate High School Students' Chemical Symbol Representation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Luo, Ma; Yang, Yuqin; Huang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Chemical symbol representation is a medium for transformations between the actual phenomena of the macroscopic world and those of the sub-microscopic world. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument to evaluate high school students' chemical symbol representation abilities (CSRA). Based on the current literature, we defined CSRA and…

  1. The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeini SM

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 subjects, and a low-calorie control group (117 subjects, and then given 3 cognitive functions tests. The test were repeated after 4 months. The data were collected by questionnaires and included family socio-economic conditions, nutritional status and dietary habit of the children. Also, the grades of the major courses and scores of cognitive tests were collected, and the effects of treatment on the mean grades and scores differences were determined by T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Our findings are presented as follow: The experimental and control groups were similar in the initial assessment. 7.1% of the students were stunted based on height-for-age classification (NCHS. The intervention led to an increase in tests scores, but the increase was only significant in the case of the short-term memory test (P<0.03. The findings of the study showed that the intervention was effective on short-term memory and since short-term memory function in memorization process and retrieval of subjects form long-term memory and congenitive functions, we can conclude that the food intervention with an energy lower than 10% of recommended dietary needs increases learning ability level of the subjects. Stunting and the habit of eating breakfast were related to educational performance of students. Therefore implementation of such programs in the community, such as food intervention and nutritional education may be effective.

  2. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  3. Neurophysiology in preschool improves behavioral prediction of reading ability throughout primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Urs; Bucher, Kerstin; Brem, Silvia; Benz, Rosmarie; Kranz, Felicitas; Schulz, Enrico; van der Mark, Sanne; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel

    2009-08-15

    More struggling readers could profit from additional help at the beginning of reading acquisition if dyslexia prediction were more successful. Currently, prediction is based only on behavioral assessment of early phonological processing deficits associated with dyslexia, but it might be improved by adding brain-based measures. In a 5-year longitudinal study of children with (n = 21) and without (n = 23) familial risk for dyslexia, we tested whether neurophysiological measures of automatic phoneme and tone deviance processing obtained in kindergarten would improve prediction of reading over behavioral measures alone. Together, neurophysiological and behavioral measures obtained in kindergarten significantly predicted reading in school. Particularly the late mismatch negativity measure that indicated hemispheric lateralization of automatic phoneme processing improved prediction of reading ability over behavioral measures. It was also the only significant predictor for long-term reading success in fifth grade. Importantly, this result also held for the subgroup of children at familial risk. The results demonstrate that brain-based measures of processing deficits associated with dyslexia improve prediction of reading and thus may be further evaluated to complement clinical practice of dyslexia prediction, especially in targeted populations, such as children with a familial risk.

  4. The influence of mathematics learning using SAVI approach on junior high school students’ mathematical modelling ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusna, H.; Heryaningsih, N. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine mathematical modeling ability who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach. This research was a quasi-experimental research with non-equivalent control group designed by using purposive sampling technique. The population of this research was the state junior high school students in Lembang while the sample consisted of two class at 8th grade. The instrument used in this research was mathematical modeling ability. Data analysis of this research was conducted by using SPSS 20 by Windows. The result showed that students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach was better than students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics using conventional learning.

  5. Test Reviews: Ginsburg, H., & Baroody, A. (2003). "Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition." Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    The Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition (TEMA-3) is a norm-referenced parallel forms test intended to identify the level of mathematical ability for children aged 3 years 0 months through 8 years 11 months. According to the authors, the instrument can also be used as a criterion referenced or diagnostic tool for older students who are…

  6. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  7. Ability, Schooling Choices and Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the gender differences in the Chilean labor market. We formally deal with the selection of the individuals into schooling levels and its consequences on the gender gaps. Our approach allows for the presence of not only heterogeneity in observable variables but also unobserved heterogeneity. We link this unobserved heterogeneity to unobserved scholastic ability. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set for Chile. This data set contains...

  8. Mathematical (Dis)abilities Within the Opportunity-Propensity Model: The Choice of Math Test Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Elke; Desoete, Annemie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in mathematics learning by combining antecedent (A), opportunity (O), and propensity (P) indicators within the Opportunity-Propensity Model. Although there is already some evidence for this model based on secondary datasets, there currently is no primary data available that simultaneously takes into account A, O, and P factors in children with and without Mathematical Learning Disabilities (MLD). Therefore, the mathematical abilities of 114 school-aged children (grade 3 till 6) with and without MLD were analyzed and combined with information retrieved from standardized tests and questionnaires. Results indicated significant differences in personality, motivation, temperament, subjective well-being, self-esteem, self-perceived competence, and parental aspirations when comparing children with and without MLD. In addition, A, O, and P factors were found to underlie mathematical abilities and disabilities. For the A factors, parental aspirations explained about half of the variance in fact retrieval speed in children without MLD, and SES was especially involved in the prediction of procedural accuracy in general. Teachers' experience contributed as O factor and explained about 6% of the variance in mathematical abilities. P indicators explained between 52 and 69% of the variance, with especially intelligence as overall significant predictor. Indirect effects pointed towards the interrelatedness of the predictors and the value of including A, O, and P indicators in a comprehensive model. The role parental aspirations played in fact retrieval speed was partially mediated through the self-perceived competence of the children, whereas the effect of SES on procedural accuracy was partially mediated through intelligence in children of both groups and through working memory capacity in children with MLD. Moreover, in line with the componential structure of mathematics, our findings were dependent on the math task used. Different A, O

  9. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  10. Effects of socioscientific issues-based instruction on argumentation ability and biology concepts of upper secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faelt, Surasak; Samiphak, Sara; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2018-01-01

    Argumentation skill is an essential skill needed in students, and one of the competencies in scientific literacy. Through arguing on socioscientific issues, students may gain deeper conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of a socioscientific issues-based instruction compared with an inquirybased instruction. This is to determine which one is better in promoting 10th grade students' argumentation ability and biology concepts of digestive system and cellular respiration. The forty 10th grade students included in this study were from two mathematics-science program classes in a medium-sized secondary school located in a suburb of Buriram province, Thailand. The research utilizes a quasi-experimental design; pre-test post-test control group design. We developed and implemented 4 lesson plans for both socioscientific issues-based instruction and inquiry-based instruction. Ten weeks were used to collect the data. A paper-based questionnaire and informal interviews were designed to test students' argumentation ability, and the two-tier multiple-choice test was designed to test their biology concepts. This research explore qualitatively and quantitatively students' argumentation abilities and biology concepts, using arithmetic mean, mean of percentage, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that there is no significant difference between the two group regarding mean scores of the argumentation ability. However, there is significant difference between the two groups regarding mean scores of the biology concepts. This suggests that socioscientific issues-based instruction could be used to improve students' biology concepts.

  11. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available School curriculums in physical education are conceptualised that students are expected to overcome many motoric assignments and vast area of disciplines (athletics, gymnastics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, ethnic dances, etc. Drawbacks of this kind of curriculum are: students superficially adopt only basic elements of motions; there is no automatization and complete control of motoric motions. Teaching practice is mainly focused on development of technical elements in contrast to development of motoric and functional abilities of students. Physical education efficiency can be improved by realistic, expertly and economical planning and monitoring of the effects of the teaching, as well as by increase in weekly number of classes. Sports games are, among others, by nature of comprising motions, important factors and tools in teaching of physical education of students. It seems that all of this has been considered when school reform has been done in Montenegro. By this very kind of work the effects of the increment in weekly class number are meant to be checked out. Our sample consisted of 73 8th grade boys, 42 in experimental group involved in additional basketball programme, and 31 boys in control group without additional classes of physical education. Level of motoric abilities has been followed by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group had shown improved levels of abilities in each test at final measurement, except at the test of vertical aiming – darts. However, keep in mind that boys in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds test and hand and foot tapping test, by using ANOVA we compared measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are

  12. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  13. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  14. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  15. Visualisation Ability of Senior High School Students with Using GeoGebra and Transparent Mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thohirudin, M; Maryati, TK; Dwirahayu, G

    2017-01-01

    Visualisation ability is an ability to process, inform, and transform object which suitable for geometry topic in math. This research aims to describe the influence of using software GeoGebra and transparent mica for student’s visualisation ability. GeoGebra is shortness of geometry and algebra. GeoGebra is an open source program that is created for math. Transparent mica is a tool that is created by the author to transform a geometry object. This research is a quantitative experiment model. The subject of this research were students in grade XII of science program in Annajah Senior High School Rumpin with two classes which one as an experiment class (science one) and another one as a control class (science two). Experiment class use GeoGebra and transparent mica in the study, and control class use powerpoint in the study. Data of student’s visualisation ability is collected from posttest with visual questions which are gifted at the end of the research to both classes with topic “transformation geometry”. This research resulted that studying with GeoGebra and transparent mica had a better influence than studying with powerpoint to student’s visualisation ability. The time of study in class and the habit of the students to use software and tool affected the result of research. Although, GeoGebra and transparent mica can give help to students in transformation geometry topic. (paper)

  16. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  17. Test Performance and Social Comparison Choices of High School Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Gail Anna; Cherry, Frances

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that high school girls would perform better if they anticipated test results to be private, and that boys would perform better under conditions of anticipated public feedback. Found the hypothesis to be supported for girls in average ability classes; girls in advanced ability classes performed better with public feedback. (Author/GC)

  18. The Elementary School Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Based on Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, R. D.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the third grade of elementary school students’ mathematical problem in solving skills based on their reading abilities. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research was conducted at elementary school Kebraon II Surabaya in second semester of 2016-2017 academic years. The participants of this research consist of third grade students with different reading abilities that are independent level, instructional level and frustration level. The participants of this research were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data of this study were collected using reading the narration texts, the Ekwall and Shanker Informal Reading Inventory, problem solving task and interview guidelines. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading abilities, student with independent level and instructional level can solve the problem and students with frustration level can’t solve the problem because they can’t interpret the problem well.

  19. The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Naeini SM; Jazayeri SA; Moghaddam Banaem N; Afrooz Gh.A; Behboodi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 sub...

  20. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  1. Improving the Reasoning Ability of Elementary School Student through the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By taking the role as a mentor and a facilitator, a teacher in the 4th grade of elementary school needs to look at the condition of the students in the concrete thinking stage. Learning process needs to be adjusted such that the abstract objects in mathematics can be represented through concrete objects as a bridge to enter the knowledge that the students already had, especially for the material of fraction. This research aims to analyze the achievement and the improvement of students’ mathematics reasoning ability through the implementation of Indonesian realistic mathematics education (PMRI approach. The research subject consisted of 51 students in the experiment group and 45 students in the control group which categorized into three levels (low, intermediate, and high. The result suggests that the achievement and the improvement of students’ reasoning ability in the mathematics learning using PMRI approach are better than the conventional learning.

  2. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashgahi, Bahareh Molazem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening) has any impact on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch. The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional…

  3. The challenge of cross-cultural assessment--The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of 'non-biased' assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical backdrop. In addition, specific principles relating to test translation; test content; culturally appropriate stimulus material; scoring procedures and test administration were applied. Five categories of abstract thinking skills formed the basis of the TATE-ZC. These were: (a) Explaining Inferences, (b) Determining Cause, (c) Negative Why Questions, (d) Determining Solutions and (e) Avoiding Problem. The process of test development underwent three pilot studies. Results indicate that the TATE-ZC is a reliable and valid test for the target population. A critical analysis of the efficacy of creating a test of verbal reasoning for children from the developing world concludes the article. As a result of this activity (1) the participant will have a clearer understanding of the principles that need to be followed when developing culturally appropriate test material; (2) the participant will understand the process of developing culturally appropriate test material for non-mainstream cultures; (3) the participant will be able to apply the process and principles to other cross-cultural testing situations.

  4. Influence of schooling on language abilities of adults without linguistic disorders

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    Ellen Cristina Siqueira Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In order to properly assess language, sociodemographic variables that can influence the linguistic performance of individuals with or without linguistic disorders need to be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of schooling and age on the results from the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 language assessment test among individuals without linguistic disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out between March 2006 and August 2007 in the Speech, Language and Hearing Pathology Department of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Eighty volunteers were selected. Schooling was stratified into three bands: A (1-4 years, B (5-8 years and C (nine years and over. The age range was from 17 to 80 years. All the subjects underwent the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 language assessment protocol. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in relation to schooling levels, in the tasks of oral comprehension, reading, graphical comprehension, naming, lexical availability, dictation, graphical naming of actions and number reading. Statistically significant age-related differences in dictation and lexical availability tasks were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86 test seems to be sensitive to variations in schooling and age. These variables should be taken into account when this test is used for assessing patients with brain damage.

  5. Influence of schooling on language abilities of adults without linguistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ellen Cristina Siqueira; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2009-01-01

    In order to properly assess language, sociodemographic variables that can influence the linguistic performance of individuals with or without linguistic disorders need to be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of schooling and age on the results from the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) language assessment test among individuals without linguistic disorders. Cross-sectional study carried out between March 2006 and August 2007 in the Speech, Language and Hearing Pathology Department of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty volunteers were selected. Schooling was stratified into three bands: A (1-4 years), B (5-8 years) and C (nine years and over). The age range was from 17 to 80 years. All the subjects underwent the Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) language assessment protocol. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to schooling levels, in the tasks of oral comprehension, reading, graphical comprehension, naming, lexical availability, dictation, graphical naming of actions and number reading. Statistically significant age-related differences in dictation and lexical availability tasks were observed. The Montreal Toulouse (Modified MT Beta-86) test seems to be sensitive to variations in schooling and age. These variables should be taken into account when this test is used for assessing patients with brain damage.

  6. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  7. Design and Development Computer-Based E-Learning Teaching Material for Improving Mathematical Understanding Ability and Spatial Sense of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.; Wibisono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to make a design and development computer-based e-learning teaching material for improving mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students. Furthermore, the particular aims are (1) getting teaching material design, evaluation model, and intrument to measure mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (2) conducting trials computer-based e-learning teaching material model, asessment, and instrument to develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (3) completing teaching material models of computer-based e-learning, assessment, and develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (4) resulting research product is teaching materials of computer-based e-learning. Furthermore, the product is an interactive learning disc. The research method is used of this study is developmental research which is conducted by thought experiment and instruction experiment. The result showed that teaching materials could be used very well. This is based on the validation of computer-based e-learning teaching materials, which is validated by 5 multimedia experts. The judgement result of face and content validity of 5 validator shows that the same judgement result to the face and content validity of each item test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense. The reliability test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense are 0,929 and 0,939. This reliability test is very high. While the validity of both tests have a high and very high criteria.

  8. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of students' genetics problem-solving ability. Focus group interviews substantiated and supported findings from the quantitative instruments. The study was conducted in 17 high schools in Western Province, Kenya. A total of 2,138 high school students were purposively sampled. A sub-sample of 48 students participated in focus group interviews to understand their perspectives and experiences during the study so as to corroborate the quantitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA,, and sequential hierarchical multiple regressions. Qualitative data were transcribed, coded, and reported thematically. Results revealed metacognitive prompts had significant positive effects on student problem-solving ability independent of gender. Self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting significantly predicted genetics problem-solving ability. Gender differences were revealed, with girls outperforming boys on the genetics problem-solving test. Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relationship between metacognitive prompting and genetics problem-solving ability. This study established a foundation for instructional methods for biology teachers and recommendations are made for implementing metacognitive prompting in a problem-based learning environment in high schools and science teacher education programs in Kenya.

  9. Quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometrics characteristics of boys and girls from fourth grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buišić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometric characteristics by gender, we were testing 123 students of the primary school (fourth grade, 10,5 years old. Testing was applied technique of research. Two basic anthropometric measures and 14 motor tests were selected for measuring instruments. Using canonical discriminant analysis leads to results which indicate the presence of statistically significant quantitative differences in motor abilities of boys and girls but not in the anthropometric chararacteristics. Boys were in almost all motor variables statistically significantly better, except in variables for evaluation of flexibility which is more expressed by girls, but in the anthropometric characteristics there is no statistically significant differences relating to gender. Based on research results it is deduced that we need to differentiate primary students of the fourth grade by gender, because of the different levels of motor skills. Fourth grade students do not only need different approach to the work, they also need more frequent physical activity which is indispensable for development and growth.

  10. Predicting functional communication ability in children with cerebral palsy at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn

    2015-03-01

    To explore the value of demographic, environmental, and early clinical characteristics in predicting functional communication in children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school entry. Data are from an Australian prospective longitudinal study of children with CP. Children assessed at 18 to 24 and 48 to 60 months corrected age were included in the study. Functional communication was classified at 48 to 60 months using the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS). Predictive variables included communication skills at 18 to 24 months, evaluated using the Communication and Symbolic Behavioural Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Early Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type and distribution were evaluated by two physiotherapists. Demographic and comorbid variables were obtained through parent interview with a paediatrician or rehabilitation specialist. A total of 114 children (76 males, 38 females) were included in the study. At 18 to 24 months the mean CSBS-DP was 84.9 (SD 19.0). The CFCS distribution at 48 to 60 months was I=36(32%), II=25(22%), III=20(18%), IV=19(17%), and V=14(12%). In multivariable regression analysis, only CSBS-DP (pcommunication at school entry. Body structure and function and not environmental factors impact functional communication at school entry in children with CP. This provides valuable guidance for early screening, parent education, and future planning of intervention programs to improve functional communication. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  12. The Dinosaur in the Classroom: What We Stand to Lose through Ability-Grouping in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Embedding setting (subject-based ability-grouping) into the primary school environment creates structural conflict--physically and culturally--fundamentally changing the nature of primary schools through the imposition of secondary practices and cultures and the loss of pastoral care. This article examines the hidden implications for teachers and…

  13. The effectiveness of web-programming module based on scientific approach to train logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiroh, Putri Khoirin; Kamdi, Waras; Elmunsyah, Hakkun

    2017-09-01

    Web programming is a basic subject in Computer and Informatics Engineering, a program study in a vocational high school. It requires logical thinking ability in its learning activities. The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a web programming module that implement scientific approach that can improve logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school; and (2) to test the effectiveness of web programming module based on scientific approach to train students' logical thinking ability. The results of this research was a web-programming module that apply scientific approach for learning activities to improve logical thinking ability of students in the vocational high school. The results of the effectiveness test of web-programming module give conclusion that it was very effective to train logical thinking ability and to improve learning result, this conclusion was supported by: (1) the average of posttest result of students exceeds the minimum criterion value, it was 79.91; (2) the average percentage of students' logical thinking score is 82,98; and (3) the average percentage of students' responses to the web programming module was 81.86%.

  14. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE TESTING SYSTEM (WATS FOR CLASSIFYING STUDENTS ACADEMIC ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemu LEE,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  15. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University’s CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “r” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p=0.011, r=0.253, visual memory (p=0.034, r=0.205, and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p=0.004, r=-0.271. Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p=0.036, r=0.201. Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times.

  16. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  17. Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed: Association with Math Achievement and Math Difficulties in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 (N = 229), we…

  18. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  19. The academic penalty for gaining weight: a longitudinal, change-in-change analysis of BMI and perceived academic ability in middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, E L; Gortmaker, S L; Davison, K K; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-09-01

    Worse educational outcomes for obese children regardless of academic ability may begin early in the life course. This study tested whether an increase in children's relative weight predicted lower teacher- and child-perceived academic ability even after adjusting for standardized test scores. Three thousand three hundred and sixty-two children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort were studied longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Heights, weights, standardized test scores in maths and reading, and teacher and self-ratings of ability in maths and reading were measured at each wave. Longitudinal, within-child linear regression models estimated the impact of a change in body mass index (BMI) z-score on change in normalized teacher and student ratings of ability in reading and maths, adjusting for test score. A change in BMI z-score from fifth to eighth grade was not independently associated with a change in standardized test scores. However, adjusting for standardized test scores, an increasing BMI z-score was associated with significant reductions in teacher's perceptions of girls' ability in reading (-0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.23, -0.03, P=0.03) and boys' ability in math (-0.30, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.17, Pmaths ability (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.83, -0.11, P=0.01). From fifth to eighth grade, increase in BMI z-score was significantly associated with worsening teacher perceptions of academic ability for both boys and girls, regardless of objectively measured ability (standardized test scores). Future research should examine potential interventions to reduce bias and promote positive school climate.

  20. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  1. The students' ability in the mathematical literacy for uncertainty problems on the PISA adaptation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Anggoro, Ant. Yudhi

    2017-08-01

    One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students' solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for uncertainty problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 66.67% of students reached level 3. For the second uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 44.44% of students achieved level 4, and 33.33% of students reached level 3. For the third uncertainty problem in the adapting test n, 38.89% of students achieved level 5, 11.11% of students reached level 4, and 5.56% of students achieved level 3. For the part a of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 72.22% of students reached level 4 and for the part b of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 83.33% students achieved level 4.

  2. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  3. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  4. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  5. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  6. Enhancement of problem solving ability of high school students through learning with real engagement in active problem solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulindar, A.; Setiawan, A.; Liliawati, W.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to influence the enhancement of problem solving ability before and after learning using Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer. The research method used is quantitative method with 35 high school students in Pontianak as sample. The result of problem solving ability of students is obtained through the test in the form of 3 description questions. The instrument has tested the validity by the expert judgment and field testing that obtained the validity value of 0.84. Based on data analysis, the value of N-Gain is 0.43 and the enhancement of students’ problem solving ability is in medium category. This was caused of students who are less accurate in calculating the results of answers and they also have limited time in doing the questions given.

  7. Imitated prosodic fluency predicts reading comprehension ability in good and poor high school readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Breen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers’ silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs, who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker’s production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  8. School Choice or the Politics of Desperation? Black and Latinx Parents of Students with Dis/Abilities Selecting Charter Schools in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Super, Gia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the city of Chicago to examine how Black and Latinx parents of students with dis/abilities1 engage with school choice. Using analytical tools from grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and a theoretical lens informed by critical notions of space, race and dis/ability, we analyze interviews with parents of students…

  9. The test ability of an adaptive pulse wave for ADC testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Xiaoqin; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    In the conventional ADC production test method, a high-quality analogue sine wave is applied to the Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC), which is expensive to generate. Nowadays, an increasing number of ADCs are integrated into a system-on-chip (SoC) platform design, which usually contains a digital

  10. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  11. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1995-01-01

    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional

  12. The Impact of Active Visualisation of High School Students on the Ability to Memorise Verbal Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Šmajdek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The era of visual communication influences the cognitive strategies of the individual. Education, too, must adjust to these changes, which raises questions regarding the use of visualisation in teaching. In the present study, we examine the impact of visualisation on the ability of high school students to memorise text. In the theoretical part of the research, we first clarify the concept of visualisation. We define the concept of active visualisation and visualisation as a means of acquiring and conveying knowledge, and we describe the different kinds of visualisation (appearance-based analogies and form-based analogies, specifically defining appearance-based schemata visualisations (where imagery is articulated in a typical culturally trained manner. In the empirical part of the research, we perform an experiment in which we evaluate the effects of visualisation on students’ ability to memorise a difficult written definition. According to the theoretical findings, we establish two hypotheses. In the first, we assume that the majority of the visualisations that students form will be appearance-based schemata visualisations. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that, in visualisation, people spontaneously use analogies based on imagery and schemas that are typical of their society. In the second hypothesis, we assume that active visualisation will contribute to the students’ ability to memorise text in a statistically significant way. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that the combination of verbal and visual experiences enhances cognitive learning. Both hypotheses were confirmed in the research. As our study only dealt with the impact of the most spontaneous type of appearance based schemata visualisations, we see further possibilities in researching the influence of visualisations that are more complex formally.

  13. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS ATTENDING A FOOTBALL SCHOOL AND THOS WHO DO NOT DO SPORT WITH SPECIFIC-MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.

  15. Improving of Junior High School Visual Thinking Representation Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving by CTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Surya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The students’  difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal  mathematical understanding, and  mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was the experimental classroom design with a pretest-posttest control in order to increase the representation of visual thinking ability on mathematical problem solving approach  with  contextual learning. The research instrument was a test, observation and interviews. Contextual approach increases of mathematical representations ability increases in students with high initial category, medium, and low compared to conventional approaches. Keywords: Visual Thinking Representation, Mathematical  Problem Solving, Contextual Teaching Learning Approach DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.568.113-126

  16. Promoting middle school students’ mathematical creative thinking ability using scientific approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, A.; Perbowo, K. S.; Purwanto, S. E.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to identify the strength of scientific approach in order to develop mathematical creative thinking in junior high school. Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research. 34 students in 7th grade are chosen using purposive sampling. For collecting data, this research uses test, observation, and interview. The test consists of 6 items which have been tested for their validity and reliability and used in pre-test and post-test. The pre-test shows that students average score in mathematical creative thinking is 43 (low), while in post-test it is 69 (middle). The N-gain in mathematical creative thinking point is 0.461, which is classified in the middle grade. Furthermore, the N-gain for each indicator, they score 0.438 for fluency; 0.568 for flexibility; and 0.382 for novelty. The N-gain for those indicators falls under middle grade. The research shows that scientific approach develops more flexibility, and, on the other hand, it develops less novelty.

  17. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  18. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist

  19. ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATIC REPRESENTATION ABILITY OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDED INQUIRY LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiati Yumiati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analysing the different on upgrade the student’s math representation that obtained the guided inquiry learning and conventional learning. This research conducted by applying experiment method with nonequivalent control group design at one school. Which becoming research subject are students of Dharma Karya UT Middle School at 8th Grade. 8-2 class selected as control class (19 students and 8-3 class selected as experiment class (20 students. Before and after learning process, two classes given the test of math representation with reliability is 0.70 (high category. The magnitude of the increasing in students’ math representation student group of guided inquiry learning group is 0.41 included as medium category. Meanwhile, the increasing students’ math representation student group of conventional learning is 0.26 included as low category. In conclusion, the hypothesis of the ability of the mathematical representation of students who learning with guided inquiry is better than students with conventional learning is accepted.

  20. A Dynamic Speech Comprehension Test for Assessing Real-World Listening Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.

  1. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  2. Development of a psychological test to diagnose abilities required for successful learning medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Gessmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We substantiate the necessity of psychological tools aimed at diagnostics of the capabilities for successful learning in medical university, and show the progress of its development. The questionnaire is developed based on the U.S. and European success tests, and its design meets the famous “test for medical professions” (TMS. “Kostroma test for medical professions” (KTMP is not a translation or adaptation of TMS to Russian conditions. It will be re-designed with new test items based on the principles of classical test construction. Creating scientifically based methods of psychological diagnosis of general cognitive ability is a prerequisite for the successful solution of a wide range of research and practical issues related to improving the effectiveness of education and training programs.

  3. Beta-Test Data On An Assessment Of Textbook Problem Solving Ability: An Argument For Right/Wrong Grading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen; Marx, Jeffrey D.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an assessment of students' ability to solve standard textbook style problems and are currently engaged in the validation and revision process. The assessment covers the topics of force and motion, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy at a level consistent with most calculus-based, introductory physics courses. This tool is discussed in more detail in an accompanying paper by Marx and Cummings. [1] Here we present preliminary beta-test data collected at four schools during the 2009/2010 academic year. Data include both pre- and post-instruction results for introductory physics courses as well as results for physics majors in later years. In addition, we present evidence that right/wrong grading may well be a perfectly acceptable grading procedure for a course-level assessment of this type.

  4. Breast is best, but for how long? Testing breastfeeding guidelines for optimal cognitive ability

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Orla; Timmins, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development using longitudinal survey data. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months post-partum and a combination of complementary foods and breast milk thereafter. This study estimates non-parametric regression models to test whether these recommendations also hold for cognitive ability. Design. Longitudinal cohor...

  5. Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed: Association With Math Achievement and Math Difficulties in Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 ( N = 229), we investigated second to fourth graders and in Study 2 ( N = 120), third and fourth graders. Analyses revealed significant contributions of numerosity processing speed and visuospatial skills to math achievement beyond IQ. Conservation abilities were predictive in Study 1 only. Children with math difficulties showed lower visuospatial skills and conservation abilities than children with typical achievement levels and children with reading and/or spelling difficulties, whereas children with combined difficulties explicitly showed low conservation abilities. These findings provide further evidence for the relations between children's math skills and their visuospatial skills, conservation abilities, and processing speed and contribute to the understanding of deficits that are specific to mathematical difficulties.

  6. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  8. Effect of prematurity and low birth weight in visual abilities and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Roche, T; Altemir, I; Giménez, G; Prieto, E; González, I; Peña-Segura, J L; Castillo, O; Pueyo, V

    2016-12-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight are known risk factors for cognitive and developmental impairments, and school failure. Visual perceptual and visual motor skills seem to be among the most affected cognitive domains in these children. To assess the influence of prematurity and low birth weight in visual cognitive skills and school performance. We performed a prospective cohort study, which included 80 boys and girls in an age range from 5 to 13. Subjects were grouped by gestational age at birth (preterm, birth weight (small for gestational age (SGA), school performance in children. Figure-ground skill and visual motor integration were significantly decreased in the preterm birth group, compared with term control subjects (figure-ground: 45.7 vs 66.5, p=0.012; visual motor integration, TVAS: (9.9 vs 11.8, p=0.018), while outcomes of visual memory (29.0 vs 47.7, p=0.012), form constancy (33.3 vs 52.8, p=0.019), figure-ground (37.4 vs 65.6, p=0.001), and visual closure (43.7 vs 62.6 p=0.016) testing were lower in the SGA (vs AGA) group. Visual cognitive difficulties corresponded with worse performance in mathematics (r=0.414, p=0.004) and reading (r=0.343, p=0.018). Specific patterns of visual perceptual and visual motor deficits are displayed by children born preterm or SGA, which hinder mathematics and reading performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students’ Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student’s ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. Aim To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson’s coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. Results One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST’s subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in

  10. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students' Critical Thinking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran Soltani; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST's subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in the assessment of critical thinking abilities of medical

  11. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research.

  12. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  13. [Developmental changes in reading ability of Japanese elementary school children--analysis of 4 kana reading tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kaga, Makiko; Goto, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide; Wakamiya, Eiji; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) were tested for their abilities to read Hiragana characters, words, and short sentences. They were typically developing children whom the classroom teachers judged to have no problems with reading and writing in Japanese. Each child was asked to read four tasks which were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task, four syllable non-word reading task, four syllable word reading task, and short sentence reading task. The total articulation time for reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 4th grade for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks, while it did so for the single mora and four syllable non-word reading tasks in the 5th grade. The articulation times for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks correlated strongly. There were very few clear errors for all tasks, and the number of such errors significantly changed between the school grades only for the single mora and four syllable word reading tasks. It was noted that more than half of the children read the beginning portion of the word or phrase twice or more, in order to read it accurately, and developmental changes were also seen in this pattern of reading. This study revealed that the combination of these reading tasks may function as a screening test for reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia in children below the age of ten or eleven years old.

  14. Clinical implications of using the arm motor ability test in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Finnen, Lisa Rivera; Polistena, Caitlin

    2011-05-01

    To identify all published studies using the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT), a standardized, laboratory-based measure for selected upper extremity activities of daily living (ADLs); and to summarize its current uses and provide recommendations for its future use. An Ovid online search was performed using the terms "Arm Motor Ability Test" and "AMAT." The reference lists of all articles obtained were reviewed for additional studies not appearing in the literature search. In addition, the original manual for the use and administration of the AMAT was reviewed. All studies examining the psychometric properties of the AMAT or using the AMAT as an outcome measure were identified. Articles simply mentioning the AMAT without providing data and case reports or abstracts (other than those addressing a specific aspect of the scale of interest) were excluded. Studies were reviewed by the primary author. No formal system of quality review was used. The AMAT has been used as an outcome measure in stroke rehabilitation research examining upper extremity robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and cortical stimulation. The most recent version contains 10 ADL tasks, each of which is composed of 1 to 3 subtasks. Of the 3 domains originally proposed, only the "functional ability" domain is routinely assessed. Psychometric studies have demonstrated good reliability and at least reasonable construct validity. The instrument's sensitivity to change over time is less well established, and no recommendation can be made regarding a minimal clinically important difference. We recommend that the 10-item version of the AMAT and assessment of only the functional ability domain be adopted as standard going forward. Further research should include examination of sensitivity over time, minimal clinically important change, reliability and validity in the mid and lower range of scores, and in neurologic diagnoses other than stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  15. What Specific Science Abilities and Skills Are Romanian Students Developing during Primary Education? A Comparison with the Abilities Tested by the TIMSS 2011 Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciascai, Liliana; Dulama, Maria-Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The results of Romanian students at international comparative TIMSS and PISA tests have constantly proven to be unsatisfactory. The present paper aims at analyzing the school syllabi "Mathematics and Environment exploration", "Environmental Education" and "Natural Sciences" studied during primary education in Romania…

  16. The ability of 'non-cognitive' traits to predict undergraduate performance in medical schools: a national linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Mwandigha, Lazaro; Paton, Lewis W; Tiffin, Paul A

    2018-05-03

    In addition to the evaluation of educational attainment and intellectual ability there has been interest in the potential to select medical school applicants on non-academic qualities. Consequently, a battery of self-report measures concerned with assessing 'non-cognitive' traits was piloted as part of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) administration to evaluate their potential to be used in selection. The four non-cognitive instruments piloted were: 1) the Libertarian-communitarian scale, (2) The NACE (narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) the MEARS (Managing emotions and resilience scale; self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness and faking, and (4) an abridged version of instruments (1) and (2) combined. Non-cognitive scores and sociodemographic characteristics were available for 14,387 applicants. A series of univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted in order to assess the ability of the non-cognitive scores to predict knowledge and skills-based performance, as well as the odds of passing each academic year at first attempt. Non-cognitive scores and medical performance were standardised within cohorts. The scores on the non-cognitive scales showed only very small (magnitude of standardised betas< 0.2), though sometimes statistically significant (p < 0.01) univariable associations with subsequent performance on knowledge or skills-based assessments. The only statistically significant association between the non-cognitive scores and the probability of passing an academic year at first attempt was the narcissism score from one the abridged tests (OR 0.84,95% confidence intervals 0.71 to 0.97, p = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with previously published research. The tests had a very limited ability to predict undergraduate academic performance, though further research on identifying narcissism in medical students may be warranted. However, the validity of such self-report tools in high

  17. Use of Income as a Measure of Local Fiscal Ability in the State School Aid Formula. Occasional Paper #10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samter, Eugene C.

    It is often suggested that measuring local fiscal ability by full valuation of property per public school pupil is inaccurate and inequitable. One substitute measure proposed is district income per pupil or a combination of district income and property value per pupil. However, using this measure would result in a rise in the aid ratios in only…

  18. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  19. Mobile Learning Based Worked Example in Electric Circuit (WEIEC) Application to Improve the High School Students' Electric Circuits Interpretation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiannur, Mitra; Supahar

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the feasibility and effectivity of mobile learning based Worked Example in Electric Circuits (WEIEC) application in improving the high school students' electric circuits interpretation ability on Direct Current Circuits materials. The research method used was a combination of Four-D Models and ADDIE model. The…

  20. The Influences of Sex, Race, and Prior Reading Ability on Newspaper Reading Skill Improvement in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Charles

    This study uses the revised modules of a previous study of the effects of newspapers in elementary schools to determine the effects of the modules and newspaper use in general, as well as to determine whether the variables of sex, race, prior reading ability, and same or opposite race of teacher and student influenced results. The study was…

  1. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  3. A Study of High School Music Participants' Stylistic Preferences and Identification Abilities in Music and the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Research investigated how high school students conceptualize the basic Classical-Romantic values dichotomy as exemplified by various aesthetic eras, styles, and objects, and how students operate within such aesthetic-conceptual frameworks in terms of their preferences and identification-categorization abilities. (Author/AM)

  4. TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that measures…

  5. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group. In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study. Therefore, any

  6. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  7. Aspiring School Administrators' Perceived Ability to Meet Technology Standards and Technological Needs for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chien; Prince, Debra Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    The merits of technology in general and of educational technology specifically are well documented. The use of educational technology has been shown to improve teaching and learning and the overall educational quality of schools. However, the successful integration of educational technology in schools hinges on school administrators' technology…

  8. Predictive Ability of Variables Related to the Aspects of School Principals' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaš, Mirko; Jankovic, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this research paper believe that school principals play an irreplaceable role in raising the school efficiency. Their role is rather neglected in the Croatian academic debates on improving the quality of school system. This research intends to enhance the scientific level of their position as irreplaceable factors in a school…

  9. Logical Reasoning Abilities of Junior High School Students in the Province of Cotabato, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Paul John B. Ongcoy

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning abilities of the learners and its development was well-discussed in the world of education. The higher the ability of the person to reason abstractly, the higher the probability that a person will effectively function in the society. Thus, it is the main goal of the K-12 Curriculum of the Department of Education to improve the reasoning abilities and formal reasoning among students in the country. The higher the reasoning ability of a person, the more productive he is. T...

  10. Intentional and Automatic Numerical Processing as Predictors of Mathematical Abilities in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ePina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1 to 6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

  11. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  12. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability characteristics and applicability of a repeated sprint ability test in male young soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm......, body mass 62.2±5.1 kg) players were tested 48 hours and 7 days apart for 5x30-m performance over 5 trials (T1-T5). Short- (T1-T2) and long-term reliability (T1-T3-T4-T5) were assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and with typical error for measurement (TEM). Short- and long...... study revealed that the 5x30-m sprint test is a reliable field test in the short and long-term when the sum of sprint times and the best sprint performance are considered as outcome variables. Sprint performance decrements variables showed large variability across trials....

  14. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  15. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions).

  16. CONNECTION BETWEEN SOME MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH SUCCESS IN REALIZATION OF PROGRAMMED CONTENTS FROM THE AREA OF GYMNASTICS OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is undertaken for the purpose of defi ning and determinating of the le vel of connection between some motoric abilities with effi ciency in realization of some pro gramme issnes in the area of gymnastic (stretched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. On the sample of fi fty students from the fourth grade of High school, examined stu dents have been tested on ten motoric tests and on two specifi c motoric assignmentsstre tched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coeffi cients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied assignments

  17. Neighborhoods, Schools, and Academic Achievement: A Formal Mediation Analysis of Contextual Effects on Reading and Mathematics Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T; Parbst, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    Although evidence indicates that neighborhoods affect educational outcomes, relatively little research has explored the mechanisms thought to mediate these effects. This study investigates whether school poverty mediates the effect of neighborhood context on academic achievement. Specifically, it uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, counterfactual methods, and a value-added modeling strategy to estimate the total, natural direct, and natural indirect effects of exposure to an advantaged rather than disadvantaged neighborhood on reading and mathematics abilities during childhood and adolescence. Contrary to expectations, results indicate that school poverty is not a significant mediator of neighborhood effects during either developmental period. Although moving from a disadvantaged neighborhood to an advantaged neighborhood is estimated to substantially reduce subsequent exposure to school poverty and improve academic achievement, school poverty does not play an important mediating role because even the large differences in school composition linked to differences in neighborhood context appear to have no appreciable effect on achievement. An extensive battery of sensitivity analyses indicates that these results are highly robust to unobserved confounding, alternative model specifications, alternative measures of school context, and measurement error, which suggests that neighborhood effects on academic achievement are largely due to mediating factors unrelated to school poverty.

  18. On school choice and test-based accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W. Betebenner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, a mutualism between choice and accountability emerged whereby school choice complements test-based accountability. In the first portion of this study we present a conceptual overview of school choice and test-based accountability and explicate connections between the two that are explicit in reform implementations like NCLB or implicit within the market-based reform literature in which school choice and test-based accountability reside. In the second portion we scrutinize the connections, in particular, between school choice and test-based accountability using a large western school district with a popular choice system in place. Data from three sources are combined to explore the ways in which school choice and test-based accountability draw on each other: state assessment data of children in the district, school choice data for every participating student in the district choice program, and a parental survey of both participants and non-participants of choice asking their attitudes concerning the use of school report cards in the district. Results suggest that choice is of benefit academically to only the lowest achieving students, choice participation is not uniform across different ethnic groups in the district, and parents' primary motivations as reported on a survey for participation in choice are not due to test scores, though this is not consistent with choice preferences among parents in the district. As such, our results generally confirm the hypotheses of choice critics more so than advocates. Keywords: school choice; accountability; student testing.

  19. The development of coordination abilities and biochemical changes in schoolchildren of primary school age at employment choreography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozhyk Irina Zinov'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the developed technique to dance on the development of coordination abilities and reflects changes some biochemical parameters, namely, urinary creatinine and inorganic phosphorus in primary school children involved in choreography. In the experiment involved students 8-9 years (boys. Found that classes in choreography improved level of coordination abilities of students and the experimental group demonstrated a positive impact choreography lessons on physical performance of students, because their body is more adapted to physical activity, and puts them at lower power consumption.

  20. Strong One Lasting One: An Elementary School Principal's Ability to Establish a Positive School Culture by Building Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Goldy, III.

    2015-01-01

    Trust is a key element in improving learning and teaching. Reviewing research on the topic of establishing trust by school leaders illuminates actions needed to make a positive difference in the culture of a school. Using the concept of mindfulness, the instructional leader was able to regain the trust of the community, parents, faculty, and…

  1. Analysis of Institutional Competitiveness of Junior High Schools through the Admission Test to High School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz, Joyzukey; Tarango, Javier; Machin-Mastromatteo, Juan Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational research studies 15,658 students from 335 secondary schools in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, through the results of the examination of admission to high school education (National High School Admission Test--EXANI I from the National Assessment Center for Education--CENEVAL) on logical-mathematical and verbal…

  2. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  3. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  4. The School Nurse's Ability to Detect and Support Abused Children: A Trust-Creating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Lisbet Engh; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse has negative health consequences. Early detection and preventive measures lead to avoidance of prolonged and more complex problems. School nurses have a child protection role and should pay attention to vulnerable children. Through health dialogues and other interactions with pupils, school nurses have the opportunity to detect child…

  5. Does the Organization of Instruction Differ in Charter Schools? Ability Grouping and Students' Mathematics Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Donaldson, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have learned a good deal from lottery-based and quasi-experimental studies of charter schools, much of what goes on inside of charter schools remains a "black box" to be unpacked. Grounding our work in neoclassical market theory and institutional theory, we examine differences in the social organization of schools…

  6. The effects of ability tracking of future primary school teachers on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, J.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the Dutch tracking system, primary school teachers in the Netherlands can have a vocational or a higher secondary background. Policymakers and school principles worry that teachers with vocational backgrounds are less capable to teach math and reading. This study therefore examines the

  7. Test Ability of Chiller Post Re-functioning at The Facility of KH-IPSB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harahap, Sentot-Alibasya; M-Taufik-Arsyad; Djunaidi

    2006-01-01

    Chiller water unit (CWU) represent supplier of cool water for the system of ventilation, cooler of purification system irrigate canal (T.C) and pool (depository ponds) ex-fuel at facility of KH-IPSB3. Have been conducted by re-functioning of Chiller unit water by changing system conduct and control from electronic mode to mode of electric-mechanic and parts of damage other. A unit water chiller system have some component / appliance which way of its activity integrated one other, so that re-functioning of partial like in this time where some of component / appliance use old goods and some of using new material hence to get optimum activity at test ability of difficult chiller relative. At operation is old ones expected by optimum activity will be able to reach with an process which in phases and planed. (author)

  8. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Masked Speech Recognition and Reading Ability in School-Age Children: Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle; Lewis, Barbara; Benchek, Penelope; Buss, Emily; Calandruccio, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between reading (decoding) skills, phonological processing abilities, and masked speech recognition in typically developing children was explored. This experiment was designed to evaluate the relationship between phonological processing and decoding abilities and 2 aspects of masked speech recognition in typically…

  10. Role of optometry school in single day large scale school vision testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, N; Ramani, Krishnakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: School vision testing aims at identification and management of refractive errors. Large-scale school vision testing using conventional methods is time-consuming and demands a lot of chair time from the eye care professionals. A new strategy involving a school of optometry in single day large scale school vision testing is discussed. Aim: The aim was to describe a new approach of performing vision testing of school children on a large scale in a single day. Materials and Methods: A single day vision testing strategy was implemented wherein 123 members (20 teams comprising optometry students and headed by optometrists) conducted vision testing for children in 51 schools. School vision testing included basic vision screening, refraction, frame measurements, frame choice and referrals for other ocular problems. Results: A total of 12448 children were screened, among whom 420 (3.37%) were identified to have refractive errors. 28 (1.26%) children belonged to the primary, 163 to middle (9.80%), 129 (4.67%) to secondary and 100 (1.73%) to the higher secondary levels of education respectively. 265 (2.12%) children were referred for further evaluation. Conclusion: Single day large scale school vision testing can be adopted by schools of optometry to reach a higher number of children within a short span. PMID:25709271

  11. The Enhancement of Junior High School Students' Abilities in Mathematical Problem Solving Using Soft Skill-based Metacognitive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Murni, Atma; Sabandar, Jozua; S. Kusumah, Yaya; Kartasamita, Bana Goerbana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to know the differences of enhancement in mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) between the students who received soft skill- based metacognitive learning (SSML) with the students who got conventional learning (CL). This research is a quasi experimental design with pretest-postest control group. The population in this study is the students of Junior High School in Pekanbaru city. The sample consist of 135 students, 68 of them are from the high-level...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  13. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  14. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  15. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  16. Putting the Testing Effect to the Test. Why and When is Testing effective for Learning in Secondary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H. (2014, 11 April). Putting the testing effect to the test. Why and when is testing effective for learning in secondary school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands

  17. Identification of high school students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams to solve restricted and structured response items in force matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmaniar, Andinisa; Rusnayati, Heni; Sutiadi, Asep

    2017-05-01

    While solving physics problem particularly in force matter, it is needed to have the ability of constructing free body diagrams which can help students to analyse every force which acts on an object, the length of its vector and the naming of its force. Mix method was used to explain the result without any special treatment to participants. The participants were high school students in first grade totals 35 students. The purpose of this study is to identify students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams in solving restricted and structured response items. Considering of two types of test, every student would be classified into four levels ability of constructing free body diagrams which is every level has different characteristic and some students were interviewed while solving test in order to know how students solve the problem. The result showed students' ability of constructing free body diagrams on restricted response items about 34.86% included in no evidence of level, 24.11% inadequate level, 29.14% needs improvement level and 4.0% adequate level. On structured response items is about 16.59% included no evidence of level, 23.99% inadequate level, 36% needs improvement level, and 13.71% adequate level. Researcher found that students who constructed free body diagrams first and constructed free body diagrams correctly were more successful in solving restricted and structured response items.

  18. All Work and No Play? The Effects of Ability Sorting on Students’ Non-school Inputs, Time Use, and Grade Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Choon Wang

    2014-01-01

    How students’ non-school inputs respond to ability grouping may explain the currently mixed findings in the literature about the impacts of tracking. Using data from South Korea, where students are randomized into middle schools under the country’s equalization policy, but sorted into different high schools on the basis of achievement in some non-equalization policy areas, I find that under ability sorting, students’ demand for private tutoring, self-study time, and grade anxiety levels are l...

  19. Mathematical Problem Solving Ability of Junior High School Students through Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasni, N.; Turmudi, T.; Kusnandi, K.

    2017-09-01

    This research background of this research is the importance of student problem solving abilities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there are differences in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who have learned mathematics using Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (AFFMMI) and students who have learned using scientific approach (SA). The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental method with pretest-postest control group design. Data analysis of mathematical problem solving ability using Indepent Sample Test. The results showed that there was a difference in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who received learning with Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction and students who received learning with a scientific approach. AFFMMI focuses on mathematical modeling. This modeling allows students to solve problems. The use of AFFMMI is able to improve the solving ability.

  20. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Smajić; Dejan Javorac; Slavko Molnar; Aleksandar Huba Barašić; Bogdan Tomić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods:...

  1. Are College Costs Worth It? How Individual Ability, Major Choice, and Debt Affect Optimal Schooling Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). Using a lifecycle simulation approach, I account for ability/selection bias and the substantial probability that entering college freshmen will not eventually graduate, two critically important factors when evaluating the value of pursuing a college degree. I find that financial proposition of attending co...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL SCHOOL PROGRAM ON SOME MOTOR AND SITUATIONAL-MOTOR ABILITIES OF CHILDREN AGED 12-14 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Kukić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine quantitative changes that occur under the influence of basketball school program on children, and under the influence of motor and situationalmotor abilities, results obtained on a sample of 65 subjects are analyzed. The applied program from the basketball school gave a statistically significant quantitative changes for basic motor abilities variables, as well as for variables for assesment of situational-motor abilities.

  3. Test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating tendencies in examination among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, 1200 senior ...

  4. Is High-Stakes Testing Harming Lower Socioeconomic Status Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.; Sanzo, Tiffany D.

    2002-01-01

    A strong relationship is shown between students' state assessment test pass rates and students' socioeconomic status (SES). State sanctions based on assessment scores can affect graduation, student diplomas, school accreditation, school funding, teacher rewards and promotion, paperwork requirements, regulations, work expectations, improvement…

  5. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  6. The Analysis of Students Scientific Reasoning Ability in Solving the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR Problems by Applying the Levels of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Novia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the students’ achievement in answering modified lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning (MLCTSR questions in overall science teaching and by every aspect of scientific reasoning abilities. There are six aspects related to the scientific reasoning abilities that were measured; they are conservatorial reasoning, proportional reasoning, controlling variables, combinatorial reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlational reasoning. The research is also conducted to see the development of scientific reasoning by using levels of inquiry models. The students reasoning ability was measured using the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR. MLCTSR is a test developed based on the test of scientific reasoning of Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in 2000 which amounted to 12 multiple-choice questions. The research method chosen in this study is descriptive quantitative research methods. The research design used is One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The population of this study is the entire junior high students class VII the academic year 2014/2015 in one junior high school in Bandung. The samples in this study are one of class VII, which is class VII C. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling. The results showed that there is an increase in quantitative scientific reasoning although its value is not big.

  7. Excessive Testing and Pupils in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the question of excessive testing in public schools, its value in the educational process, and the impact that excessive testing may have on the student and the family unit. While assessments are valuable when used properly, excessive testing may lead to problems with unforeseen consequences.

  8. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TESTS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harsono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Communicative Approach of teaching English in senior high school in Indonesia has been adopted since the implementation of The 1984 Curriculum, but the tests–the communicative language tests–(CL Tests have not been developed and used properly. The objective of the study is to develop CL Tests for senior high school. The procedure of conducting the study consists of three major steps, that is, identifying the objectives, developing the test specification, and developing the CL Tests. The development of the CL Tests in detail consists of fifteen sub-steps from determining what language skills tested, selecting the suitable source materials, up to rewriting the CL Tests to be used as CL Tests alternative for senior high school. The results of the test development reveal that there are fifteen CL Tests consisting of three tests of listening, three reading, three speaking, and three writing tests. The whole tests have construct and content validity, no complete evidence of concurrent validity with report marks and semester test scores, high to very high inter-rater reliability, and no complete practicality.

  9. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew D; Oxman, Matt; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    As part of the Informed Health Choices project, we developed a podcast called The Health Choices Programme to help improve the ability of people to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about the effects of treatments. We did this randomised controlled trial in central Uganda. We recruited parents of children aged 10-12 years who were in their fifth year of school at 35 schools that were participating in a linked trial of the Informed Health Choices primary school resources. The parents were randomly allocated (1:1), via a web-based random number generator with block sizes of four and six, to listen to either the Informed Health Choices podcast (intervention group) or typical public service announcements about health issues (control group). Randomisation was stratified by parents' highest level of formal education attained (primary school, secondary school, or tertiary education) and the allocation of their children's school in the trial of the primary school resources (intervention vs control). The primary outcome, measured after listening to the entire podcast, was the mean score and the proportion of parents with passing scores on a test with two multiple choice questions for each of nine key concepts essential to assessing claims about treatments (18 questions in total). We did intention-to-treat analyses. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001676150. We recruited parents between July 21, 2016, and Oct 7, 2016. We randomly assigned 675 parents to the podcast group (n=334) or the public service announcement group (n=341); 561 (83%) participants completed follow-up. The mean score for parents in the podcast group was 67·8% (SD 19·6) compared with 52·4% (17·6) in the control group (adjusted mean difference 15·5%, 95% CI 12·5-18·6; pparents had a predetermined

  10. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  11. Predictors of Music Sight-Reading Ability in High School Wind Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study, grounded in near-transfer theory, was to investigate relationships among music sight-reading and tonal and rhythmic audiation, visual field articulation, spatial orientation and visualization, and achievement in math concepts and reading comprehension. A regression analysis with data from four high schools (N = 98) in…

  12. Traditional Craft or Technology Education: Development of Students' Technical Abilities in Finnish Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the economy, nature, production and society together with increasing scientific and technological knowledge make demands of transforming school teaching in the field of technology education. The aim of the article is briefly to explore the integration between science, technology and traditional craft education by analyzing the current…

  13. Class Pictures: Representations of Race, Gender and Ability in a Century of School Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Examined photographs taken of U.S. public school classes between the 1880s and the 1940s. Found significant gaps and historical amnesia, with segregated collections that reproduce images of hierarchy and dominance. The photographic archives searched convey biased views of the history of education and minority groups in the United States. (SLD)

  14. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (Premovable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  15. Communicative abilities in toddlers and in early school age children with cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jolien S.; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.

    Objectives: Evaluation of improvement in communicative abilities in children with nonsyndromic cleft palate. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective case history Study. Out of 117 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate born in 1998, 1999 and 2000 and enrolled in the cleft palate team of the

  16. Story Retelling and Language Ability in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy and Speech Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on retelling ability and cognition is limited in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment. Aims: To explore the impact of expressive and receptive language, narrative discourse dimensions (Narrative Assessment Profile measures), auditory and visual memory, theory of mind (ToM) and non-verbal cognition on the…

  17. The development of rhythmic abilities among of secondary school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaskina O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available this article is aimed to examine the system of development of rhythmic abilities. It is also studied and analyzed systems of development of rhythmicity of Jacques Dalcroze, V.A. Griner. The definition of the concept «rhythm» is revealed.

  18. Visuospatial working memory and mathematical ability at different ages throughout primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, S.H.G.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Straatemeier, M.; Jansen, B.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, three aims were addressed: (1) validating a visuospatial working memory task in Math Garden, an adaptive online tool in which item difficulty and person ability are determined on the fly, (2) investigating the contribution of different item characteristics to the difficulty of the

  19. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  20. Some effects of ability grouping in Harare secondary schools: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    research was to assess the influence of ability grouping on learners. In particular .... the sample of this study was 31 interviewees (N = 31) (see Table 2). This was a ..... the fulcrum, the pivotal base on which all hangs” we applied the technique ...

  1. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  2. The six-spot-step test - a new method for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Melissa; Jensen, Henrik B; Ravnborg, Mads

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the Six-Spot-Step-Test (SSST) is more suitable for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy than the Timed-25-Foot-Walking test (T25FW). METHOD: In the SSST, participants have to walk as quickly as possible across a field...... of effect size, standardized response means and relative efficiency. Both ambulation tests correlated moderately to PGIC. CONCLUSION: The SSST may be superior to the T25FW in terms of dynamic range, floor effect and responsiveness which makes the SSST a possible alternative for monitoring walking ability...

  3. Estimation of an Examinee's Ability in the Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing Program IRT-CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a program to estimate an examinee's ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee?占퐏 ability immediately at the end of test.

  4. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  5. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena V Nordheim

    Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health

  6. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small

  7. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  8. Drug Testing in the Schools. Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Drug testing of district employees and students is examined from several perspectives: implications for school policy, legality, administration and protocol, and test reliability and accuracy. Substance abuse has become a major concern for educators, parents, and citizens as illegal drugs are more readily available. It is also pointed out that the…

  9. High Stakes Testing and Its Impact on Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    2002-01-01

    The movement to standardization and high-stakes testing has been driven by ideological and political concerns and has adversely affected teaching/learning, democratic discourse, and educational equity. Rural schools are hit harder because of geographic isolation and insufficient staff and resources. Testing used for purposes other than measuring…

  10. Opportunity to Learn, Test Bias, and School Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    The purpose of the study was to examine test bias and the "non-effects" of schooling. Teachers were given a list of words selected from standardized vocabulary tests and asked to indicate the words they had taught. The words were classified by the grade level at which they were first introduced. Ninety-five third-grade students in four schools…

  11. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The place and importance of physical education in educational system is well known. Many researches have been done with the goal to determine influence of physical education on students. However, keep in mind that many of those researches had shown that women are generally not so interested in sports and that they are less included in physical activities (especially some forms of it, we have focused our work at possibilities of improvement of motoric abilities of girls inside chosen subject – sport for athletes, which is being conveyed in 8th grade with two classes per week, and chosen sport was basketball. Our sample consisted of 67 girls (37 in experimental and 30 in control group. Level of motoric abilities has been tracked by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group improved levels of abilities in each test at final measuring. However, keep in mind that girls in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the following tests: horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, horizontal aiming and standing on one leg with eyes closed, we have compared by ANOVA measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are statistically significant differences between groups in left hand basketball dribbling test, pull-through and jump-over tests, horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, standing on one leg with eyes closed, vertical jump – Sargent test, basketball throwing from chest from sitting position. Therefore, we can finally conclude that conveyed basketball programme had completely positive impact at motoric abilities of girls, as we expected

  12. Effectiveness of the IMPACT:Ability program to improve safety and self-advocacy skills in high school students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Eileen M; Desmarais, Jeffery; Arsenault, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience higher rates of abuse than the nondisabled. Few evidence-based prevention interventions have been published despite a need for such work. This study evaluated Ability, a safety and self-advocacy training for individuals with cognitive and/or physical disabilities. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess change in safety and self-advocacy knowledge, confidence, and behaviors among special education high school students in Boston, MA. Instruments were interviewer-administered at 3 time points. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare change between the intervention (N = 21) and wait-list (N = 36) groups. Repeated measures analysis was used to test change in the complete sample (N = 57). Students were diverse (58% males, 82% nonwhite) with a range of disabilities. Significantly greater improvement in key outcomes, including safety and self-advocacy knowledge, confidence, and behavior, were observed in intervention students compared to the wait-list group. Results in the complete sample showed evidence of further improvements in students' sense of safety and general self-efficacy. These findings are encouraging given the effects were demonstrated in a heterogeneous urban population. Ability may be an effective safety and self-advocacy training for students with disabilities. Further research will be required to determine effectiveness within particular subpopulations of students. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. Analysis of the ability of junior high school students’ performance in science in STEM project-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, A.; Sinaga, P.; Suwarma, I. R.

    2018-05-01

    The challenges in 21st century demands the high competitiveness. The way of thinking ability, determine how it work ability and choose instrument be part of the skills will need in the 21st century. The competence it can be supported by learning involving the student performance skills. Based on the preliminary studies at one junior high school in Bandung found that the learning involving of performance skill is low.This is supported by data from respondent in received the opportunity to make devise a sketch in of learning especially based on practices or projects, the results are 75 % students said rarely and 18,75 % students said never. In addition seen also how the student activities in project based learning in class the results stated that 68,75 % of students said less, and 6.25 % of students said never. Therefore, we did a result to uncover profile performance on the design process and the performance process of junior high school student performances to the matter optical by using STEM project based learning. From this result. From the research obtained the average score classes in the activities of the design process is as much as 2,49 or dipersentasikan become 62,41 % are in the good category and the average score classes in the process of the performance of activities receive is 3,13 or 78,28 % are in the good category.

  14. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  15. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  16. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  17. The implementation of multiple intelligences based teaching model to improve mathematical problem solving ability for student of junior high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasni, Nurli; Fatimah, Siti; Yulanda, Syerli

    2017-05-01

    This research aims to achieve some purposes such as: to know whether mathematical problem solving ability of students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model., to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the attitude of the students to Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. The method employed here is quasi-experiment which is controlled by pre-test and post-test. The population of this research is all of VII grade in SMP Negeri 14 Bandung even-term 2013/2014, later on two classes of it were taken for the samples of this research. A class was taught using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model and the other one was taught using cooperative learning. The data of this research were gotten from the test in mathematical problem solving, scale questionnaire of the student attitudes, and observation. The results show the mathematical problem solving of the students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model learning is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning, the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences based teaching model are in intermediate level, and the students showed the positive attitude in learning mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. As for the recommendation for next author, Multiple Intelligences based teaching model can be tested on other subject and other ability.

  18. Reprocessing ability of high density fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.; Belieres, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a new high density fuel is becoming a key issue for Research Reactors operators. Such a new fuel should be a Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) fuel with a high density, to improve present in core performances. It must be compatible with the reprocessing in an industrial plant to provide a steady back-end solution. Within the framework of a work group CEA/CERCA/COGEMA on new fuel development for Research Reactors, COGEMA has performed an evaluation of the reprocessing ability of some fuel dispersants selected as good candidates. The results will allow US to classify these fuel dispersants from a reprocessing ability point of view. (author)

  19. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55 ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2015

  20. Isolation and testing the cholesteral reduction ability (in-vitro) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which positively affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Studies have shown probiotic activities of Lactococci isolated from dairy foods, which include the ability to inhibit the growth of other bacteria and the reduction of cholesterol. However, there is ...

  1. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  2. Improving ability measurement in surveys by following the principles of IRT: The Wordsum vocabulary test in the General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken; Haertel, Edward; Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Survey researchers often administer batteries of questions to measure respondents' abilities, but these batteries are not always designed in keeping with the principles of optimal test construction. This paper illustrates one instance in which following these principles can improve a measurement tool used widely in the social and behavioral sciences: the GSS's vocabulary test called "Wordsum". This ten-item test is composed of very difficult items and very easy items, and item response theory (IRT) suggests that the omission of moderately difficult items is likely to have handicapped Wordsum's effectiveness. Analyses of data from national samples of thousands of American adults show that after adding four moderately difficult items to create a 14-item battery, "Wordsumplus" (1) outperformed the original battery in terms of quality indicators suggested by classical test theory; (2) reduced the standard error of IRT ability estimates in the middle of the latent ability dimension; and (3) exhibited higher concurrent validity. These findings show how to improve Wordsum and suggest that analysts should use a score based on all 14 items instead of using the summary score provided by the GSS, which is based on only the original 10 items. These results also show more generally how surveys measuring abilities (and other constructs) can benefit from careful application of insights from the contemporary educational testing literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  4. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  6. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  7. Use of Neuropsychological Tests to Identify High School Students with Epilepsy Who Later Demonstrate Inadequate Performances in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Carl B.; Clemmons, David

    1984-01-01

    Examined the validity of intellectual, neuropsychological, and emotional adjustment measures administered in high school in predicting vocational adjustment of 39 young adults with epilepsy. Results showed neuropsychological tests were the best predictors of later adjustment. Abilities were more related to final adjustment than variables…

  8. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  9. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in relation...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  10. Effects of Post-School Options Instruction on Knowledge of Options and Ability to Orally Present Post-School Goals for High School Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effects of teaching presentation skills and post-school options to three high school students with developmental disabilities. While previous research has indicated students with learning disabilities can learn both academic and life skills within the same activity (Collins, Hager, & Galloway, 2011; Falkenstine, Collins,…

  11. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  12. Concurrent Validity of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with the WISC-R: EMR Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jack A.; Sanville, David

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJTCA) to educable mentally retarded children (N=30). Results showed significant mean differences between WISC-R and WJTCA full-scale standard scores, providing implications for placement of children in classes for the…

  13. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-01-01

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease),

  14. Literature Review: Validity and Potential Usefulness of Psychomotor Ability Tests for Personnel Selection and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    processing capabilities. Craik and Lockhart (1972), for example, investigated limitations In the ability to store Information In short-term storage...F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671...preferable to an information processing taxonomy for purposes of the current selection and classification research. i-irst, on a theoretical level

  15. FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE ABILITIES OF YOUNGER SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF CONTINUITY OF FGOS OF HOO AND FGOS TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Pavlovna Zaytseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will consider features of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students as a basis of their social adaptation. For this purpose we will reveal features of the teaching and educational activity of younger school students creating conditions for formation of their communicative abilities and we will show as the communicative abilities formed in teaching and educational activity can be directed on training of younger school students for social adaptation.Purpose. In the Federal state educational standard of the general education (FGOS of the second generation transition from minimizatsionny approach in education is designated. Communicative abilities are a basis not only productive inclusion of pupils in interpersonal relationship with contemporaries and adults in educational activity, socially important for them, but also basis for an exit in system of broader social relationship with people and the world in general.Methodology. The basis of research is formed by the empirical – studying and the analysis of literature, normative documents and textbooks for elementary school; supervision, poll (oral and written.Results. Results of work consists preparation of methodical ensuring process of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students in teaching and educational activity as bases of their social adaptation: Socialization programs.Practical implications. Results of research can be used by elementary school teachers in teaching and educational activity, and also students when writing theses and carrying out experiment.

  16. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  17. Parents' perceptions of HIV counselling and testing in schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our ...

  18. Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media: Standards, Testing, and Technophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational publishing corporations and media corporations in the United States have been converging, especially through the promotion of standardization, testing, and for-profit educational technologies. Media and technology companies--including News Corp, Apple, and Microsoft--have significantly expanded their presence in public schools to sell…

  19. Measuring Ability in Foreign Language Word Recognition: A Novel Test and An Alternative to Segalowitz's "CV-rt" Fluency Index

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson, David

    2011-01-01

    Tests of word-recognition speed (lexical accessibility) for second language learners have become more common in recent years as its importance in lexical processing has become apparent. However, the very short reaction-time latencies mean they are often complicated to handle or set up in school-based testing situations. They may also produce data that is hard to interpret or which lacks construct validity. Our solution to this problem is a quick-and-easy test called Q_Lex which can be used by...

  20. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  1. Developing and Improving:A Study of the Middle School Students’ Writing Ability in the Second Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the development and advancement of social and cultural communication between China and other countries in the world, the second language education is very popular with Chinese people. And usually, it will take the young for nearly 16 years to learn a second language, especially English. Most of them learn English from primary school until university. Besides having routine English classes at school, they also pay extra time and money to learn English in their spare time in many training companies. And now, English education has already become an industry in China and some training companies such as New Oriental English, are familiar to common people. And a crucial problem is that, after so many years of hard work, most of them are even having basic writing difficulties. The systemic and effective teaching method of writing in a second language education in China is being researched. This thesis attempts to cultivate the students’ subjective initiative in second language education activities, raise the students’ learning consciousness, and enhance their lasting interests in learning so as to reach the goal to improve the students’ writing ability in second language education.

  2. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  3. At-risk high school seniors: Science remediation for Georgia's High School Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carolyn M.

    State departments of education have created a system of accountability for the academic achievement of students under the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Georgia Department of Education established the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) as their method of evaluating the academic achievement of high school students. The GHSGT consist of five sections and students must pass all five sections before students they are eligible to receive a diploma. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of teacher-lead and computer based remediation for a group of high school seniors who have been unsuccessful in passing the science portion of the GHSGT. The objectives of this study include (a) Identify the most effective method of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of the GHSGT, and (b) evaluate the methods of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of GHSGT available to high school students. The participants of this study were at-risk seniors enrolled in one high school during the 2007-2008 school year. The findings of this research study indicated that at-risk students who participated in both types of remediation, teacher-led and computer-based, scored significantly higher than the computer-based remediation group alone. There was no significant relationship between the test scores and the number of times the students were tested.

  4. Effects of a virtual platform in reading comprehension and vocabulary: An alternative to improve reading abilities in Elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given, on the one hand, the poor results obtained by Peruvian children in the national and international reading assessments. And on the other hand, the increased investment intechnology for schools in the country, this study aimed to develop and test an online tool to improve reading comprehension. In order to do this, the reading comprehension strategies and vocabulary activities from the research-based digital environment ICON were adapted to design the platform LEO. A total of 88 fifth graders from urban middle-to-low-income private schools from Lima participated in this quasi-experimental study, which involved acontrol group and a treatment group that participated in a 12-week teacher-mediated digital intervention. All participants were administered reading and vocabulary assessments pre and post intervention. Results revealed that students who participated in the intervention achieved higher comprehension scores for narrative texts and higher vocabulary scores than those of the control group.

  5. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari

    2011-01-01

    Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...

  6. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  7. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Hendrik Wenno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.

  8. The Abstraction Ability in Constructing Relation Within Triangles by The Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Suwardi; Djadir; Mutmainna Hasma, Sitti

    2018-01-01

    on is an activity to organize a mathematical concept that has been previously owned into a new mathematical structure. Activites in abstraction are recognizing, organizing and constructing. Recognizing is a process of identifying a mathematical structure that had existed before. Organizing is a process of using structural knowledge to be assembled into a solution of a problem and constructing is a process of organizing the characteristics of the object into a new structure that does not exist. In abstraction process, the students use attributes to address the object, including routine attribute, nonroutine attributes, and meaningless attributes. This research applied descriptive qualitative research which aimed to describe the abstraction ability of students from high, moderate, and low groups to construct a relation within triangle. In collecting the data, this research used students’ pre-ability math test, abstraction test, and guided interview. The sampling technique in this research was based on the students’ scores in pre-ability math test, which were divided into three groups. Two students from each group were opted as the subjects of this research. Questions of the test are based on the indicators of steps in abstraction activity. Thus, based on the data gained in this research, researcher determined the tendency of attributes used in each abstraction activity. The result of this research revealed that students from high, moderate and low groups were prone to use routine attributes in recognizing triangles. In organizing the characteristics within triangles, high group tended to organize the triangle correctly, while the moderate and low groups tended to organize the triangle incorrectly. In constructing relation within triangles, students in high, moderate and low groups construct it incompletely.

  9. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  10. Standardised Testing and Assessment in Comprehensive School in Scandinavian Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Eva, Hjörne,

    Assessments can be considered to be an integrated part of formal educational settings, in different forms and used for different purposes. In this contribution we will discuss and analyse the use of assessments in comprehensive school in Scandinavian countries through time, as we will include....... If the comprehensive school is based on the general idea of a school for all, how can different ways of practising assessment support or work against this idea? What conclusions can be drawn from the experiences in the Scandinavian countries?...... different kinds of documentary and empirical studies in the argumentation. We will focus on which kinds of assessments has been used, for which purposes and the role of this in the perspective of society. More contemporary trends will be discussed, specially the use of standardised testing. Scandinavian...

  11. The test ability of fish Tawes to leachate garbage dump (TPA) Benowo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliardi AR, N. R.; Wiyanti, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid from waste containing elements of dissolved and suspended elements. Garbage collected at the landfill site contains organic, inorganic and heavy metal substances. If the rains will produce leachate with mineral content, organic and heavy metals. When the condition or leachate flow in let to the soil surface can cause negative effects to the surrounding environment including for humans. Toxicity test it was conducted to determine the level of leachate toxicity of the test animals living in surface water located around of the “TPA Benowo”. In this study using Tawes fish with length between 4-6 cm. In this toxicity test is done in 2 stages, namely: range finding test, the search for this range is obtained 0% concentrations (as control) 0,3%; 0,6%; 0,9%; 0,12% and 0,15%. The next stage of toxicity acute test, at this stage of toxicity concentration do smaller again that is: 0,18%; 0,36%; 0,54%; 0,72% and 0,9%. The results obtained LC50 value of 0,385%, while eyes, brown stomach skin.

  12. A test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS: Normative data and psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eArcara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2 and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total. Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts’ evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient’s cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The

  13. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  14. Improving ability mathematic literacy, self-efficacy and reducing mathematical anxiety with learning Treffinger model at senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Nizham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a Quasi Experimental study with the design of The Pretest-Post-Test Non-Equivalent Group Design. Population in this research is all student of class X SHS in South Jakarta. Sampling is done by purposive sampling, to obtain an experimental class and control class. In the experimental class, students learn with Treffinger learning model and control, class learning with conventional learning. This study is also to examine the differences of self-efficacy improvement and students literacy skills, and decreased students' mathematical anxiety. Also, this study also examines the relevance of early mathematical abilities (high, medium, low with improving students' math literacy skills. The instrument used in this research is literacy skill test, self-efficacy scale, mathematical anxiety scale, observation sheet, and student interview. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two lines. From the results of the data, it is found that: (1 The improvement of literacy ability of students who are learned with Treffinger model learning is not significantly higher than students who learn with conventional. (2 The self-efficacy of students who learning with the Treffinger model learning  is better than the student that is learning by conventional. (3 The mathematical anxiety of students learning with Treffinger model learning reduces better than students learning with conventional. (4 There is a difference in the improvement of students' mathematical literacy skills learning by learning the Treffinger model and students learning with conventional learning based on early mathematical abilities. (5 Student response to Treffinger model learning is better than students learning with conventional learning. Therefore, learning model Treffinger can be an alternative model of learning to improve students' mathematical literacy skills, and self-efficacy students, and able to reduce mathematical anxiety.

  15. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  16. Higher-Order Asymptotics and Its Application to Testing the Equality of the Examinee Ability Over Two Sets of Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2018-06-27

    In educational and psychological measurement, researchers and/or practitioners are often interested in examining whether the ability of an examinee is the same over two sets of items. Such problems can arise in measurement of change, detection of cheating on unproctored tests, erasure analysis, detection of item preknowledge, etc. Traditional frequentist approaches that are used in such problems include the Wald test, the likelihood ratio test, and the score test (e.g., Fischer, Appl Psychol Meas 27:3-26, 2003; Finkelman, Weiss, & Kim-Kang, Appl Psychol Meas 34:238-254, 2010; Glas & Dagohoy, Psychometrika 72:159-180, 2007; Guo & Drasgow, Int J Sel Assess 18:351-364, 2010; Klauer & Rettig, Br J Math Stat Psychol 43:193-206, 1990; Sinharay, J Educ Behav Stat 42:46-68, 2017). This paper shows that approaches based on higher-order asymptotics (e.g., Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox, Inference and asymptotics. Springer, London, 1994; Ghosh, Higher order asymptotics. Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Hayward, 1994) can also be used to test for the equality of the examinee ability over two sets of items. The modified signed likelihood ratio test (e.g., Barndorff-Nielsen, Biometrika 73:307-322, 1986) and the Lugannani-Rice approximation (Lugannani & Rice, Adv Appl Prob 12:475-490, 1980), both of which are based on higher-order asymptotics, are shown to provide some improvement over the traditional frequentist approaches in three simulations. Two real data examples are also provided.

  17. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  18. The students’ ability in mathematical literacy for the quantity, and the change and relationship problems on the PISA adaptation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Yudhi Anggoro, Ant.

    2017-09-01

    One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students’ solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for quantity, and change and relationship problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions that consist of two questions for the quantity group, six questions for space and shape group, three questions for the change and relationship group, and four questions for uncertainty. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first quantity problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 3. For the second quantity problem, there were 88.89 % students who achieved level 2. For part a of the first change and relationship problem, there were 55.56 % students who achieved level 5. For part b of the first change and relationship problem, there were 77.78 % students who achieved level 2. For the second change and relationship problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 2.

  19. Evaluation of the Sealing Ability of Three Obturation Techniques Using a Glucose Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 and 2 control groups (n=8. The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group, continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group, and ProTaper obturators (PT group. For the negative control group, 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction as in the CLC group, and the teeth were covered twice with a layer of nail varnish (NCG group. Another 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction, but without sealer, and these were used as the positive control (PCG group. A glucose leakage model was used for quantitative evaluation of microleakage for 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks. No significant difference in the cumulative amount of leakage was found between the three experimental groups at all observation times. The lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha can guarantee a similar seal of canal fillings as can be achieved by using thermal methods, in the round canals.

  20. Arithmetic Abilities in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Performance on French ZAREKI-R Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2018-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ("Calculation and…

  1. Limited ability of the proton-pump inhibitor test to identify patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Jones, Roger; Vakil, Nimish

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy often is assessed to determine whether patients' symptoms are acid-related and if patients have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although the accuracy of this approach is questionable. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the PPI test...

  2. Analysis of primary school children's abilities and strategies for reading and recording time from analogue and digital clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Wilss, Lynn; Mutch, Sue

    1997-09-01

    Sixty-seven children in Grades 1-3 and 66 children in Grades 4-6 were tested for their ability to read and record analogue and digital times. The children in Grades 4-6 were asked to describe their strategies. A sequence of time acquisition was proposed, based on a recent theory of cognitive development and the literature. This was: hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minute, and minute times. Times after the hour would be more difficult and digital times would be learned sooner. The sequence was confirmed for Grades 1-3; irregularities occurred in Grades 4-6. Some implications are drawn for the teaching of time.

  3. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  4. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ), and broad long jump (BLJ). The agility T test (TT) and Illinois agility test (IAT) were assessed to determine the agilit...

  5. Influence of impulsivity-reflexivity when testing dynamic spatial ability: sex and g differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M Angeles; Hernández, José Manuel; Rubio, Victor; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2007-11-01

    This work analyzes the possibility that the differences in the performance of men and women in dynamic spatial tasks such as the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R; Santacreu & Rubio, 1998), obtained in previous works, are due to cognitive style (Reflexivity-Impulsivity) or to the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO) that the participants implement. If these differences are due to cognitive style, they would be independent of intelligence, whereas if they are due to SATO, they may be associated with intelligence. In this work, 1652 participants, 984 men and 668 women, ages between 18 and 55 years, were assessed. In addition to the SODT-R, the "Test de Razonamiento Analitico, Secuencial e Inductivo" (TRASI [Analytical, Sequential, and Inductive Reasoning Test]; Rubio & Santacreu, 2003) was administered as a measure of general intelligence. Impulsivity scores (Zi) of Salkind and Wright (1977) were used to analyze reflexivity-impulsivity and SATO. The results obtained indicate that (a) four performance groups can be identified: Fast-accurate, Slow-inaccurate, Impulsive, and Reflexive. The first two groups solve the task as a function of a competence variable and the last two as a function of a personality variable; (b) performance differences should be attributed to SATO; (c) SATO differs depending on sex and intelligence level.

  6. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Validity and Relative Ability of 4 Balance Tests to Identify Fall Status of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alda; Silva, Alexandre; Oliveira, Ana; Cruz, Joana; Machado, Ana; Jácome, Cristina

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), the Mini-BESTest, and the Brief-BESTest are useful tests to assess balance; however, their clinimetric properties have not been studied well in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study compared the validity and relative ability of the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest to identify fall status in older adults with T2D. This study involved a cross-sectional design. Sixty-six older adults with T2D (75 ± 7.6 years) were included and asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. The BBS and the BESTest were administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Receiver operating characteristics were used to assess the ability of each balance test to differentiate between participants with and without a history of falls. The 4 balance tests were able to identify fall status (areas under the curve = 0.74-0.76), with similar sensitivity (60%-67%) and specificity (71%-76%). The 4 balance tests were able to differentiate between older adults with T2D with and without a history of falls. As the BBS and the BESTest require longer application time, the Brief-BESTest may be an appropriate choice to use in clinical practice to detect fall risk.

  8. Effectiveness of the use of question-driven levels of inquiry based instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching material on enhancing scientific explanation ability senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandi, A.; Muslim; Samsudin, A.; Hermita, N.; Supriyatman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of the use of Question-Driven Levels of Inquiry Based Instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching materials on enhancing senior high school students scientific explanation ability has been studied. QD-LOIBI was designed by following five-levels of inquiry proposed by Wenning. Visual multimedia used in teaching materials included image (photo), virtual simulation and video phenomena. QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials supported by visual multimedia were tried out on senior high school students at one high school in one district in West Java. A quasi-experiment method with design one experiment group (n = 31) and one control group (n = 32) were used. Experimental group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching material supported by visual multimedia, whereas the control group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials not supported visual multimedia. Data on the ability of scientific explanation in both groups were collected by scientific explanation ability test in essay form concerning kinetic gas theory concept. The results showed that the number of students in the experimental class that has increased the category and quality of scientific explanation is greater than in the control class. These results indicate that the use of multimedia supported instructional materials developed for implementation of QD-LOIBI can improve students’ ability to provide explanations supported by scientific evidence gained from practicum activities and applicable concepts, laws, principles or theories.

  9. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  10. Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Oxman, Matt; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Morelli, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Kaseje, Margaret; Chalmers, Iain; Fretheim, Atle; Ding, Yunpeng; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2017-07-22

    ). The mean score in the multiple-choice test for the intervention schools was 62·4% (SD 18·8) compared with 43·1% (15·2) for the control schools (adjusted mean difference 20·0%, 95% CI 17·3-22·7; peffective for children with different levels of reading skills, but was more effective for children with better reading skills. The use of the Informed Health Choices primary school learning resources, after an introductory workshop for the teachers, led to a large improvement in the ability of children to assess claims about the effects of treatments. The results show that it is possible to teach primary school children to think critically in schools with large student to teacher ratios and few resources. Future studies should address how to scale up use of the resources, long-term effects, including effects on actual health choices, transferability to other countries, and how to build on this programme with additional primary and secondary school learning resources. Research Council of Norway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development Mathematic Assessment to Increase Mathematical Prerequisite Ability on The Student with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiansyah, S. T. U.; Nanang, F.; Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce about mathematic assessment is a process of obtaining data or information about the mastery of a student's mathematical skills as an ingredient in preparing a learning program. With this mathematics assessment can be known obstacles, difficulties and needs of students especially in the field of mathematic, so that the learning program will be in accordance with the potential students because it is tailored to what is required of students. This research study was conducted at elementary school of inclusive precisely at SDN Sukagalih I Bandung City based learning in setting of inclusive education. This research study is motivated by the existence of a first-grade student who has disabilities learning in mathematics, the ability of the mathematical prerequisite mastery of the classification of objects by color. The results of the research can provide a profile picture of student data information, the data obtained from the results of the development of systematic and formal mathematical assessment. After doing the development of mathematics assessment then the teacher gets important related information: 1. process the analysis of students’ learning needs, especially in the field of mathematics, 2. preparing the learning program planning according to student learning needs, 3. Designing procedural of method remedial program.

  12. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  13. Improving Junior High School Students' Spatial Reasoning Ability through Model Eliciting Activities with Cabri 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatiana; Darhim; Nurlaelah, Elah

    2018-01-01

    One of students' abilities which can facilitate them to understand geometric concepts is spatial reasoning ability. Spatial reasoning ability can be defined as an ability involving someone's cognitive processing to present and manipulate spatial figures, relationship, and figure formations. This research aims to find out significant difference on…

  14. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ, and broad long jump (BLJ. The agility T test (TT and Illinois agility test (IAT were assessed to determine the agility, and 20-m sprint time was also measured to determine sprint performance. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis indicated moderate correlation between training age and IAT (r = -0.57; p = 0.021. Strong correlations were found between CMJ and BLJ (r = 0.71; p = 0.002, and between TT and IAT (r = 0.70; p = 0.002. Similarly, 20-m sprint time was strong correlated with CMJ (r = -0.61; p = 0.011, BLJ (r = -0.76; p = 0.001, TT (r = 0.77; p = 0.001, and IAT (r = 0.68; p = 0.003. In addition, CMJ was strongly correlated with TT (r = -0.60; p = 0.013, and IAT (r = -0.64; p = 0.007, and also strong correlation between BLJ with TT (r = -0.85; p = 0.001 and IAT (r = -0.76; p = 0.001. The findings of the present study indicated significant correlation between sprint and agility, jumping ability and sprint performance and between jumping ability and agility performance in basketball players. Therefore, the results suggest that sprint, agility and jumping ability share common physiological and biomechanical determinants.

  15. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  16. Science Literacy: How do High School Students Solve PISA Test Items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, F.; Sinaga, P.; Priyandoko, D.

    2017-09-01

    The Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) does assess students’ science literacy in a real-life contexts and wide variety of situation. Therefore, the results do not provide adequate information for the teacher to excavate students’ science literacy because the range of materials taught at schools depends on the curriculum used. This study aims to investigate the way how junior high school students in Indonesia solve PISA test items. Data was collected by using PISA test items in greenhouse unit employed to 36 students of 9th grade. Students’ answer was analyzed qualitatively for each item based on competence tested in the problem. The way how students answer the problem exhibits their ability in particular competence which is influenced by a number of factors. Those are students’ unfamiliarity with test construction, low performance on reading, low in connecting available information and question, and limitation on expressing their ideas effectively and easy-read. As the effort, selected PISA test items can be used in accordance teaching topic taught to familiarize students with science literacy.

  17. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  18. Student Centered Homogeneous Ability Grouping: Using Bronfenbrenner's Theory of Human Development to Investigate the Ecological Factors Contributing to the Academic Achievement of High School Students in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karla Denise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the interconnectedness of the environment, human development, and the factors that influence students' academic performance in a homogeneous ability grouped mathematics classroom. The study consisted of four African American urban high school juniors, 2 male and 2 female. During the 12 week…

  19. Effects of age, gender, education and race on two tests of language ability in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitz, Beth E; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Bilt, Joni Vander; Gao, Sujuan; Saxton, Judith; Hall, Kathleen S; Ganguli, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests, including tests of language ability, are frequently used to differentiate normal from pathological cognitive aging. However, language can be particularly difficult to assess in a standardized manner in cross-cultural studies and in patients from different educational and cultural backgrounds. This study examined the effects of age, gender, education and race on performance of two language tests: the animal fluency task (AFT) and the Indiana University Token Test (IUTT). We report population-based normative data on these tests from two combined ethnically divergent, cognitively normal, representative population samples of older adults. Participants aged > or =65 years from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) and from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging (ISHA) were selected based on (1) a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0; (2) non-missing baseline language test data; and (3) race self-reported as African-American or white. The combined sample (n = 1885) was 28.1% African-American. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of demographic characteristics on test scores. On both language tests, better performance was significantly associated with higher education, younger age, and white race. On the IUTT, better performance was also associated with female gender. We found no significant interactions between age and sex, and between race and education. Age and education are more potent variables than are race and gender influencing performance on these language tests. Demographically stratified normative tables for these measures can be used to guide test interpretation and aid clinical diagnosis of impaired cognition.

  20. What Are You Measuring? Dimensionality and Reliability Analysis of Ability and Speed in Medical School Didactic Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Summative didactic evaluation often involves multiple choice questions which are then aggregated into exam scores, course scores, and cumulative grade point averages. To be valid, each of these levels should have some relationship to the topic tested (dimensionality) and be sufficiently reproducible between persons (reliability) to justify student ranking. Evaluation of dimensionality is difficult and is complicated by the classic observation that didactic performance involves a generalized component (g) in addition to subtest specific factors. In this work, 183 students were analyzed over two academic years in 13 courses with 44 exams and 3352 questions for both accuracy and speed. Reliability at all levels was good (>0.95). Assessed by bifactor analysis, g effects dominated most levels resulting in essential unidimensionality. Effect sizes on predicted accuracy and speed due to nesting in exams and courses was small. There was little relationship between person ability and person speed. Thus, the hierarchical grading system appears warrented because of its g-dependence.

  1. A cultural congruence test for primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanova L. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article relies on the principles of the cultural-historical theory, which defines cultural impact as the main driving force behind psychological development. Based on the assumption that culture is a set of normative situations, the study identifies rules that are typical for primary school students in big Russian cities. These rules are grouped into what we refer to as factors of cultural compliance, which ultimately can be seen as indicators of pupils’ cultural congruence. In specifying the cultural congruence of primary school students, we take into account not only the rules of school life but also the whole range of stable rules for children 7- to 10-years-old. Researchers at the Psychology Institute of the Higher University of the Chinese Academy of Science (Wang, Zhu, & Shi, 2011 call such rules usual or contextually usual. We include rules that govern the behavior of children who have cultural differences, so in this article we are talking about the rules that are typical for children of this age in Russia. The goal of the study was to develop a test to diagnose the level of cultural congruence. The test was exposed to psychometric evaluation for validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. Factor analysis by means of varimax rotation provided for calibration of the rules by consolidating them into factors. These factors underpin the test and include the categories social interaction, academic competence, regulation, obedience, self-service, and self-control. In accordance with the principles employed in psychology, the factors confirm the construct validity of the test in relation to children’s development when they are between 7 and 10 years old. The study confirms that learning is the main activity at this age by introducing a factor that brings together rules inherent in normative situations in the education process. The social setting for psychological development, viewed as a specific

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-04-27

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease), showing sensitivity to timing and rhythm deficits. Here we assessed the test-retest reliability of the BAASTA in 20 healthy adults. Participants were tested twice with the BAASTA, implemented on a tablet interface, with a 2-week interval. They completed 4 perceptual tasks, namely, duration discrimination, anisochrony detection with tones and music, and the Beat Alignment Test (BAT). Moreover, they completed motor tasks via finger tapping, including unpaced and paced tapping with tones and music, synchronization-continuation, and adaptive tapping to a sequence with a tempo change. Despite high variability among individuals, the results showed stable test-retest reliability in most tasks. A slight but significant improvement from test to retest was found in tapping with music, which may reflect a learning effect. In general, the BAASTA was found a reliable tool for evaluating timing and rhythm skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies.

  4. A Mixed Methods Study: Principals' Perceived Leadership Styles and Ability to Lead during a School Violence Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joyce Herod

    2013-01-01

    Our schools are considered a place of safety for learning, however, the unfortunate reality is that schools may face crises and violence. Leadership styles vary among school leaders and provide the framework for handling daily challenges. This mixed-methods research design was used to investigate the individual leadership styles of public school…

  5. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  6. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  7. Can the ability to adapt to exercise be considered a talent-and if so, can we test for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Craig; Kiely, John

    2017-11-29

    Talent identification (TI) is a popular and hugely important topic within sports performance, with an ever-increasing amount of resources dedicated to unveiling the next sporting star. However, at present, most TI processes appear to select high-performing individuals at the present point in time, as opposed to identifying those individuals with the greatest capacity to improve. This represents a potential inefficiency within the TI process, reducing its effectiveness. In this article, we discuss whether the ability to adapt favorably, and with a large magnitude, to physical training can be considered a talent, testing it against proposed criteria. We also discuss whether, if such an ability can be considered a talent, being able to test for it as part of the TI process would be advantageous. Given that such a capacity is partially heritable, driven by genetic variation between individuals that mediate the adaptive response, we also explore whether the information gained from genetic profiling can be used to identify those with the greatest capacity to improve. Although there are some ethical hurdles which must be considered, the use of genetic information to identify those individuals with the greatest capacity appears to hold promise and may improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of contemporary TI programmes.

  8. The ability of modified star excursion balance test to differentiate between women athletes with and without chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Razeghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is one functional clinical test that widely used to assess dynamic balance in patients with ankle injuries. Since the ability of this test to detect impairments between athletes with and without chronic ankle instability(CAI is not clear, the aim of present study was to determine if the modified SEBT could detect reach deficits in patients with unilateral CAI. A convenience sample of thirty elite and sub elite women athletes were selected and assigned into two groups: CAI group (Mean ± SD: age: 25±3.5 years; height: 1.68±0.09 m; weight: 62.7±7.3kg, and healthy controls (Mean ± SD: age: 26±4.2 years; height: 1.69±0.05 m; weigh t: 62.7±7.3 kg.The dynamic balance test was obtained using modified SEBT from both limbs of each participant. The independent sample t-test was used for both between group and within group inter-limb comparisons. There was no significant difference in any directions of modified SEBT between two groups in both limbs. No significant interlimb differences were also observed within both groups. The modified SEBT may not enough sensitive to differentiate between athletes with and without CAI. Other factors such as ankle range of motion, muscle strength and pain intensity should be considered for better interpretation of the SEBT results.

  9. Improving childrens self-esteem and perceived social related abilities: the evaluation of a school-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lemma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objective: Health education programmes delivered in school settings are often design to enhance child self–esteem or various social skills in order to improve the way that they interact in every day life. Although these are becoming increasingly frequent, little is known about the real efficacy of many of the available programs that claim to be able to positively develop these psychologica dimensions. This study, which takes a Public Health approach, examines the effect of a school-based educational programme, designed following the WHO recommendations, in order to favour children’s self-esteem and improve perceived socio-relational competences.

    Method: To test the effectiveness of this intervention, a non randomized, controlled, prospective study was set up. All 291 eligible students, aged between 8-10 years, were enrolled. To assess self-esteem and perceived supportive relationship, a well-known and descriptive scales were utilised (MSCS, SPPC, AIR.

    Results: No difference was found between the experimental and control groups with respect to the children’s self-esteem and perceived socio-relational competences following the intervention, except in the quality of their relationships with their teachers, which improved in the experimental group and declined in the control group.

    Discussion: The educational programme used in our study did not seem to be able to enhance self-esteem in the intervention group, but the methodological instruments used to monitor the change in self-esteem domonstrated a different rate of change in the more disadvantaged sub-groups of the observed population.

  10. RELATIONS BETWEEN GENERAL MOTOR SKILLS AND HANDBALL SPECIFIC TEST "BALL SLALOM" IN STUDENTS OF THE IV GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

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    Dragan Branković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching physical education and physical training of children, should be appropriate to their age abilities and needs. Acquire the diversified movement experience is a priority of physical education in junior school age. Students fourth grade of primary school - age 10-11 years, in the sensitive period for developing coordination and speed capabilities. Sports game handball and mode of the game "mini-handball", which is adapted to students age abilities and spatial characteristics of the majority of primary schools, abundant with various tasks, specifically dominated by natural forms of movement - running, jumping, throwing. Therefore, handball has a significant role in solving the tasks of physical education. The specific motor tests and relations with the general motor skills are particularly important for continuous monitoring of motor development of children. The survey was conducted on 79 boys fourth grade of primary school who participated in the electoral sport of handball in the regular physical education classes. The results of the handball test "ball slalom" and its relation with general motor skills of students fourth grade of primary school, should contribute to the perception of the value of handball as the content of physical education, but also to contribute to the selection and forecast performance of children in handball.

  11. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  12. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza and Jaca who care for couples with a perinatal death.Statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis is made of the difficulties and limitations of this support staff is performing. Psychometric tests were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by calculating Cronbach´s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient. For the analysis of construct validity, we performed the principal components factorial analysis (PCFA through the Varimax rotation system.Results. The qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicates a lack of knowledge about this type of mourning and social and communication tools that often precludes effective accompaniment. We obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 0.835 overall questionnaire, which indicates high internal consistency or coherence among the items and relatively high CCI indicates good stability over time with significance p<,001. Making appropriate modifications could assess the ability and willingness of workers.

  13. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well

  14. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  15. Creating a school nutrition environment index and pilot testing it in elementary and middle schools in urban South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kweon, Soon Ju; Wang, Youfa; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-10-01

    The role of a school's nutrition environment in explaining students' eating behaviors and weight status has not been examined in an Asian setting. The purpose of this study was to create a school nutrition environment index and to pilot test the index in elementary and middle schools in urban South Korea. This study used a mixed-methods approach. Environment assessment tools were developed based on formative research, which comprised literature reviews, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Key elements from the formative research were included in the assessment tool, which consisted of a structured survey questionnaire for school dietitians. Fifteen school dietitians from 7 elementary and 8 middle schools in Seoul completed the questionnaire. The formative research revealed four main sections that guided a summary index to assess a school's nutrition environment: resource availability, education and programs, dietitians' perceptions and characteristics, and school lunch menu. Based on the literature reviews and interviews, an index scoring system was developed. The total possible score from the combined four index sections was 40 points. From the 15 schools participating in the pilot survey, the mean school nutrition-environment index was 22.5 (standard deviation ± 3.2; range 17-28). The majority of the schools did not offer classroom-based nutrition education or nutrition counseling for students and parents. The popular modes of nutrition education were school websites, posters, and newsletters. This paper illustrates the process used to develop an instrument to assess a school's nutrition environment. Moreover, it presents the steps used to develop a scoring system for creation of a school nutrition environment index. As pilot testing indicated the total index score has some variation across schools, we suggest applying this instrument in future studies involving a larger number of schools. Future studies with larger samples will allow investigation

  16. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  17. Acute effects of two different initial heart rates on testing the Repeated Sprint Ability in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, B; Briotti, G; Tozzo, N; Partipilo, F; Taraborelli, M; Zeppetella, A; Padulo, J; D'Ottavio, S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effects of two different initial heart rates intensities when testing the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performances in young soccer players. Since there are many kinds of pre-match warm-ups, we chose to take as an absolute indicator of internal load the heart rate reached at the end of two different warm-up protocols (60 vs. 90% HRmax) and to compare the respective RSA performances. The RSA tests were performed on fifteen male soccer players (age: 17.9±1.5 years) with two sets of ten shuttle-sprints (15+15 m) with a 1:3 exercise to rest ratio, in different days (randomized order) with different HR% (60 & 90% HRmax). In order to compare the different sprint performances a Fatigue Index (FI%) was computed, while the blood lactate concentrations (BLa-) were measured before and after testing, to compare metabolic demand. Significant differences among trials within each sets (Psoccer player operates during a real match. This background may be partially reproduced by warming up protocols that, by duration and metabolic commitment, can reproduce conveniently the physiological conditions encountered in a real game (e.g. HRmax≈85-95%; BLa->4 mmol/L(-1)).

  18. Impact of a Technology-Infused Middle School Writing Program on Sixth-Grade Students' Writing Ability and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Lauren; Meade, Terri; Midouhas, Emily; Cooperman, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Process-oriented approaches are increasingly used in schools to improve writing. One of these approaches, known as the writing workshop model, is challenging for teachers to implement without supports. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a middle school writing program that incorporates this model along with technological…

  19. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  20. Testing Kohn's self-reliance hypothesis among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1986-01-01

    Melvin Kohn and his associates have established that self-reliance promotes a sense of well-being (lower levels of fatalism) among adults. The present study attempts to test this proposition among adolescents. Instead of the usual job-related activities, however, it incorporates an alternative measure of self-reliance--high school curriculum assignment. Consistent with previous findings among adults, the results of this study show that self-reliance among adolescents also promotes a sense of well-being: students enrolled in tracks where close supervision is kept to a minimum and the exercise of initiative is emphasized tended to exhibit lower levels of fatalism. The implications of this finding for adolescents are discussed.

  1. Fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and history of falls in elderly women: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihlborg, A; Englund, M; Åkesson, K; Gerdhem, P

    2015-08-01

    In a large cohort of elderly women followed for 10 years, we found that balance, gait speed, and self-reported history of fall independently predicted fracture. These clinical risk factors are easily evaluated and therefore advantageous in a clinical setting. They would improve fracture risk assessment and thereby also fracture prevention. The aim of this study was to identify additional risk factors for osteoporosis-related fracture by investigating the fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and self-reported history of falls. In the population-based Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA), 1044 women were recruited at the age of 75 and followed for 10 years. At inclusion, knee extension force, standing balance, gait speed, and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined. Falls the year before investigation was assessed by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine fracture hazard ratios (HR) with BMD, history of fracture, BMI, smoking habits, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, glucocorticoid, and alcohol use as covariates. Continuous variables were standardized and HR shown for each standard deviation change. Of all women, 427 (41%) sustained at least one fracture during the 10-year follow-up. Failing the balance test had an HR of 1.98 (1.18-3.32) for hip fracture. Each standard deviation decrease in gait speed was associated with an HR of 1.37 (1.14-1.64) for hip fracture. Previous fall had an HR of 1.30 (1.03-1.65) for any fracture; 1.39 (1.08-1.79) for any osteoporosis-related fracture; and 1.60 (1.03-2.48) for distal forearm fracture. Knee extension force did not show fracture predictability. The balance test, gait speed test, and self-reported history of fall all hold independent fracture predictability. Consideration of these clinical risk factors for fracture would improve the fracture risk assessment and subsequently also fracture prevention.

  2. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  3. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  4. Survey of Opinions on the Primacy of "g" and Social Consequences of Ability Testing: A Comparison of Expert and Non-Expert Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Charles, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of "g" and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that "g" is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least…

  5. Evaluating the integration of the sensory-motor abilities to facilitate teachinglearning processes: a comparison between Italian and Indian models of teaching through the use of VMI test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO MACCHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a great number of evidences seems to prove that the movement plays a central role in the integrationof different mental processes. The visual-motor feedback may be considered the first sensorial integration of thedevelopment. The importance of an effective support to the pre-adolescent development of the sensory-motorintegration ability seems one of most important aim that every school system should follow. The aim of thisresearch is to investigate and monitor on international scale if the current Italian and Indian schools systems canadequately support the development of the student’s sensory-motor integration ability. According to the datashowed in this paper, it is clear that the scores obtained by the Italian and Indian students are lower than theinternational mean. However if a wider analysis based on a larger and more representative sample of the twoCountries should confirm the output of this research, it will be clear that the two school systems cannoteffectively support the development of the visual-motor integration abilities of the students. If the trend showedin this work should be confirmed by future and more precise researches, it will be necessary an accurate analysisaimed to identify the possible reasons of this phenomenon and the possible school support, since without them, awhole generation of students will risk to reduce the cultural level of the two nations and to be not competitive onan international level.

  6. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  7. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the research of enzyme production levels observed cellulase produced by bacteria in the digestive tract of the isolation of the Snail (Achatina fulica. Isolation of bacteria based on the ability of bacteria to grow on CMC media. The purpose of this study was to determine cellulase activity by cellulolytic bacteria. Some bacterial isolates were identified as cellulolytic bacteria, they were KE-B1, KE-B2, KE-B3, KE-B4, KE-B5, and KE-B6. Isolates KE-B6 was the best isolates. Furthermore KE-B6 isolates were grown on media production to determine the pattern of growth and enzyme activity. Measurement of cell growth was conducted by inoculating starter aged 22 hours at CMC production of liquid medium. Cellulase enzyme activity measurements was performed by the DNS method. The results showed that the highest activity by new isolate bacteria KE-B6 and its value of the activity of 0.4539 U/mL, growth rate (µ 0.377/hour and generation time (g 1.84 hour. This research expected cellulase of producing bacteria were easy, inexpensive and efficient. This enzyme can be used as an enzyme biolytic once expected to replace expensive commercial enzyme. The biotylic enzyme can be applied to strains improvement (protoplast fusion.How to CiteWijanarka, W., Kusdiyantini, E. & Parman, S. (2016. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 386-392. 

  8. Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Children born very prematurely (pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Projective Test Use among School Psychologists: A Survey and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Morrison, Rhonda; Brown, Melissa; Matthews, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of projective techniques by school psychologists has been a point of interest and debate, with a number of survey studies documenting usage. The purpose of this study is to update the status of projective use among school psychologists, with a specific focus on their use in the social emotional assessment of children in schools. In…

  10. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  11. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Castro-Vale

    Full Text Available Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72. The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions to 91% (happiness expressions. The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001, which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  12. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  13. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  14. Student Drug Testing and the Surveillance School Economy: An Analysis of Media Representation and Policy Transfer in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emmeline

    2018-01-01

    Anxieties relating to the health, safety and security of schoolchildren have been met with a variety of surveillance apparatus in schools internationally. Drawing on findings from a content analysis of newspaper reports relating to drug testing in Australian schools, this article seeks to excavate the ways in which the media shapes, informs,…

  15. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  16. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value of the Berg Balance Scale and the 10 meter walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Liljehult, Jacob; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2017-11-01

    Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg Balance Scale and 57 were tested with 10 meter walk test. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no statistical significance in favour of the 10 meter walk test. Berg Balance Scale showed an ability to predict walking ability 4-8 months after admission. The risk of dying within a year was 6.9 times higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more intensive specialized neurorehabilitation efforts early in the disease course.

  17. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Saleh, G.; Kushairi, A.; Latif, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem. PMID:22701095

  18. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Noh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247, P3 (0.174/498, P11 (0.182/308 were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247, P10 (0.182/348, and P11 (0.182/308 were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B. The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem.

  19. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a “school-based” prediction of IR to a “laboratory-based” prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children (n=82 performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing (VO2 max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index [HOMAIR]. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with VO2 max/kg (rs = 0.83, P<.001 and with HOMAIR (rs = −0.60, P<.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using VO2 max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  20. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen DavidB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a "school-based" prediction of IR to a "laboratory-based" prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children ( performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing ( max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index []. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with max/kg ( = 0.83, and with ( = , . Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  1. Economics from a Different Point of View − Good Practice in Teacher Training: How to Handle, Use and Judge External Standardized Tests in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Claire Prieß-Buchheit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Actions in Education training module (EAE teaches how to handle, use and judge external standardized tests in schools. The EAE programme was implemented in teacher training at the University of Kiel, because teachers are increasingly under external scrutiny and are being held accountable for student and school achievements. The EAE programme includes a reader (in English, through which prospective teachers understand and analyze core terms of the field. Furthermore, different didactical methods such as think-pair-share, role play and short lectures provide a group dynamic in which students gain an insight into standardized tests at a macro level. Students learn what is involved in standardized tests and they develop the ability to make a critical judgement about how they will use or refuse standardized tests in schools. EAE enables teachers to use standardized tests for curriculum and instruction improvement as well as refuse standardized tests to highlight autonomous teaching and decline governance from outside.

  2. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  3. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  4. Childhood Obesity in the Testing Era: What Teachers and Schools Can Do!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increasing accountability and high-stakes testing in schools, a serious paradox has surfaced. Children are becoming overweight at an alarming rate, and mounting evidence points to a relationship between obesity and poor school performance. Ironically, pressure to improve children's academic achievement has led many schools to adopt…

  5. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  6. Raising the Bar: Standards and Tests in California's High Schools. A Town Hall Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstine, Barbara; Futernick, Ken; Hodson, Timothy A.; Ostgaard, Kolleen

    In 1999, the LegiSchool Project planned to conduct the 12th in its series of televised Town Hall Meetings to provide a forum in which California high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face dialogue about problems of mutual interest. For 1999, the topic is standards and tests in California high schools. This guide…

  7. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  8. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  9. Continuity from Prelinguistic Communication to Later Language Ability: A Follow-Up Study from Infancy to Early School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Timo Ahonen Asko; Westerholm, Jari; Aro, Tuija

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the development of prelinguistic skills and the continuity of communication and language from the prelinguistic stage to school age. Method: Prelinguistic communication of 427 Finnish children was followed repeatedly from 6 to 18 months of age (n = 203-322 at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months), and its…

  10. The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  11. Cyber Charter Schools and Students with Dis/abilities: Rebooting the IDEA to Address Equity, Access, and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen M.; Green, Preston C., III; Nelson, Steven L.; Madahar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    This article takes up the question of equity, access, and cyber charter schools from the perspective of disability studies in education (DSE). DSE positions inclusion and educational access as social justice concerns. In doing so, we assert the importance of making visible the social justice implications of the current laws that impact cyber…

  12. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2017-08-01

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ana Paula Dias Vilas; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Sakano, Eulália; Conti, Patricia Blau Margosian; Toro, Adyléia Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB) have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT) and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB) children and adolescents. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB) and 69 boys (44 NB and 25 MB). Variables were analyzed during the 6MWT: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, distance walked in six minutes and modified Borg scale. All the variables studied were statistically different between groups NB and MB, with the exception of school performance and HR in 6MWT. MB affects physical performance and not the academic performance, we noticed a changed pattern in the 6MWT in the MB group. Since the MBs in our study were classified as non-severe, other studies comparing the academic performance variables and 6MWT are needed to better understand the process of physical and academic performances in MB children.

  14. Analitycal Descriptive Study of Students' Critical Mathematic Thinking Ability Through Graded Response Model (Grm)

    OpenAIRE

    nurul, didin; zahra anasha, zara

    2013-01-01

    Critical mathematic thinking ability is very important to solve daily problems. But in reality, junior high school students' critical mathematic thinking ability is still low. Ability measurement such as measurement of critical mathematic thinking ability cannot be measured through multiple choices test. In that case, an essay test in which graded scoring is used as scoring technique more suitable than multiple choices test. The result of the essay test will be analyzed to describe...

  15. Correlations of Sensory Processing and Visual Organization Ability with Participation in School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has highlighted delays and differences in cognitive, language, and sensorimotor functions in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). However, sensory processing and visual organization abilities have not been well-examined in DS to date. This study aimed to investigate the developmental profile of sensory processing and visual…

  16. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  17. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  18. The "Life at the Poles" Study Unit: Developing Junior High School Students' Ability to Recognize the Relations between Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orpaz, Idit

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of Earth's systems, including the crucial role of human beings within them, is an important part of citizens' ability to think intelligently and critically about the environment, pollution, sustainability and other socio-economic and scientific issues central to life in the modern world. Part of this understanding involves seeing the…

  19. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  20. Assessment of emotion processing skills in acquired brain injury using an ability-based test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah E; Wrench, Joanne M; Wilson, Sarah J

    2018-04-01

    Social and emotional problems are commonly reported after moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and pose a significant barrier to rehabilitation. However, progress in assessment of emotional skills has been limited by a lack of validated measurement approaches. This study represents the first formal psychometric evaluation of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) V2.0 as a tool for assessing skills in perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions following ABI. The sample consisted of 82 participants aged 18-80 years in the postacute phase of recovery (2 months-7 years) after moderate to severe ABI. Participants completed the MSCEIT V2.0 and measures of cognition and mood. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collated from participant interview and medical files. Results revealed deficits across all MSCEIT subscales (approximately 1 SD below the normative mean). Internal consistency was adequate at overall, area, and branch levels, and MSCEIT scores correlated in expected ways with key demographic, clinical, cognitive, and mood variables. MSCEIT performance was related to injury severity and clinician-rated functioning after ABI. Confirmatory factor analysis favored a 3-factor model of EI due to statistical redundancy of the Using Emotions branch. Overall, these findings suggest that the MSCEIT V2.0 is sensitive to emotion processing deficits after moderate to severe ABI, and can yield valid and reliable scores in an ABI sample. In terms of theoretical contributions, our findings support a domain-based, 3-factor approach for characterizing emotion-related abilities in brain-injured individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A multimedia situational judgment test with a constructed-response item format: Its relationship with personality, cognitive ability, job experience, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Born, M.Ph.; Serlie, A.W.; Van der Molen, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technology have created opportunities for the development of a multimedia situational test in which responses are filmed with a webcam. This paper examined the relationship of a so-called webcam test with personality, cognitive ability, job experience, and academic performance.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of the minimal chair height standing ability test: a simple and affordable fall-risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia C; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Gaul, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fall-risk screening instruments have been underutilized in clinical settings because of their lengthy administration time, need of cumbersome equipment, and lack of validation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity (sensitivity and specificity) of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT). The secondary objective was to develop guidelines to provide physical therapists with best-practice recommendations that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study design was used in which falling history, major medical conditions, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), and level of independence (Independent Activities of Daily Living) were obtained for 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 83.6 ± 7.3 years), residents of British Columbia, Canada. Participants MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5 cm, starting at 47 cm and lowering after each successful attempt. Sensitivity and specificity of the MCHSAT at each chair height were calculated and plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. A model to identify participants with history of falls was developed using a forward logistic regression (Wald). Mean MCHSAT performance (cm) was significantly better for participants without history of falls (30.3 cm, 95% CI: 28.1-32.5 cm) than for those with history of falls (37.7 cm, 95% CI: 35.5-40.0 cm) and was the single risk factor associated with fall status (β= 1.087, P history of falls was 34 cm (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). At this threshold, sensitivity and specificity values were 75% and 62%, respectively. Using 34 cm as the optimal performance, the MCHSAT correctly identified 75% of participants with history of falls and 62% of participants without history of falls. This provides evidence that the MCHSAT is a valid screening tool for use with an older Canadian population. As a simple and inexpensive testing instrument

  3. Usability Testing Analysis on The Bana Game as Education Game Design References on Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adnan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning media is one of the important elements in the learning process. Technological development support makes learning media more varied. The approach of using digital technology as a learning media has a better and more effective impact than other approaches. In order to increase the students’ learning interest, it requires the support of an interesting learning media. The use of gaming applications as learning media can improve learning outcomes. The benefits of using the maximum application cannot be separated from the determination of application design. The Bana game aims to increase the ability of critical thinking of the junior high school students. The usability-testing analysis on the Bana game application is used in order to get the design reference as an educational game development. The game is used as an object of the analysis because it has the same characteristics and goals with the game application to be developed. Usability Testing is a method used to measure the ease of use of an application by users. The Usability Testing consists of learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. The results of the analysis obtained will be used as a reference for educational game applications that will be developed.

  4. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME) to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characterist...

  5. Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first gra...

  6. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…

  7. Fall risk screening in the elderly: A comparison of the minimal chair height standing ability test and 5-repetition sit-to-stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia; Gaul, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Successfully identifying older adults with a high risk of falling can be complicated, time consuming and not feasible in daily medical practice. This study compared the effectiveness of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT) and 5-repetition sit-to-stand tst (5R-STS) as fall risk-screening instruments for the elderly. 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age=83.6±7.3years) were interviewed for demographics, fall history, cognition, and mobility status. MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5cm, starting at 47cm and lowering after each successful attempt. 5R-STS performance was assessed by recording the time it took to rise and sit back down five consecutive times from a chair of 47cm high. Operating Receiving Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were calculated for each test as well as for sub-groups of participants classified based on medical comorbidities (e.g. cardiac disease/stroke, lower limb arthritis). The MCHSAT and 5R-STS were equally effective fall-risk screening instruments for the overall population (AUC (95% CI)=0.72 (0.63-0.82) and 0.73(0.64-0.81) respectively). The 5R-STS was more effective than the MCHSAT for participants suffering from lower limb arthritis (AUC (95% CI)=0.81(0.70-0.92) and 0.71(0.58-0.85) respectively) while the opposite was true for participants with a history of cardiac disease or stroke (AUC (95% CI)=0.59 (0.44-0.80) and 0.65 (0.47-0.84) respectively). Due to their simplicity and quick administration time, the MCHSAT and 5R-STS are equally suitable for implementation in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA's item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset.

  9. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  10. Testing in the Schools: A Response to John Holt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bernard J.; Shapiro, Phyllis P.

    1970-01-01

    Opposes Holt's suggestion to eliminate testing; states that the evils he suggested are not inherent in testing but in test administration and interpretation. Supports material-imbedded tests using unobtrusive measures. (MH)

  11. Trajectories of Self-Perceived Math Ability, Utility Value and Interest across Middle School as Predictors of High School Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer Lee; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have documented developmental change in mathematics motivation, little is known about how these trends predict math performance. A sample of 288 participants from the United States reported their perceived math ability, math utility value and math interest in 5th, 7th and 9th grades. Latent growth curve models estimated…

  12. EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL AND LOGICAL THINKING ABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhyar Lubis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students. Who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning, to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students? Who can think logically high is better than the students who have the potential to think logically low, analyze whether there is an interaction between scientific inquiry learning model with logical thinking skills to students' science process skills. This research is a quasi-experimental design with the two-group pretest-posttest design. The study population is all students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Padangsidimpuan semester II academic year 2016/2017. The The research instrument consists of two types: science process skills instrument consists of 10 questions in essay form which has been declared valid and reliable, and the instrument ability to think logically in the form of multiple choice is entirely groundless and complements (combination. The resulting data, analyzed by using two path Anava. The results showed that science process skills of students who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning. Science process skills of students who can think logically high are better than the students who can think logically low, and there is an interaction between learning model scientific inquiry and conventional learning with the ability to think logically to improve students' science process skills.

  13. Evaluating the validity of an integrity-based situational judgement test for medical school admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Adrian; Rodgerson, Mark J; Dowell, Jon; Patterson, Fiona

    2015-09-02

    While the construct of integrity has emerged as a front-runner amongst the desirable attributes to select for in medical school admissions, it is less clear how best to assess this characteristic. A potential solution lies in the use of Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) which have gained popularity due to robust psychometric evidence and potential for large-scale administration. This study aims to explore the psychometric properties of an SJT designed to measure the construct of integrity. Ten SJT scenarios, each with five response stems were developed from critical incident interviews with academic and clinical staff. 200 of 520 (38.5 %) Multiple Mini Interview candidates at Dundee Medical School participated in the study during the 2012-2013 admissions cycle. Participants were asked to rate the appropriateness of each SJT response on a 4-point likert scale as well as complete the HEXACO personality inventory and a face validity questionnaire. Pearson's correlations and descriptive statistics were used to examine the associations between SJT score, HEXACO personality traits, pre-admissions measures namely academic and United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) scores, as well as acceptability. Cronbach's alpha reliability for the SJT was .64. Statistically significant correlations ranging from .16 to .36 (.22 to .53 disattenuated) were observed between SJT score and the honesty-humility (integrity), conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness dimensions of the HEXACO inventory. A significant correlation of .32 (.47 disattenuated) was observed between SJT and MMI scores and no significant relationship with the UKCAT. Participant reactions to the SJTs were generally positive. Initial findings are encouraging regarding the psychometric robustness of an integrity-based SJT for medical student selection, with significant associations found between the SJTs, integrity, other desirable personality traits and the MMI. The SJTs showed little or no redundancy with

  14. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  15. Predictive Ability of the Medicine Ball Chest Throw and Vertical Jump Tests for Determining Muscular Strength and Power in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Daniel A.; Davies, Timothy B.; Ibel, Denis; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the predictive ability of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump for muscular strength and power in adolescents. One hundred and ninety adolescents participated in this study. Participants performed trials of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump, with vertical jump peak power calculated via an estimation…

  16. Psychosocial factors associated with young elementary school children's intentions to consume legumes: a test of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Bell, Rick; Economos, Christina; Landers, Stewart; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in explaining young elementary school children's intention to consume legumes. A survey was conducted with children in an urban, multicultural community in Massachusetts. A total of 336 children participated. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the relationship between attitude and subjective norm and intention. Although attitude was significantly associated with intention, the pseudo-R2 for the regression model that included only the TRA constructs was extremely low (.01). Adding demographic factors and preference improved the model's predictive ability, but attitude was no longer significant. The results of this study do not provide support for the predictive utility of the TRA with young elementary school children for this behavior, when demographic factors are accounted for. Hedonic factors, rather than reasoned judgments, may help drive children's intentions.

  17. A Framework for Developing and Testing Financial Capability Education Programs Targeted to Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael; Odders-White, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about consumers' ability to manage their finances have triggered a range of proposals, including interventions aimed at elementary school students. The goal of these approaches is to improve lifelong economic decision making, but the evidence supporting their efficacy is thin. In this article, the authors discuss the trend toward…

  18. High School Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes and Use of Fitness Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon; Silverman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for using and implementing fitness tests have been extensively researched and teachers' attitudes toward fitness tests are beginning to be studied. Less understood is how high school teachers use fitness tests and the role their attitudes toward fitness tests affect students' attitudes toward physical activity. The purpose of this…

  19. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  20. Schema building profiles among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions on the basis of mathematic abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembong, S.; Suwarsono, S. T.; Prabowo

    2018-03-01

    Schema in the current study refers to a set of action, process, object and other schemas already possessed to build an individual’s ways of thinking to solve a given problem. The current study aims to investigate the schemas built among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions. The analyses of the schema building were done qualitatively on the basis of the analytical framework of the APOS theory (Action, Process, Object, and Schema). Findings show that the schemas built on students of high and middle ability indicate the following. In the action stage, students were able to add two fractions by way of drawing a picture or procedural way. In the Stage of process, they could add two and three fractions. In the stage of object, they could explain the steps of adding two fractions and change a fraction into addition of fractions. In the last stage, schema, they could add fractions by relating them to another schema they have possessed i.e. the least common multiple. Those of high and middle mathematic abilities showed that their schema building in solving problems related to operations odd addition to fractions worked in line with the framework of the APOS theory. Those of low mathematic ability, however, showed that their schema on each stage did not work properly.

  1. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m 3 , some rooms had >740 Bq/m 3 and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. - Highlights: • Relatively few schools in New York State have been tested for indoor radon. • We provide a summary of radon-testing results for measured schools. • The radon potential in schools is often less than in local houses. • Short-term measurement results exceeded their long-term counterparts in nearly every case

  2. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  3. The ability to produce media presentation among beauty study program students to prepare competence vocational school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, Trisnani

    2018-03-01

    One of the challenges of this 21st century teachers are teachers who are professionals and always use it in creative ways to convey the subject matter, including the creative use of media in learning. Problems that arise are as Vocational School teachers, Beauty Study Program students have not mastered the manufacture of media presentations. Class action research conducted in three phases with the learning cycle include planning actions, implementation measures, observation/evaluation of the action, and reflection, showed an increase in the results of the study are seen from the average value derived from 55.76 on Cycle I became 71.59 on cycle II and 78.33, in cycle 3. The obstacles encountered in the process of learning that is a limited time for any learning, students are not used to plan the creation of media presentations, limitations of materials supporting the creation of student-owned media presentations: images, animations, videos and the custom copy-paste material. The given solution to overcome the barriers that is emphasized again the steps of making a media presentation, the granting of duty as an exercise, and evaluation.

  4. School Administrator Assessments of Bullying and State-Mandated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Bully victimization is associated with lower academic performance for individual students; however, less is known about the impact of bullying on the academic performance of the school as a whole. This study examined how retrospective administrator reports of both the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and the use of evidence-based bullying…

  5. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  6. The Impact of Support Services on Students' Test Anxiety and/or Their Ability to Submit Assignments: A Focus on Vision Impairment and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the support services on the test anxiety of students and/or their ability to submit assignments in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairment and those with intellectual disability, who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Interviews were…

  7. Using the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) 7 Nonverbal Battery to Identify the Gifted/Talented: An Investigation of Demographic Effects and Norming Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Bartsch, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    The nonverbal battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is one of the two most common nonverbal measures used in gifted identification, yet the relationships between demographic variables and CogAT7 performance has not yet been fully examined. Additionally, the effect of using the CogAT7 nonverbal battery on the identification of diverse…

  8. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7…

  9. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  10. Using an On-Line Test To Assess Reading Skills and Predict the Ability To Successfully Pass a Reading SOL Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Katherine P.

    Designing a remediation program to meet students' needs involves finding out what a student knows and needs to know. An online testing program, such as eduTest, may provide the answers. This test is a versatile instrument that offers benchmark tests, grade specific tests, and strand tests in the four content areas for grades K through 8. The…

  11. Assessment of Color Vision Among School Children: A Comparative Study Between The Ishihara Test and The Farnsworth D-15 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kishor Shrestha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Color vision is one of the important attribute of visual perception. The study was conducted at different schools of Kathmandu to compare the  ndings of the Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic test and the Farnsworth D-15 test.  Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2120 students of four schools of Kathmandu. Assessment included visual acuity measurement, slit lamp examination of anterior segment and fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. Each student was assessed with the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic test and the Farnsworth D-15 test. The Chi-square test was performed to analyse color vision defect detected by the Ishihara test and the Farnsworth D-15 test. Results: A total of 2120 students comprising of 1114 males (52.5% and 1006 females (47.5% were recruited in the study with mean age of 12.2 years (SD 2.3 years. The prevalence of color vision defect as indicated by the Ishihara was 2.6 and as indicated by the D-15 test was 2.15 in males.  Conclusion: For school color vision screening, the Ishihara color test and the Farnsworth D-15 test have equal capacity to detect congenital color vision defect and they complement each other.  Keywords: color vision; children; defect; Farnsworth D-15; Ishihara.

  12. Testing teacher knowledge for technology teaching in primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Today's pupils grow up in a world full of technology. Education's duty is to offer them the opportunity to develop the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand technology in order to `survive' in today's technological society, and to provide them with a comprehensive and realistic concept of

  13. Construct Validity of the Nepalese School Leaving English Reading Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Saraswati; Shrestha, Prithvi N.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a steady interest in investigating the validity of language tests in the last decades. Despite numerous studies on construct validity in language testing, there are not many studies examining the construct validity of a reading test. This paper reports on a study that explored the construct validity of the English reading test in…

  14. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  15. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  16. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  17. Matriculation Mathematics, Pure Mathematics - Test Papers. Circular of Information to Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    This document consists of test questions used in three state high schools teaching the new Matriculation pure mathematics course (approximately grade 12). This material was circulated to all schools teaching this course as a teacher resource. The questions are arranged in 14 papers of varying structure and length. Most questions are of the essay…

  18. Now, whose schools are really better (or weaker) than Germany's? A multiple testing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    Using PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) data, we investigate which countries' schools can be classified as significantly better or weaker than Germany's as regards the reading literacy of primary school children. The 'standard' approach is to conduct separate tests for each

  19. Greenness and school-wide test scores are not always positively associated – A replication of "linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the 'greenness' of school surroundings using remote sensing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H.E.M. Browning; Ming Kuo; Sonya Sachdeva; Kangjae Lee; Lynne Westphal

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies find vegetation around schools correlates positively with student test scores. To test this relationship in schools with less green cover and more disadvantaged students, we replicated a leading study, using six years of NDVI-derived greenness data to predict school-level math and reading achievement in 404 Chicago public schools. A direct replication...

  20. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  1. Improving STD testing behavior among high-risk young adults by offering STD testing at a vocational school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoebe Christian JPA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT is the most prevalent bacterial STD. Sexually active adolescents and young adults are the main risk group for CT. However, STD testing rates in this group are low since exposed individuals may not feel at risk, owing-at least in part-to the infection's largely asymptomatic nature. Designing new testing environments that are more appealing to young people who are most at risk of acquiring chlamydia can be an important strategy to improve overall testing rates. Here we evaluate the effect of a school-based sexual health program conducted among vocational school students, aiming to obtain better access for counseling and enhance students' STD testing behavior. Methods Adolescents (median age 19 years attending a large vocational school were provided with sexual health education. Students filled in a questionnaire measuring CT risk and were offered STD testing. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed differences between men and women in STD-related risk behavior, sexual problems, CT testing behavior and determinants of CT testing behavior. Results Of 345 participants, 70% were female. Of the 287 sexually active students, 75% were at high risk for CT; one third of women reported sexual problems. Of sexually active participants, 61% provided a self-administered specimen for STD testing. Independent determinants for testing included STD related symptoms and no condom use. All CT diagnoses were in the high-CT-risk group. In the high-risk group, STD testing showed an increased uptake, from 27% (previous self-reported test to 65% (current test. CT prevalence was 5.7%. Conclusions Vocational school students are a target population for versatile sexual health prevention. When provided with CT testing facilities and education, self selection mechanisms seemed to increase CT testing rate dramatically in this high-CT-risk population expressing sexual problems. Considering the relative ease

  2. The Trail Making test: a study of its ability to predict falls in the acute neurological in-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Bilal Akhter; Bussas, Matthias; Doogan, Catherine; Waller, Denise; Saverino, Alessia; Király, Franz J; Playford, E Diane

    2018-05-01

    To determine whether tests of cognitive function and patient-reported outcome measures of motor function can be used to create a machine learning-based predictive tool for falls. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary neurological and neurosurgical center. In all, 337 in-patients receiving neurosurgical, neurological, or neurorehabilitation-based care. Binary (Y/N) for falling during the in-patient episode, the Trail Making Test (a measure of attention and executive function) and the Walk-12 (a patient-reported measure of physical function). The principal outcome was a fall during the in-patient stay ( n = 54). The Trail test was identified as the best predictor of falls. Moreover, addition of other variables, did not improve the prediction (Wilcoxon signed-rank P Test data (Wilcoxon signed-rank P test of cognitive function, the Trail Making test.

  3. Incremental Validity of New Computerized Aptitude Tests for Predicting Training Performance in Nine Navy Technical Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, John H; Larson, Gerald E; Alderton, David L

    2006-01-01

    During their second week of basic training, 4,989 Navy recruits assigned to one of nine technical training schools were administered a battery of six experimental computerized aptitude tests measuring four constructs...

  4. Tuberculosis Infection in Urban Adolescents: Results of a School-Based Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M. Anita; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a tuberculosis skin testing program introduced for seventh and tenth grade students in Boston (Massachusetts) public schools. Positivity rate was significantly higher in tenth grade students. Among those testing positive, the majority were born outside the United States. Results suggest that testing may identify a significant number of…

  5. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  6. Socioeconomic Status of Parents and the Achievement of Children on Readiness for School Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Hasanagic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness for school tests. The sample was constituted 296 kids, half from villages, and half from towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tests that were used are: Differences test, Similarities test, Numerical test, Trace test, Knowledge Test, Questionnaire for measuring socio-emotional maturity, and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test. Results show that there are statistically significant differences between children from different socio-economic background. Children whose parents are low educated have lower results on Readiness for school test, comparing with children whose parents have finished high school or university level. There were differences between village and town children only on Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test and on Similarity test, while on other instruments place of living was not important factor for achievement on Readiness for School Test.

  7. Test of Achievement in Quantitative Economics for Secondary Schools: Construction and Validation Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Lydia I.; Esomonu, Nkechi P. M.

    2018-01-01

    A Test to measure achievement in quantitative economics among secondary school students was developed and validated in this study. The test is made up 20 multiple choice test items constructed based on quantitative economics sub-skills. Six research questions guided the study. Preliminary validation was done by two experienced teachers in…

  8. High School Class for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences and Pupils' Skills Measured by Standard and Pisa Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, G. S.; Pavlovic-Babic, D.

    2010-01-01

    The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (www.pmf.ni.ac.yu/f_odeljenje) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, six years after establishing of this specialized class, and 3 years after the previous report, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. More precisely results are compared to the progress results of the pupils in a standard Grammar School and the corresponding classes of the Mathematical Gymnasiums in Nis. Analysis of achievement data should clarify what are benefits of introducing in school system track for gifted students. Additionally, item analysis helps in understanding and improvement of learning strategies' efficacy. We make some conclusions and remarks that may be useful for the future work that aims to increase pupils' intrinsic and instrumental motivation for physics and sciences, as well as to increase the efficacy of teaching physics and science.

  9. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  10. Ethnic identity, school connectedness, and achievement in standardized tests among Mexican-origin youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Collins, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Step Test: a method for evaluating maximum oxygen consumption to determine the ability kind of work among students of medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Payam; Varmazyar, Sakineh; Nikpey, Ahmad; Variani, Ali Safari; Jafarvand, Mojtaba

    2017-03-01

    Maximum oxygen consumption shows the maximum oxygen rate of muscle oxygenation that is acceptable in many cases, to measure the fitness between person and the desired job. Given that medical emergencies are important, and difficult jobs in emergency situations require people with high physical ability and readiness for the job, the aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum oxygen consumption, to determine the ability of work type among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin in 2016. This study was a descriptive - analytical, and in cross-sectional type conducted among 36 volunteer students of medical emergencies in Qazvin in 2016. After necessary coordination for the implementation of the study, participants completed health questionnaires and demographic characteristics and then the participants were evaluated with step tests of American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Data analysis was done by SPSS version 18 and U-Mann-Whitney tests, Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Average of maximum oxygen consumption of the participants was estimated 3.15±0.50 liters per minute. 91.7% of medical emergencies students were selected as appropriate in terms of maximum oxygen consumption and thus had the ability to do heavy and too heavy work. Average of maximum oxygen consumption evaluated by the U-Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis, had significant relationship with age (p<0.05) and weight groups (p<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between maximum oxygen consumption with weight and body mass index (p<0.001). The results of this study showed that demographic variables of weight and body mass index are the factors influencing the determination of maximum oxygen consumption, as most of the students had the ability to do heavy, and too heavy work. Therefore, people with ability to do average work are not suitable for medical emergency tasks.

  12. Sorting Test, Tower Test and BRIEF-SR do not predict school performance of healthy adolescents in preuniversity education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF such as self-monitoring, planning and organizing are known to develop through childhood and adolescence. They are of potential importance for learning and school performance. Earlier research into the relation between executive functions and school performance did not provide clear results possibly because confounding factors such as educational track, boy-girl differences and parental education were not taken into account. The present study therefore investigated the relation between executive function tests and school performance in a highly controlled sample of 173 healthy adolescents aged 12-18. Only students in the pre-university educational track were used and the performance of boys was compared to that of girls. Results showed that there was no relation between the report marks obtained and the performance on executive function tests, notably the Sorting Test and the Tower Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS. Likewise, no relation was found between the report marks and the scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Self-Report Version (BRIEF-SR after these were controlled for grade, sex, and level of parental education.The findings indicate that executive functioning as measured with widely used instruments such as the BRIEF-SR does not predict school performance of adolescents in preuniversity education any better than a student’s grade, sex, and level of parental education. ed

  13. Comparisons of Test Anxiety Level of Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test anxiety has been noted to be a common experience among students and has been found to have a debilitating effect on academic performance and general well-being of affected people. Despite the universality of the experience, the manifestation of test anxiety varies across some psychosocial and demographic ...

  14. Correlates of STI testing among vocational school students in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenbach Johan P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, test rates among adolescents in the Netherlands are low and effective interventions that encourage STI testing are scarce. Adolescents who attend vocational schools are particularly at risk for STI. The purpose of this study is to inform the development of motivational health promotion messages by identifying the psychosocial correlates of STI testing intention among adolescents with sexual experience attending vocational schools. Methods This study was conducted among 501 students attending vocational schools aged 16 to 25 years (mean 18.3 years ± 2.1. Data were collected via a web-based survey exploring relationships, sexual behavior and STI testing behavior. Items measuring the psychosocial correlates of testing were derived from Fishbein's Integrative Model. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Results Students reported substantial sexual risk behavior and low intention to participate in STI testing. The model explained 39% of intention to engage in STI testing. The most important predictor was attitude. Perceived norms, perceived susceptibility and test site characteristics were also significant predictors. Conclusions The present study provides important and relevant empirical input for the development of health promotion interventions aimed at motivating adolescents at vocational schools in the Netherlands to participate in STI testing. Health promotion interventions developed for this group should aim to change attitudes, address social norms and increase personal risk perception for STI while also promoting the accessibility of testing facilities.

  15. Assessment without Testing: Using Performance Measures Embedded in a Technology-Based Instructional Program as Indicators of Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alison; Baron, Lauren; Macaruso, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Screening and monitoring student reading progress can be costly and time consuming. Assessment embedded within the context of online instructional programs can capture ongoing student performance data while limiting testing time outside of instruction. This paper presents two studies that examined the validity of using performance measures from a…

  16. Gender Differences in Variance and Means on the Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test: Data from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista, Alvin; Care, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on gender differences in intelligence has focused mostly on samples from Western countries and empirical evidence on gender differences from Southeast Asia is relatively sparse. Aims: This article presents results on gender differences in variance and means on a non-verbal intelligence test using a national sample of public…

  17. Standardised testing in compulsory schooling in England and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kelly, Peter; Kousholt, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Within education, national testing is flourishing and, considering the important role which assessment plays in the production and reproduction of culture, it is important to examine further the possible impact of such practice. While England has a long tradition of national educational testing...... have on pupils´ perceptions of their potential academic skills. This article draws on research into the national testing of reading conducted in England and Denmark in Spring 2013 and draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to compare and contrast both sets of national assessment practices....

  18. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  19. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wirt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children’s body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm, a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education, family characteristics (parental body weight, and children’s lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children’s body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are associated with children’s body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.

  20. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.

  1. CANONICAL RELATIONS MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES, MOTOR ABILITIES AND TESTS WITH SITACIONI BASKETBALL PLAYERS AGED 12-14 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Aruković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this istraživanjua is identifying the canonical correlation between two multidimensional space, the space of morphological characteristics and basic mo¬tor skills room, basketball od12 to 14 years of success on the result of situ¬atio¬nal-motor tests of basketball games. The study was conducted on a sample of 70 players.

  2. Evaluation of Tests of Processing Speed, Spatial Ability, and Working Memory for use in Military Occupational Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Reviewed by Tanja Blackstone , Ph.D. Approved and released by D. M. Cashbaugh Director Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...these tests more favorably if the current stellar military recruiting environment deteriorates. The military has sustained a long running positive...recruiting environment due mainly to (1) the nation’s economic downturn resulting in a high unemployment rate and limited good job opportunities, (2) a

  3. Mobile Testing of Cognitive Function : A tool for assessment of cognitive abilities in an everyday environment using a handheld device

    OpenAIRE

    Fouchenette, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The unit of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet have developed a method for measuring cognitive performance with handheld devices, which resulted in a mobile application for the iPod Touch. The application was previously used in a clinical trial with individuals suffering from chronic stress disorder, but had to be further developed. The application, which consisted of cognitive tests and questionnaires, required improvements that could be divided into three parts: (...

  4. Working memory, intelligence and reading ability in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P.; de Jong, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    The dimensions of working memory in children and the relationships between working memory capacity, reasoning and reading ability were investigated. Simple and complex span tests were administered to 280 grade four, five and six elementary school children. Simple span tests were hypothesized to

  5. Motivation towards extracurricular activities and motivation at school: A test of the generalization effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlates of STI testing among vocational school students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); G.J. Kok (Gerjo); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Adolescents are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, test rates among adolescents in the Netherlands are low and effective interventions that encourage STI testing are scarce. Adolescents who attend vocational schools are particularly at risk

  7. Do School-Based Tutoring Programs Significantly Improve Student Performance on Standardized Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Terri; Henderson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study used a pre-post, nonequivalent control group design to examine the impact of an in-district, after-school tutoring program on eighth grade students' standardized test scores in language arts and mathematics. Students who had scored in the near-passing range on either the language arts or mathematics aspect of a standardized test at the…

  8. Reliability and validity of the rey visual design learning test in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, in Spreen & Strauss, 1991) assesses immediate memory span, new learning and recognition for non-verbal material. Three studies are presented that focused on the reliability and validity of the RVDLT in primary school children. Test-retest reliability

  9. Factors Related to Competency Test Performance for High School Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study explored some factors associated with learning disabled high school students who passed the North Carolina Minimum Competency Test on the second administration. Factors examined include reading score on the first competency test, intelligence quotient, locus of control, mother's education, teacher support, student/teacher ratio, and…

  10. Urban High School Student Engagement through CincySTEM iTEST Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Hemmings, Annette; Maltbie, Catherine; Wright, Kathy; Sherman, Melissa; Sersion, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notable heightening of underrepresented students' engagement in STEM education through project-based learning CincySTEM iTEST projects. The projects, funded by an iTEST NSF grant, were designed and facilitated by teachers at a new STEM urban public high school serving low-income African-American students. Student…

  11. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Students' Mathematics Test Scores and Computer Use at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; Seeley, Kevon

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, standardized test results have become the primary tool used to judge the effectiveness of schools and educational programs, and today, standardized testing serves as the keystone for educational policy at the state and federal levels. This paper examines the relationship between fourth grade mathematics achievement and…

  13. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  14. Voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...

  15. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Patten, Sarah; Jantzi, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes and reports the results of testing a new conception of how leadership influences student learning ("The Four Paths"). Framework: Leadership influence is conceptualized as flowing along four paths (Rational, Emotions, Organizational, and Family) toward student learning. Each path is populated by multiple…

  16. Symbolic magnitude processing in elementary school children: A group administered paper-and-pencil measure (SYMP Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The ability to compare symbolic numerical magnitudes correlates with children's concurrent and future mathematics achievement. We developed and evaluated a quick timed paper-and-pencil measure that can easily be used, for example in large-scale research, in which children have to cross out the numerically larger of two Arabic one- and two-digit numbers (SYMP Test). We investigated performance on this test in 1,588 primary school children (Grades 1-6) and examined in each grade its associations with mathematics achievement. The SYMP Test had satisfactory test-retest reliability. The SYMP Test showed significant and stable correlations with mathematics achievement for both one-digit and two-digit comparison, across all grades. This replicates the previously observed association between symbolic numerical magnitude processing and mathematics achievement, but extends it by showing that the association is observed in all grades in primary education and occurs for single- as well as multi-digit processing. Children with mathematical learning difficulties performed significantly lower on one-digit comparison and two-digit comparison in all grades. This all suggests satisfactory construct and criterion-related validity of the SYMP Test, which can be used in research, when performing large-scale (intervention) studies, and by practitioners, as screening measure to identify children at risk for mathematical difficulties or dyscalculia.

  17. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  18. School results and access test results as indicators of first-year performance at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bothma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals set by the National Plan for Higher Education, the fact that many schools are still severely disadvantaged as well as far-reaching changes in the school system demand that South African universities urgently reconsider their admission procedures. Redesigning admission procedures calls for a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between school marks, results in existing access tests and first-year university performance. These interrelationships were statistically investigated in the case of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 intake groups, who were compelled to write access tests before being admitted to Stellenbosch University. The results of this investigation confirm an alarming degree of unpreparedness among many prospective students regarding what is expected of them at university. This is aggravated by school marks creating a totally unrealistic expectation of performance in the first year at university. It is emphasised that schools and authorities dealing with admission of prospective students at universities should be cognisant of the findings reported here. Furthermore, the statistical analyses demonstrate several novel techniques for investigating the interrelationship between school marks, access test results and university performance.

  19. Perspectives on Operational Testing: Guest Lecture at Naval Postgraduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE IDA ...Dean Thomas (OED) a. REPORT Unclassified b . ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unlimited 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area...test, and implement design changes that could be retrofitted on to vehicles in theater as well as built into future production lines The Army and

  20. The role of ability, motivation, and opportunity to work in the transition from work to early retirement--testing and optimizing the Early Retirement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement Model. This study aims to investigate whether data support the model and how it could be improved. Employees aged 58-62 years (N=1862), who participated in the first three waves of the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) were included. Determinants were assessed at baseline, central explanatory variables after one year, and early retirement after two years. Structural equation modeling was applied. Testing the Early Retirement Model resulted in a model with good fit. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors were related to the ability, motivation and/or opportunity to work (significant β range: 0.05-0.31). Lower work ability (β=-0.13) and less opportunity to work (attitude colleagues and supervisor about working until age 65: β=-0.24) predicted early retirement, whereas the motivation to work (work engagement) did not. The model could be improved by adding direct effects of three determinants on early retirement, ie, support of colleagues and supervisor (β=0.14), positive attitude of the partner with respect to early retirement (β=0.15), and not having a partner (β=-0.13). The Early Retirement Model was largely supported by the data but could be improved. The prolongation of working life might be promoted by work-related interventions focusing on health, work ability, the social work climate, social norms on prolonged careers, and the learning environment.

  1. Performance and Metabolic Demand of a New Repeated-Sprint Ability Test in Basketball Players: Does the Number of Changes of Direction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Ardigò, Luca P; Barbieri, Fabio A; Milioni, Fabio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Camargo, Bruno H F; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Zagatto, AM, Ardigò, LP, Barbieri, FA, Milioni, F, Dello Iacono, A, Camargo, BHF, and Padulo, J. Performance and metabolic demand of a new repeated-sprint ability test in basketball players: does the number of changes of direction matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2438-2446, 2017-This study compared 2 repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10 × 30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured 2 changes of direction (COD) per sprint, whereas the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured 5 CODs per sprint. Test performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. First, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then, RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and posttest blood lactate concentration [La] were measured. The RSA5COD results showed to be reliable. RSA2COD performance resulted better than the RSA5COD version (p 0.05). Over whole bout, the RSA2COD was more demanding than the RSA5COD, considering overall metabolic power requirement (i.e., VO2-driven + [La]-driven components). Given that RSA5COD (a) mimics real game-play as sprint distance and action change frequency/direction and (b) has the same metabolic expenditure per task completion as metabolic cost, RSA5COD is a valuable option for players and coaches for training basketball-specific agility and assessing bioenergetic demands.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEST ANXIETY AND PARENTING IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, MALEKSHAHI, ILAM

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Havasian and Zohreh Havasian*

    2017-01-01

    Test anxiety, which is one of the main obstacles of education systems at different levels, is one of the most common phenomena among students. Regarding the effect of test anxiety on academic performance, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between test anxiety and parenting in Malekshahi city of Ilam. The present research is a descriptive cross-sectional study and the statistical population includes all male and female students of high school in Maleshahi city. The subject...

  3. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  4. Validity of Cognitive ability tests – comparison of computerized adaptive testing with paper and pencil and computer-based forms of administrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žitný, P.; Halama, P.; Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2012), s. 181-194 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP406/09/P284 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : item response theory * computerized adaptive testing * paper and pencil * computer-based * criterion and construct validity * efficiency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.215, year: 2012

  5. Schools as Good Parent: Symbolism versus Substance in Drug and Alcohol Testing of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the decision to implement a drug and alcohol testing program, analyzing how such programs fit within the traditional functions of criminal and administrative law, pinpoints some messages conveyed by testing programs, and discusses factual premises that should underlay such programs. Reviews recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and gauges…

  6. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  7. Just as smart but not as successful: obese students obtain lower school grades but equivalent test scores to nonobese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, C; Roberts, R D

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized nations has important implications for education, as research demonstrates lower academic achievement among obese students. The current paper compares the test scores and school grades of obese, overweight and normal-weight students in secondary and further education, controlling for demographic variables, personality, ability and well-being confounds. This study included 383 eighth-grade students (49% female; study 1) and 1036 students from 24 community colleges and universities (64% female, study 2), both drawn from five regions across the United States. In study 1, body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reports and parent reports of weight and height. In study 2, BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height only. Both samples completed age-appropriate assessments of mathematics, vocabulary and the personality trait conscientiousness. Eighth-grade students additionally completed a measure of life satisfaction, with both self-reports and parent reports of their grades from the previous semester also obtained. Higher education students additionally completed measures of positive and negative affect, and self-reported their grades and college entrance scores. Obese students receive significantly lower grades in middle school (d=0.83), community college (d=0.34) and university (d=0.36), but show no statistically significant differences in intelligence or achievement test scores. Even after controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, personality and well-being, obese students obtain significantly lower grades than normal-weight students in the eighth grade (d=0.39), community college (d=0.42) and university (d=0.31). Lower grades may reflect peer and teacher prejudice against overweight and obese students rather than lack of ability among these students.

  8. A Comparison of African American Students' Self-Perceptions of School Competence with Their Performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Pershey, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study measured self-perceptions of school competence among 263 4th- and 6th-grade African American students who attended an academically challenged school district. Self-perceptions of school competence are defined as self-perceptions of ability, confidence, and school satisfaction. Results indicated that 4th-grade students had lesser…

  9. Energy Smart Schools--Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiat Solomon; Robin Vieira; William L. Manz; Abby Vogen; Claudia Orlando; Kimberlie A. Schryer

    2004-12-01

    The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) in conjunction with the California Energy Commission, the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Florida Solar Energy Center, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and the Ohio Department of Development's Office of Energy Efficiency conducted a four-year, cost-share project with the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to focus on energy efficiency and high-performance technologies in our nation's schools. NASEO was the program lead for the MOU-State Schools Working group, established in conjunction with the USDOE Memorandum of Understanding process for collaboration among state and federal energy research and demonstration offices and organizations. The MOU-State Schools Working Group included State Energy Offices and other state energy research organizations from all regions of the country. Through surveys and analyses, the Working Group determined the school-related energy priorities of the states and established a set of tasks to be accomplished, including the installation and evaluation of microturbines, advanced daylighting research, testing of schools and classrooms, and integrated school building technologies. The Energy Smart Schools project resulted in the adoption of advanced energy efficiency technologies in both the renovation of existing schools and building of new ones; the education of school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide about the energy-saving, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improved the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in classrooms. It also provided an opportunity for states to share and replicate successful projects to increase their energy efficiency while at the same time driving down their energy costs.

  10. Are trajectories of self-regulation abilities from ages 2-3 to 6-7 associated with academic achievement in the early school years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A C P; Chittleborough, C R; Mittinty, M N; Miller-Lewis, L R; Sawyer, M G; Sullivan, T; Lynch, J W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between two key aspects of self-regulation, 'task attentiveness' and 'emotional regulation' assessed from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years, and academic achievement when children were aged 6-7 years. Participants (n = 3410) were children in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents rated children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation abilities when children were aged 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7. Academic achievement was assessed using the Academic Rating Scale completed by teachers. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between developmental trajectories (i.e. rate of change per year) of task attentiveness and emotional regulation, and academic achievement at 6-7 years. Improvements in task attentiveness between 2-3 and 6-7 years, adjusted for baseline levels of task attentiveness, child and family confounders, and children's receptive vocabulary and non-verbal reasoning skills at age 6-7 were associated with greater teacher-rated literacy [B = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.06] and maths achievement (B = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.03-0.06) at 6-7 years. Improvements in emotional regulation, adjusting for baseline levels and covariates, were also associated with better teacher-rated literacy (B = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) but not with maths achievement (B = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.01-0.02) at 6-7 years. For literacy, improvements in task attentiveness had a stronger association with achievement at 6-7 years than improvements in emotional regulation. Our study shows that improved trajectories of task attentiveness from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years are associated with improved literacy and maths achievement during the early school years. Trajectories of improving emotional regulation showed smaller effects on academic outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that improve task attentiveness when children are aged 2-3 to 6-7 years have the potential to improve literacy and maths achievement during

  11. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  12. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  13. Do Pre-Entry Tests Predict Competencies Required to Excel Academically in Law School?: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective students of law are required to demonstrate competence in certain disciplines to attain admission to law school. The grounding in the disciplines is expected to demonstrate competencies required to excel academically in law school. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of the law school admission test to…

  14. Testing the Efficacy of Alcohol Labels with Standard Drink Information and National Drinking Guidelines on Consumers' Ability to Estimate Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Vallance, Kate; Zuo, Fei; Stockwell, Tim; Rosella, Laura; Simniceanu, Alice; White, Christine; Hammond, David

    2018-01-01

    Despite the introduction of national drinking guidelines in Canada, there is limited public knowledge of them and low understanding of 'standard drinks (SDs)' which limits the likelihood of guidelines affecting drinking behaviour. This study tests the efficacy of alcohol labels with SD information and Canada's Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines (LRDGs) as compared to %ABV labels on consumers' ability to estimate alcohol intake. It also examines the label size and format that best supports adults' ability to make informed drinking choices. This research consisted of a between-groups experiment (n = 2016) in which participants each viewed one of six labels. Using an online survey, participants viewed an alcohol label and were asked to estimate: (a) the amount in a SD; (b) the number of SDs in an alcohol container and (c) the number of SDs to consume to reach the recommended daily limit in Canada's LRDG. Results indicated that labels with SD and LRDG information facilitated more accurate estimates of alcohol consumption and awareness of safer drinking limits across different beverage types (12.6% to 58.9% increase in accuracy), and labels were strongly supported among the majority (66.2%) of participants. Labels with SD and LRDG information constitute a more efficacious means of supporting accurate estimates of alcohol consumption than %ABV labels, and provide evidence to inform potential changes to alcohol labelling regulations. Further research testing labels in real-world settings is needed. Results indicate that the introduction of enhanced alcohol labels combining standard drink information and national drinking guidelines may be an effective way to improve drinkers' ability to accurately assess alcohol consumption and monitor intake relative to guidelines. Overall support for enhanced labels suggests probable acceptability of introduction at a population level. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

  16. Ability to work in anaerobic condition is associated with physical performance on the six-minute walk test in older patients receiving cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Guido; Vannetti, Federica; Molino-Lova, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    During maximal incremental exercise, the ability to work in the anaerobic condition, expressed by the respiratory exchange ratio, is associated with physical performance. Further, peak respiratory exchange ratio is regarded as the best non-invasive measure of a patient's actual exercise effort. This study examined whether ability to work in the anaerobic condition is also associated with physical performance in submaximal constant work rate exercise. A total of 75 older patients (51 men, 24 women), mean age 71.1 years (standard deviation 6.7 years), who had recently undergone cardiac surgery, performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a 6-min walk test before and after rehabilitation. The distance walked, steady-state oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output and respiratory exchange ratio increased significantly after rehabilitation (p work in the anaerobic condition is associated with physical performance in submaximal constant work rate exercises. Thus the steady-state respiratory exchange ratio might be regarded as a measure of the patient's actual exercise effort. This information may prove useful in customizing exercise prescription and assessing the effects of rehabilitation.

  17. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ferguson, Karen J; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; MacPherson, Sarah E

    2015-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation - that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Fitness Testing in U.S. Schools--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Fulton, Janet E.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2008-01-01

    Because of the perceived lack of youth physical fitness and/or concerns for increased obesity, physical education teachers are interested in youth fitness and physical activity levels. Statewide mandates are being developed that require school-based teachers to complete physical fitness testing. Data from the nationally representative School…

  20. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…